The Cambridge History of American Literature/Book I/Chapter IV

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Chapter IV: Edwards[edit]

§ 1. Edward’s Early Years.[edit]

JONATHAN EDWARDS was born at Windsor, Connecticut, in 1703. He belonged, unlike his great contemporary Franklin in this, to the “Brahmin families” of America, his father being a distinguished graduate of Harvard and a minister of high standing, his mother being the daughter of Solomon Stoddard, a revered pastor of Northampton, Massachusetts, and a religious author of repute. Jonathan, one of eleven children, showed extraordinary precocity. There is preserved a letter of his, written apparently in his twelfth year, in which he retorts upon certain materialistic opinions of his correspondent with an easiness of banter not common to a boy; and another document, from about the same period, an elaborate account of the habits of spiders, displays a keenness of observation and a vividness of style uncommon at any age.

He studied at Yale, receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1720, before his seventeenth birthday. While at college he continued his interest in scientific observations, but his main concern was naturally with theology and moral philosophy. As a sophomore he read Locke On the Human Understanding, with the delight of a “greedy miser”in “some newly discovered treasure.” Some time after reading Locke and before graduation he wrote down a series of reflections, preparatory to a great metaphysical treatise of his own, which can be compared only with the Commonplace Book kept by Berkeley a few years earlier for the same purpose. In the section of “Notes on the Mind” this entry is found: “Our perceptions or ideas, that we passively receive by our bodies, are communicated to us immediately by God.” Now Berkeley’s Principles and his Hylas and Philonous appeared in 1710 and 1713 respectively, and the question has been raised, and not answered, whether this Berkeleian sentiment was borrowed from one of these books or was original with Edwards. Possibly the youthful philosopher was following a line of thought suggested by the English disciples of Malebranche, possibly he reached his point of view directly from Locke; in any case his life-work was to carry on the Lockian philosophy from the point where the Berkeleian idealism left off.

§ 2. His Marriage.[edit]

After graduation Edwards remained for two years at Yale, preparing for the ministry. In 1722 he was called to a Presbyterian church in New York. Here he preached acceptably for eight months, returning then to his father’s house, and later to New Haven, where he held the position of tutor in the college. In 1727 he went to Northampton as colleague, and became in due time successor, to his grandfather. Almost immediately after ordination he married Sarah Pierrepont, like himself of the Brahmin caste, whom he had known as a young girl, and whose beauty of body and soul he had described in a passage of ecstatic wonder. “They say,” he began, being himself then twenty and the object of his adoration thirteen, “there is a young lady in New Haven who is beloved of that great Being who made and rules the world, and that there are certain seasons in which this great Being, in some way or other invisible, comes to her and fills her mind with exceeding sweet delight.”

The marriage, notwithstanding this romantic rapture, proved eminently wise.

§ 3. His Journal.[edit]

Like a good many other men of his age Edwards lived his inner life, so to speak, on paper. There is therefore nothing peculiar or priggish in the fact that at the beginning of his religious career he should have written out a set of formal resolutions, which he vowed to read over, and did read over, at stated intervals in order to keep watch on his spiritual progress. A number of these resolutions have been printed, as has also a part of the diary kept at about the same time. Neither of these documents, the time of their writing considered, contains anything remarkable. But it is quite otherwise with the private reflections which he wrote out some twenty years later (about 1743) at Northampton, apparently on some occasion of reading over his youthful diary. In these we have an autobiographical fragment that, for intensity of absorption in the idea of God and for convincing power of utterance, can be likened to the Confessions of St. Augustine, while it unites to this religious fervour a romantic feeling for nature foreign to the Bishop of Hippo’s mind and prophetic of a movement that was to sweep over the world many years after Edwards’s death. A few extracts from this document (not so well known as it would have been if it had not been printed with the works of a thorny metaphysician) must be given for their biographical and literary interest:

From my childhood up, my mind had been full of objections against the doctrine of God’s sovereignty, in choosing whom he would to eternal life, and rejecting whom he would to eternal life, and rejecting whom he pleased; leaving them eternally to perish, and be everlastingly tormented in hell. It used to appear like a horrible doctrine to me. But I remember the time very well, when I seemed to be convinced, and fully satisfied, as to this sovereignty of God…. I have often, since that first conviction, had quite another kind of sense of God’s sovereignty than I had then. I have often since had not only a conviction, but a delightful conviction. The doctrine has very often appeared exceeding pleasant, bright, and sweet. Absolute sovereignty is what I love to ascribe to God. But my first conviction was not so.

The first instance that I remember of that sort of inward, sweet delight in God and divine things that I have lived much in since, was on reading those words, Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever, Amen. As I read the words, there came into my soul, and was as it were diffused through it, a sense of the Divine Being….

Not long after I first began to experience these things, I gave an account to my father of some things that had passed in my mind. I was pretty much affected by the discourse we had together; and when the discourse was ended, I walked abroad alone, in a solitary place in my father’s pasture, for contemplation. And as I was walking there, and looking up on the sky and clouds, there came into my mind so sweet a sense of the glorious majesty and grace of God, that I know not how to express. I seemed to see them both in a sweet conjunction; majesty and meekness joined together; it was a sweet and gentle, and holy majesty; and also a majestic meekness;an awful sweetness;a high, and great, and holy gentleness.

§ 4. His Love of God.[edit]

This is not the Edwards that is commonly known, and indeed he put little of this personal rapture of holiness into his published works, which were almost exculsively polemical in design. Only once, perhaps, did he adequately display this aspect of his thought to the public; and that was in the Dissertation on the Nature of Virtue, wherein, starting from the definition of virtue as “the beauty of the qualities and exercises of the heart,” he proceeds to combine ethics and aesthetics in an argument as subtle in reasoning as it is, in places, victorious in expression. One cannot avoid the feeling, when his writings are surveyed as a whole, that in his service to a particular dogma of religion Edwards deliberately threw away the opportunity of making for himself, despite the laxness of his style, one of the very great names in literature.

§ 5. His Preaching.[edit]

It should seem also that he not only suppressed his personal ecstasy in his works for the press, but waived it largely in his more direct intercourse with men. He who himself, like an earlier and perhaps greater Emerson, was enjoying the sweetness of walking with God in the garden of earth, was much addicted to holding up before his people the “pleasant, bright, and sweet” doctrine of damnation. Nor can it be denied that he had startling ways of impressing this sweetness on others. It is a misfortune, but one for which he is himself responsible, that his memory in the popular mind today is almost exclusively associated with certain brimstone sermons and their terrific effect. Best known of these is the discourse on Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, delivered at Enfield, Connecticut, in the year 1741. His text was taken from Deuteronomy: “Their foot shall slide in due time”; and from these words he proceeded to prove, and “improve,” the truth that “there is nothing that keeps wicked men at any moment out of hell, but the mere pleasure of God.”He is said to have had none of the common qualities of the orator. His regular manner of preaching, at least in his earlier years, was to hold his “manuscript volume in his left hand, the elbow resting on the cushion or the Bible, his right hand rarely raised but to turn the leaves, and his person almost motionless”; but there needed no gesticulation and no modulation of voice to convey the force of his terrible conviction, when, to an audience already disposed to accept the dogma, he presented that dogma in a series of pictures like the following:

The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathesome insect, over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked; his wrath towards you burns like fire; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire; he is of purer eyes than to bear to have you in his sight.

The congregation of Enfield, we are told, was moved almost to despair; “there was such a breathing of distress and weeping” that the speaker was interrupted and had to plead for silence. Sincerity of vision may amount to cruelty, and something is due to the weakness of human nature.

§ 6. The Great Awakening.[edit]

The result was inevitable. The people of Northampton listened to Edwards for a time; were rapt out of themselves; suffered the relapse of natural indolence; grew resentful under the efforts to keep them in a state of exaltation; and freed themselves of the burden when it became intolerable. At first all went well. Stoddard, in whose declining years the discipline of the church had been somewhat relaxed, died in 1729, and the fervour of his successor soon began to tell on the people.

§ 7. Narrative of Surprising Conversions.[edit]

In 1733, as Edwards notes in his Narrative of Surprising Conversions, there was a stirring in the conscience of the young, who had hitherto been prone to the awful sin of “frolicking.” The next year the sudden conversion of a young woman, “who had been one of the greatest company keepers in the whole town,” came upon the community “like a flash of lightning”; the Great Awakening was started, which was to run over New England like a burning fire, with consequences not yet obliterated. The usual accompaniments of moral exaltation and physical convulsions showed themselves. Edwards relates with entire approbation the morbid conversion of a child of four. The poor little thing was overheard by her mother in her closet wrestling with God in prayer, from which she came out crying aloud and “wreathing her body to and fro like one in anguish of spirit.” She was afraid she was going to hell!

