A Dictionary of Music and Musicians/Histories of Music

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1505561A Dictionary of Music and Musicians — Histories of MusicA. Hughes-Hughes

HISTORIES OF MUSIC. It will be necessary in this article to confine our attention almost exclusively to Histories proper, except in cases where there are none of the subject under treatment; so that only occasional mention will be made of Musical Biographies, Dictionaries, Manuscripts, and Periodicals, or works on the Theory of Music. Most of the works enumerated, unless marked with an asterisk, will be found in the library of the British Museum. The dates of the first and latest editions are usually given. For convenience we shall have to adopt four principal headings, namely:—General Histories of Music, Histories of separate Countries, of Musical Instruments, and of a few other special subjects arranged alphabetically; and most of these will have to undergo further subdivision.

I. General Histories of Music.

(a) Ancient Music. The earliest writings bearing at all upon the history of music are the Ἁρμονικῆς ἐγχειρίδιον of Nicomachus (see Meibom), and the περί μουσικῆς of Plutarch, edited by Richard Volkmann in 1856, and by Rudolf Westphal in 1865. Pausanias' 'Græciæ Descriptio Accurata' also contains frequent allusions to music and musicians. Other early works relating partially to music are the 'Deipno-sophistæ' of Athenæus and the 'Stromata' of Titus Flavius Clemens (Clement of Alexandria), the latter dated A.D. 194. From that period down to the Renaissance musical writers appear to have been too deeply engrossed in the development of the music of their own time to bestow much thought upon that of the past; and it is only by the chronological juxtaposition and study of the works of such authors as St. Augustine, Boethius, St. Isidore of Seville, Bede, Hucbald, Guido d'Arezzo, Philip de Vitry, Odington, Dunstable, Gafori, Glarean, etc., that we can obtain an adequate history of music in the early and middle ages. Johannes Tinctor wrote a treatise 'De Origine Musicæ' in the 15th century; Rud. Schlickius' '*Exercitatio de musicæ origine,' published at Spiers in 1588 was thought highly of in its day; the 'De Musica' of F. Salinas, 1592, is chiefly theoretic. In 1652 appeared M. Meibom's excellent work 'Antiquæ musicæ Auctores Septem,' in 2 vols. which was not surpassed till the publication in 1784 of Abbé Martin Gerbert's 'Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musica,' in 3 vols. Abbé P. J. Roussier also wrote a 'Mémoire sur la Musique des Anciens' in 1770, which is spoken highly of. In the present century we have G. W. Fink's 'Erste Wanderung durch die älteste Tonkunst,' 1831; C. von Winterfelds 'Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter,' 1834; C. E. H. de Coussemaker's invaluable works 'Histoire de l'Harmonie au Moyen Age,' 1852; 'Les Harmonistes des 12e et 13e Siècles,' 1864; 'Scriptorum de Musica Medii Ævi Nova Series,' 4 vols. 1864–76; 'L'Art Harmonique au Moyen Age,' 1865; 'Traités inédits sur la Musqique du Moyen Age,' 1865; Carl Engel's 'Music of the most Ancient Nations,' 1864; Rudolf Westphal's 'Geschichte der Alten und Mittelalterlichen Musik.' 1865; Albert von Thimus' 'Die Harmonikale Symbolik des Alterthums,' 1868: F. J. Fétis' 'Histoire générale de la Musique,' 6 vols., 1869–76 (unfinished); William Chappell's 'History of Music from the Earliest Records to the Fall of the Roman Empire,' 1874; Fr. Auguste Gevaert's 'Histoire et Théorie de la Musique de l'Antiquité,' 1875–81; W. Brambach's 'Musikliteratur des Mittelalters,' 1883; F. X. Haberl's 'Bausteine für Musikgeschichte' (a series of musical biographies, beginning with Willem Dufay), 1885; J. F. Rowbotham's 'History of Music' (down to the Troubadours), 3 vols. 1885–87.

(b) Modern Music. The best histories are Abbé G. J. Vogler's 'Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Tonkunst im 19 Jahrhundert.' 1814; Gustav Schilling's 'Geschichte der heutigen Musik,' 1841; A. L. Blondeau's 'Histoire de la Musique Moderne,' 1847; A. B. Marx' 'Die Musik des 19 Jahrhunderts,' 1855; John Hullah's 'History of Modern Music,' 1862–75, and 'Lectures on the Transition Period of Musical History,' 1865–76.

(c) General Histories, of Ancient and Modern Music combined. Sethus Calvisius' important work 'De initio et progressu Musices' appeared in 1600, and a second edition in 1611: this was followed shortly by Michael Praetorius' still greater 'Syntagma Musicum,' 1615. Other useful works of this period bearing on the subject are Père M. Mersenne's 'Traité de l'Harmonie Universelle,' with the Latin version 'Harmonicorum Libri xii,' 1627–48: J. Albert Bannus' 'De Musices Natura, etc., 1637; Pietro della Valle'a 'Della Musica dell' eta nostra,' 1640, containing a good description of music in the 15th, 16th, and early 17th centuries (see G. B. Doni's works, vol. ii.); Pater Athanasius Kircher's 'Musurgia Universalis,' 1650; Wolfgang C. Printz's 'Historische Beschreibung der Edelen Sing- und Kling Kunst,' 1690—this little work is interesting as the first real history of music by a German; it is published in the 1749 edition of Printz' Musical Lexicon.

