1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Gregory (Popes)/Gregory VIII (Antipope)
Gregory VIII. (Mauritius Burdinus), antipope from 1118 to 1121, was a native of southern France, who had crossed the Pyrenees while young and had later been made archbishop of Braga. Suspended by Paschal II. in 1114 on account of a dispute with the Spanish primate and papal legate, the archbishop of Toledo, he went to Rome and regained favour to such an extent that he was employed by the pope on important legations. He opposed the extreme Hildebrandine policy, and, on the refusal of Gelasius II. to concede the emperor’s claim to investiture, he was proclaimed pope at Rome by Henry V. on the 8th of March 1118. He was not universally recognized, however, and never fully enjoyed the papal office. He was excommunicated by Gelasius II. in April 1118, and by Calixtus II. at the synod of Reims (October 1119). He was driven from Rome by the latter in June 1121, and, having been surrendered by the citizens of Sutri, he was forced to accompany in ridiculous guise the triumphal procession of Calixtus through Rome. He was exiled to the convent of La Cava, where he died.
The life of Gregory VIII. by Baluzius in Baluzii miscellanea, vol. 1, ed. by J. D. Mansi (Lucca, 1761), is an excellent vindication of an antipope. The chief sources are in Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores, vols. 5 and 20, and in J. M. Watterich, Pontif. Roman. vitae, vol. 2. See C. Mirbt, Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII. (Leipzig, 1894); J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893); Jaffé, Regesta pontif. Roman., 2nd ed., (1885–1888); K. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, Bd. 5, 2nd ed.; F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 4, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1900–1902); P. B. Gams, Kirchengeschichte von Spanien, vol. 3 (Regensburg, 1876).