A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative
|A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (1913)
HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE
J. MORRIS JONES, M.A.
PROFESSOR OF WELSH AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH WALES, BANGOR
LATE RESEARCH FELLOW OF JESUS COLLEGE, OXFORD
PHONOLOGY AND ACCIDENCE
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
"This book", as V. Henry says of his Breton Lexique, "has the misfortune to have a history." It would be tedious, even if it were possible, to relate it in detail; but the long delay in the appearance of the work calls for a brief account of the facts by way of explanation and apology.
In the early nineties I contributed to the new edition of the Welsh encyclopaedia Y Gwyddoniadur an article on the Welsh language, which contained a sketch of Welsh grammar. This sketch was expanded in a course of lectures delivered to the Junior and Intermediate classes at Bangor after the foundation of the University of Wales. The idea occurred to me of preparing the substance of the lectures for publication as a textbook of Welsh grammar; but I was unable at the time to carry out the investigation which seemed to me necessary before such a book could be properly written.
The work was intended to be a descriptive grammar of Modern Welsh with special reference to the earlier period. Late Modern Welsh is more artificial, and in some respects further removed from the spoken language, than Early Modern Welsh, owing largely to the influence of false etymological theories; and the object which I had in view was the practical one of determining the traditional forms of the literary language. Even scholars have been deceived by the fictitious forms found in dictionaries; thus "dagr" given by Silvan Evans, after Pughe, as the sg. of dagrau, is quoted as a genuine form even by Strachan, Intr. 33; see below p. 212 Note. I had however chiefly in mind the ordinary writer of the language, to whom a clear idea of the literary tradition is at least equally important. The first draft of the book was begun in 1899; but I was dissatisfied with it, and made a fresh start a year or two later. The progress of the second draft was much hindered by examination work which took up the greater part of my long vacation for some years. In 1907 I had finished the accidence and written more than half of the syntax. As Early Modern literature consists almost wholly of verse in the strict metres, I found myself in the syntax quoting more and more from Medieval prose. At last I was forced to the conclusion that the Medieval period would have to be dealt with in the earlier portion, which would therefore have to be entirely re-written. Many Medieval forms had already been quoted in it, in order to show that the Early Modern forms followed the old tradition, especially where the late written form is artificial; in some cases the etymology also was given, in order to show further that the traditional form had developed regularly. In re-casting the first portion I thought it would be well to bring together the laws by which Welsh sounds are derived from Keltic and Primitive Aryan, so that by reference to them any formation or word might be compared with its cognates, and traced to its origin. Thus from a descriptive grammar of Modern Welsh the book grew into a Welsh Grammar Historical and Comparative.
In its present form the work was commenced early in 1908; and the Phonology and Accidence now published were completed in the Spring of 1912. The volume has taken a year to print; and I have not found the time too long for the final revision of the copy and the correction of proofs.
A few words may here be said of the most important previous works on the subject. The earliest known Welsh grammar is that preserved in the Red Book of Hergest (r.g.), and printed from a late copy as Dosparth Edeyrn Dafod Aur by Ab Ithel; apart from the treatment of sounds and metres this is little more than a definition of the parts of speech. Simwnt Vychan's grammar (p.Ỻ.) is also of value only for its prosody. The first printed Welsh grammar was written by Dr. Griffith Roberts, and appeared at Milan in 1567. It gives an interesting account of the language as it was written before the influence of Salesbury made itself felt; but the most remarkable feature of the book is the section on etymology, which records the discovery by the author of the fact that the sound-changes which take place in Latin loan-words were capable of being stated as laws. Dr. J. D. Rhys's grammar appeared in 1592. The author wrote excellent Welsh, though his peculiar alphabet makes it appear uncouth; and his grammar is an attempt to describe the language as he wrote it. It is cast almost wholly in the form of tables, and is less systematic in reality than in appearance. The prosody, which is valuable, was contributed by contemporary bards. In 1593 a small grammar was published by Henry Salesbury, in which literary and dialectal forms are given, but are not distinguished.
Dr. John Davies published his grammar in 1621, the year after the appearance of the revised Bible, which is believed to be chiefly his work. The grammar represents the result of a careful study of the works of the bards. It was the first Welsh grammar to be based on an examination of the actual facts of the language of standard authors. Medieval bards are quoted in modernized spelling; in that respect, therefore, the work is not in the strict sense historical. But the author's analysis of the Modern literary language is final; he has left to his successors only the correction and amplification of detail.
The grammar of William Owen (later W. O. Pughe) prefixed to his Dictionary, 1803, stands at the opposite pole. It is written on the same principle as the dictionary, and represents the language not as it is, or ever was, but as it might be if any suffix could be attached mechanically to any stem. The author's method can best be realized by imagining a Latin grammarian evolving out of the stems of volo the presents ind. volo, volis, volit; vīo, vīs, vīt ; vulo, vuls, vult; velo, vels, velt; vello, vellis, vellit, and the infinitives volere, vīere, vulere, velere, vellere, with perhaps a note stating that these infinitives are "seldom used" (see his Gr.² 66, 68), or alternatively a footnote to the effect that velle "is as often used" (do. 67). Examples are quoted of such forms as are genuine; and the impression is conveyed by the suggestio falsi of "seldom", "as often", and the like, that the others also occur. To the author truth meant conformity with his theory; facts, perverse enough to disagree, were glossed over to save their character.
In 1853 appeared the first edition of Rowland's work, which was regarded for more than a generation as the standard grammar of Modern Welsh. It is for the most part a description of the written Welsh of the 19th century; but the paradigms contain many of Pughe's spurious forms. The author had practically no knowledge of any Welsh older than that of the Bible translation; he records recent usages, but is unable to throw any light on them, or to decide between genuine and counterfeit forms. The use which he makes of Dr. Davies often shows that he was incapable of understanding him; e.g. in professing to give Davies's table of diphthongs, after including iw wy among the falling diphthongs he imagines that he has done with those combinations, and omits them from the rising class, without perceiving that the very object of the classification is to distinguish between falling iw̯ w͡y and rising i̯w w̯y. But his book contains a quantity of sound, if ill-digested, information about Late Welsh; and marks the return to common sense after the domination of Pughe.