The following is a list of the principal musical histories of the 18th and 19th centuries:—Jacques Bonnet's 'Histoire de la Musique et de ses Effets,' 2 vols. 1715, 1716; Hon. Roger North's 'Memoirs of Musick,' 1728 (reprinted 1846); Bourdelot's 'Histoire de la Musique,' 3 vols. 1743; Olivier Legipont's 'De Musica ejusque … Origine' (a well-written work, contained in his 'Dissertationes philologicæ-bibliographicæ,' 1747); F. W. Marpurg's 'Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik,' 5 vols. 1754–78, and 'Kritische Einleitung in die Geschichte … der … Musik,' 1759 (unfinished); Padre G. B. Martini's splendid 'Storia della Musica,' 3 vols. 1757–81; Dr. Charles Burney's 'General History of Music,' 4 vols. 1776–89; Sir John Hawkins' 'General History of the Science and Practice of Music,' 5 vols. 1776, with reprints in 1853 and 1875, in 2 vols.; J. B. de la Borde's 'Essai sur la Musique Ancienne et Moderne,' 4 vols. 1780; J. N. Forkel's 'Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik,' 2 vols. 1788–1801; C. Kalkbrenner's 'Histoire de la Musique,' 2 vols. 1802; 'Musical Biography' (1500–1800), 2 vols. 1814; Dr. T. Busby's 'General History of Music,' 2 vols. 1819; W. C. Stafford's 'History of Music,' 1826–30 (vol. 52 of Constable's Miscellany); Dr. W. C. Mailer's 'Æsthetisch-historische Einleitungen in die Wissenschaft der Tonkunst,' 2 vols. 1830; F. J. Fétis' 'La Musique mise a la portée de tout le monde,' 1830, with the English version 'A History of Music, or How to understand and enjoy its Performance,' 1846; Dr. W. Crotch's 'Lectures on Music,' 1831; R. G. Kiesewetter's 'Geschichte der Europäisch-Abendländischen oder unsrer heutigen Musik,' 1834–46,' translated into English as 'A History of Modern Music in Western Europe' in 1848; George Hogarth's 'Musical History,' 1835; C. Czerny's 'Umriss der ganzen Musikgeschichte,' 1851; F. Brendel's 'Geschichte der Musik in Italien, Deutschland und Frankreich,' 1852–75; Dr. Joseph Schlüter's 'Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik,' 1853–63 (of which an English translation appeared in 1865); Robert Schumann's 'Gesammelte Schriften über Musik und Musiker,' 1834–53 (published as 'Music and Musicians' in 1881); W. Bauck's 'Musikens Historia,' 1862, in Swedish; August Reissmann's 'Allgemeine Geschichte der Musik,' 1863–4; E. O. Lindner's 'Abhandlungen zur Tonkunst,' 1864: C. Abraham Mankell's 'Musikens Historia' 1804; A. W. Ambros 'Geschichte der Musik,' 4 vols. 1864–78; A. Galli's 'La Musica ed i Musicisti dal sæcolo X sino ai nostri giorni,' 1871; Dr. F. L. Ritter's 'Student's History of Music,' 1875–80; H. B. Hunt's 'Concise History of Music,' 1879; Emil Naumann's 'Illustrirte Musikgeschichte,' 2 vols. 1880–85 (English translation, edited by Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley); O. Fouque's 'Les Révolutionnaires de la Mu,sique,' 1882; W. Langhans' 'Geschiedenis der Muziek,' 1882, etc. in Dutch; L. Nohl's 'Allgemeine Musikgeschichte popular dargestellt,' 1882; Félix Clement's 'Histoire de la Musique' (copiously illustrated, 1885;) Sir G. A. Macfarren's 'Musical History,' 1885; W. S. Rockstro's 'General History of Music,' 1886; Otto Wangemann's 'Grundriss der Musikgeschichte.'

II. Histories of Separate Countries.

(a) AFRICA.—M. Villoteau's 'De l'État actuel de l'art musical en Egypte,' 1812: see also articles in Conté and Jomard's 'La Description de l'Égypte,' 1809–26.

(b) AMERICA.—G. Hood's (of Philadelphia) 'History of Music in New England,' 1846: N. D. Gould's 'History of Church Music in America,' 1853; F. L. Ritter's 'Music in America,' 1883.

(c) ASIA.