It was inevitable that such a wave of superheated emotion should subside in a short time. In fact the enthusiasm had scarcely reached its height when it began to show signs of perversion and decay. Immediately after the story of the young convert Edwards notes that “the Spirit of God was gradually withdrawing” and “Satan seemed to be let loose and raged in a dreadful manner.” An epidemic of melancholy and suicidal mania swept over the community, and multitudes seemed to hear a voice saying to them: “Cut your own throat, now is a good opportunity.” Strange delusions arose and spread, until common sense once more got the upper hand.

§ 8. Thoughts on the Revival of Religion; Marks of a Work of the True Spirit.[edit]

It was an old tale, told in New England with peculiar fury. The saddest thing in the whole affair is the part played by Edwards. Other leaders saw the danger from the first, or were soon awakened to it; but Edwards never, either at this time or later, wavered in his belief that the Awakening, though marred by the devil, was in itself the work of the Divine Spirit. His Thoughts on the Revival of Religion and his Marks of a Work of the True Spirit are both a thoroughgoing apology for the movement, as they are also an important document in his own psychology. The jangling and confusion he admits; he recognizes the elements of hysteria that were almost inextricably mixed up with the moral exaltation of conversion; but his defence is based frankly on the avowal that these things are the universal accompaniments of inspiration—they attended the founding of the church in the Apostolic age, they were to be expected at the instauration of religion. Often the reader of these treatises is struck by a curious, and by no means accidental, resemblance between the position of Edwards and the position of the apologists of the romantic movement in literature. There is the same directness of appeal to the emotions; the same laudation of sheer expansiveness, at the cost, if need be, of judgement or measure or any other restraint. Prudence and regularity may be desirable in the service of God, yet it is still true that “the cry of irregularity and imprudence” has been mainly in the mouths of those who are enemies to the main work of redemption. Perturbation, in truth, is not properly so called when it is the means of rousing the cold and indifferent from their lethargy; we are bound to suppose that not even the man “of the strongest reason and greatest learning” can remain master of himself if “strongly impressed with a sense of divine and eternal things.” It comes in the end to this, that, notwithstanding his verbal reservations, Edwards had no critical canon to distinguish between the order and harmony governed by a power higher than either the imagination or the emotions, and the order and harmony that are merely stagnation.

One factor in his confidence was a belief that the discovery of America, coinciding as it did with the beginning of the Reformation, came by Providence for “the glorious renovation of the world”; nay more, that the humble town in which he was preaching might be the cradle of the new dispensation, from whence it should spread over the whole earth. His language may even seem to betray a touch of spiritual pride over the part he himself should be called upon to play as the instrument of Grace in this marvellous regeneration. That vice of the saints was indeed a subject much in his meditations, and one of the finest pieces of religious psychology in his works is the passage of the Revival in which he tracks it through the labyrinthine deceits of the human heart. It was a sin against which he had probably to keep particular ward in these years, but we should not say that he ever, in any proper sense of the word, lapsed from the virtue of Christian humility. If he seemed to set himself above other men as an exigent judge, this was rather due to a faulty sympathy, an inability to measure others except by the standard of his own great faculties. Thus, for all his emotionalism, he lived under the control of an iron will, and he could not comprehend how the over-stimulation of terror and joy in a weaker disposition would work moral havoc. Nor from his own constant height could he understand how brief and fitful any mood of exaltation must be among ordinary men in their ordinary condition. Hence he not only failed to see the gravity of the actual evils at the time of the Awakening, but failed also, with more grievous results for himself, to recognize the impossibility of flogging the dead emotion into new life.

§ 9. Treatise Concerning Religious Affections.[edit]

The issue came on a point of church discipline. Edwards believed that religion was essentially a matter of the emotions or affections. A man might have perfect knowledge of divine things, as indeed the devil had, but unless the love of God was implanted in his heart by the free act of Grace he had no lot with the faithful. To develop this theme he wrote his great Treatise Concerning Religious Affections, a work which may without exaggeration be said to go as far as the human intellect can go in the perilous path of discriminating between the purely spiritual life and the life of worldly morality. Now even the simple statement of the difference between the condition of Grace and the condition of nature is hard for the natural man to follow; but when Edwards, with the acumen of a genius and the doggedness of a scholar, imposed his distinction on all the intricate feelings of life, the natural man was dazed; and when he attempted to make it the criterion of admission to the Lord’s Table, the natural man who thought himself a Christian rebelled. Stoddard had held it right to admit to communion all those who desired honestly to unite themselves with the church. Edwards protested that only those who had undergone a radical conversion and knew the affections of supernatural love should enjoy this high privilege. His congregation sided with their old guide against him.

§ 10. The Quarrel with the Northampton Congregation.[edit]

The quarrel was further embittered by another issue. It came to light that certain young folk of the church were reading profane books which led to lewd conversation. Edwards called for public discipline of the sinners; the congregation supported him until investigation showed that the evil was widespread and would bring discredit on most of the better families of the town, and then they blocked further proceedings. If tradition is correct in naming Pamela as one of the guilty books, we may admire the literary taste of youthful Northampton, yet think that their pastor was justified in condemning such reading as incendiary. However that may be, when, on 22 June, 1750, a public vote was taken whether Edwards should be dismissed from his pastorate, a large majority was counted against him. Northampton has the distinction of having rejected the greatest theologian and philosopher yet produced in this country. The behaviour of Edwards when the crisis actually came was simple, dignified, and even noble. His Farewell Sermon, with its dispassionate and submissive appeal from the tribunal of men to that final judgment which shall be given in knowledge and righteousness, cannot be read today without a deep stirring of the heart.

§ 11. Stockbridge.[edit]

At the age of forty-six Edwards was thrust upon the world, discredited, in broken health, with a large family to support, but undaunted. Then befell a strange thing. This philosopher, whose thoughts and emotions ranged beyond the ken of most educated men, was sent to the frontier town of Stockbridge as a missionary to the Indians. There for six years he laboured faithfully and, at least in the practical management of affairs, successfully. It must have been one of the memorable sights of the world to see him returning on horseback from a solitary ride into the forest, while there fluttered about him, pinned to his coat, the strips of paper on which he had scribbled the results of his meditations. His days were little troubled, and not overburdened with work, peaceful it is thought; and now it was he wrote the treatise on the Freedom of the Will upon which his fame chiefly depends.

§ 12. President of the College of New Jersey; Death.[edit]

In 1757 his son-in-law, the Rev. Aaron Burr, died, and Edwards was chosen by the Trustees of the College of New Jersey to succeed him as president. Edwards hesitated, stating frankly to the Trustees his disabilities of health and learning, but he finally accepted the offer. He left his family to follow him later, and arrived in Princeton in January, 1758. Smallpox was in the town, and the new president was soon infected. His death took place on 22 March, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. His last recorded words were: “Trust in God and ye need not fear.”

The child was indeed father of the man, and it was peculiarly fitting that he who from youth upward had been absorbed in the idea of God should have died with the sacred word on his lips. But what shall be said of the fearlessness—and there is no reason to question the perfect sincerity of his spiritual joy—in the breast of one who had made terror the chief instrument of appeal to men and had spent his life in fighting for a dogma which the genial author of The One-Hoss Shay thought no decent man could hold without going crazy? To understand that charge properly we must throw ourselves back into the age in which Edwards lived.

§ 13. The Relations of Edwards to the Deistic Controversy.[edit]

Now the Edwardian theology was a part of the great deistic debate which took its root in the everlasting question of the origin of evil in the world. It was a three-cornered contest. The Calvinists and the infidels both believed in a kind of determinism, but differed over the nature of the determining cause. The Calvinists found this cause in a personal Creator, omnipotent and omniscient, to whom they did not scruple to carry up all the evil as well as all the good of the universe—“c’est que Dieu,” as Calvin himself states categorically, “non seulement a preveu la cheute du premier homme, et en icelle la ruine de toute sa posterite, mais qu’il l’a ainsi voulu.” The deists, who at this time formed the fighting line of the infidels, while verbally acknowledging the existence of God and theorizing on the nature of evil, virtually regarded the universe as a perfectly working machine in which there was no room for a personal governor or for real sin. To the Arminians, including the bulk of the orthodox churchmen, the alliance between Calvinism and deism seemed altogether to outweigh the differences. As Daniel Whitby declares in the preface to his discourses On the Five Points of Calvinism (1710; reprinted in America), to hold God responsible for evil is to play directly into the hands of the atheists. And so the age-old dispute between Augustinian and Pelagian, and between Calvinist and Arminian, took on a new life from the deistic controversy, and there sprang up a literature which undertook to preserve the idea of an omnipotent personal Creator and at the same time to save his face, if the expression may be tolerated, by attributing to men complete free will and accountability for their actions.