The foundations of modern Keltic philology were laid by I. C. Zeuss in his great Grammatica Celtica, which was published in 1853. The sections devoted to Welsh grammar contain a wonderfully complete and accurate analysis of the language of the Red Book Mabinogion (ed. Lady Charlotte Guest, 1849), the Black Book of Chirk (in a.l., 1841), and the Welsh passages in Liber Landavensis (ed. Rees, 1840).
In 1908 appeared the first part of Pedersen's Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen; two of the remaining three parts have since been issued. This important work is mainly comparative as its title suggests, and deals with the derivation and development of the grammatical forms of all the Keltic languages. It records the latest results of Keltic philology, but is in some respects rather markedly individual.
Strachan's Introduction to Early Welsh appeared posthumously in 1909. It contains a Medieval Welsh grammar, reader and glossary. The grammar was written by Strachan in a few weeks in 1907, and one cannot but wonder with his editor at "the amazing rapidity with which he toiled". The work embodies forms from texts inaccessible to Zeuss, and is naturally the product of a more advanced knowledge. Its value is somewhat lessened by the fact that a large number of forms and phrases are quoted without references.
Of the scope of the present work I have already spoken. It embraces roughly that of the grammars of Davies, Strachan, and Pedersen (so far as this relates to Welsh). The sections dealing with the derivation of Welsh sounds were planned and partly written before the appearance of Pedersen's work; but I had the advantage of consulting the latter in filling in the detail. I have however examined each rule for myself; many new examples are adduced, and the conclusion arrived at differs in some cases from Pedersen's. In §§ 75, 76 I have attempted a solution of the extraordinarily difficult problems presented by the development of original diphthongs in Welsh. I hope the result is in the main sound, though some of the details are tentative. In § 63 I have endeavoured to compress into a few pages an account of the Aryan vowel system, a knowledge of which is essential to an understanding of the vocalism of the derived languages. The section follows the lines of Hirt's suggestive work Der idg. Ablaut; the notation (R, F, etc.) is an adaptation and elaboration of Hirt's. Apart from the Welsh examples the section contains nothing new except the notes on the place of a in the system (v (2)) and the treatment of long diphthongs (vii (5)). In the discussion of philological questions generally my obligation to Brugmann's great work is so obvious as hardly to need statement; for the writing of prehistoric forms his scheme has been adopted, and is departed from in only one particular: er, en etc. are used here, as by Hirt, instead of r̥r, n̥n etc. I have also learnt much from Meillet's brilliant Introduction, and have borrowed from him the convenient use of the term "sonant" to denote the sounds which oscillate between vowels and consonants in Pr. Ar. In the search for the origin and cognates of Welsh vocables I have made extensive use of Walde's Wörterbuch, which contains, in a concise form and fully indexed, a vast collection of the results of recent investigation in this field; Boisacq's Dictionnaire I have also found most valuable. For the purposes of Keltic philology I have consulted with much profit Thurneysen's admirable grammar of Old Irish. The sections treating of the derivation of sounds are fuller than they were originally intended to be; and with the material thus provided I was led further to attempt to trace to their origin all inflexions and important grammatical forms. But in order to save space I have generally given only the explanation which seemed to me in each case the most probable; thus the fact that Pedersen's equation of W. ynteu with Ir. intī or his derivation of eiδ-aw from *esi̯o is not mentioned does not necessarily mean that it has not been considered, but that I regard it as less likely than the explanation offered in the text.
I have to express my gratitude to Dr. Gwenogvryn Evans, who was kind enough to lend me for the purposes of this work his manuscript referred to as tr., his transcripts of numerous poems by G.Gr., G.Gl., Gu.O., D.N., D.E., H.D., I.F. and Ỻ., and to furnish me with proofs of w.m. before it was issued, and of r.p. and b.t. which have not yet appeared; and to Mr. J. H. Davies who generously lent me for several years his transcripts of about 200 of the poems of T.A., and verified readings for me in mss. at the National Library. For the latter service I am also indebted to Mr. T. Gwynn Jones at the National Library, and to Mr. J. Ifano Jones at the Free Library, Cardiff. I have to thank Mr. Shankland for the readiness with which he has assisted me in various ways at the Library of the University College of North Wales. The first proof of every sheet was read by my colleague Professor Hudson-Williams; proofs of the Accidence were read by my assistant Mr. Ifor Williams; proofs of the Phonology and revises of the Accidence were read by Sir John Rhys. To each of them, and to the Reader at the Press, I am indebted for the correction of errors which had escaped me. Every reference to a printed book was verified by myself in the first proofs, and I hope few errors remain unconnected; references to mss. were compared with my notes and with entries in the Report on Welsh Manuscripts, but it was of course impossible, except in a few cases, to check the reading with the original. My thanks are due to Mr. Ifor Williams for much valuable criticism and many hints; I owe to him the explanation of i'w, Ml. yw, as a metathesis of w͡y p. 277, see p. xxvii below. I desire to acknowledge my deep obligation to my teacher Sir John Rhys, who has always been ready to help with criticism and advice. Lastly, I owe a debt of gratitude to the Fellows of Jesus College who elected me to a research fellowship for a period in order to enable me to devote my long vacations to the work.
J. MORRIS JONES.
|Origin and General History||1|
|Orthography and Pronunciation:|
|Sounds in Combination:|
|Diphthongs. Falling Diphthongs||31|
|The Aryan Vowels in Keltic||74|
|Aryan Vowel Gradation||78|
|Keltic Vowels in British and Welsh||85|
|The Short Vowels||85|
|Affection of Short Vowels||89|
|The Long Vowels||93|
|Later Modifications of Vowels||110|
|Vowel Variation in Modern Welsh||116|
|The Aryan Consonants in Keltic and British||122|
|Interchange of Consonants:|
|Assimilation, Dissimilation, and Metathesis||159|
|British and Latin Consonants in Welsh:|
|The Soft Mutation||161|
|The Nasal Mutation||167|
|The Spirant Mutation||175|
|Later Consonant Changes:|
|Loss of Voiced Spirants and Sonants||177|
|Loss of Syllables||188|
|Plural of Nouns with Singular Endings||213|
|Plural formed from Derivatives||214|
|Nouns with no Plural||220|
|Nouns with no Singular||221|
|Compound Nouns and Adjectives||260|
|The Relative Pronoun||284|
|Interrogative Pronouns, Adjectives and Adverbs||289|
|Demonstrative Pronouns and Adjectives||294|
|The Regular Verb||317|
|Notes and Additional Forms||319|
|Origins of the Welsh Verb:|
|The Aryan Verb||330|
|The Welsh Verb||331|
|The Verb 'To Be'||346|
|Compounds of the Verb 'To Be'||351|
|Af, Gwnaf, Deuaf||359|
|Verbs with Old Perfects||369|
|Verbs with t-Aorists||372|
|< ‘from, comes from’.