1. Music of the Arabs.—R. G. Kiesewetter's 'Die Musik der Araber,' 1842; F. Salvator Daniel's 'La Musique Arabe,' 1879; J. P. N. Land's 'Recherches sur l'histoire dela Gamme Arabe'; Alexander Christianowitsch's 'Esquisse historique de la Musique Arabe,' 1863.

2. Chinese. P. Amyot's 'Mémoires concernant l'histoire … des Chinois,' vol. vi. 1781; J. A. van Aalst's 'Chinese Music,' 1884.

3. Hebrews. The first important work on this subject, Salomon van Til's 'Digt, Sang, en Speel konst … der Hebreen,' is written in Dutch (1692–1728). Other writings are August F. Pfeiffer's 'Ueber die Musik der alten Hebräer,' 1779, and Dr. J. Stainer's 'Music of the Bible,' 1879.

4. Hindoos.—William Jones's 'On the Musical Modes of the Hindus,' 1792; N. A. Willard's 'Treatise on the Music of Hindostan,' 1834; S. M. Tagore's 'Hindu Music,' 1875–82.

5. Japanese.—A. Kraus' 'La Musique au Japon,' 1879.

6. Persians. Sir W. Ouseley's 'Persian Miscellanies,' 1791, and 'Oriental Collections,' 1797.


1. British Isles.

England.—We have had many writers on music, from Thomas Morley downwards, and even historians of music, such as Burney, Hawkins, and in modern times William Chappell and others, but no historians of note have yet thought it worth while to write a history of English Music. The following are some of the best works relating to it:—J. Parry and C. Williams's 'Ancient British Music,' 1742; Joseph Ritson's 'Collection of English Songs, with an Historical Essay on National Song,' 3 vols. 1813; Richard Hooper's 'Music and Musicians, especially English, to the days of Purcell,' 1855; William Chappell's 'Popular Music of the Olden Time,' 2 vols. 1855–9; E. F. Rimbault's 'Early English Organ Builders and their Works,' 1865–71: W. A. Barrett's 'English Glee and Madrigal Writers,' 1877, and 'English Church Composers,' 1882; F. L. Ritter's 'Music in England.' 1883. Perhaps however the best History of English Music would be formed by collecting together Ouseley's contributions to Naumann's 'History of Music.'

Ireland.—Joseph C. Walker's 'Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards,' 1786; M. W. Hartstonge's 'Minstrelsy of Erin,' 1812; Edward Bunting's 'Ancient Music of Ireland,' 1840; M.Conran's work 'On the National Music of Ireland,' 1846–50.

Scotland.—Joseph Ritson's 'Historical Essay on Scottish Song' (1794?); John Gunn's 'Historical Enquiry respecting the Caledonian Harp,' 1807; Macdonald's 'Ancient Music of Caledonia,' 1820; W. Dauney's 'Ancient Scottish Melodies … with an introductory … History of the Music of Scotland,' 1838; Sir J. G. Dalyell's 'Musical Memoirs of Scotland,' 1849.

Wales.—There are some MSS. in the British Museum, chiefly in Welsh, relating to Ancient British Music, written at various periods since the time of Henry VIII, by William Penllyn, John Jones, Richard and Lewis Morris, etc. (Additional MSS. 14905, 14039, 160HG, etc.) Other works on Welsh Music are R. Eastcott's ' Sketches of the Origin … of Music, with an account of the Bards,' etc. 1793–6; Edward Jones's 'Musical and Poetical Relics of the Welsh Bards … with a history of the Bards and Druids,' 1794; John Thomas's 'Songs of Wales … with an historical Bardic Introduction'; Ernest David's 'Etudes historiquea sur la poésie et la musique dans la Cambrie,' 1884.

2. France.

General Histories.—Dr. C. Burney's 'Present State of Music in France,' etc., 1771 (a French version of the Musical Travels in France, Germany and Italy appeared in 1809); 'État actuel de la Musique du Eoi,' 1773; G. Desnoiresterres' 'La Musique française au XVIIIe siècle: Gluck et Piccinni,' 1872; C. E. Poisot's 'Histoire de la Musique en France,' 1860; H. M. Schletterer's 'Studien zur Geschichte der französischen Musik,' 1884; C. Bellaigue's 'Un Siècle de Musique française,' 1887.

Church Music.—J. L. F. Danjou's 'De l'État du Chant ecclésiastique en France,' 1844.

Chansons, etc. F. Marion-Dumersan's 'Chants et Chansons populaires de la France,' 3 vols. 1843; Champfleury's 'Chansons populaires des Provinces de France,' 1860; V. Lespy's 'Notes pour l'Histoire de la Chanson,' 1861.