§ 14. The Freedom of the Will.[edit]

It was in answer to Whitby’s book and one or two others of the kind that Edwards composed his Freedom of the Will. His argument has a psychological basis. In the Treatise Concerning Religious Affections he had divided the soul into two faculties: one called the understanding, by which it discerns, views, and judges things; the other called the heart or will, being nothing else but the inclination of the soul towards or the disinclination from what is discerned and judged by the understanding. In the Freedom of the Will he starts with Locke’s statement that “the Will is perfectly distinguished from Desire, which in the very same action may have a quite contrary tendency from that which our Wills set us upon.” This theory Edwards analyses and rejects, and then proceeds to show that a man’s desire and will are virtually the same faculty of the soul. It follows from this that the will at any moment is determined by the strongest motive acting upon the soul; we are free in so far as no obstacle is presented to our willing in accordance with our inclination, but our inclination is determined by what at any moment seems to us good. In his attack on the common arguments for the freedom of the will Edwards is magnificently victorious. If the psychology by which the Arminians sought to relieve God of the burden of evil in human life is pushed into a corner, it shows itself as nothing more than this: Man’s will is a faculty absolutely indeterminate in itself and entirely independent of his inclinations. When, therefore, a man errs, it is because, the choice between evil with its attendant suffering and good with its attendant happiness being presented to him, the man, having full knowledge of the consequences and being impelled by no momentary preponderance of the one or the other from his innate disposition, deliberately and freely chooses what is evil and painful. Such an account of human action is monstrous, inconceivable; it offered an easy mark for so sharp a logician as Edwards.

But whence arise the conditions by which a man’s inclination is swayed in one direction or the other? Edwards carries these unflinchingly up to the first cause,—that is, as a Christian, to God. Berkeley had made the world to consist of ideas evoked in the mind of man by the mind of God; Edwards accepts the logical conclusion, and holds God responsible for the inclination of the human will which depends on these ideas. Calvin did not hesitate to attribute, in the bluntest language, the source of evil to God’s will, but at the same time he warned men against intruding with their finite reason into this “sanctuary of the divine wisdom.” The mind of Edwards could not rest while any problem seemed to him unsolved. Confronted with the mystery of the divine permission of evil, he undertakes to solve it by applying his psychology of man to the nature of God. (He himself would put it the other way about: “Herein does very much consist that image of God wherein he made man.”) The passage in which he develops this thesis, though generally overlooked by his critics, is of the first importance:

We must conceive of Him as influenced in the highest degree, by that which, above all others, is properly a moral inducement, viz., the moral good which He sees in such and such things: and therefore He is, in the most proper sense, a moral Agent, the source of all moral ability and Agency, the fountain and rule of all virtue and moral good; though by reason of his being supreme over all, it is not possible He should be under the influence of law or command, promises or threatenings, rewards or punishments, counsels or warnings. The essential qualities of a moral Agent are in God, in the greatest possible perfection; such as understanding, to perceive the difference between moral good and evil; a capacity of discerning that moral worthiness and demerit, by which some things are praiseworthy, others deserving of blame and punishment; and also a capacity of choice, and choice guided by understanding, and a power of acting according to his choice or pleasure, and being capable of doing those things which are in the highest sense praiseworthy.

In other words, the will of God is precisely like the will of man; it is merely the inclination, or moral inducement, to act as he is influenced by external power. The fatal mystery of good and evil, the true cause, lies above and beyond him; he is, like ourselves, a channel, not the source. The only difference is that God has complete knowledge of the possibilities of being, and therefore is not moved by threats and blind commands but, immediately, by what Edwards elsewhere calls the “moral necessity” of governing in accordance with the best of the “different objects of choice that are proposed to the Divine Understanding.” By such a scheme God is really placed in about such a position as in the Leibnitzian continuation of Laurentius Valla’s Dialogue on Free Will and Providence, where he is naively portrayed as looking upon an infinite variety of worlds piled up, like cannon balls, in pyramidal form before him, and selecting for creation that one which combines the greatest possible amount of good with the least possible admixture of evil.

From this pretty sport of the imagination Edwards would no doubt have drawn back in contempt, and indeed in his ordinary language God is merely the supreme Cause, without further speculation. One of the Leibnitzian inferences, moreover, is utterly excluded from his philosophy. He was no optimist, was in fact the last man to infer that, because this world is the best possible conceivable, evil is therefore a small and virtually negligible part of existence. On the contrary the whole animus of his teaching springs from a deep and immediate hatred of evil in itself and apart from any consideration of its cause. “The thing,” he says, “which makes sin hateful, is that by which it deserves punishment; which is but the expression of hatred…. Thus, for instance, ingratitude is hateful and worthy of dispraise, according to common sense; not because something as bad, or worse than ingratitude, was the cause that produced it; but because it is hateful in itself, by its own inherent deformity.”

To the charge of the Arminians that the doctrine of predestination leaves no place for the punishment of sin, this is an adequate and practical reply. But the consequences of this principle of common sense are, in another way, peculiar and even disastrous to the Edwardian theology. If we are right, as we indubitably are right, in detesting evil in itself and whereever seen, and if we hold with Edwards that the will of God, like the will of man, is merely the inclination towards the best object presented to its choice, and there is no power either in God or in man above the will, in what essential way, then, does the act of God in creating a world a world mixed with evil differ from the act of Judas in betraying God, and how are we relieved from hating God for the evil of his work with the same sort of hatred as that which we feel for Judas? Edwards had terrified the people of Enfield with a picture of God treading down sinners till their blood sprinkled his raiment, and exulting in his wrath. The retort is obvious, and unspeakable. Nor can he, or any other Predestinarian, escape the odium of such a retort by hiding behind the necessity of things which all men must, in one way or another, admit. There is a war between the nations, he will say, and suddenly a bomb, dropping upon a group of soldiers, themselves innocent of any crime, horribly rends and mangles them. Here is a hideous thing, and by no twisting of the reason can we avoid carrying the responsibility for this evil back to the first great cause of all. Shall we be held impious for saying metaphorically that the blood of these soldiers is sprinkled on the raiment of that Cause?—-Aye, but the difference to us morally if we leave that cause in its own vast obscurity, unapproached by our reason, untouched by our pride; or if we make it into an image of ourselves, composed only of understanding and inclination like our own, subject to our reprobation as surely as to our love!

Edwards had riddled and forever destroyed the arguments for free will commonly employed by the Arminians; is there no alternative for the human reason save submission to his theological determinism or to fatalistic atheism?

One way of escape from that dilemma is obvious and well known. It is that which Dr. Johnson, with his superb faculty of common sense, seized upon when the Edwardian doctrine came up in conversation before him. “The only relief I had was to forget it,” said Boswell, who had read the book; and Johnson closed the discussion with his epigram: “All theory is against the freedom of the will, all experience for it.” That is sufficient, no doubt, for the conduct of life; yet there is perhaps another way of escape, which, if it does not entirely silence the metaphysical difficulties, at least gives them a new ethical turn. Twice in the course of his argument Edwards refers to an unnamed Arminian[1] who placed the liberty of the soul not in the will itself, but in some power of suspending volition until due time has elapsed for judging properly the various motives to action. His reply is that this suspension of activity, being itself an act of volition, merely throws back without annulling the difficulty; and as the argument came to him, this refutation is fairly complete. But a fuller consideration of the point at issue might possibly indicate a way out of the dilemma of free will and determinism into a morally satisfying form of dualism within the soul of man himself. At least it can be said that the looseness of the Arminian reasoning leaves an easier loophole of escape into a human philosophy than does the rigid logic of the Predestinarians.

