A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Hawkins, John

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HAWKINS, Sir John, Knight, born Mar. 30, 1719, originally intended for the profession of his father, an architect and surveyor, but eventually articled to an attorney. He was duly admitted to the practice of his profession, devoting his leisure hours to the cultivation of literature and music. On the formation of the Madrigal Society (1741), Hawkins, at the instance of Immyns, its founder, a brother attorney, became one of the original members. About the same time he became a member of the Academy of Antient Music. Hawkins wrote the words of Six Cantatas, which were set to music for a voice and instruments, by John Stanley, and published at their joint risk in 1742. These succeeded so well that the authors were induced to publish, a few months afterwards, a similar set, which met with equal success. Hawkins was also a frequent contributor to the 'Gentleman's Magazine' and other periodicals. In 1749 he was invited by Samuel Johnson to be one of the nine members who formed his Thursday evening club in Ivy Lane. In 1753 he married Miss Sidney Storer, with whom he received a considerable fortune, which was greatly increased on the death of her brother in 1759. Hawkins then purchased a house at Twickenham, to which he retired. In 1 760 he published an edition of Walton and Cotton's 'Complete Angler,' with a life of Walton and notes by himself, and a life of Cotton by William Oldys. The publication involved him in a dispute with Moses Browne, who had shortly before put forth an edition of the 'Angler.' Hawkins's edition was thrice reproduced by him in his lifetime, and again by his son, John Sidney Hawkins, after his death. He was an active magistrate, and in 1765 became Chairman of the Middlesex Quarter Sessions. In 1770, with a view of assisting the Academy, he wrote and published anonymously a pamphlet entitled, 'An Account of the institution and progress of the Academy of Ancient Music.' In 1772, on Oct. 23, he was knighted. In 1776 he gave to the world the work on which his fame rests—his 'General History of the Science and Practice of Music,' in 5 vols. 4to., on which he had been engaged for 16 years. In the same year Dr. Burney published the first volume of his 'General History of Music'; the other three appearing at intervals between that date and 1789. Contemporary judgment awarded the palm of superiority to Burney and neglected Hawkins. Evidence of the feeling is found in a catch which was formerly better known than it is now:—

'Have you Sir John Hawkins' History?
Some folks think it quite a mystery.
Musick fill'd his wondrous brain.
How d'ye like him? is it plain?
Both I've read and must agree,
That Burney's history pleases me.'

Which in performance is made to sound:—

'Sir John Hawkins!
Burn his history!
How d'ye like him?
Burn his history

Posterity, however, has reversed the decision of the wits; Hawkins' History has been reprinted (Novello, 1875, 2 vols. 8vo.), but Burney's never reached a second edition. The truth lies between the extremes. Burney, possessed of far greater musical knowledge than Hawkins, better judgment, and a better style, frequently wrote about things which he had not sufficiently examined; Hawkins, on the other hand, more industrious and painstaking than Burney, was deficient in technical skill, and often inaccurate. In 1784 Dr. Johnson appointed Sir John Hawkins one of his executors, and left to him the care of his fame. Sir John fulfilled this trust by writing a life of Johnson, and publishing an edition of his works in 11 vols. 8vo. in 1787. Whilst engaged on the work the library at his house in Queen Square, Westminster, was destroyed by fire. Fortunately he had, soon after the publication of his History, presented the fine collection of theoretical treatises and other works formed by Dr. Pepusch, and which he had acquired, to the British Museum, so that the loss, although severe, was much less than it might have been. On May 14, 1789, Hawkins was attacked by paralysis, from the effects of which he died on 21st of the same month. He was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, under a stone on which was inscribed, pursuant to his own wish, only the initials of his name, the date of his death, and his age.

The following pieces are printed by Hawkins in his History. The reference is to the chapter, in the Appendix to the No.

