Wikisource:WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Style Manual

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This page is a Wikisource guideline. It illustrates standards or conduct that are generally accepted by consensus to apply in many cases. Feel free to update the page as needed, but please use the discussion page to propose major changes.

Entry titles[edit]

Capitalization of article titles:

  • Capitalize title in title case, such as in "Eunuch Flute" instead of "Eunuch flute" or "EUNUCH FLUTE".
    • Warning: this convention has not been agreed upon.
    • This convention is not fully kept in the EB1911 project; many articles are created with sentence case ("Eunuch flute").
    • The original edition of EB1911 as seen in bitmap scans uses title case ("Eunuch Flute") to refer to its articles, which is apparent from its links between articles set in small-caps (such as "see International Law"[1] in the article "Jurisdiction").

Multiple articles with the same name:

  • EB sometimes has more than one article with the same name, examples being ABBOT, GEORGE and ABDERA. To ensure unique title of an article, add a distinguishing word or phrase in parentheses after the title, as in
  • Leave the actual text of the article as in the original, so the page Abdera (Spain) begins:
    ABDERA, an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain, ...
  • The word or phrase to be added is up to your discretion as an editor creating the article, but they should be based on the first few words of the article.
  • An alternative procedure is to use, if available, the page headings for the articles to distinguish them. For example, the two "Paul" articles are labeled "Paul, the Apostle" and "Paul (popes)" based on page headings.

Titles of nobility:

Alphabetical listings[edit]

The alphabetical listing should be formatted and linked as in example 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 1:2. Note that the rules for alphabetical order have changed slightly over time. The original order should be used.



All articles should have the header template, {{EB1911}}, at the top. The previous & next link should match the original source. The volume parameter should be filled in with the appropriate volume number (no leading zeros)

| volume   = ''number''
| previous = Previous Article
| next     = Next Article
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume number
- [[WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica|]] Style Manual
See also Style Manual on Wikipedia; and our 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica disclaimer.


The raw text often lists the title entry as: AAGENSEN, ANDREW

This should be formatted as: AAGENSEN, ANDREW

A different format is used in many articles, which will be changed, but this format better represents the original work.

Shoulder headings[edit]

This creates a boxed out bit to the left similar to the headings used in the original text. Insert the template {{EB1911 Shoulder Heading}} just before the first word where the text is displaced by the heading.

...dignissim odio. {{EB1911 Shoulder Heading|Sample shoulder heading}}Nunc mollis...

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam porta, lectus eu tristique pellentesque, risus nulla ornare erat, eu tincidunt neque purus ut neque. Vestibulum hendrerit dignissim odio. Sample shoulder headingNunc mollis facilisis tortor. Quisque blandit. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Phasellus ultricies risus non erat rhoncus auctor. Etiam blandit aliquet dui. Nullam rhoncus. Integer auctor, orci eu eleifend tristique, lacus est iaculis nibh, id porta turpis dolor vitae erat. Nunc id nisi vestibulum erat dignissim consequat. Nunc sagittis. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Nunc mollis facilisis tortor. Quisque blandit. In hac habitasse platea dictumst. Phasellus ultricies risus non erat rhoncus auctor. Etiam blandit aliquet dui. Nullam rhoncus. Integer auctor, orci eu eleifend tristique, lacus est iaculis nibh, id porta turpis dolor vitae erat. Nunc id nisi vestibulum erat dignissim consequat. Nunc sagittis. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas.


see Wikisource:Style guide/Tables

Quoted text[edit]

  • Double backticks and double apostrophes should be swapped for paired quotations marks (“...”).
When something is quoted like ``this'', it should be changed to “this”.


Italicize foreign words or word origins themselves, but not the short English definition that sometimes follows the word sources.

  • As the Encyclopædia Britannica is intended to be a dictionary as well as a more exhaustive resource for words, there are etymologies listed for many entries, usually immediately after the title of the article. For example with raw text:
 ABDUCTION (Lat. abductio, abducere, to lead away), a 
 law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a 
 person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the 
 ... {more text of the article}

This entry lists the origin of the word "abduction" as coming from the Latin words "abductio" and "abducere". In this case (as as was originally done in the Encyclopædia Britannica text), these words should be italicized like this:

 ABDUCTION (Lat. ''abductio'', ''abducere'', to lead away), a 
 law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a 
 person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the 
 ... {more text of the article}

The æ and œ ligatures[edit]

These ligatures should be used whenever the ligature was used in the original, such as with the name Encyclopædia Britannica, and the names of old English kings. Elsewhere, two separate letters should be used. DO NOT use them anywhere else. This standard was followed by the original editors of this work.