> ‘giving, gives’.
|The angle points in the direction of the change.|
: ‘(is) cognate with’, used to connect forms having a common element, but usually varying in formation or vowel-grade. The common use of the sign as roughly equivalent to ‘viz.’ does not clash with the above, and has been retained.
= is used for three purposes; (1) between forms which according to the laws of their respective languages imply the same ground-form; it replaces the usual colon only where it is desired to point out identity of formation as well as of root, etc.;—(2) between references to, or various readings of, the same passage in two different mss.;—(3) between two designations of the same ms., book or person; or two characters of the same value, etc.
≡ ‘(is) pronounced’; it generally introduces a phonetic transcription, see Note p. 29; but in some cases the phonetic spelling occurs in contemporary texts, and a reference is given.
/ (1) between words quoted denotes that they rhyme, or correspond in cynghanedd, i.e. have the same consonantism or accentuation or both;—(2) between letters denotes that they alternate, see e.g. § 101 iii;—(3) in references, see VI i.
* prefixed to a form denotes that it is not attested, but only inferred from a comparison of cognates, or from the known action of sound-laws. It also marks hypothetical forms (and meanings) generally.
A dot under a vowel denotes that it is sounded close.
A comma under a vowel denotes that it is sounded open.
˛ under a vowel denotes that it is nasalized; thus Fr. bon ≡ bǫ.
Marks and symbols explained in the body of the work: accent marks § 39; i̯, u̯ § 100; w̯ § 17 xi ¶; w͡y § 38 i; l̥, m̥, n̥, r̥ § 57; en, etc. § 61 i (2), § 62 i (2), § 63; ə § 57; k̑, g̑, q, ɡ, qu̯ ɡu̯ § 84; ŋ, ŋ̑, § 17 vi; g̃ § 19 iv; ẏ §16 ii (3), § 25 iii; ɏ § 16 v (2); ɥ, ỿ; § 16 i; r͑ § 22 iv; ᵹ § 17 iv; δ § 19 iii; χ, χ̑ § 17 iii; ỽ § 14 ii (2); F, F°, L, L°, V, R, R², R₁ etc. § 63.
Meanings are given in single inverted commas; double inverted commas are used to quote the words of the original when the words explained are taken from a translation; also as ordinary quotation marks.
aff. 'affixed' (in Index 'affirmative')
anal. 'analog-y, -ical'
conj. 'conjunctive' or 'conjugation'
do. 'same book (or author)'
e.g. 'for example'
f., fem. 'feminine'
gl. 'gloss on'
ib. 'same book and page'
id. 'same meaning'
i.e. 'that is'
impers., imps. 'impersonal'
l.c. 'in place cited'
lit. 'liter-ary, -ally'
m., mas., 'masculine'
pron. 'pronoun' or 'pronounced' according to context.
q.v. 'which see'
subj. 'subjunctive', rarely 'subject'
s.v. 'under the word'
v.a., v.adj. 'verbal adj.'
v.n. 'verbal noun'
Abbreviations denoting languages are obvious contractions of the names of languages given on p. 1.
Mn. 'Modern'. Ml. 'Medieval' or 'Middle'. O. 'Old'. Pr. 'Primitive'.Hesychius.
periodicals and works on grammar and philology
Ab Ithel, see Dosp. Ed.
Anwyl, Gr.: A Welsh Grammar for Schools... By E. Anwyl, M.A. Oxon. London 1898–9.
Arch. Camb.: Archæologia Cambrensis.
Boisacq: Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque... Par Émile Boisacq. α–ὀρχ-. Heidelberg and Paris 1907-13.
Brugmann: Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen2... Strassburg, I 1897, II i 1906, II ii 1911. [The Eng. trans. of the 1st edn., vol. iv, 1895 = 1 II iii revised, has also been used.]
Camden4: Britannia... Londini 1594.
CIL.: Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. Berolini 1862 ff.
Coel. y B.: Traethawd ar Hynafiaeth ac Awdurdodaeth Coelbren y Beirdd... Gann Taliesin Williams (Ab Iolo). Llanymddyfri 1840.
Cymmrodor: Y Cymmrodor, the Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.
D.: Antiqvæ Lingvæ Britannicæ, nunc communiter dictæ Cambro-Britannicae... Rvdimenta... Londini 1621, by Dr. John Davies of Mallwyd, author of D.D. below; see above, p. v.
D.D.: Antiqvæ Lingvæ Britannicæ, Nunc vulgo dictae Cambro-Britannicæ... et Lingvae Latinæ Dictionarium Duplex... Londini, Impensis Joan. Davies SS. Th. D. An. Dom. 1632.
Dosp. Ed.: Dosparth Edeyrn Davod Aur; or the Ancient Welsh Grammar... to which is added Y Pum Llyfr Kerddwriaeth... With Eng. trans. and Notes, by the Rev. John Williams Ab Ithel M.A. Llandovery 1856.
Fick4 ii : Urkeltischer Sprachschatz von Whitley Stokes. Übersetzt... von Adalbert Bezzenberger. Göttingen 1894, being the 2nd vol. of the 4th ed. of Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der indogermanischen Sprachen von August Fick.
G. Mechain: Gwaith y Parch. Walter Davies A.C. (Gwallter Mechain). Dan ol. y Parch. D. Silvan Evans B.D. 3 vols. Caerfyrddin 1868.
G.R.: Dosparth Byrr ar y rhann gyntaf i ramadeg cymraeg... [Milan] 1567. Reprinted as a suppl. to RC. 1870–83 under the title A Welsh Grammar and other Tracts by Griffith Roberts.
Henry (or Henry Lex.): Lexique étymologique des termes les plus usuels du breton moderne. Par Victor Henry. Rennes 1900.
Hirt Abl.: Der indogermanische Ablaut... von Herman Hirt. Strassburg 1900.