Allwoode. A Voluntary, App. 11.
Aretinus, Guido. Cantilena, 55.
Bach, J. S. Aria, 182.
Baltzar. Allemande, 142.
Banister, J. 'Hedge lane,' App. 26.
Bateson. Your shining eyes, 103.
'Bellamira,' App. 23.
Bell tune, 160.
Bennet, J. 'Ye restless thoughts,' 105.
Bevin. Canon, 103.
'Black Sanctus,' App. 2.
Blitheman. A Meane, App. 9.
Bononcini, 'In vain is delay,' 172.
  Do. 'Deh lascia.' 186.
Bradley, R. Smoking catch, 159.
Bull. Canons, 67.
Byrd, W. Canon, 'O Lux,' 66.
  Do. Miserere, 66.
  Do. Canon, 67.
  Do. 'Venite,' 96.
  Do. 'Diliges,' 96.
  Do. The eagle's force, App. 3.
Birds, songs of, 1.
Canon, 5 in 2.
Canons, various, 119.
Canto figurato, 51.
Carissimi. 'Dite o cieli,' 154.
Cebell, the old. App. 22.
Cesti, M. A. 'Cara, cara,' 124.
Clayton, Thos. Overture to Rosamond, 171.
Clemens non Papa. Canon, 66.
'Cock Lorrel.' App. 30.
'Cold and raw.' App. 20.
'Come follow me,' Canon, 67.
'Conditor alme.' 57.
Contrapunctus, 'Simplex and Diminutus,' 51.
Corelli. Solo in A, 196.
Cornyshe, W. 'Ah beshrew you,' 78.
  Do. 'Hoyday,' 78.
Couperin. 'Les Gouts reunls,' 162.
Croft. Dr. 'My time, O ye muses,' 167.
Dorian, motet in, 70.
Draghi. The old Cebell, App. 22.
Drum, voluntary and march, 51.
Dunstable. 'Nesciens virgo, 61
Dygon, J. 'Ad lapidis,' 76.
Eccles, J. 'A soldier and a sailor,' 164.
Eccles, J. A rope dance, App. 34.
Eccles, Sol. 'Bellamira,' App. 23.
Edwards, E. 'Where griping grief,' App. 4.
Edwards, B. By painted words, App. 5.
  Do. 'In going to.' App. 7.
'Exaudi,' canon, 119.
Fa-burden, 57.
Fandango, App. S3.
Farinel's ground, App. 24.
Farmer. 'You pretty flowers.' 105.
Fayrfax, Dr. 'Ave summe.' 75.
Frescobaldi. Canzona. 130.
Galliard. 'Ye that in waters,' 177.
Geminiani Solo. 181.
Goes, D. a. 'Ne læteris,' 71.
'Green sleeves,' App. 21.
Greene, Dr. 'By the streams,' 191.
Gregorian Tones, 27, 28.
Harrington. Black sanctus,' App. 2.
Haym. 'Too lonely,' 174.
'Hedge Lane,' App. 26.
Henry VIII. 'Quam pulcra,' 77.
'Hey boys,' App. 31.
'Hold thy peace,' canon, 67.
'How should we sing?' canon. 67.
Humfrey, P. 'I pass all my hours,' App. 32.
'In te,' canon, 119.
Isaac, H. 'Conceptio,' 70.
Isham. J. 'Bury delights,' 168.
'John, come kiss me,' App. 18.
'John Dory,' App. 28.
'Johnny, cock thy beaver,' App. 25.
Johnson. 'Defyied is my name,' App. 1.
Josquin. King's Canon, 70.
  Do. 'O Jesu fili.' 72.
Kerl. J. G. Organ canzona, 124.
Lasso, O. 'O d'amarissime,' 74.
  Do. 'Quand mon mary,' 88.
Lawes, H. 'Sweet echo,' 121.
Louis XIII. 'Tu crois,' 133.
Lully. 'Roland,' 136.
Mace, Lesson, 151.
Marbeck. 'A virgine and mother,' 94.
  Do. Our Father, etc., 112. 113.
Marcello. 'Dall' Tribunal,' 180.
Marenzio, L. 'Dissi a l'amata,' 89.
Milton. 'O had I wings,' 102.
Miserere, canon, 119.
'Miserere nostri,' Tallls, 95.
Monte, F. de. 'Da bei rami.' 74.
Monteverde. 'Perch' a' (Orfeo), 108.
  Do. Moresca (do.), 108.
Morley, T. 'Beside a fountain,' 100.
Mouton. 'Salve mater,' 74.
Musica ficta, 68.
Ockeghem. Fuga in Epidiapente, 73.
Old Simon the king,' App. 16.
O my fearful dreams,' canon. 67.
Ora et labura,' canon, 119.
Palestrina. 'Sicut cervus,' 88.
  Do. 'Credo gentil,' 88.
'Parthenia,' 152.
'Paul's steeple,' App. 15.
Phillips, Peter. 'Voi volete,' 98.
Porta, Cost., 8.
Purcell, H. 'Æolus,' 155.
  Do. 'Golden sonata,' 156.
'Quicquid,' canon, 119.
Ravenscroft. Hornpipe, 194.
Redford. 'Rejoice,' App. 8.
'Roger of Coverley.' App. 19.
Rogers, B. 'Te Deum patrem,' App. 12.
Rore, Cipriano. 'Ancor che col,' 74.
Rossi. Emilio. Canon, 67.
Scacchi. 'Vobis dotum est,' 123.
'Sellenger's Round,' 96.
'Shaking of the sheets,' App. 13.
Shephard, J. 'Stev'n first,' 76.
  Do. A point, App. 10.
Sloth, cry of the, 1.
Steffani. 'Forma un mare,' 140.
Sternhold & Hopkins. 5 Psalms, 117.
Striggio, A. 'All' acqua,' 64.
Subligny's minuet, App. 27.
Sumer is i cumen in, 45.
Sympson, Chr. Division, 149.
Tallis. 'Absterge,' 95.
  Do. 'Miserere,' 95.
  Do. 'Like as the doleful.' App. 6.
Taverner, J. 'O splendor,' 75.
Theobald of Navarre. Song, 41.
'There lies a pudding,' 119.
Thorne, J. 'Stella cœli,' 77.
'Toilet's ground,' App. 17.
Tye. 'It chanced in Iconium,' 96.
'Uxor mea,' App. 29.
Valentini. Canon, 67.
Venosa, Prince of. 'Baci soavi,' 90.
Vicentino. 'Alleluia,' Madrigals, etc., 8.
'We be soldiers three,' 119.
Weelkes. 'Aye me!' 102.
Weldon. 'From grave lessons,' 144.
Whitelocke. Coranto, 121.
Wilbye. 'Lady, when I behold,' 104.
Willaert, A. Quem dicunt, 73.

[ W. H. H. ]