Yet for all that, though we may follow Edward’s logical system to the breaking point, as we can follow every metaphysical system, and though we may feel that, in his revulsion from the optimism of the deists, he distorted the actual evil of existence into a nightmare of the imagination,—-yet for all that, he remains one of the giants of the intellect and one of the enduring masters of religious emotion. He had not the legal and executive brain of Calvin, upon whose Institutes his scheme of theology is manifestly based, but in subtle resourcefulness of reasoning and still more in the scope of his spiritual psychology he stands above his predecessor. Few men have studied Edwards without recognizing the force and honesty of his genius.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^  Edwards, it should seem, had immediately in mind the Essay on the Freedom of Will in God and the Creature of Isaac Watts; but the notion had been discussed at length by Locke (Essay II, xxi), and at an earlier date had been touched on with great acumen by John Norris in his correspondence with Henry More.

Bibliography[edit]

I. THE MANUSCRIPTS OF JONATHAN EDWARDS[edit]

Most of the manuscripts from which the works published during Edwards’s lifetime were printed have vanished. Some of the manuscripts used by Dr. S. E. Dwight in the preparation of the edition of Edwards’s works published in 1829 have likewise disappeared. Of the manuscripts which remain Yale University and the Andover Theological Seminary possess practically the entire number. Miss Agnes Park of Andover, Mass., owns the record of the Edwards family from the family Bible, and also a thin note book on "Things to be Inquired into," written on scraps of fan paper. In addition she has a few private letters and some sermons of Timothy Edwards, the father of Jonathan Edwards.

It has frequently been suggested that some of the manuscripts of Edwards should exist in Scotland. None were found, however, by Dr. F. B. Dexter in a search undertaken some ten years ago.

A. The Edwards Manuscripts at Yale University[edit]

The Yale collection of Edwards manuscripts is that left at Edwards’s death to his widow. Dr. Sereno E. Dwight used it in editing Edwards’s works in 1829. In accord with the wishes of the great-grandchildren of Edwards, the manuscripts were deposited in the library of Yale University in 1900. They include:

  • Bible (Interleaved and annotated).
  • Catalogue (Mainly literary notes and notes on books purchased or read).
  • Doctrine of Original Sin (Incomplete).
  • Early treatment of the Trinity (No title. Topics for investigation in Old Testament History for the boys of the Northampton congregation are included in the same cover).
  • Images or Shadows of Devine Things (Also called The Book of Nature and Common Providence).
  • Miscellaneous Observations (Eight volumes of about 1400 pages or 1412 entries).
  • Notes on the Bible (Three quarto volumes).
  • Notes on Natural Science (Cover page only).
  • Reply to Solomon Williams on the Qualifications for Communion (Early draft).
  • Sermons (Fifty undated, probably written before 1727.
  • Five hundred about 1727–1741. Three hundred sermon outlines, 1741–1750.
  • One hundred seventy-five Stockbridge sermon outlines.
  • Of this whole collection only about fifty sermons have been published).
  • Sermon Note Book (Begun about 1738.
  • Contains "plans of discourses, texts from which the writer proposed to preach, and the doctrines deducible from them").

B. The Edwards Manuscripts at The Andover Theological Seminary[edit]

The Andover collection of manuscripts is part of that made by Dr. Sereno E. Dwight for his edition, and subsequently passed to Andover. The collection is not finally catalogued, although a card index has been prepared.

(a) Letters

The collection contains 150 letters by Edwards, including his earliest dated writing–a letter to his sister Mary, May 10, 1716–and also letters to Scotch clergymen and to Indian agents. There are in addition about fifteen letters to Edwards, and above one hundred and fifty letters by or to contemporary relatives or acquaintances.

Edwards

(b) Miscellaneous

Edwardiana: These manuscripts include thirty-five items, among them twenty letters and three sermons by Edwards’s father, the diary of Edwards, 12 Jan.–5 Feb., 1722–1723 (Copy), an Indian vocabulary, memoranda of Edwards’s cash account, and shorthand writings of Edwards deciphered in 1901. Dwightiana: These manuscripts are mainly connected with Dwight’s edition of Edwards.

(c) Scientific and Theological Writings

Atoms (Copy, fragmentary). The Flying Spider (With diagrams). Leaves and Flowers and Fruits. Notes on Science (A fragment). Notes on Science (A leaf containing "Light," "Elasticity," "Ice," two lines of shorthand, and a diagram). Observations on the Phenomena of Nature ("Sun," "Moon," "Comets," "Sound," "Rain"). Of Being. Of Insects, Giving an Account of the Flying Spider (First draft). Of the Rainbow (diagram). A paper on the soul, criticising the notion that the soul is material.

(d) Sermons

There are five sermons by Edwards in the original, about sixty copies, and about fifty sermon plans in the collection.

(e) Theological Writings

The Book of Nature and of Common Providence (Copy). Disquisition in Latin ("Peccator etc."). Disquisition on Rules given in Exodus (Fragment). The Fulfilment of the Prophecies of the Messiah, and Supplement. Instruction of Children in Scripture (Fragment of rough draft). A Narration of Difficulties and Proceedings with reference to the Question of Terms of Admission to Church Membership (Copy). Observations concerning the Scripture Oeconomy of the Trinity and Covenant of Redemption (Copy and second copy). Observations on Theological Subjects (Copy, 1646 pages. Called also Miscellanies. Original at Yale). Observations on the Types of Scripture. On Fornication (A fragment). Prophecies of the Messiah, and Supplement (Both original and copy). Qualifications for a Minister. Qualification for Communion (Fragment). Remarks on Lord Kames’s Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (Included in a letter to Rev. John Erskine). Scripture Passages on Heaven and Hell. Treatise on Grace (Copy). Whether Moral Suasion without Devine Influence is Enough to make the Sinner a Penitent Believer.

II. COLLECTED WORKS[edit]

  • Works. (Memoir by Hopkins, S.) 8 vols. Ed. Williams, E., and Parsons, E., Leeds, 1806–11. New ed. 8 vols. London, 1817 (Reprint 1837?). Vols. 9 and 10 supplementary to London ed., ed. Ogle, R., Edinburgh, 1847. Ed. Austin, S., Worcester, 1808–9, 8 vols. Ed. Dwight, S.E., New York, 1829, 1830, 10 vols. Ed. Hickman, E., London, 1833, 2 vols.
  • Same (with Essay on his Genius and Writings by Rogers, H., and Memoir by Dwight, S.E.), London, 1834, 1839, 1840, 1865. With Essay by Rogers, H., 2 vols. in 1, London, 1835. Edinburgh, 1847, 10 vols. New York, Boston, Philadelphia, 1843, 4 vols. Reprint of Worcester edition with additions and index, 6 vols. (vols. 5–6 the Edinburgh supplementary vols.), New York, 1847. Vols. 1–4, 1844, 1847, 1852, 1856, 1857, 1863, 1868, 1879, 1881.

III. SEPARATE WORKS[edit]

Works listed in Evans, American Bibliography, are noted E. and given the number assigned to them in that work.

