A Chinese Biographical Dictionary/Ayuli Palpata
13Ayuli Palpata 爱育黎披力八達. 1285-1320. Younger brother of Kaisun, whom he succeeded in 1311, to the exclusion of the latter's own son, as fourth Emperor of the Yüan dynasty. Of excellent personal character, well-read in Confucianism and Buddhism, averse to field sports and to war, he laboured to improve the government, and readily removed abuses brought to his notice. However, the practice of confining the highest posts to Mongols of birth worked ill, and the people were ground down with exactions. He instituted regular triennial official examinations, and the first list of Mongol chin shih was published in 1315. In 1314 he forbade eunuchs to hold civil office, but broke the prohibition in the following year. Sumptuary laws were enacted for the Chinese, and the game laws were relaxed. On Bnddhist priests and ceremonies vast sums were expended, and in 1318 the Canon was written out in golden characters. Numerous calamities marked the reign, and local risings were not infrequent. Canonised as 仁宗.