Opera and Musical Drama.—Histories of this branch of Music have been very numerous in France during the present century; a list of the best is subjoined: M. Castil-Blaze's 'De l'Opéra en France,' 1820; Gustave Chouquet's 'Histoire de la Musique Dramatique en France,' 1873; Jacques Hermann's 'Le Drame Lyrique en France,' 1878; E. G. J. Grégoir's 'Les Gloires de l'Opéra,' etc., 3 vols. 1881; A. Pougin's 'Les vrais Créateurs de l'Opéra français,' 1881; M. Dietz' 'Geschichte des Musikalischen Dramas in Frankreich,' 1885; H. M. Schletterer's 'Vorgeschichte und erste Versuche der französischen Oper,' 1885: C. Nuitter and E. Thoinan's 'Les Origines de l'Opéra français,' 1886. See also under Jullien in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 687.

Provinces, etc. C. E. Poisot's ' Essai sur les Musiciens Bourguignons,' 1854; Mlle. E. Chuppin de Germigny's 'De l'État de la Musique en Normandie,' 1837. For Alsace and Lorraine see Germany.

3. Germany, Austria, etc.

General Histories.—In spite of all the musical historians and writers whom the Fatherland has produced, from Calvisius down to Forkel, there are scarcely any general histories of German Music. The best works on the subject are:—F. H. von der Hagen's 'Minnesinger,' etc., 1838, 1850; C. E. P. Wackernagel's 'Das Deutsche Kirchenlied bis zum Anfange des 17ten Jahrhunderts,' 1841; Johannes Merkel's* 'Betrachtungen über die Deutsche Tonkunst im 18ten Jahrhundert'; C. F. Becker's 'Die Hausmusik in Deutschland im 16, 17, und 18 Jahrhundert,' 1840; Emil Naumann's 'Die deutschen Tondichter,' 1871; A. Keissmann's 'Illustrirte Geschichte der Deutschen Musik,' 1881; F. Chorley's 'Modern German Music,' 2 vols. 1854.

Volkslied, etc. R. von Liliencron's 'Die historische Volkslieder der Deutschen vom 13ten bis 16ten Jahrhundert,' 1865–9; F. M. Böhme's 'Altdeutsche Liederbuch aus dem 12ten bis zum 17ten Jahrhundert,' 1876; E. O. Lindner's 'Geschichte des Deutschen Liedes im XVIII Jahrhundert' 1871; E. Schuré's 'Histoire du "Lied,"' 1868; 'Talvj's' 'Geschichtliche Charakteristik der Volkslieder Germanischer Nationen,' 1840; A. Reissmann's 'Geschichte des Deutschen Liedes,' 1874; Aug. Saran's 'Robert Franz und das Deutsche Volkslied,' 1875.

Opera, etc.—E. O. Lindner's 'Die erste stehende Deutsche Oper,' 1855; H. M. Schletterer's 'Das Deutsche Singspiel,' 1863.

Provinces, etc. J. P. Lobstein's 'Beiträge zur Geschichte der Musik in Elsass,' 1840; A. Jacquot's 'La Musique en Lorraine,' 1882; Christian Ritter d'Elvert's 'Geschichte der Musik in Mähren und Oesterr-Schlesien,' 1873; D. Mettenleiter's 'Musikgeschichte der Oberpfalz,' 1867; G. Döring's 'Zur Geschichte der Musik in Preusen,' 1852; M. Fürstenau's 'Zur Geschichte der Musik des Theaters am Hofe von Sachsen,' 1861: Franz Hoffmann's 'Die Tonkünstler Schlesiens,' 1830 (see also d'Elvert's work).

4. Greece.

In the absence of Musical Histories of this country by early Greek writers, we may mention, as works useful to the student, A. Boeckh's edition of Pindar, 3 vols. 1811–21, and Plutarch's work already alluded to, which is interesting as the only surviving work of that time on the history of Greek Music. Other works on this subject are:—F. L. Perne's 'Exposition de la Sémeiographie, ou Notation Musicale des Grecs,' 1815; F. von Drieberg's 'Die Musik der Griechen,' 1819; Friedrich Bellermann's 'Die Tonleiten und Musiknoten der Griechen,' 1847: Carl Fortlage's 'Das musikalische System der Griechen,' 1847; A. J. H. Vincent's 'De la Musique des Anciens Grecs,' 1854; C. F. Weitzmann's 'Geschichte der Griechischen Musik,' 1855: Oscar Paul's 'Die Absolute Harmonik der Griechen,' 1866; Johannes Tzetzes' 'Ueber die altgriechische Musik,' 1874; Rudolf Westphal's 'Die Musik des Griechischen Alterthums,' 1883; R. G. Kiesewetter's 'Ueber die Musik der neueren Griechen,' etc., 1828–38.

5. Hungary.

F. Liszt's 'Die Zigeuner und ihre Musik in Ungarn,' 1883. See also appendix to K. Abrányi's 'Altalános Zenetörténet,' 1886.

