A Dictionary of the Sunda language/A

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Abah-abah, goods, chattels, effects; gear, tackle – see Parabah.

Abang, Javanese-Red-rarely heard – occurs in the word Tanabang near Batavia – Tanah-abang – red land.

Abdallah, the son of Abd-ul-muttalib, and father of the prophet Mohammad, he was the husband of Amina. Not long after their marriage Abdallah set out on a trading journey to Gaza in the south of Syria, and on his return, died at Medina before Mohammad was born.

Abd-ul-Muttalib, the grandfather of Mohammad, who took care of him when left as an orphan at the early age of seven years: but he also died soon after in A. D. 578 aged 82 years. Col: Rev: June 184 Page 374. Abd-ul-Mutalib was noted for the munificence with which he entertained all pilgrims, who came to the temple in Mecca of which he was guardian.

Abdi, ar: a slave or bondman to the government; the term was in vogue under the Sultans of Bantam. Throughout the Country of Bantan there were scattered Lumbur abdi and orang abdi, abdi villages and abdi people, who were treated as serfs or slaves, and their young women sent to the Harems in Bantan, by a sort of "Droit de seigneur."

Abdul, ar: the slave of – from the arabic word abd slave. Many Mohammedan names begin with these words, as Abdul-Rachman the slave of the compassionate (God) – Abdul Rahim, the slave of the merciful (God).

Abdullah, ar: a common name for a man, means "the slave of God". All Chinese who become converts to Mohammedanism get the name of Abdullah.

Abĕr-abĕran, to stroll, to wander, often to avoid pursuit.

Abig-abig, the upper gable end of a house, being a triangle of which the sloping roof forms two sides, and a line drawn from eaves to eaves, the base. The triangular piece of thatch or matted bambu which fits into this place.

Abong, Forsooth, oh dear – abong sia bogah duit, forsooth now that you have got some money.

Abong-abong, said when a man presumes on his position or circumstances. Abong-abong ka nu leutik, presuming upon a mans position to oppress people of humble degree.

Abrit-abritan, to skip or skit about, to bound nimbly along.

Abu, ar: Father – often occurs in the composition of proper names, as the Javanese (of the western part of the island) mostly bear arabic names from being Mohammedans.

Abu Bakar, ar: properly Abu Békĕr – the father of the Virgin. The first Caliph so called and successor to Mohammad. He was father in law to Mohammad. His daughter Aisha was a virgin when Mohammad espoused her; he had been married before to Kadijah who was a widow.

Aburan, running wild, neglected, let at large, not taken care of. Jélema aburan, a reckless fellow – a man who has no permanent home aud is skulking from the police authorities.

Abus, to run in, to enter – abus na kadinyo, it ran in there.

Abuskĕn, to cause to enter, to put or force into any place.

Abu Talib, one of the sons of Abdul Muttalib on whom devolved the charge of his nephew Mohammad on te death of Abdul Muttalib. He took care of the orphan Mohammad during his youth, and reached the age of upwards of 80 years. Abdallah, the father of Mohammad, and Abu Talib were brothers by the same mother.

Achah, au interjection of derision: there you get it! that's it!

Achalok, a hop, a short jump; to hop, to perch as a bird on a branch.

Achan, even, at all. To di béré-béré achan, he did not even give me any.

Achar, Persian-Pickles Achar iwung, pickles made of the sprouts of young bambus.

Aché, the town of Achin at the north end of Sumatra: The name is familiar to the Sunda people from their Hajis or Pilgrims to Mecca often finding their way there[1].

Aché, a fine kind of Rambutan or Sundun, probably originally brought from Achin in Sumatra.

Achĕlok, to spring, to go by leaps, to hop as a bird or frog-see Achalok.

Achéng, a name of endearment given to children– as much as „My darling.“

Acheŭk, elder or eldest sister- a refined expression.

Achi, among Peranakan Chinese is elder sister, eldest sister- see Puachi.

Achi, the juice, the gravy, the essential liquid of meat.

Achi, the fecula of a palm tree or tuberous root, prepared for eating in any way. Achi kawung, Sago prepared from the Kawung palm tree, Achi konéng, fecula prepared from the tuber of the Ki konéng, or the wild turmeric.

Acho, to talk vauntingly, to brag, to hold ridiculons talk, see ngacho. Acho bai sia mohal aya nu ngandel, what stuff you talk, it is not likely that any one will believe you.[2]

Achung, a variety of Arum, of very offensive smell.

