1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Hadley, Arthur Twining
HADLEY, ARTHUR TWINING (1856–), American political economist and educationist, president of Yale University, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, on the 23rd of April 1856. He was the son of James Hadley, the philologist, from whom, as from his mother—whose brother, Alexander Catlin Twining (1801–1884), was an astronomer and authority on constitutional law—he inherited unusual mathematical ability. He graduated at Yale in 1876 as valedictorian, having taken prizes in English, classics and astronomy; studied political science at Yale (1876–1877) and at Berlin (1878–1879); was a tutor at Yale in 1879–1883, instructor in political science in 1883–1886, professor of political science in 1886–1891, professor of political economy in 1891–1899, and dean of the Graduate School in 1892–1895; and in 1899 became president of Yale University—the first layman to hold that office. He was commissioner of the Connecticut bureau of labour statistics in 1885–1887. As an economist he first became widely known through his investigation of the railway question and his study of railway rates, which antedated the popular excitement as to rebates. His Railroad Transportation, its History and Laws (1885) became a standard work, and appeared in Russian (1886) and French (1887); he testified as an expert on transportation before the Senate committee which drew up the Interstate Commerce Law; and wrote on railways and transportation for the Ninth and Tenth Editions (of which he was one of the editors) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, for Lalor's Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and Political History of the United States (3 vols., 1881–1884), for The American Railway (1888), and for The Railroad Gazette in 1884–1891, and for other periodicals. His idea of the broad scope of economic science, especially of the place of ethics in relation to political economy and business, is expressed in his writings and public addresses. In 1907-1908 he was Theodore Roosevelt professor of American History and Institutions in the university of Berlin.