6. Italy.

General Histories.—The excellent writings of Pietro della Valle and Padre Martini were not confined to the music of their own country. Some of the principal works on Italian Music are:—Peter J. Grosley's 'Nouveaux mémoires … sur l'Italie,' 1764–74, which was thought so highly of that a German edition appeared at Leipzig in 1766; G. V. Orlov's 'Traité de Musique,—Essai sur l'Histoire de la Musique en Italie,' 2 vols. 1822 (Italian and German versions in 1823–4); Emil Naumann's 'Die Italienischen Tondichter,' 1874–6; C. Burney's 'Present State of Music in Italy.' etc., 1771; G. A. Perotti's 'Sullo stato attuale della Musica Italiana,' 1812; Chevalier X. van Elewyck's 'De l'État actuel de la Musique en Italie,' 1875; Giov. Masutto's 'Maestri di Musica Italiani del nostro secolo,' 1880 (2nd edition).

Opera, etc. L. Riccoboni's 'Histoire du Théâtre Italien,' etc., 2 vols. 1728–31; Stef. Arteaga's well-written work 'La Rivoluzione del Teatro Musicale Italiano,' 3 vols, 1783–8 (French edition, 1802.)

Separate Towns, etc.—Bologna. Gaet. Gaspari's 'La Musica in Bologna' (19th century). Lucca. There is a work by an anonymous writer, 'Della Musica in Lucca' 1871. Naples. Marchese di Villarosa's 'Memorie dei Compositori di Musica di Napoli,' 1840: Cavaliere F. Florimo's 'La Scuola Musicale di Napoli,' etc., 4 vols. 1871–82: M. Scherillo's 'Storia letteraria dell' Opera Buffa Napolitana,' 1883. Rome. 'Die Päpstliche Sängerschule in Rom genannt die Sixtinische Kapelle,' by Eduard Schelle, 1872. Siena. R. Morrocchi's 'La Musica in Siena,' 1881–6. Venice. A. F. Doni's 'Dialoghi della Musica,' 1544; F. Caffi's 'Storia della Musica sacra della Capella di San Marco,' 1854; Emil Naumann's 'Das goldene Zeitalter der Tonkunst in Venedig,' 1866. Verona. Aless. Sala's 'I Musicisti Veronesi,' 1879.

7. Netherlands.

Besides being rich in native musical writers and historians of General Music, such as Grétry, Fétis, Coussemaker, etc., the Netherlands can boast of more good works devoted exclusively to its own musical history than perhaps any other country. The best are: J. P. N. Land's 'Musique et Musiciens au XVIIe Siècle' 1882; E. vander Straeten's 'Histoire de la Musique aux Pays Bas,' 5 vols. 1867–80, and 'Les Musiciens Néerlandais en Italie,' 1882; E. G. J. Grégoir's 'Essai historique sur la Musique et les Musiciens dans les Pays Bas,' 1861; 'Biographie des Artistes-Musiciens Néerlandais des 18e et 19e Siècles,' 1864; 'Historique de la Facture et des Facteurs d'Orgue,' etc., 1865; and 'L'Art Musical en Belgique sous … Leopold I et II,' 1879; A. Samuel's 'L'Histoire de la Musique et des Musiciens Beiges depuis 1830,' 1881.

8. Portugal.

The only work we know on this subject is J. de Vas concellos' 'Os Musicos Portuguezes,' 2 vols. 1870.

9. Russia and the Slavonic Nations.

Prince N. Youssoupoffs 'Histoire de la Musique en Russie,' 1862; D. Razumovsky's 'History of Russian Church Music,' 1867–9; César Cui's 'La Musique en Russie,' 1880; W. R. S. Ralston's 'Songs of the Russian People,' 1872; A. Chodzko's 'Les Chants historiques de l'Ukraine,' 1879; V. Morkova's 'Historical Sketch of the Russian Opera ' 1862; 'Volkslieder der Serben historisch eingeleilet von "Talvj,"' 1853; J. L. Haupt and J. E. Schmaler's 'Volkslieder der Wenden,' in 2 parts, 1841, 1843; A. Voigt's 'Von dem Alterthume und Gebrauche des Kirchengesanges in Böhmen,' Prag, 1775; Christian Ritter d'Elvert's 'Geschichte der Musik in Mähren,' etc., 1873; G. M. Dreves'* 'Cantiones Bohemicæ,' in Part I of 'Analecta Hymnica,' Leipzig, 1886.

10. Scandinavia.

Very little has been written on this subject. In the last century Abraham Hülphers wrote *'Historisk Abhandling om Musik,' Westeras, 1773. Bauck and Mankell, though writing in the Swedish language, do not confine themselves to the music of their own country. The best modern work is M. Cristal'a 'L'Art Scandinave,' 1874.

11. Spain.

For the Visigothic notation Don F. Fabian y Fuero's 'Missa Gothica,' 1770, and Don Geronimo Romero's *'Breviarium Gothicum,' Madrid, 1775, may be consulted with advantage; also P. Ewald and G. Löwe's 'Exempla Scripturæ Visigothicæ,' 1883. Francisque Michel has written 'Le Pays Basque … sa Musique.' etc., 1857. M. Soriano-Fuertes' 'Historia de la Musica Española,' 4 vols. 1855–9, is the best general history. Other works are: Don M. Menendez y Pelayo's 'Historia de las Ideas estéticas en España,' 3 vols. 1883; J. F. Riano's 'Notes on Early Spanish Music,' 1887. For the history of the opera we have F. Asenjo-Barbieri's 'Cronica de la Opera Italiana en Madrid,' 1878; A. Peña Goni's 'La Opera Española en el Siglo XIX,' 1881.