  • God Glorified in the Work of Redemption, by the Greatness of Man’s Dependence upon him in the Whole of it. Boston, 1731. (E. 3415.)
  • A Devine and Supernatural Light, Immediately Imparted to the Soul by the Spirit of God, Shown to be both a Scriptural and a Rational Doctrine. Boston, 1734. (E. 3768.) Abstract, Boston, [1800?].
  • Curse Ye Meroz; A Sermon on Judges V: 33. (Not found by Dwight, but probably published in 1735. Not in Evans.)
  • Part of a Large Letter from the Rev. Mr. Edwards of Northampton giving an account of the Late Wonderful Works of God in those Parts. Boston, 1736. (E. 4103. Dated Nov. 6, 1736. Appended to The Duty and Interest of a People, by William Williams.)
  • A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton, and the Neighboring Towns and Villages … In a Letter to the Rev. Dr. Benjamin Colman of Boston. Boston, 1737. (E. 4137.) (Part of a Large Letter rewritten at greater length.) With preface by Dr. Watts and Dr. Guyse. London, 1738. 2d ed. London, 1738. Boston, 1738. (E. 4240.) Edinburgh, 1738. London, 1744. Bristol, 1749. Ed. Wesley, J., Bristol, [1755?]. London, 1755. With True Grace Distinguished … Elizabethtown, 1790. (E. 22477.) As Some Remarkable Narratives of the Success of the Gospel … To which is Added an Account of the Character of the Rev. Dr. Brainerd. Huddersfield, 1791. London, 1798, [1800?], 1805. With advertisement by Fawcett, J., and Steadman, W., Halifax, 1808. Boston, 1831 (Rev. from ed. 1738). With Thoughts on the Revival of Religion. New York, 1832. With an account of the conversion of the author. Worcester, 1832. With introductory essay by Smith, J.P. Glasgow, 1839. In Edwards on Revivals (Preface by James, J.A.) Rev. by Patton, W. London, 1839. With Thoughts on Religion. New York, n.d. London, n.d. German by Steinmetz, J.A. Magdeburg, 1738. Dutch by deLong, I. Amsterdam, 1740. Leeuwarden, 1750.
  • A Letter to the Author of the Pamphlet called an Answer to the Hampshire Narrative. Boston, 1737. (E. 4152. Anonymous, but given to Edwards by Dexter, Biographical Sketches, 1885.)
  • Discourses on Various Important Subjects, nearly concerning the Great Affair of the Soul’s Eternal Salvation … Boston, 1738. (E. 4239.) Boston and Edinburgh, 1785. This work containe: 1. Justification by Faith Alone. 2. Pressing into the Kingdom of God. 3. Ruth’s Resolution. [Repub. sep. New Haven(?), 1760. (E. 8589.) Hartford, n. d.] 4. The Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners. [Reprint. sep. Boston, 1773 (E. 12757.) Rev. and cor. Boston and London, 1774, 1788. With True Grace. Hartford, 1799. With Northampton Farewell. Northampton, [1800?]. Newark, N. J., 1814. As The Justice of God Displayed in the Endless Punishment of the Wicked. Boston, n. d.] 5. The Excellency of Jesus Christ. [Reprinted sep. Northampton, 1780. 2d ed. 1780. Boston, 1805. London, 1844.]
  • The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God … Preface … Rev. Mr. Cooper … Boston, 1741. (E. 4711.) Reprinted by Benj. Franklin, Philadelphia, 1742 (E. 4937). London, 1742. Glasgow, 1742.
  • With Epistle by the Rev. Mr Wilson. Edinburgh, 1742. In extract by Wesley, J. London, 1744. 2d ed. 1755. Philadelphia, 1791. (E. 23342.) In Christian Library. Vol. 30. London, 1827.
  • The Resort and Remedy of those that are Bereaved by the Death of an Eminent Minister …. Boston, 1741. (E. 4712.)
  • Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God …. Boston, 1741. (E. 4713.) 2d ed. Boston, 1742. (E. 4938.) Boston and Edinburgh, 1745. As supplement to True Grace. New York, 1753. (E. 6996.) Boston and New York, 1769. (E. 11244.) As The Danger of the Unconverted … Boston, 1770 (E. 11640). 3rd ed. Boston, 1772. Salem, 1786 (E. 19618). 4th ed., Charlestown, 1802. Philadelphia, [182-?]. Louisville, Ky., [182-?]. Rewritten in modern style by Clark, D. A. Amherst, 1826. In Fish, H. C., History and Repository of Pulpit Eloquence. New York, 1857. 2 vols. Also in The Great Sermons of the Great Preachers. London, 1858. As Select Sermons, No. 25, R. T. S. n. d. Choctaw. Park Hill, 1845.
  • Some Thoughts concerning the Present Revival of Religion in New England … Boston, 1742. (E. 4939.) Edinburgh, 1743. Abridged by Wesley, J., London, 1745. (Also in Christian Library. Vol. 30. London, 1827?) Abridged by Gordon, W., London, 1762. Boston, 1768. (E. 10888.) New York, 1768 (E. 10889). Edinburgh, 1772. London, 1774. Boston, 1784 (E. 18453). With Life, Elizabethtown, N. J., 1787. Edinburgh, 1789. Lexington, Ky., 1803. Worcester, 1808. Philadelphia, 1821. With A Faithful Narrative. New York, 1832. With Edwards’s account of his conversion. Worcester, 1832. With Narrative of the Revival and Introductory Essay by Smith, J.P. Glasgow, 1834. In Edwards on Revivals. (Preface by James, J. A., rev. by James, J. A., Patton, W.) London, 1839. London, With Narrative. Amer. T. S. New York, n. d.
  • The Great Concern of a Watchman for Souls … A Sermon … at the Ordination of the Rev. Mr. Judd. Boston, 1743. (E. 5172.)
  • The True Excellency of a Minister of the Gospel. A Sermon …. Boston, 1744. (E. 5385.)
  • Copies of the two Letters cited by the Rev. Mr. Clap in his late printed Letter to a Friend in Boston …. Boston, 1745. (E. 5581.)
  • An expostulatory Letter from the Rev. Mr. Edwards of Northampton to Rev. Mr. Clap, Rector of Yale College in New Haven …. Boston, 1745. (E. 5582.)
  • The Church’s Marriage to her Sons …. A Sermon …. Boston, 1746. (E. 5766.)
  • A Treatise concerning Religious Affection, in Three Parts. Boston, 1746. (E. 5767.) London, 1762. 2d ed. Boston and New York, 1768 (E. 18454) Elizabethtown, 1787. (E. 20339.) Edinburgh, 1789. With Life of Edwards. Boston, 1794. London, 1796. Abridged by Wesley, J., London, 1801. Worcester, 1808. Edinburgh, 1810. Christian Lib., Vol. 30. London, [1814?]. Abridged and indexed. Boston, 1821. Glasgow, 1822, 1825, 1831. Boston, 1824. Evangelical Fam. Lib. Vol. 3. New York, [1824?]. Amer. T. S. New York, [183-?]. Books for the Heart. London, 1898, 1903. Dutch by van Werkhaven, M. Utrecht, 1779.
  • An Humble Attempt to Promote Visible Union of God’s People in Extraordinary Prayer for the Revival of Religion. Boston, 1747. (E. 5938.) Northampton, 1789. Elizabethtown, N. J., 1794. Abridged as United Prayer for the Spread of the Gospel, London, 1814. London, 1831. French, Paris, 1823.
  • True Saints when Absent from the Body are Present with the Lord. A Sermon …. Boston, 1747. (E. 5939.)
  • A Strong Rod Broken and Withered. A Sermon …. Boston, 1748. (E. 6130.)
  • An Account of the Life of the Late Reverend Mr. David Brainerd … chiefly taken from his own Diary and other Private Writings written for his own Use; and now Published. Boston, 1749. (E. 6311.) With Brainerd’s Journal while among the Indians and other additions, Edinburgh, 1765. Extracted by Wesley, J. Bristol, 1768. 2d ed. 1771. Appended in part as An Account of the Character of the Rev. David Brainerd. Huddersfield, 1791. Extracts, Worcester, 1793. 2d ed. 1793. With Mr. Beatty’s Mission to the Westward of the Allegany Mountains. Edinburgh, 1798. Abridgment by Styles, J. [?], 1808. Newark, N. J., 1811. New edition London, 1818. With Brainerd’s Journal. Ed. Dwight, S. E. New Haven, 1822. Edinburgh, 1824, 1826. Revised and abridged by Montgomery, J. Glasgow, 1829. Evangelical Fam. Lib. Vol. 7 [?]. A. T. S. New York. [182-?]. Compiled by Pratt, J. London, 1834. New edition. Aberdeen, 1845. Preface by Bonar, H. London, 1858. Dwight’s Revision ed. Sherwood, J. M. New York, 1884, 1885. Dutch, Utrecht, 1756.