Holder: Altceltischer Sprachschatz. Leipzig 1891 ff.
IA.: Anzeiger fur indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde. Supplement to IF.
IF.: Indogermanische Forschungen. Zeitschrift für indogermanische Sprach- und Altertumskunde, herausgeg. von K. Brugmann und W. Streitberg. Strassburg.
J.D.R.: Cambrobrytannicæ Cymraecæve Lingvæ Institvtiones et Rvdimenta... conscripta à Joanne Dauide Rhæso Monensi Lanuaethlæo Cambrobrytanno. Londini 1592.
J.J.: Transcripts and original notes on orthography etc. in the hand of John Jones of Gelli Lyfdy, fl. 1590-1630.
KZ.: Kuhn's Zeitschrift = Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen.
Legonidec: Grammaire celto-bretonne... Par J. F. M. M. A. Legonidec. Paris 1807
Lhuyd: Archæologia Britannica... By Edward Lhuyd... Oxford 1707.
Lindsay: The Latin Language: An Historical Account of Latin Sounds, Stems, and Flexions. By W. M. Lindsay. Oxford 1894.
Lindsay EWS.: Early Welsh Script. By W. M. Lindsay. Oxford 1912.
Llyfryddiaeth: Llyfryddiaeth y Cymry... Gan y diweddar Barch. William Rowlands (Gwilym Lleyn). Ed. by D. Silvan Evans. Llanidloes 1869.
Loth Voc.: Vocabulaire vieux-breton... Par J. Loth. Paris 1884.
Macbain: An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language. By Alexander Macbain. 2Stirling 1911.
Meillet Dial.: Les dialectes indo-européens. Par A. Meillet. Paris 1908.
Meillet Intr.: Introduction à l'étude comparative des langues indo-européennes. 2Paris 1908.
Mendus Jones Gr.: Gramadeg Cymreig Ymarferol... Gan J. Mendus Jones (1Llanidloes 1847), 2 Caernarfon n.d.
Mona Ant.: Mona Antiqua Restaurata... By Henry Rowlands. 1Dublin 1723.
MSL.: Mémoires de la Societé de Linguistique de Paris. Paris.
O'Donovan (or O'Don. Gr.): A Grammar of the Irish Language... By John O'Donovan. Dublin 1845.
Paul-Strong: Principles of the History of Language. By Hermann Paul. Trans. by H. A. Strong. London 1891.
Pedersen Gr.: Vergleichende Grammatik der keltischen Sprachen, von Holger Pedersen. i Göttingen 1909; ii, 1. Teil ib. 1911.
Sir J. Price: see y.l.h. under VI ii.
R. I. Prys: Orgraph yr Iaith Gymraeg. Gan R. I. Prys a Thomas Stephens. Dinbych 1859.
Pughe: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language... To which is prefixed a Welsh Grammar. By W. Owen Pughe. 2Denbigh 1832.
RC.: Revue Celtique... Paris.
Rhys CB.: Celtic Britain. By J. Rhys. London 21884.
Rhys CC.: Notes on The Coligny Calendar. By Sir John Rhŷs. From the Proceedings of the British Academy iv.
Rhys CF.: Celtic Folklore Welsh and Manx. By John Rhŷs... Oxford 1901.
Rhys CG.: Celtae and Galli. By John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the British Acad. ii.
Rhys CIFI.: The Celtic Inscriptions of France and Italy. By John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. ii.
Rhys CIG.: The Celtic Inscriptions of Gaul. By Sir John Rhŷs. From the Proc. of the Brit. Acad. v.
Rhys LWPh.: Lectures on Welsh Philology. By John Rhys. 2London 1879.
Rhys no.: Number of inscription in LWPh2.
Richards: Antiquæ Linguæ Britannicæ Thesaurus, being a British, or Welsh-English Dictionary... By.. Thomas Richards. 3Dolgelley 1815.
Rowland: A Grammar of the Welsh Language... By Thomas Rowland. 4Wrexham .
Salesbury: A Dictionary in Englyshe and Welshe... by Wyllyam Salesbury. London 1547. Cymmrodorion Soc. Reprint. See also under V.
Seebohm: see under VI ii.
Silvan Evans: A Dictionary of the Welsh Language. By the Rev. D. Silvan Evans, a–en-. Carmarthen 1888–1906.
Silvan Evans, Llythyraeth: Llythyraeth yr Iaith Gymraeg. Gan D. Silvan Evane. Caerfyrddin 1861.
Sommer: Handbuch der lateinischen Laut- und Formenlehre... Von Dr. Ferdinand Sommer. Heidelberg 1902.
S.R.: Siôn Rhydderch = Grammadeg Cymraeg... O Gasgliad, Myfyriad ac Argraphiad John Rhydderch... Mwythig (Shrewsbury) 1728.
T. Stephens: see R. I. Prys.
Stokes, Fick: see Fick.
Strachan Intr.: An Introduction to Early Welsh. By the Late John Strachan.. Manchester 1909.
T. Charles: Geiriadur Ysgrythyrol... 3Bala 1836.
Tegai: Gramadeg Cymraeg... Gan Hugh Hughes (Tegai). 3Caernarfon .
Tegid: A Defence of the Reformed System of Welsh Orthography... By the Rev. John Jones M.A. [Tegid]. Oxford 1829; and another tract; confuted by W. B. Knight, to whom the chief credit is due for saving the Welsh Bible from the vandalism of Pughe's followers.
Thurneysen Gr.: Handbuch des Altirischen... Von Rudolf Thurneysen. i. Teil: Grammatik. Heidelberg 1909.
Thurneysen KR.: Keltoromanisches. Von Rudolf Thurneysen. Halle 1884.
T.J.: The British Language in its Lustre, or a Copious Dictionary of Welsh and English... Compiled by the great Pains and Industry of Tho. Jones. London 1688.
TPS.: Transactions of the Philological Society. London.
Tr. Cym.: The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. London.
Troude: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique breton-français... Par A.-E. Troude. Brest 1876.
Troude, Dic. Fr.-Bret.: Nouveau dictionnaire pratique français & breton... Par A. Troude. 3Brest 1886.
Vendryes Gr.: Grammaire du vieil-irlandais... Par J. Vendryes... Paris 1908.