12. Switzerland.

Pater Anselm Schubiger's 'Die Sängerschule St. Gallens vom 8ten bis 12ten Jahrhundert,' 1858; G. Becker's 'La Musique en Suisse,' 1874.

13. Turkey.

J. A. Guer's 'Mœurs et Usages des Turcs' contains a good account of their music at that time (1746).

III. Musical Instruments.

(a) GENERAL HISTORIES.-A manuscript in the British Museum (Tiberius, c. vi) contains 'Descriptiones et Delineationes Instrumentorum Musicorum' of the llth century. Other works are:—Sebastian Virdung's 'Musica getutscht und auszgezogen durch S. V.' 1511; J. Charlier de Gerson's *'Beschreibung Musikalischer Instrumente,' Basle 1518 (Amsterdam, 1706); J. W. von Wasielewski's 'Geschichte der Instrumentalmusik in XVI Jahrhundert,' 1878; M. Prætorius' 'Syntagma Musices.' 1614–18; Girolamo Desideri's *'Discordo della Musica,' Bologna, 1671; Fil. Bonanni's 'Gabinetto Armonico,' 1722 reprinted in 1806 as 'Descrizioni degl' Istromenti armonici.' 2 vols; F. Bianchini's (the Elder) 'De Instrumentis Musicæ Veterum,' 1742; H. W. von Gontershausen's 'Magazin Musikalischer Tonwerkzeuge,' 1855: Carl Engel's 'Musical Instruments,' etc., 1874; H. Lavoix' 'Histoire de l'Instrumentation,' 1878; Dr. J. Stainer's 'Music of the Bible, with an Account of the Development of Modern Musical Instruments from Ancient Types,' 1879; Léon Pillaut's 'Instruments et Musiciens,' 1880. A. J. Hipkins' 'Musical Instruments, historic, rare, and unique,' 1883.


1. Organ.—The history of this instrument has been written by musical historians of most of the northern races. As instances we may cite:—J. G. Mittag's *'Historische Abhandlung von … Orgeln,' Lüneburg, 1756; J. U. Sponsel's ' Orgelhistorie,' 1771; Joseph Antony's 'Die Orgel,' 1832; E. J. Hopkins's 'The Organ, its History and Construction,' and E. F. Rimbault's 'History of the Organ,' 1855–70; X. van Elewyck's *'Geschichte der Orgel'; C. L. Lindberg's 'Handbok om Orgverket,' 1861; Otto Wangemann's 'Geschichte der Orgel und Orgelbaukunst,' 1879–80: Dudley Buck's Lecture on 'The Influence of the Organ in History,' 1882; M. Reiter's 'Die Orgel Unserer Zeit,' 1880, and 'An Explanation of the Organ Stops,' by Carl Locher (translated by Agnes Schauenburg, 1888).

2. Pianoforte, etc.—Joseph Fischhof's 'Versuch einer Geschichte des Clavierbaues,' 1853; H. W. von Gontershausen's 'Der Flügel,' 1856; E. F. Rimbault's 'The Pianoforte, its Origin, Progress, and Construction,' 1860; Chevalier Léon de Burbure's 'Recherches sur les Facteurs de Clavecins,' etc., 1863; C. F. Weitzmann's 'Geschichte des Claverspiels und der Clavierliteratur,' 1863; E. Brinsmead's 'History of the Pianoforte,' 1863–77; Oscar Paul's 'Geschichte des Claviers,' 1868; Cesare Ponsicchi's 'Il Pianoforte,' 1876; Ridley Prentice's 'History of Pianoforte Music,' 1885.

3. Glas-Harmonica. C. F. Pohl's 'Geschichte der Glas-Harmonica,' 1862.


1. Bells. X. van Elewyck's 'Matthias van den Gheyn,' etc., 1862: Angelo Rocca's 'De Campanis Commentarius,' 1612; Alexis Vierstadt's 'Dissertatio Historica de Campanis,' etc.; J. B. Thiers' 'Traité des Cloches,' 1702–21; Rev. A. Gatty's 'The Bell,' 1848: T. Ellacombe's 'Church Bells of Devon, Somerset, etc.,' 1872—81; B. Lomax's 'Bells and Bell-ringers,' 1879.