The æ ligature can be produced on windows by holding down ALT and typing in 0230 on the numeric keypad, then releasing ALT. For a Mac, hold down the Option key while pressing the apostrophe key (Option-').

The œ ligature can be entered like the keystroke above with holding the ALT key and typing the code 0156 instead. For a Mac, hold down the Option key and type a 'q' (Option-q).

They are also on the special character Ligatures and Symbols bar at the bottom of this page and can be added by a simple mouse-click.

Small caps[edit]

If the original text shows a word in Small Caps then use the template {{subst:small-caps|Text here}}, or just {{small-caps|Text here}} works too, or simply {{sc|Text here}} found in the toolkit at the bottom of the edit page.

Fine print[edit]

For some entries, some paragraphs appear in a smaller-size print than others. These paragraphs can be formatted by including their text in the template {{EB1911 Fine Print}}:

{{EB1911 Fine Print|text goes here}}

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Nam porta, lectus eu tristique pellentesque, risus nulla ornare erat, eu tincidunt neque purus ut neque. Vestibulum hendrerit dignissim odio.

See T. W. Atkinson, Travels in the Region of the Amoor (1860).


A hierarchy of categories has been established for categorization of 1911 Encyclopedia articles. Many editors do not currently use categories, so inserting them should be viewed as very optional. While categorization seems a useful aspect of the project, it may be later in the project when it gets implemented more thoroughly.

To get an idea of what categories are available for a particular article, please consult this page: Wikisource:WikiProject 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Category hierarchy. Feel free to add to the heirarchy. Keep in mind that over 40,000 articles are going to be created for this project, so try and push articles as deep into the heirarchy as possible. An article can also belong to more than one category, and an individual category can have more than one "parent", but this is a good search tool.

To add a category, all you need to do is put the category name in brackets somewhere in the article:


The preferred location for this category name should be at the very beginning of the article, but that is only an editing convention. The MediaWiki software will allow you to put it just about anywhere in the article, even in the middle of a bunch of text.

Keep in mind that when using geographical terms, try to use naming conventions that existed in 1911, instead of the modern names of countries. Examples include Persia (now called Iran) and United Provences (now called The Netherlands). If necessary, a list of these countries and their counterparts can be provided, but it should be obvious what the country was called in 1911 based on article content.

Subsequent thoughts on categories: A discussion can be found on the talk page proposing that the scheme actually constructed for EB1911 on its publication is adopted instead of this one. These categories (excluding the articles they relate to) can be found at 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Classified list of Articles — headings only.

Links between articles[edit]

Links to Wikipedia[edit]

The header template has a default to link between the 1911 Encyclopedia and Wikipedia, as well as other Wikimedia projects. Please verify the links to Wikipedia. Names for persons on wikipedia go by <given name> <family name> rather than the convention with the 1911 Encyclopedia of <family name>, <given name>. Make the appropriate change as is necessary, using the "wikipedia" parameter. It may even be necessary to search Wikipedia for a related entry. If you are absolutely certain that the article is not on Wikipedia (please check first... really hard) it is suggested that you can use 1911 Encyclopedia content to begin a new Wikipedia article. Many of the current Wikipedia articles were started in exactly this fashion, and for names of obscure places or people (from a 21st Century viewpoint) it is likely that you will find an article on Wikipedia that is exactly word for word identical to 1911 Encyclopedia content.

Links to Wiktionary[edit]

{{EB1911}} has an optional "other_projects" parameter which can be used to link to Wiktionary entries. This is useful for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica articles which have substantial dictionary content. Some of these dictionary articles may not, and should not, have corresponding Wikipedia articles (for example, rung). In these cases, the "wikipedia" argument can be left blank, and only the "other_projects" argument filled in. Most of the time though, a 1911 article with dictionary content should have both a Wikipedia and a Wiktionary link.