Walde: Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, von Dr. Alois Walde... Heidelberg 11906, 21910.
Williams Lex: Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum.. By the Rev. Robert Williams M.A... Llandovery 1865.
ZE.: Grammatica Celtica... Construxit I. C. Zeuss... Editio Altera curavit H. Ebel... Berolini 1871.
ZfCP.: Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie, hg. v. Kuno Meyer und L. Chr. Stern. Halle a. S.
Other references seem to require no explanation. The most important of the works used, but not referred to, are the following: A New English Dictionary. – Skeat, An Etymological Dictionary of the English Language 41910. – Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache 71910. – Prellwitz, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der griechischen Sprache 21905. – Macdonell, A Sanskrit-English Dictionary 1893. – Wiedemann, Handbuch der litauischen Sprache 21897. – Wright, A Primer of the Gothic Language 21899. – Windisch, Irische Texte mit Wörterbuch 1880. – Loth, Les mots latins dans les langues brittoniques – 1892. Rhys, The Outlines of the Phonology of Manx Gaelic 1894.
(m. before an author's initials in brackets denotes that the quotation is from a marwnad in his memory.)
A.R.: Absalom Roberts (Conway Vale), d. 1862 (?), see Ỻ.m.
B.A.: Bedo Aeddren (Llangwm, Ỻ 15/44 R.), c. 1500.
B.Br.: Bedo Brwynllys (Brec.), c. 1460.
B.D.: Bleddyn Du [Bleδyn Tu § 111 vii (2)], c. 1350.
B.F.: y Brawd Fadawg ap Gwallter, c. 1250.
B.Ph.B.: Bedo Phylip Bach, c. 1480.
B.V.: Bleddyn Vardd, fl. 1250–90.
C.: Cynddelw (Powys), fl. 1150–1200.
Ca.: Casnodyn, c. 1320.
Ceiriog: John Ceiriog Hughes, 1832–87.
D.B.: Dafydd Benfras, fl. 1200–50.
D.E.: Dafydd ab Edmwnd (Flintsh.), fl. 1450–80.
D.G.: Dafydd ap Gwilym (N. Card.), fl. 1350–80; ref. to Barddoniaeth Dafydd ab Gwilym... Llundain, 1789.
D.I.D. : Deio ab Ieuan Du (Card.), c. 1480.
D.Ỻ.: Dafydd Llwyd ap Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, c. 1480.
D.N.: Dafydd Nanmor (Beddgelert), c. 1460.
Dr. M.: William Morgan (C’vonshire), 1541–1604; Bp. of St. Asaph, translator of the Bible, 1588.
Dr. P.: Richard Parry (Ruthin), 1560–1623; Bp. of St. Asaph, editor of the revised Bible, 1620. Internal and other evidence points to the version being largely if not mainly by Dr. John Davies.
D.W.: Dewi Wyn o Eifion = Dafydd Owen (Llanystumdwy), 1784–1841; ref. to Blodau Arfon... Caerlleon (Chester), 1842.
D. y C.: Dafydd y Coed, c. 1330.
E.F.: Eben Fardd = Ebenezer Thomas (S. C’von), 1802–63; ref. to Gweithiau Barddonol Eben Fardd. [Bangor, n.d.]
E.M.: Edward Morris (Cerrig y Drudion), d. 1689; ref. to Edward Morris... ei Achau.. etc. Liverpool 1902.
E.P.: Edmwnd Prys, Archdeacon of Merioneth, 1541–1623; ref. to Edmwnd Prys... Gan. T. R. Roberts (Asaph). Caernarfon 1899. ps. refers to his metrical version of the Psalms.
E.S.: Elidir Sais, fl. 1160–1220.
E.U.: Edward ab Urien, c. 1610.
G.: Gwalchmai (Anglesey), fl. 1150–90.
G.B.: Gwynfardd Brycheinog (Brec.), c. 1170.
G.C.: Gruffudd ap Cynfrig Goch, p. 119, error in p 64/122 r. for Rhys ap Cynfrig Goch p 97/244 (“nai.. i I.G.” ?); p 100/408; Ỻ 133/129 r. (? = R.G.G.).
G.D.A.: Gwilym Ddu o Arfon, c. 1300.
G Gl.: Guto’r Glyn (Denb.), fl. 1450–80.
G.Gr.: Gruffudd Gryg (Anglesey), c. 1370.
G.Gw.: Gruffudd ap Gwrgeneu, c. 1200.
G.H.: Gruffudd Hiraethog (N. Denb.), fl. 1520–60.
G.I.H.: Gwilym ab Ieuan Hen, c. 1460.
G.I.Ỻ.F.: Gruffudd ab Ieuan ap Llywelyn Fychan (Denb.), fl. 1500–25; selected poems ed. by J. C. Morrice, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc. 1910.
G.J.: Griffith Jones, Rector of Llanddowror, 1684–1761.
G.M.D.: Gruffudd ap Maredudd ap Dafydd, c. 1320–50.
Gr.O.: Goronwy Owen (Anglesey), 1723–69; ref. to Gwaith y Parch. Goronwy Owen... Llanrwst, 1860. (In R. Jones’s edn., 1876, the text is tampered with.)
G.S.: Guto ap Siancyn y Glyn = G.Gl.
G.T.: Gwilym Tew (Glam.), c. 1450.
Gu.O., Gut.O.: Gutun Owain (Denb.), fl. 1450–90.
G.V.: Gruffudd Vychan, c. 1320.
G.Y.C.: Gruffudd ab yr Ynad Coch, c. 1280.
H.A.: Huw Arwystl c. 1550.
H.C.Ỻ.: Huw (or Hywel) Cae Llwyd, c. 1480 [Ỻ r. p. 428 footn. for 1525 read 1475].
H.D.: Huw Dafi, or Hywel ap Dafydd ab Ieuan ap Rhys (Brec.), c. 1480.
H.K.: Hywel Kilan (l ≡ l-l) (Llŷn?), c. 1480.
H.M.: Hugh Maurice (Denb.), 1622–1709; ref. to Eos Ceiriog... 2 vols. Wrexham, 1823.
H.O.G.: Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd, Prince of the House of Gwynedd, d. 1170.
H.R.: Hywel Rheinallt, c. 1480.