2. Cymbals.—F. A. Lampe's 'De Cymbalis Veterum,' 1703–4.

3. Tambourine.—F. Vidal's 'Lou Tambourin' (in Provencal), 1864.


1. Cithara.-J. G.Drechssler and C. Felmerius' 'De Cithara Davidica,' 1670.

2. Lyre.—G. B. Doni's 'Lyra Barberina,' with history of the Lyre, etc. (reprinted in 1762).

3. Guitar.—Egmont Schroen's 'Die Guitarre und ihre Geschichte,' 1879.

4. Harp.—Aptommas's 'History of the Harp,' 1859.

5. Lute.—E. G. Baron's 'Untersuchung des Instruments der Lauten,' Nurnberg, 1727.

6. Violins, etc.—The violin has been a favourite subject with musical writers of the 19th century, so that we can give the titles of a considerable number of writings on it and its congeners: George Dubourg's 'The Violin … and its Composers,' 1831–51; T. J. M. Forster's 'Epistolarium' contain numerous historical notices of the violin (2 vols. 1845); F. J. Fétis' 'A. Stradivari, preceded by historical and critical re-researches into the history of stringed instruments,' 1856: W. Sandys and F. A. Forster's 'History of the Violin,' 1864; H. Abele's 'Die Violine' 1864–74; J. W. von Wasielewski's 'Die Violine und ihre Meister,' 1869–83, and 'Die Violine im XVII Jahrhundert,' 1874; P. Davidson's 'The Violin, its Construction,' etc. (Illustrated), 1871, 1881; E. Folegati's 'Storia del Violino e dell' Archetto,' 1873; Edmund Schebek's 'Der Geigenbau in Italien,' etc. 1874, and an English version 'Violin Manufacture in Italy, and its German origin,' 1877; G. Hart's 'The Violin,' etc. 1815–85; Ant. Vidal's 'Les Instruments à Archet,' 3 vols. 1876–8: H. Ritter's 'Die Geschichte der Viola Alta,' 1877; E. H. Allen's 'The Ancestry of the Violin,' 1882; J. Rühlmann's 'Geschichte der Bogeninstrumente,' 1882; Carl Engel's 'Researches into the Early History of the Violin Family,' 1883: James M. Fleming's 'Old Violins and their Makers,' 1883–4; G. de Piccofellis' 'Liutai antichi e moderni,' 1885.


1. Flute. C. B. Thorn and Caspar Bartholinus' 'De Tibiis Veterum,' 1677–9; W. N. James' 'A word or two on the Flute,' 1826; Cornelius Ward's 'The Flute explained,' 1844; Chr. Welch's 'History of the Boehm Flute,' 1883.

2. Trumpet. H. Eichborn's 'Die Trompete,' 1881.

IV. Special Subjects.

(a) Church Music.—In the subjoined list it has not been thought necessary to include the innumerable treatises on Plain-Song. The following works have been selected as throwing most light on the subject:—Michael Prætorius' 'Syntagma Musices' (on Psalmody, etc.) 1614–18; Cardinal Giov. Bona's 'De Divina Psalmodia,' 1653–1747; G. G. Nivers' 'Dissertation sur le Chant Grégorien,' 1683; G. E. Scheibel's 'Geschichte der Kirchenmusik,' 1738; Abbé J. Lebœuf's 'Traité historique et practique sur le Chant Ecclésiastique,' etc. 1741; Gius. Santarelli's *'Della Musica del Santuario,' Rome, 1764: M. Gerbert's 'De Cantu et Musica Sacra,' 2 vols. 1774; J. A. Latrobe's 'Music of the Church,' 1831; J. E. Hauser's 'Geschichte der Kirchenmusik,' 1834; A. Mankell's 'Kyrkomusikens Historia,' 1841; H. A. Daniel's 'Thesaurus Hymnologicus,' 1841–6; Felix Clément's 'Histoire Générale de la Musique Religieuse,' 1861–77: R. Schlecht's 'Geschichte der Kirchenmusik,' 1871; J. Belcher's 'Lectures on the History of Ecclesiastical Music,' 1872; A. Goovaerts' 'De kerkmuziek,' with French version 'La Musique de l'Église,' 1876; Y. von Arnold's 'Die alten Kirchenmodi,' 1879; Pére Joseph Pothier's 'Les Mélodies Grégoriennes,' 1880 (German edition 1881); Rev. E. Hicks's 'Church Music,' with Illustrations, 1881; Thigry's 'Etude sur le chant grégorien,' 1883.

(b) Dance Music.—John Playford's 'English Dancing Master,' 1650, is not a regular History. J. Weaver wrote an 'Essay towards the History of Dancing,' 1713. The best histories, however, of Dance Music are by Frenchmen. Of these we have L. de Cahusac's 'La Danse.' 3 vols. 1754; C. Compan's 'Histoire de la Danse,' 1787, 1802; C. Blasis' 'Manuel Complet de la Danse,' al. the 'Code of Terpsichore,' 1830; J. A. Lenoir de la Fage's 'Histoire de la Musique et de la Danse,' 2 vols. 1844; F. Fertiault's 'Histoire de la Danse,' 1854. Some of the latest works on this subject have been written by Germans, F. L. Schubert and O. Umgewitter having been the authors (in 1867 and 1868 respectively) of works bearing the title 'Die Tanzmusik.'