Adah, an interjection of surprise or dismay, oh! is that the way! is that what you are after! as we might say „the devil take it!“
Adah! wat lĕutik tĕuyn, oh the devil take it, it is too small.
Adah! sia daik ngabobodo kang aing, is that what you are after, you want to make a fool of me.

Adam, ar: Adam, the first man, called also Nabi Adam which means the prophet Adam – but most of the remarkable Characters in the old Testament bear the distinguishing epithet of Nabi.

Adas, carawaij, carum- name of a warm tasted seed.

Adas, generally called after the Malay, Adas manis, aniseed, anethum graveolens.

Adat, ar: Custom, long established usage, mode, way of acting, for the reason that. Adat nagara, the usage of the Country. Adat goréng, bad habits. Adat kula tilok ngala, because I never take any.

Adĕg, and ngadeg, to set up, to assume a situation or authority- Rank, position.

Adĕgkĕn, to be set up in office, or authority by another.

Adénda, younger brother or sister, used only among people of rank- compounded of Adi which see, and Endah, good proper.[3]

Adi or adhi, much used in the composition of proper names of Chiefs, where it always indicates a high rank and perfection. Adhi, C. 24 over, above, upon, implying superiority in place, quality or quantity.[4]

Adi, a younger brother or sister; a term of respect or affection in addressing a younger person.

Adi Bĕutĕung, a brother or sister of our wife, which is younger than her.

Adi Dahĕuan, a brother or sister of our wife, who is older than her.

Adi Kusuma, a frequent name among the Javanese nobility; from Adi- vide voce- and Kusuma Clough 134 a flower in general-but on Java it is used as an epithet for any thing excellent- Adi Kusuma is therefore „the flower ot perfection.” (Or „the first „flower.” Fr.).

Adil, ar: just, equitable, fair.

Adi ning Rat or Adhi ning Rat,[5] a name subjoined to the two native Capitals on Java, and means „Chief of the Land.” Adi, vide voce, Ning is a Javanese and Sunda word expressive of of. Rat is a contraction of Rata, C. 581. Country, district, an inhabited Country; thus we have Surakarta adi ning Rat, and Jugyakarta adi ning Rat. Adhi ning Rat is a title often given to Javanese chiefs of high rank.

Adi pati,[6] one of the highest ranks of office, derived from Adi vide voce and Pati C. 383 Lord or master, thus Chief Lord – the native governor of a subdivision of the Country, under the European Resident- the highest rank to which the native Regents are usually raised.

Adon, to visit a neighbour or friend – mostly with a view to get something out of him- this frequently happens at crop or fruit time, in order to get a share- to go and receive food or daily necessaries from a friend. Adon jagong, to go to get maize; adon nyatu, to go to get fed.

Adu, to fight, to squabble, see Agadu- This word is also no doubt of Sanscrit origin. The nearest to be found in Clough are at Page 636 Wada, discourse, discussion, controversy, disputation.
Wadi, a disputant, a controversialist – Wadu, hatred, anger, malice, wrath.

Adu biru, an expression of contempt used towards any one- montong di bawuran adu biru sia, you need not put in any of your jaw to meddle with conversation or matters that do not regard you. For Adu vide voce. Biruma C 473 barking- the verbal noun of Buranawa to bark as a dog- adu biru is thus literally, controversy and barking[7].

Adug, to stamp and kick about, as a horse in the stable, or any animal confined in a fold or cage- to be obstreperous.

Aduh, an interjection of grief or pain- oh! mercy on us! It hurts!
Aduh! ulah bangat tĕuyn- It hurts, do'nt use so much force.
Aduh! aing to bisa nulungan, alas! I cannot help you.

Aduk, to mix, to mingle, to entangle, to cause confusion, to jumble together. Aduk apu to mix lime- Kusut amat unit di aduk, how confused it is by being jumbled together.

Adu kebo, literally „the fighting of buffaloes”- that part of the thatch which covers the ridge pole of a house. It is formed by tying two ataps to each other, so that their respective ends hang away from each other, and having thus the Jejalon of each in contact with the other.

Adukĕn, to set to fight, to put in competition; to set up or connect the different parts of carpentry or machinery.

Agama, religion- as Agama Serani, the Christian religion, agama Slam the Mohammedan religion agama Auda, the Bhuddist religion, which the natives know as their religion before the introduction of Mohammedanism, but which is about all that they know of it. Agama C 61 from â 60 a particle answering to our until, unto, as far as, with, and gama to come, to go, an approaching, a coming; a grammatical argument; also a science, a work on any one of the sacreds sciences; the word is universally (in the Archipelago) used, in colloquial intercourse to express religion.