H.S.: Hywel Swrdwal (Montgomerysh.), c. 1450; ref. to Gwaith Barddonol Hywel Swrdwal a’i Fab Ieuan, ed. by J. C. Morrice, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc., 1908.
I.B.H.: Ieuan Brydydd Hir (Merioneth), c. 1450.
I.C.: Iorwerth ab y Cyriawg, c. 1360.
I.D.: Ieuan Deulwyn (Carm.), fl. 1460–80; ref. to Gwaith Ieuan Deulwyn, ed. by Ifor Williams, Bangor Welsh MSS. Soc. 1909.
I.F.: Iorwerth Fynglwyd (Glam.), c. 1490.
I.G.: Iolo Goch (Denb.), fl. 1370–1405; ref. to Gweithiau Iolo Goch... Gan Charles Ashton, Cymmrodorion Soc., 1896.
I.H.S.: Ieuan ap Hywel Swrdwal, c. 1470; ref. as for H.S., q.v.
I.Ỻaf.: Ieuan Llavar, c. 1590.
Io.G. = I.G.
I.R.: Ieuan ap Rhydderch ab Ieuan Llwyd, c. 1420.
I.T.: Ieuan Tew o Gydweli, c. 1460 (often confused with the later, and lesser, Ieuan Tew who graduated at the Caerwys Eisteddfod of 1568).
L.G.C.: Lewis Glyn Cothi, fl. 1440–80; ref. to Gwaith Lewis Glyn Cothi... Oxford 1837.
L.M.: Lewis Morris (Llywelyn Ddu o Fôn), 1701–65.
L.Môn: Lewis Môn, c. 1500.
L.Mor.: Lewis Morgannwg, c. 1520.
Ỻ.: Llawdden (Llandeilo, i.mss. 320), c. 1460.
Ỻ.G.: Llywelyn Goch Amheurig Hên, c. 1380.
M.: Meilyr (Anglesey), c. 1137.
M.B.: Madog Benfras, c. 1380.
M.D.: Madog Dwygraig, c. 1370.
M.K.: Maurice Kyffin; ref. to Deffynniad Ffydd Eglwys Loegr 1595, reprint ed. by Wm. Pochard Williams, Bangor 1908.
M.Ỻ.: Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, 1619–1659; ref. to Gweithiau Morgan Llwyd o Wynedd, i ed. by Thomas E. Ellis, Bangor 1899; ii ed. by John H. Davies, Bangor 1908.
M.R.: Maredudd ap Rhys, c. 1440.
O.G.: Owain Gwynedd, c. 1580.
P.M.: Llywarch ap Llywelyn, Prydydd y Moch (Wigwer, St. Asaph; “wele [gwely] Pridith Mogh” at “Wyckewere”, Seebohm 31), c. 1160–1220.
R.C.: Rhys Cain, c. 1580.
R.D.: Richard Davies (Conway), Bp. of St. Davids, 1501–81; translator of some epistles in Wm.S.’s N.T. 1567.
R.G.D.: Robert ap Gwilym Ddu = Robert Williams, Betws Fawr, Llanystumdwy, 1767–1850; ref. to Gardd Eifion... Dolgellau 1841.
R.G.E.: Rhys Goch Eryri (C’vonsh.), c. 1430.
R.G.G.: Rhys Goch Glyndyfrdwy, c. 1420 (?), see G.C.
R.Ỻ.: Rhys Llwyd ap Rhys ap Rhicart, c. 1460.
R.M.: Richard Morris (Anglesey, brother of L.M.), 1703–79; editor of Bible, 1746, 1752.
R.V.: Rowland Vaughan, Gaer Gai, Llanuwchllyn, d. 1667.
Salesbury, see Wm.S.
S.B.: Siôn Brwynog (o Frwynog ym Môn), d. 1562.
S.C.: Siôn Cent (Kentchurch), c. 1420.
S.M.: Siôn Mawddwy (native of Glam.), c. 1580.
S.Ph.: Siôn Phylip (Ardudwy, Mer.), 1543–1620.
S.T.: Siôn Tudur (Wigwer, St. Asaph), d. 1602.
S.V.: Simwnt Vychan (Ruthin), born c. 1530, d. 1606; author of p.Ỻ.
T.: Talhaiarn = John Jones, Llanfair Talhaearn, 1810–69; ref. to Gwaith Talhaiarn, i London 1855, ii London 1862, (iii Llanrwst 1869).
T.A.: Tudur Aled (N. Denb.), fl. 1480–1520.
W.Ỻ.: Wiliam Llŷn (? Llŷn ; res. Oswestry), 1535–80; ref. to Barddoniaeth Wiliam Llŷn... Gan y Parch. J. C. Morrice M.A. Bangor 1908.
W.M.: William Morris (brother of L.M.), 1705–63.
Wm.S.: Wyllyam Salesbury (Llanrwst); translator of the bulk of N.T. 1567; joint tr. and ed. of Pb. 1567, 1586; etc.
Wms.: William Williams, Pant y Celyn (Carm.); hymn-writer, 1717–91; ref. to Gwaith Prydyddawl... William Williams... sef yr Holl Hymnau... Caerfyrddin, 1811, definitive edn. by his son.
i. collections of manuscripts
The name of the collection is denoted by a sm. cap. initial without a stop; the number of the ms. follows, and generally the number of the page or folio, separated by an oblique stroke; thus p 99/469 means Peniarth ms. 99, page (or folio) 469. The mss., except those of the Brit. Mus., are numbered as in the Historical Manuscripts Commission’s Report on Manuscripts in the Welsh Language. r. after a reference indicates that the words quoted appear in the Report. As many of the quotations are taken from transcripts in some of which only the p. or fol. of the opening lines of a poem was given, the reference may be to the piece beginning on the p. or fol. named.
- a = British Museum Additional Manuscripts.
- c = Cardiff Free Library Manuscripts.
- j = Manuscripts in the Jesus College Library, Oxford.
- Ỻ = Llanstephan Manuscripts, now in the National Library of Wales.
- m = Mostyn Manuscripts, at Mostyn Hall.
- p = Peniarth Manuscripts, now in the National Library of Wales.
- Stowe = British Museum Stowe Manuscripts.
ii. manuscripts and texts
O.W. materials are distinguished thus †. References are not usually given to the pages of ox., ox. 2, juv. and m.c., as Loth Voc. forms an index to these mss. The reference is to pages except where otherwise stated below.