  • An Humble Inquiry into the Rules of the Word of God, concerning the Qualifications Requisite to a Complete Standing and Full Communion with the Visible Christian Church …. Boston, 1749. (E. 6312.) Edinburgh, 1790. Wilmington, 1792. (E. 24289.)
  • Christ the Great Example of Gospel Ministers. A Sermon …. Boston, 1750. (E. 6492.)
  • A Farewell-sermon preached at the first Precinct in Northampton after the People’s public Rejection of their Minister. Boston, 1750. Hartford, [1750?] Boston, 1751. (E. 6665.) Hartford, (1768). (E. 10887). With Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners. Northampton, n. d. [1800?].
  • Preface to Bellamy, Joseph, True Religion Delineated …. Boston, 1750. (E. 6462.) Morristown, 1804.
  • Misrepresentations corrected, and Truth Vindicated …. Boston, 1752. (E. 6839.)
  • True Grace Distinguished from the Experience of Devils …. 1753. (E. 6996.) With A Faithful Narrative. Elizabethtown, 1790 (E. 22477), 1791 (E. 23343). Stockbridge, 1791 (E. 23344). With Justice of God in Damnation of Sinners. Hartford, 1799.
  • A careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern prevailing Notions of that Freedom of the Will which is Supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency …. Boston, 1754. (E. 7187.) London, 1754, 1762. Boston, 1766. (E. 10289.) London, 1768. New London, 1786. (E. 19617.) As 4th ed. Wilmington, 1790. (E. 22476). As 4th ed. London, 1775, 1790. Glasgow, 1790. Albany, 1804. London, 1816. With Introduction by Taylor, I. London, 1831. Andover, 1840. Newly corrected. London and Liverpool, 1855. New York, 1869, 1875. With Essay by Taylor, I. Liverpool, 1877. In Southern Review. Vols. 22–23. Baltimore, Oct. 1877–April, 1878. Section 8 also in vol. 15, April, 1875. Section 11 also in vol. 14. July, 1874.
  • The Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended …. Boston, 1758. (E. 8118.) Worcester, [1760?.] London, 1766. Glasgow, 1768. Dublin, 1768. As 2d Amer. ed. Wilmington, 1771. (E. 12032.) Hartford, 1780. (E. 16768.) As 4th ed. London, 1789. New ed. Edinburgh, 1798.
  • Remarks on the Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion … Edinburgh, 1758. London, 1768. With Freedom of Will. Wilmington, 1790. (E. 22476.)
  • The Life and Character of the Late Reverend Mr. Jonathan Edwards, President of the College of New Jersey, By Samuel Hopkins, Together with a number of his Sermons on Various important Subjects. Boston, 1765. (E. 9961.) Edinburgh, 1785, 1799. Glasgow, 1785. As Seventeen Select Sermons. Northampton, 1804. The first of these sermons: Jesus Christ Gloriously exalted above all Evil in the Work of Redemption. Providence, 1824. Dutch by Nooteboom, E. Utrecht, 1791.
  • Two Dissertations: I. Concerning the End for which God created the World. II. The Nature of True Virtue. Boston, 1765. (E. 9962.) Edinburgh, 1788. Philadelphia, 1791. I. Separately as a Dissertation on God’s last End in the Creation of the World. London, 1788. Also in H. Brown, Theological Tracts. Edinburgh, 1853–54. 3 vols. II. Separately. London, 1778. New London, 1786. (E. 19615.)
  • A History of the Work of Redemption, Containing the Outlines of a Body of Divinity …. Edinburgh, 1774. Boston, 1782. (E. 17525.) New York, 1786. (E. 19616.) With notes and Life. London, 1788, 1791. 3d Amer. ed. Worcester, 1792. (E. 24288.) Ed. Austin, D. New York, 1793. 2d ed. Edinburgh, 1799. London and Leeds, 1812. Edinburgh, 1816. London, 1831. As tract, New York, [18–?]. Rel. Tr. Soc. London, [18–?]. P. B. P. Philadelphia, [18–?]. French, Toulouse, 1854. Arabic. Beirut, 1868.
  • Sermons …. Hartford, 1780. (Fourteen Sermons on practical and experimental subjects.) Ed. Edwards, J., the younger. The Eternity of Hell Torments, separately, London, 1788. Edinburgh, 1789. As the Punishment of the Wicked Eternally. Bristol, 1864.
  • Practical Sermons never before published. Edinburgh, 1787, [1788?]. London, 1791.
  • Twenty Sermons on Various Subjects. Edinburgh, 1789. Carlisle, 1803.
  • Miscellaneous Observations on Important Theological Subjects. Preface by Erskine, J. Edinburgh, 1793. London, 1793.
  • Remarks on Important Theological Controversies. Edinburgh, 1796. London, 1796.
  • Letter to Thomas Hubbard of Boston, Relating to the Indian School at Stockbridge (1751). Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections. Vol. 10, pp. 142–153. Boston, 1809.
  • ? Types of the Messiah. [?], 1829. [Mentioned in Sparks, Lib. Amer. Biog., vol. 8, p. 256. New York, 1856.]
  • ?Notes on the Bible.[?], 1829. [Ibid. as above.]
  • Pardon for the Greatest Sinners. Rel. Tr. Soc. 1st Series. No. 387. London, [1850?].
  • Original Letter … Biblioteca Sacra. Vol. I., No. 3, pp. 579–591. Aug., 1844.
  • Charity and its Fruits …. 1851. Ed. Edwards, T. 1852, 1854. London, 1852. As Christian Love as Manifested in the Heart and Life. Philadelphia, P. B. P., 1874.
  • Selections from the Unpublished Writings of Jonathan Edwards of America. Ed. Grosart, A. B. Edinburgh, 1865.
  • Eternal Damnation and Punishment of Sinners … Extracts from the Sermons preached by Jonathan Edwards. N. p., 1872.
  • Observations concerning the Scripture Oeconomy of the Trinity and Covenant of Redemption …. 1880. Introduction and Appendix by Smyth, E. C.
  • Extracts from Copies of Unpublished Manuscripts. In Smyth, E. C. Professor Allen’s Edwards. Andover Review. Vol. 13, No. 75. pp. 285–304. Mar., 1890
  • The Flying Spider … From an Unpublished Manuscript with Facsimiles. Smyth, E. C. Andover Review. Vol. 13, No. 73, pp. 1–19. January, 1890.
  • Two Unpublished Letters of President Edwards. In Rankin, J. E., New Memorials of President Edwards. Independent. 22 Aug., 1895, and 5 Sept., 1895. Vol. 47, pp. 1121 and 1185.
  • Colors; Of Being, Of the Rainbow; The Soul. Proceedings of the Amer. Ant. Soc. Oct., 1895. Worcester, 1896.
  • Fragments, Including two Letters. In F. B. Dexter, Manuscripts of Jonathan Edwards. Proceedings of Mass. Hist. Soc. Mar., 1901. Boston, 1902.
  • Notes in Shorthand in the Manuscripts of Jonathan Edwards. (Transcription by Upham, W. P.) Mass. Hist. Soc. Boston, 1902.
  • An Unpublished Essay of Edwards on the Trinity, with Remarks on Edwards and his Theology. Ed. Fisher, G. P. 1903.
  • Selected Sermons of Jonathan Edwards. Ed. with Introduction and Notes by Gardiner, H. N. 1904.
  • Advice to Young Converts. A Letter of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards of Northampton to a Young Lady at Suffield, a Young Convert. N. p., n. d.
  • Conversion and Experience of President Edwards. (Written by himself.) Boston, n. d.
  • President Edwards’ Seventy Resolutions, Extracted from his Writings. N. p., n. d.