(c) Gipsy Music.—The only work of importance on this subject is Abbé Liszt's, alluded to above under Hungary; a French edition was published in 1859, and a Hungarian in 1861.

d) Military Music has been treated of by very few authors; we need only instance J. G. Kastner's 'Les Chants de l'Armée française, avec un Essai historique sur les Chants Militaires des Français ' 1855, Albert Perrin's 'Military Studies, Military Bands,' etc. 1863.

(e) National Music.—Works on this subject have been mentioned under the countries to which they specially relate; other general works are: C. Engel's 'Introduction to the Study of National Music,' 1866, and 'Literature of National Music,' 1879; H. F. Chorley's 'National Music of the World,' published in 1880–2 after the author's death.

(f) Notation.—A. J. H. Vincent's 'De la Notation Musicale attributée à Boëce,' etc. 1855; Hucbald's 'Enchiridion Musicæ' (see Gerbert's 'Scriptores,' vol. i.); G. Jacobsthal's 'Die Mensuralnotenschrift des XII und XIII Jahrhunderts,' 1871; J. Bellermann's 'Die Mensuralnoten und Taktzeichen des XV and XVI Jahrhunderts,' 1858: Pere L. Lambillotte's 'L'Unité dans les Chants Liturgiques,' 1851; Abbé F. Raillard's 'Explication des Neumes.' 1855(?); A. Baumgartner's 'Geschichte der Musikalischen Notation,' 1856; Hugo Riemann's 'Studien zur Geschichte der Notenschrift,' 1878, and 'Die Entwickelung unserer Notenschrift,' 1879, etc.; E. David and M. Lussy's 'Histoire de la Notation Musicale,' 1882; Abbé Tardife's *'Plain Chant,' Angers, 1883.

(g) Opera and Musical Drama.—Among the numerous writings on this branch of music we select the following[1]:—G. B. Doni's 'Trattato della Musica Scenica' (see the 1768 edition of his works); Claude F. Menestrier's 'Des Représentations en Musique anciennes et modernes,' 1682; J. Mattheson's 'Die Neueste Untersuchune der Singspiele,' 1744; Gabriel Gilbert's 'Histoire de l'Opéra,' in 2 parts, 1757; *'Lyric Music revived in Europe, a critical display of Opera in all its Revolutions,' London, 1768; Ant. Planelli's 'Dell' Opera in Musica,' 1772; A. B. Marx's 'Gluck und die Oper,' 1862; G. W. Fink's 'Wesen und Geschichte der Oper.' 1838; Geo. Hogarth's 'Memoirs of the Musical Drama,' 2 vols. 1838. and 'Memoirs of the Opera' (in French, German, and English), 1851; H. Sutherland Edwards' s 'History of the Opera,' 2 vols. 1862; F. Clément and P. Larousse's 'Dictionnaire Lyrique, ou Histoire des Opéras,' 1869–80; E. Schurés 'Le Drame Musical,' 2 vols. 1875; A. Reissmann's 'Die Oper,' 1885; H. Sutherland Edwards's 'Lyrical Drama … Essays on Modern Opera,' 1881; L. Nohl's 'Das Moderne Musikdrama,' 1884; Hugo Kiemann's 'Opern-Handbuch,' 1887.

(h) Oratorio.—Very few works on the Oratorio have appeared. The following may be recommended: C. H. Bitter's 'Beiträge zur Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1872; Otto Wangemann's 'Geschichte des Oratoriums,' 1882.

(i) Part Music.—P. Mortimer's 'Der Choral-Gesang zur Zeit der Reformation,' 1821; Thomas Oliphant's 'La Musa Madrigalesca' (A Short Account of Madrigals), 1836; E. F. Rimbault's 'Bibliotheca Madrigaliana,' 1847; H. Bellermann's 'Ueber die Entwicklung der Mehrstimmigen Musik,' 1867.

(j) Song.—F. C. Diez's 'Leben und Werke der Troubadours,' 1829: A. B. Marx's 'Die Kunst des Gesanges,' 1826; B. G. Kiesewetter's 'Schicksal … des weltlichen Gesanges,' 1841; H. F. Mannstein's 'Geschichte … des Gesanges,' 1845; K. E. Scheider's 'Das musikalische Lied,' 3 vols. 1865; G. Fantoni's 'Storia universale del Canto,' 2 vols. 1873; T. Lemaire and H. Lavoix's 'Le Chant, ses Principes, et son Histoire,' 1881.

For further information see the articles on Dictionaries, Opera, Oratorio, Song, Violin, etc. in this work, and similar articles in Mendel and Reissmann's Musical Lexicon. J. N. Forkel's 'Allgemeine Literatur der Musik' may also be consulted with advantage for early works on the history of music.
[ A.H.-H. ]
  1. See also under separate countries.