†a.c.: Annales Cambriæ in Y Cymmrodor ix 152–169; reference to years. [Early 12th cent. literal transcript of late 10th cent. orig. by scribe ignorant of Welsh, see Phillimore’s preface.]
a.g.: Athrawaeth Gristnogavl [Milan 1568]. By Morys Clynoc; ed. by G.R. Cymmrodorion Soc. Reprint 1880.
a.l.: Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales... 2 vols. 1841.
b.a.: The Book of Aneirin = c 1, circa 1250. Facsimile and Text by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1908. [Parts are transcribed literally from older copies not understood by the scribe.]
bar.: Barddas... With trans. and notes by J. Williams ab Ithel. i Llandovery 1862; (ii London 1874). [Late Gwentian.]
b.b.: The Black Book of Carmarthen = p 1, end of 12th cent. Ed. by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1906.
b.ch.: The Black Book of Chirk = p 29 = a.l. ms. a., circa 1200. Quotations taken from the orig. ms. (Quotations from a.l. are referred to the latter.)
b.cw.: Gweledigaetheu y Bardd Cwsc. [By Ellis Wynne]. Llundain 1703. Reprint ed. by J. Morris Jones, Bangor 1898.
br.: Y Brython. i Weekly; ii–iv Monthly; v Quarterly. Tremadoc 1858–63. [Contains old cywyddau etc.]
†b.s.ch: The Book of St. Chad. 9th cent. entries in W., see Lindsay EWS. 1–6; transcribed (with facsimiles) in l.l. pp. xliii–xlviii; ref. to nos. of entries ib.
b.t.: The Book of Taliessin = p 2, circa 1275; ref. to the edn. about to be published by Dr. Gwenogvryn Evans.
c. i and c. ii: Ceinion Llenyddiaeth Gymreig... Dan olygiad y Parch. Owen Jones. 2 vols. London 1876.
c.b.y.p.: Cyfrinach Beirdd Ynys Prydain.... Dan olygiad... Iolo Morganwg. Abertawy (Swansea) 1829.
c.c.: The Cefn Coch MSS.... Ed. by the Rev. J. Fisher. Liverpool 1899. [Late 16th and 17th cent.; mostly poetry.]
c.g. Cant o Ganeuon. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. Wrexham .
c.Ỻ.: Cynfeirdd Lleyn: 1500–1800... Cynnulledig... gan J. Jones (Myrddin Fardd). Pwllheli 1905.
c.m.: Ystorya de Carolo Magno. From the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by Thomas Powell. Cymmrod. Soc. 1883.
†cp.: Fragment of an Old Welsh Computus. 23 lines [10th cent.]. Fac., transcr. and transl. by E. C. Quiggin. ZfCP. viii 407–10. Ref. to lines.
cy.: Reproductions in Y Cymmrodor.
d.: Quoted in D., see under IV.
d.g.: By G.Gr. etc., printed in D.G.; see under V.
d.p.o.: Drych y Prif Oesoedd... Gan Theophilus Evans... ²Mwythig (Shrewsbury) . Reprint ed. by Samuel J. Evans... Bangor 1902.
d.t.: Diddanwch Teuluaidd: neu Waith Beirdd Mon... ²Caernarfon 1817.
e.: Egluryn Phraethineb... Gan Mr. William Salesbury, a... Mr. Henri Perri... Lhundain 1595; ³Llanrwst 1829. Ref. to chapters.
e.g.: Eos Gwynedd... Gan.. John Thomas, Pentre’r Foelas. Dan olygiaeth G. Caledfryn. Llanrwst .
e.p.: Quoted in E.P.; see under V.
f.: Flores Poetarum Britannicorum... O gasgliad J[ohn] D[avies] SS. Th. D.... Mwythig (Shrewsbury) 1710.
f.n.: Y Flodeugerdd, Newydd. Casgliad o gywyddau... Wedi eu golygu gan W. J. Gruffydd. Cardiff 1909. [Early Mn. verse.]
g.: Gorchestion Beirdd Cymru... O Gasgliad Rhys Jones... Amwythig (Shrewsbury) 1773. [Early Mn. verse.]
g.c.: The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan. The Welsh Text with trans., intr., and notes. By Arthur Jones. Manchester 1910. [Pp. 102–142 = p 17/1–16, mid-13th cent.]
†gen. Old-Welsh Genealogies in Y Cymmrodor ix 169–83; ref. to nos. of genealogies. [From the same ms. as a.c., q.v.]
g.r. Quoted in G.R., see under IV.
gre. (or Greal): Y Greal; sev Cynnulliad o Orchestion ein Hynaviaid... Llundain 1805–7.
h.g.: Hen Gwndidau, Carolau, a Chywyddau... [Ed.] by Hopcyn... and Cadrawd... Bangor 1910. [Gwentian 16th–17th cent.]
Hyff. Gynn(wys): Hyfforddiad Gynnwys I Wybodaeth jachusol o Egwyddorjon a Dyledswyddau Crefydd... Gan Weinidog o Eglwys Loegr [Griffith Jones]. Llundain 1749.
h.m. ii: Selections from the Hengwrt MSS... in the Peniarth Library. Vol. ii. Ed... by.. Robert Williams... transl. contd. by.. G. Hartwell Jones.. London 1892. [Vol. i is referred to as s.g.]
i.mss.: Iolo Manuscripts... Coll... by.. Edward Williams, Iolo Morganwg... Llandovery 1848. [Contains cywyddau etc. besides late Gwentian memoranda].
†juv.: Glosses in the Juvencus ms., Cambridge Univ. Libr. Published by Stokes in Kuhn’s Beiträge iv 385–421. [9th to 11th cent., Lindsay EWS. 16.]
†juv. sk.: The verses in the Juvencus ms., printed in Skene’s Four Ancient Books of Wales ii 1–2.
l.g.c.: Appearing in L.G.C., see under V.
†l.l.: Liber Landavensis, c. 1150. The Text of the Book of Llan Dâv... by J. Gwenogvryn Evans... [and] John Rhys.. Oxford 1893. [Contains documents with O.W. forms literally transcribed].
Ỻ.A.: Llyfr yr Ancr, dated 1346. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh... Ed. by J. Morris Jones... and John Rhŷs... Oxford 1894.