IV. BIOGRAPHY AND CRITICISM[edit]

  • An Account of the … Council which Dismissed the Rev. Mr. Edwards. N. p., n. d.
  • An Account of a Loan Exhibition [of the Possessions of Jonathan Edwards] … Andover, 1903.
  • Allen, A. V. G. Jonathan Edwards. Boston, 1889, 1890.
  • Allen, William. Second Century Address, Oct. 1854, at Northampton. Northampton, 1855.
  • [Atwater, L. H.] Modern Explantions of the Doctrine of Inability. Princeton Rev., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 217–246. Philadelphia, 1854.
  • —Jonathan Edwards and the Successive Forms of New Divinity. Princeton Rev., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 585–620. Philadelphia, October, 1858.
  • —Dr. Taylor’s Lectures on the Moral Government of God. Princeton Rev., vol. 31, pp. 489–538. Philadelphia, July, 1859.
  • Bledsoe, A. T. An Examination of President Edwards’ Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will. Philadelphia, 1845.
  • Boardman, G. N. A History of New England Theology. 1899.
  • Breck, R. and others. An Account of the Council that Dismissed Mr. Edwards …. [Bost., 1750]. [E. 6471.]
  • —Reply to Hobby …. Boston, 1751. (E. 6645.)
  • Byington, E. H. Jonathan Edwards and the Great Awakening. Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 55, no. 217, pp. 114–127, Oberlin, Jan., 1898.
  • Channing, W. H. Jonathan Edwards and the Revivalists. Christian Examiner, vol. 43, (4 ser., vol. 8), pp. 374–394. Boston, Nov., 1857
  • Chauncy, Charles. The Late Religious Commotions in New England …. Boston, 1743. (E. 5150.)
  • —Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England. Boston, 1743. (E. 5151.)
  • Circular Letter to Ministers and Churches, to unite in endeavours to carry into execution the Humble Attempt of President Edwards. Concord, 1798.
  • Clap, Th. A Letter from the Rev. Mr. Th. Clap …. Boston, 1745. (E. 5560.)
  • ———A Letter to the Rev. Mr. Edwards …. Boston, 1745. (E. 5561.)
  • Clark, S. Historical Catalogue of Northampton First Church. 1891.
  • Clarke, G. A Vindication of the Honor of God …. [1792?].
  • Cole, S. V. A Witness to the Truth. See Exercises. Also in N. E. Mag., vol. 29, (N. S.), no. 4, pp. 583–586. Boston, Dec., 1903
  • The Congregationalist and Christian World. Edwards Number. (Illustrated.) Vol. 88, no. 40. Boston, Oct. 3, 1903.
  • A Contemporaneous Account of Jonathan Edwards. Journal of the Presby. Hist. Soc., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 125–135. Philadelphia, Dec., 1903.
  • Crooker, J. H. Jonathan Edwards: A Psychological Study. N. E. Mag., vol. 2, (N. S.), no. 2, pp. 159–172. Boston, April, 1890.
  • Crybrace, T. T. An Essay on Moral Freedom: to which is attached a Review of the Principles of … President Edwards on Free Will. Edinburgh, 1829.
  • Curtis, M. M. Kantian Elements in Jonathan Edwards. In Phil. Abhand. Max Heinze gewidmet, Berlin, 1906.
  • —Philosophie in Nordamerika. In Uberweg-Heinze, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosphie, Pt. 4, 10 ed. Berlin, 1906.
  • [Dana, James.] An Examination … of President Edwards’ “Enquiry on Freedom of Will.” Boston, 1770. (E. 11623.) The Examination … President Edwards’ Enquiry … continued. New Haven, 1773. (E.12746.)
  • Day, Jeremiah. An Examination of President Edwards’ Inquiry … New Haven and Philadelphia, 1841.
  • De Normandie, J. Jonathan Edwards at Portsmouth, N. H. Proceedings Mass. Hist. Soc., March, 1901. Vol. 15 (sec. ser.), pp. 16–20. Boston, 1902.
  • De Wett, John. Jonathan Edwards: A Study. In Biblical and Theological Studies of the Members of the Faculty of Princeton Theological Seminary. 1912. Also in Princeton Theol. Rev., Jan., 1904.
  • Dexter, F. B. Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College, 1701–1745. 1885.
  • —The Manuscripts of Jonathan Edwards. Proceedings Mass. Hist. Soc., Mar., 1901. Vol. 15, (sec. ser.), pp. 1–16. Boston, 1902.
  • Dunning, A. E. Congregationalists in America. Boston, Chicago, 1894.
  • Dwight, B. W. The History of the Descendants of John Dwight. 1874.
  • Dwight, Timothy. Travels in New England and New York. 4 vols. New Haven, 1822. Vol. iv, pp. 323–.
  • The Edwards Bicentennial. Journal of Presby. Hist. Soc., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 166–169. Philadelphia, Dec., 1903.
  • Essay on Moral Agency containing Remarks on [J. Dana’s] Examination. New Haven, n. d. With an appendix. Salem, 1794.
  • Exercises Commemorating the Two-Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Jonathan Edwards, held at Andover Theological Seminary, Oct. 4, 5, 1903. Andover, 1904.
  • Fisher, G. P. Discussions in History and Theology, 1880. Essay on Philosophy of Edwards given here is reprinted from N. Amer. Rev., Mar., 1879.
  • —An Unpublished Essay of Edwards on the Trinity, with Remarks on Edwards and his Theology. 1903.
  • —The Value of Edwards Today. Cong. and Christ. World, vol. 88, no. 40, pp. 469–471. Boston, 3 October, 1903.
  • Foster, F. H. The Eschatology of the New England Divines. Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 43, no. 169, pp. 6–19. Oberlin, Jan., 1886.
  • ———A Genetic History of the New England Theology. Chicago, 1907.
  • —Jonathan Edwards. In The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, vol. 5, pp. 80–82, 1909.
  • Frothingham, W. Jonathan Edwards and the Old Clergy. The Continental Monthly, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 265–272. New York and Boston, Mar., 1862.
  • —The Edwards Family. The Continental Monthly, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 11–16. New York and Boston, Jan., 1862.
  • Gardiner, H. N. The Early Idealism of Jonathan Edwards. Phil. Rev., vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 573–596. Lancaster, Pa., Nov., 1900.
  • —Jonathan Edwards, a Retrospect …. Addresses delivered in connection with the Unveiling of a Memorial in the First Church of Christ in Northampton … edited by H. N. G. Boston, 1901.
  • Gillet, E. H. Jonathan Edwards and the Occasion and Result of his Dismission from Northampton. The Historical Magazine, vol. 1 (sec. ser.), no. 6, pp. 333–338, Morrisania, June, 1867.
  • —[Note on] the Clerical Members of the Council that Dismissed Jonathan Edwards from Northampton. The Historical Magazine, vol. 2 (sec. ser.), no. 3, p. 183. Morrisania, Sept., 1867.
  • —[Note on] the Council that Dismissed Jonathan Edwards from Northampton. The Historical Magazine, vol. 3 (sec. ser.), no. 1, p. 53. Morrisania, Jan. 1868.
  • Green, Ashbel. Discourses delivered in the College of New Jersey … including a Historical Sketch of the College. Philadelphia, 1822.
  • Greene, W. B. Remarks in Refutation of the Treatise of J. Edwards on the Freedom of the Will. West Brookfield, 1848.
  • Harper, W. H. Edwards: Devotee, Theologian, Preacher. Interior. Vol. 34, no. 1740, pp. 1272–1274. 1 Oct., 1903.
  • Harper’s Weekly. Jonathan Edwards Memorials. [Illustrated.] Vol. 44, no. 2270, 23 June, 1900.
  • Hart, W. Remarks on President Edwards’ Dissertation concerning the Nature of True Virtue …. New Haven, 1771. (E. 12067.)
  • Hawksley, John. Memoris of the Rev. Jonathan Edwards. London, 1815.
  • Hayes, S. P. An Historical Study of the Edwards Revivals. Amer. Journal of Psychol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 550–574. Worcester, Oct. 1902.
  • Hentz, N. M. On North American Spiders. Amer. Journal of Science and Arts., vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 99–122. New Haven, Jan., 1832. (Edwards’s work on Spiders.)
  • History of the College of New Jersey from its Commencement A. D. 1746 to 1783 …. Princeton, 1844.
  • Hobby, W. Vindication of the Protest against the Result of the Northampton Council …. Answer to Letter by R. Breck. [Boston, 1751.] (E. 6694.)
  • Hodge, Chas. Jonathan Edwards and the Successive Forms of the New Divinity. Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review, vol. 30, (n. s.), no. 4, pp. 585–620, Oct., 1858.
  • Hodge, Chas. Essays and Reviews. 1856, pp. 539–633.
  • Holmes, O. W. Pages from an Old Volume of Life. Boston, 1891. Also as Jonathan Edwards, The International Review, vol. 9, pp. 1–28, July 1880.
  • Hopkins, S. An Inquiry into the Nature of True Holiness, with an Appendix containing an Answer to Mr. Hart’s Remarks on Edwards’ Dissertation …. Newport, 1773. (E. 1281). New York, 1791. (E. 23448.) Same with changes by John Hawksley. London, 1815.
  • —Life and Character of the late Rev. Mr. J. Edwards with Sermons. Boston, 1765. (E. 9961.) Without Sermons as The Life of the Late Reverend … Mr. Jonathan Edwards. Boston, 1765. (E. 10008.) Northampton, 1804.
  • Ivernach, James. The Evangelical Succession. 3 ser. Edinburgh, 1883.
  • James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. 1902.
