1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Gregory (Popes)/Gregory VIII (Pope)

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Gregory VIII. (Alberto de Mora), pope from the 21st of October to the 17th of December 1187, a native of Benevento and Praemonstratensian monk, successively abbot of St Martin at Laon, cardinal-deacon of San’ Adriano al foro, cardinal-priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina, and chancellor of the Roman Church, was elected to succeed Urban III. Of amiable disposition, he hastened to make peace with Henry VI. and promised not to oppose the latter’s claim to Sicily. He addressed general letters both to the bishops, reminding them of their duties to the Roman Church, especially of their required visits ad limina, and to the whole Christian people, urging a new crusade to recover Jerusalem. He died at Pisa while engaged in making peace between the Pisans and Genoese in order to secure the help of both cities in the crusade. His successor was Clement III.

His letters are in J. P. Migne, Patrol. Lat. vol. 202. Consult also J. M. Watterich, Pontif. Roman. vitae, vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1862), and Jaffé-Wattenbach, Regesta pontif. Roman. (1885–1888). See J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche von Gregor VII. bis Innocenz III. (Bonn, 1893); P. Nadig, Gregors VIII. 57tägiges Pontifikat (Basel, 1890); P. Scheffer-Boichorst, Friedrichs I. letzter Streit mit der Kurie (Berlin, 1866); F. Gregorovius, Rome in the Middle Ages, vol. 4, trans. by Mrs G. W. Hamilton (London, 1896).