Ỻ.B.M.: Llyfr Bychan Mawddwy, a 16th cent. ms. in the National Libr. of Wales.
Ỻ.H.: Y Llyfr Hir in the National Libr. of Wales. [ms. collection by W. Jones (Bleddyn), of Early Mn. cywyddau.]
Ỻ.M.: Lloches Mwyneidd-dra... Gan Absalom Roberts. Llanrwst 1845. [Contains coll. of old penillion telyn.]
m.a.: The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales... 3 vols. London 1801–7. [Corpus of Ml. poetry and prose. ²Denbigh 1870.]
†m.c.: Glosses on Martianus Capella in the Libr. of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, ed. by Stokes in Arch. Camb. 1873 pp. 1–21. [Mostly 9th cent., Lindsay EWS. 22.]
m.e.: Mil o Englynion = Pigion Englynion fy Ngwlad... Gan Eifionydd. i² and ii, Liverpool 1882.
m.l.: Morris Letters. The Letters of Lewis, Richard, William and John Morris, of Anglesey... 1728–1765. Transcr... and ed. by John H. Davies... 2 vols. Oxford 1906–9.
m.m.: Meddygon Myddfai. The Physicians of Myddvai... Transl. by John Pughe.. F.R.C.S... and ed. by.. John Williams Ab Ithel. Llandovery 1861. [Pp. 1–34 are from r.b. 928 ff.]
N.T.: New Testament.
o.b.: Oriau’r Bore. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. ²Wrexham n.d.
o.h.: Oriau’r Hwyr. Gan John Ceiriog Hughes. ⁵Wrexham .
†ox.: Oxford Liber Commonei and Ovid, Bodleian Libr., Auct. F 4. 32. Date 817, Lindsay EWS. 7 (812, Dosp. Ed. 10). Glosses in W. and notes in mixed Lat. and W., printed in ZE. 1052–60.
†ox. 2: Cod. Oxoniensis Posterior. Glosses in Bodl. 572 printed in ZE. 1060–3 as W. ; given as Corn. in Loth Voc. ix; shown to be W. by Loth, RC. xiv 70; 10th cent.
p.g.g.: Pattrwm y Gwir-Gristion... Chester 1723. Reprint ed. by H. Elvet Lewis. Bangor 1908.
P.Ỻ.: Pump Ỻyfr Kerδwriaeth by S.V. = j 9 autograph; printed (from a copy by J.J. of a copy of the orig.) in Dosp. Ed. pp. xlii–cxxviii. P.Ỻ. refers to the latter, j 9 to the auto. ms.
r.b.: The Red Book of Hergest = j 1, late 14th and early 15th cent. Quotations taken direct from the ms.; ref. to columns.
r b.b.: Red Book Bruts. The Text of The Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhŷs... and J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Oxford 1890.
r.g.: Red Book Grammar; cols. 1117–1142 of r.b. Ref. to columns. The Bangor MSS. Soc. will shortly publish an edn. by the writer.
rh.b.s.: Rheol Buchedd Sanctaidd... Llundain 1701. Transl. of Jer. Taylor’s Holy Living by Ellis Wynne, author of b.cw.
r.m.: Red Book Mabinogion. The Text of the Mabinogion... from the Red Book of Hergest. Ed. by John Rhŷs... and J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Oxford 1887.
r.p.: Red Book Poetry ; quotations taken from corrected proofs of the edn. about to be published by Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Ref. to columns.
Ruthin Court Rolls: The Court Rolls of the Lordship of Ruthin..... of the Reign of King Edward the First. Ed... by R. A. Roberts. Cymmrod. Record Series. London 1893. [Contains Welsh names in Norman-Fr. spelling.]
Seebohm Trib. Sys.: The Tribal System in Wales... by Frederic Seebohm... London 1895. [Contains reproductions of Norman documents with Welsh names.]
s.g.: Selections from the Hengwrt MSS... Vol. i. Y Seint Greal... Ed... by.. Robert Williams. London 1876 [= p11, end of 14th cent.]
sk.: The Four Ancient Books of Wales... By William F. Skene. Edinburgh 1868. Vol. ii. [Texts; now superseded except pp. 1–2, see juv.]
tr.: Tremvan ms.; cywyddau etc. in the hand of Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt 1592–1666; used by the editor of g.; now in the possession of Dr. J. Gwenogvryn Evans.
w.: 13th cent. ms. copied by Dr. Davies in 1617, since lost sight of, recently re-discovered; Davies’s copy in a 14869, the source of the poems of M., G., H.O.G., etc. in m.a. i. A reproduction, ed. by the present writer, will be issued in the Univ. of Wales Guild Series.
w.b.: The White Book of Rhydderch = p 4 and 5.
w.m.: The White Book Mabinogion... Ed. by J. Gwenogvryn Evans. Pwllheli 1907. From the White Book of Rhydderch = p 4, late 13th cent. Ref. to columns. The volume also contains other early versions of the Mabinogion, incl. the fragments in p 6/i, ii, circa 1225; ref. in this case to pages distinguished by “p.”
w.m.l.: Welsh Medieval Law... Harl. MS. 4353... 13th cent.... By A. W. Wade-Evans. Oxford 1909.
y.l.h.: Yn y lhyvyr hwnn y traethir Gwyδor kymraeg, etc., 1546. By Sir John Price. Reprint ed. by John H. Davies.. Bangor 1902.
P. 54, § 44 i, l. 9, read Kellynnawc (ll ≡ l)
P. 71, § 54 ii, l. 1, after b, d, g, insert f, dd,
P. 113, § 78 i (2), l. 7, delete ;—raccw § 210 x (3)
P. 131, iv, l. 8, insert * before g̑hu̯er-
P. 153, l. i, read di|e|fyl
P. 166, iv (3), l. 6, for *ad-rim- read *ad-rīm-
P. 194, l. 9, insert * before is-le.
P. 277, l. 7, delete * before w͡y
The metathesis was suggested by Mr. Ifor Williams; unfortunately I overlooked his note in his Cyfranc Lludd a Llefelys (1910), p. 20, in which he adduces examples of wy m.a.² 145b and uy do. 227b, so that the form need not have been starred. The same explanation is given by Pedersen Gr. ii (1911), p. 158.
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.
The author died in 1929, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 80 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.