1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Tirah Campaign

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TIRAH CAMPAIGN, an Indian frontier war in 1897-98. The Afridis had for sixteen years received a subsidy from the Indian government for the safeguarding of the Khyber Pass, in addition to which the government had maintained for this purpose a local regiment entirely composed of Afridis, who were stationed in the pass. Suddenly, however, the tribesmen rose, captured all the posts in the Khyber held by their own countrymen, and attacked the forts on the Samana Ridge near Peshawar. It was estimated that the Afridis and Orakzais could, if united, bring from 40,000 to 50,000 men into the field. The preparations for the expedition occupied some time, and meanwhile the Mohmand rising north-west of the Khyber Pass was first dealt with (see Mohmand).

The general commanding was General Sir William Lockhart (q.v.) commanding the Punjab Army Corps; he had under him 34,882 men, British and native, in addition to 20,000 followers. The frontier post of Kohat was selected as the base of the campaign, and it was decided to advance along a single line. On the 18th of October the operations commenced, fighting ensuing immediately. The Dargai heights, which commanded the line of advance, were captured without difficulty, but abandoned owing to the want of water. On the 20th the same positions were gallantly stormed, with a loss of 199 killed and wounded. The progress of the expedition, along a wretched track through the mountains, was obstinately contested on the 29th of October at the Sampagha Pass leading to the Mastura valley, and on the 31st at the Arhanga Pass from the Mastura to the Tirah valley. The force, in detached brigades, now proceeded to traverse the Tirah district in all directions, and to destroy the walled and fortified hamlets of the Afridis. The two divisions available for this duty numbered about 20,000 men. A force about 3200 strong commanded by Brigadier-General (afterwards Major-General Sir Richard) Westmacott was first employed to attack Saran Sar, which was easily carried, but during the retirement the troops were hard pressed by the enemy and the casualties numbered sixty-four. On the 11th of November Saran Sar was again attacked by the brigade of Brigadier-General (afterwards Sir Alfred) Gaselee. Experience enabled better dispositions to be made, and the casualties were only three. The traversing of the valley continued, and on the 13th of November Brigadier-General Kempster's brigade visited the Waran valley via the Tseri Kandao Pass. Little difficulty was experienced during the advance, and several villages were destroyed; but on the 16th, during the return march, the rearguard was hotly engaged all day, and had to be relieved by fresh troops next morning. The casualties numbered seventy-two. Almost daily the Afridis, too wise to risk general engagements, Wageda perpetual guerrilla warfare, and the various bodies of troops engaged in foraging or survey duties were constantly attacked. On the 21st of November a brigade under Brigadier-General Westmacott was detached to visit the Rajgul valley. The road was exceedingly difficult and steady opposition was encountered. The objects were accomplished, and the casualties during the retirement alone numbered twenty-three. The last important work undertaken was the punishment of the Chamkannis, Mamuzais and Massozais. This was carried out by Brigadier-General Gaselee, who joined hands with the Kurram movable column ordered up for the purpose. The Mamuzais and Massozais submitted immediately, but the Chamkannis offered resistance on the 1st and 2nd of December, the British casualties numbering about thirty. The Kurram column then returned to its camp, and Sir W. Lockhart prepared to evacuate Tirah, dispatching his two divisions by separate routes-the 1st under Major-General W. Penn Symons (d. 1899) to return via the Mastura valley, destroying the forts on the way, and to join at Bara, within easy march of Peshawar; the 2nd division under Major—General Yeatman Biggs (d. 1898), and, accompanied by Sir W. Lockhart, to move along the Bara valley. The base was thus to be transferred from Kohat to Peshawar. The return march began on the 9th of December. The cold was intense, 21 degrees of frost being registered before leaving Tirah. The movement of the 1st division though arduous was practically unopposed, but the 40 miles to be covered by the 2nd division were contested almost throughout. The actual march down the Bara valley (34 miles) commenced on the 10th, and involved four days of the hardest fighting and marching of the campaign. The road crossed and recrossed the icy stream, while snow, sleet and rain fell constantly. On the 10th the casualties numbered about twenty. On the 11th some fifty or sixty casualties were recorded among the troops, but many followers were killed or died of exposure, and quantities of stores were lost. On the 12th the column halted for rest. On the 13th the march was resumed in improved weather, though the cold was still severe. The rearguard was heavily engaged, and the casualties numbered about sixty. On the 14th, after further lighting, a junction with the Peshawar column was effected. The 1st division, aided by the Peshawar column, now took possession of the Khyber forts without opposition. Negotiations for peace were then begun with the Afridis, who under the threat of another expedition into Tirah in the spring at length agreed to pay the fines and to surrender the rifles demanded. The expeditionary force was broken up on the 4th of April 1898. A memorable feature of this campaign was the presence in the fighting line of the Imperial Service native troops under their own officers, while several of the best known of the Indian princes served on Sir W. Lockhart's staff. (C. J. B.)