As an example, to link to the Wiktionary article on store, the "other_projects" argument in {{EB1911}} would be specified as:

|other_projects=[[Wiktionary:store|store]] on [[Wiktionary:Main Page|Wiktionary]]

Links from Wikipedia and Wiktionary[edit]

Finally, when you have gone through and put in the links to Wikipedia and Wiktionary, it is also suggested that you put in a link from Wikipedia and Wiktionary to the 1911 Encyclopedia Project. This can be done with the following template that is supported on Wikipedia:

{{EB1911 poster|Fehmarn}}

Wikisource logo
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article: Fehmarn.

This appears as the box to the right of this paragraph which you see. When you put this template on a Wikipedia article, please be kind to the regular Wikipedians who are working on those articles. This should be placed at the bottom of the article, usually the External links section. For more information, visit the Wikipedia Sister Projects page. Sometimes it simply won't fit within the Wikipedia article at the bottom, so you may have to use some judgement: use the inline version (see immediately below) of the template and/or enlist the cooperation of Wikipedians who normally edit the article, particularly if it is a larger and more popular article with many recent changes.

The inline version of the template is used as follows:

{{Cite EB1911|wstitle=Fehmarn}}

In Wikipedia, this appears as follows:

Wikisource-logo.svg "Fehmarn". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.), 1911. 

In Wikipedia, this fits in as a normal reference citation, or in a list of external links; in lists, the template should be preceded by an asterisk ('*'). In Wikipedia, this template also has many other optional arguments see the template's documentation

In Wiktionary, use:


The display is different, and the asterisk is automatically included (see Wiktionary:Template talk:PL:1911 for details and also information on placement).

When Project Gutenberg (through Distributed Proofreaders) is done with volumes 2 through 5, it is likely that a considerable portion of that content will not be on Wikipedia, or not in as high of quality in terms of typos and other problems. Still, tread lightly, and by no means should an existing article, even a stub, be deleted in favor of content from this Encyclopedia. If you need help with trying to format articles to Wikipedia standards (instead of just the style guide for this Encyclopedia project), feel free to make note of the name of the article in the Wikiproject discussion pages, or related pages that will be dealing with updating and correcting Wikipedia content generated by this project. (More about organizing that issue should be put here.)

Internal Wikisource links[edit]

Some EB1911 articles may refer to people who are Wikisource authors. For such articles, you can link from the Wikisource author page to the EB1911 article using the {{EB1911 Link}} template. Such a link should appear in a special section called "Works about ..." rather than in the "Works" section.

For example, the code for the Author:Tacitus article has the line:

* {{EB1911 Link|Tacitus, Cornelius}}

which appears on the page as:

The corresponding Wikipedia articles in these cases should already have a link to the Wikisource author page, and most of the time you can probably omit a separate link from the Wikipedia article directly to the EB1911 article.

Authors are listed for some EB1911 articles. The initials should be linked to the appropriate author page (one can be created if a search does not show up anything appropriate, or just leave it as a red link). For example, the article on Pierre Jean de Béranger has, at the end, an author attribution ([[Author:Robert Louis Stevenson|R. L. S.]]) which appears so: (R. L. S.).

To reference other articles in Wikisource, the other_projects parameter of the {{EB1911}} header template can be used. For example, the article Munkács uses this parameter to refer to a 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia article using the parameter setting:

other_projects = [[Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Munkács|Munkács]] in the [[Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)|1913 ''Catholic Encyclopedia'']]

Hyperlinks within article text[edit]

Within articles, there are often specific references to other EB1911 articles. These are noted by being in small caps or being followed by a (q.v.). These should be linked to the appropriate EB1911 article. For references in small caps, use {{EB1911 article link}}. For words or names followed by a (q.v.), use {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Other Article}}. For (q.v.) links, it will very possibly be the case that the text used in the article will be different from the text used to link to the article. In this case, the actual name of the target article should follow as another parameter, for example {{EB1911 article link|nosc=x|Abraham Lincoln|Lincoln, Abraham}}. Leaving the hyperlinks redlinked is perfectly okay: someone will enter the missing articles later.

Another possibility for internal linking is for articles about people who are also Wikisource authors. In these cases, the article title can be linked to the author page, as in '''[[Author:Abraham Lincoln|LINCOLN, ABRAHAM]]''', which appears as: LINCOLN, ABRAHAM

In addition, if the article has the author's initials in the footer, these are linked to the appropriate author page. For example, ([[Author:Edmund Gosse|E. G.]]), which appears as (E. G.). The template {{EB1911 footer initials}} can be helpful in this situation.