  • Jonathan Edwards. Connecticut Evang. Mag., vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 161–178. Hartford, May, 1808.
  • —Last Will and the Inventory of his Estate. Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 33, no. 131, pp. 438–447. Andover, July, 1876.
  • Jones, A. L. Early American Philosophers. 1898.
  • King, H. C. Jonathan Edwards as Philosopher and Theologian. Hartford Sem. Rev., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 23–57. Hartford, Nov., 1903.
  • Lossing, B. J. Eminent Americans, 1857.
  • Lyon, Georges. L’Idealisme en Angleterre au 18e Siècle. Paris, 1888.
  • Lowell, D. O. S. The Descendants of Jonathan Edwards. (Illustrated.) Munsey’s Mag., vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 263–273. June, 1906.
  • MacClelland, G. Predestination and Election … preceded by an Answer to the System of Edwards. Edinburgh, 1848.
  • McCook, H. C. Jonathan Edwards as a Naturalist. Presby. and Ref. Rev., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 393–402. July, 1890.
  • MacCracken, J. H. Jonathan Edwards Idealismus. Halle, 1899.
  • —The Sources of Jonathan Edwards’ Idealism. Phil. Rev., Vol. 11, Jan., 1902.
  • Mackintosh, James. A General View of the Progress of Ethical Philosophy … In Encyc. Brit., 7 ed., vol. 1, pp. 293–429. Edinburgh, 1842.
  • Macphail, Andrew. Essays in Puritanism. Boston, 1905.
  • Magoun, G. F. President Edwards as a Reformer. Cong. Quart., vol. 9, (Whole Series), no. 2, p. 265. Boston, April, 1869.
  • The Manuscripts of President Edwards. Littell’s Living Age, vol. 36, no. 453, pp. 181–182. Boston, 21 Jan., 1853.
  • Maurice, F. D. Modern Philosophy. London, 1862.
  • The Memorial Volume of the Edwards’ Family Meeting at Stockbridge, Mass. … Boston, 1871.
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  • Minton, H. C. President Jonathan Edwards. Presby. Quart., vol. 13, no. 47, pp. 68–94. Charlotte, N. C., Jan., 1899.
  • Orr, James. The Influence of Edwards. See Exercises.
  • —Jonathan Edwards, His Influence in Scotland. Cong. and Christ. World, vol. 88, no. 40, pp. 467–469. Boston, 3 Oct., 1903.
  • Osgood, Samuel. Studies in Christian Biography. 1850.
  • —Jonathan Edwards. Christ. Examiner, vol. 44, (4 ser. vol. 9), pp. 367–386. Boston, May, 1848.
  • Park, E. A. Original Letters of President Edwards. Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 579–591. New York and Andover, Aug., 1844.
  • Park, E. A. Remarks of Edwards on the Trinity. Biblioteca Sacra, vol. 38, no. 149, pp. 147–187. Andover, Jan., 1881. Continued no. 150, pp. 333–369, April, 1881.
  • —The Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement …. Andover, [185-?]
  • Patton, W. Edwards on Revivals. London, 1839.
  • Planter, J. W. Religious Conditions in New England in the Time of Edwards. See Exercises.
  • Plues, R. The Rev. C. H. Spurgeon and his Brethren … President Edwards and Others … in the Crucible … North Shields, 1862.
  • Porter, Noah. Philosophy in Great Britain and America. In Uberweg, History of Philosophy, tr. Morris, G. S., vol. 2, pp. 442–450. London, 1874.
  • —The Princeton Review on Dr. Taylor and the Edwardean Theology. New Englander, vol. 18, no. 71, pp. 726–773. New Haven, Aug., 1860.
  • The Power of Contrary Choice … Princeton Rev., vol. 12 (n. s.), no. 4, pp. 532–549, Philadelphia, Oct., 1840.
  • Preservation against the Doctrine of Fate …. Boston, [1770?].
  • President Edwards’ Dissertation on the Nature of True Virtue. Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 10, no. 40, pp. 705–738. Andover, Oct. 1853.
  • President Edwards on Charity and its Fruits. New Englander, vol. 10. (n. s. 4), no. 37, pp. 222–236. New Haven, May, 1852.
  • Rand, W. The Late Religious Commotion in New England: An Answer to Jonathan Edwards’ Distinguishing Marks. Boston, 1743. Not in Evans.
  • Result of a Council of Nine Churches met at Northampton, June 22, 1750, with a Protest against the same, by a Member of Said Council. N. p., n. d. Not in Evans.
  • Richards, W. R. Commemorative Sermon. See Exercises.
  • Ridderbos, Jan. De Theologie van Jonathan Edwards. Hague, 1907.
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  • —The Real Jonathan Edwards. Open Court, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 705–715. Chicago, Dec., 1908.
  • —American Thought. 1915.
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  • Sherman, David. Sketches of New England Divines. 1860.
  • Smyth, E. C. Appendix. See Exercises.
  • —The Flying Spider. Andover Rev., vol. 13, no. 73, pp. 1–19. Boston, Jan., 1890.
  • —Jonathan Edwards’ Idealism. Amer. Jour. Theol., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 950–964. Chicago, Oct., 1897.
  • —Observations concerning the Scriptural Oeconomy of the Trinity … Introduction, 1880.
  • —Professor Allen’s “Jonathan Edwards” … Andover Rev., vol. 13, no. 75, pp. 285–304. Boston, Mar., 1890.
  • —Some Early Writings of Jonathan Edwards …. Proc. Amer. Ant. Soc., vol. 10, pp. 212–247. Worcester, 1896.
  • —The Theology of Edwards. See Exercises.
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  • Squires, W. H. Jonathan Edwards und seine Lehre. Lucka, 1901.
  • —The Edwardean. A Quarterly devoted to the History of Thought in America. Clinton, New York, 1903–1904.
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  • Stephen, Leslie. Jonathan Edwards. Fraser’s Mag., vol. 8 (n. s.), pp. 529–551. London, Nov. 1873. Reprinted Living Age, vol. 5(5 ser.), no. 1546, pp. 219–236. Boston, 24 Jan., 1874.
  • Stewart, J. G. Freedom of the Will Vindicated …. Glasgow, 1876.
  • Stiles, Ezra. The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiles. Ed. Dexter, F. B. 1901.
  • Strong, A. H. Philosophy and Religion. 2 ed., Philadelphia, 1912.
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  • Taylor, Isaac. Logic in Theology …. London, 1859.
  • The Theological Questions of President Edwards Senior and Dr. Edwards, his Son. Providence, 1822.
  • The Theology of Edwards as Shown in his Treatise …. Amer. Theol. Rev., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 199–220, May, 1859.
  • Thompson, J. P. Jonathan Edwards … Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 18, no. 62, pp. 809–839. Andover, Oct., 1861.
  • Thompson, J. R. Jonathan Edwards of New England. London, n. d. (Rel. Tr. Soc. Biographical Series, no. 63.)
  • Tracy, Jos. The Great Awakening … Boston, 1842.
  • Turpie, David. Jonathan Edwards … Columbus, Ohio, 1893.
  • Uhden, H. F. The New England Theocracy. Boston, 1858.
  • Upham, W. P. An Account of the Short-hand Writings of Jonathan Edwards. (Illustrated.) Proceedings Mass. Hist. Soc., vol. 15, (sec. ser.), pp. 514–520. Boston, 1902.
  • Van Becelaere, L. La Philosophie en Amerique depuis les Origines jusqu’ànos Jours. 1904.
  • Views in Theology. Vol. 1, no. 3, 1825. President Edwards’ Doctrine of Original Sin.
  • Walker, G. L. Jonathan Edwards and the Half-way Covenant. New Englander vol. 43, (n. s.), no. 182, pp. 601–614. New Haven, Sept., 1884.
  • —Some Aspects of the Religious Life in New England. 1897.
  • Walker, Williston. The Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism. 1893.
  • —History of the Congregational Churches in the United States. 1894.
  • —Ten New England Leaders. 1901.
  • —Three Phases of New England Congregational Development. Hartford, 1893.
  • Ward, W. H. Jonathan Edwards. Independent. Vol. 55, no. 2861, pp. 2321–2327. 1 Oct., 1903.
  • West, Samuel. Essays on Liberty and Necessity … Boston, 1793. New Bedford, 1795.
  • West, Stephen. An Essay on Moral Agency. (2 ed. Salem, Mass.) 1794.
  • Whedon, D. D. The Freedom of the Will … 1864.
  • Williams, Solomon. The True State of the Question concerning the Qualifications Necessary to Communion …. Boston, 1751. (E. 6798.)
  • Winchester, E. A Letter to the Editor of President Edwards’ lately Revised Sermon on the Eternity of Hell Torments. London, 1789.
  • Winship, A. E. Jukes-Edwards—A Study in Education and Heredity. Harrisburg, Pa., 1900.
  • Winship, Edith A. The Human Legacy of Jonathan Edwards. World’s Work, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 3981–3984, Oct., 1903.
  • Woodbridge, F. J. E. Jonathan Edwards. Phil. Rev., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 393–408, July, 1904. See also Exercises.
  • Woolsey, T. D. Edwards’s Memorial. Boston, 1870.
  • Wynne, James. Lives of Eminent Literary and Scientific Men of America. 1850. Jonathan Edwards, pp. 134–167.
  • Yale University: Commemoration of the Two-Hundreth Anniversary of the Birth of Jonathan Edwards. N. p., n. d.
  • Zenos, A. C. The Permanent and Passing in the Thought of Edwards. Interior, vol. 34, no. 1740, pp. 1274–1275. Chicago, 1 Oct., 1903. See also II and III supra.