Beyond this, hyperlinks are generally not used within article text.


Uploading images: Images for the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica should be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons rather than to Wikisource.

If the image that you are uploading is a direct scan from this edition, please use the copyright attribution tag {{PD-Britannica}}.

If the image scan is from a source on Project Gutenberg, add, in addition to the Britannica tag, the tag {{PD-Gutenberg}}.

The mentioned tags automatically put images to the category commons:Category:PD Britannica.

Formatting of images: Within article text, when an image is being used, there is often a caption that is included in the source text. Particularly with volume 1 of the Project Gutenberg archives, this caption text can often be right in the middle of a paragraph, sometimes interrupting a sentence midway like this:

 These lay abbacies were not merely a question of 
 overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands 
 of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the 
 foundations, i.e. the more or less complete secularization of 

 Fig. 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is 
 charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman. 

 spiritual institutions.  The lay abbot took his recognized...

Instead of interrupting the text like this, it is best to upload the image to Wikimedia Commons and then insert it into the article as a thumbnail at the beginning of the paragraph where this footnote is listed. A tag for this article could be inserted like this:

[[Image:Walworth_Britainnica.jpg|thumb|left|Fig. 1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930,
 is charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.]]

By making this a thumbnail instead of a "normal" image reference, it will display the text of the image caption within the article rather than just as an "ALT" text to the image (which it also does). Wheither you put the image on the right or left is a matter of personal taste, but it would be generally recommended to be on the left as most navigation bars would tend to be on the right, and sometimes these images might interfere with the navigation boxes, appearing several paragraphs from the intended target, depending on which web browser the reader is using.

(to be added as needed and when more image resources become known.)


If the image is a whole page (a plate) then there is an option. To use the djvu image use the {{raw image}} template:

{{raw image|EB1911 - Volume 27.djvu/613}

If the raw image is not clear enough and an alternative page image exists on Commons then the image can be imported in the usual manner:



A very simplified explanation is given at Wikipedia:Help:Footnotes

Creation of endnotes or footnotes:

  1. Place a <ref> ... </ref> where you want a footnote reference number to appear in an article—type the text of the note between the ref tags.
  2. Place the {{reflist}} tag in a "Notes" or "References" section near the end of the article—the list of notes will be generated here.

Citing a footnote more than once: To give a footnote a unique identifier, use <ref name="name"> ... </ref>. You can then refer to the same footnote again by using a ref tag with the same name. The name cannot be a number, or the extension will return an error. The ref name need not be placed within quotes unless it consists of more than one word (the wiki parser converts single word quoteless attribute values into validly quoted XHTML).

Though some printed texts use ibid, ditto, or similar shorthand for multiple references, Wiki is not paper. Please do not use "ibid" or other footnote shorthands. The available tools for multiple references are more powerful.

Only the first occurrence of text in a named ref will be used, although that occurrence may be located anywhere in the article. You can either copy the whole footnote, or you can use a terminated empty ref tag that looks like this: <ref name="name"/>. Such forward-slash-terminated named tags may precede the definition of the named reference.[1]

In the following example, the same source is cited three times.

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.<ref name="multiple"/>

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.<ref name="multiple">Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.</ref>

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end.<ref name="multiple">This text is superfluous, and won't show up anywhere. We may as well just use an empty tag.</ref>

== Notes ==

<references />

You should be particularly careful when deleting one of multiple named references, because the footnote text will be deleted unless it is copied to another ref tag with the same name.

Breaking up into multiple pages[edit]

Several articles in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica are quite long, sometimes going over 100KB of text or even more, to over 1MB of raw text data. Both because it is easier to edit the article, and because it takes less time to load the content from the server, these articles should be broken up into multiple pages.

Keep in mind that you should still not add or delete text in the process of doing this. What should be done instead is to put a summary from the article (usually the first paragraph or so from the original source material), and then have "sub-articles" that are hyperlinked to the "parent article". In many cases there will even be titles for these sub articles directly in the text of the article itself that suggest clear subdivisions to the article. It may even be necessary to further sub-divide the articles into smaller sections if they are still over the 34K recommended limit. For further discussion on article length see the archives.

Example articles: United States and Boston, Massachusetts.


  1. Wikipedia Signpost. November 13, 2006.