Agar-agar, a species of sea-weed; Zostera or Plocaria candida. It is boiled down into a jelly and so eaten, especially by invalids. Agari C. 7 from a privative, and gara poison- a kind of grass. (This is also the derivation in Wilson, but it means only a kind of grass, vulgo Deotar. Fr.)

Agéhan, to leave for another, not to consume or use up any thing entirely. Agéhan kula lauk na saheutik leave me a little of the flesh or fish.

Agĕm, noble, lordly, consistent with dignity or greatness, dignified, praise-worthy. Agĕm naker tumpak kreta kuda opat it is very dignified to ride in a carriage with four horses. Piagem, a rent roll or schedule given to the chief of a village on the government lands,

Agĕr, a word expressive of vomiting. mantas nyatu teŭleŭi ager-ageran bai, as soon as he had done eating, he began to vomit.

Agul-Proud, vain, elated with success.

Agung and agĕng, Principal, chief, superior, great, noble. Juru agung, the chief director- Kagungan, Highness.

Agus, a rank of birth when the father has been a Mas, and the mother of ignoble origin; also much used as a term of courtesy in addressing any man.

Ah, an interjection of disapprobation, or dislike. Ah! ulah sok kitu ah! do not be doing so.

Ahad, ar: Sunday, the seventh day of the week. It is always named first in enumerating the days of the week.

Ahém, Hem! the sound caused by a sudden expulsion of breath.

Ahing, appertaining to greatness, splendid, magnificent, excelling others.

Ahirat. ar. a future state, the next world.

Ahli, ar: see Ali, instructed in, conversant with matters connected with the Mohammedan religion, Eminent, sublime. (From ahl, people; by name the people of the Islam, or from àlijjon high Fr.).

Ahwal or awal, ar: first, former, beginning. The word is used to distinguish some months- Rabiul awal- Rabiul akir, the former and latter Rabi, the third and fourth mohammedan months- awal na kiyo in the beginning it was thus

Aing, the pronoun I, used by a superior to an inferior. This word may be the first part of the word aya, a riffned expression for father, with a common Polynesion terminal ng attached to it- or it mey be the Singhalese ayiya C. 45 Elder brother, with the Polynesian ng subsituted for the final ya in the original word. Deference to age being so much observed by the natives, that a slight modification of Father or Elder brother has become current for the personal pronoun used to designate a superior individual- see kula.

Ais, to carry on the back, mostly wrapped up in the Samping.

Aisha, ar: the second wife of Mohammad and daughter of Abu Bakar. Aisha was only seven years old when betrothed to Mohammad, and was not regularly married to him, till two years later. She was always Mohammads favorite wife, and was the only one who came as a virgin to his arms, and hence her father was called Abu Békĕr the father of the virgin. All Mohammads other wives had been married before.

Ajag, a species of wild dog common in the jungle. It is of a brown foxy colour, and has a bushy tail. A small variety is called usung-asung. The ajag is the Canis rutilans. It worries sheep and young buffaloe calves.

Ajaib, ar: wonders, miracles.

Ajak, to invite, to urge, to press, to persuade, to take a part or share in any action to stimulate, to excite- Kula hanto di ajak Ywas not invited. Di ajak ka nu goring, he urged me to do wrong- ajakan reujeung to invite him to go along with you.

Ajam, intending, purporting, having a wish or design to do something- Ajam ka Bogor, I propose or intend to go to Buitenzorg.

Ajang, For, to be used for, for the purpose of. Ajang indung for mij mother; Ajang imah, to be used for a house; ajam pi-teuas, to make it hard.

Ajangan, to pay respect or deference to. To di ajangan sakali, they paid him no respect.

Ajangan, is also used for tho pronoun you when applied to great people, and might be translated your deference. Parentah ajangan kudu leumpang, your deferences orders were that we should set out. This word is derived from the Kawi word jeng meaning foot, and implies the humbleness of the person using the word, as he dare not address himself to any part of his superior higher than his feet- Jangha, C. 203 tho calf of the leg. (It might be conferred with or be the same as aing; see above Fr.).

Ajangan, said of a great man, as much as His Honour – Ajangan tuan, your honour, (certainly the same word as the two preceding ones. Fr.)

Ajar, to instruct, to teach, to train, to learn- Ajara, a teacher in compound singhalese words, as Loajara, a name of Buddha or Brahma, from Lo the world, Ajara, teacher C.610.[8]

Ajar, a recluse of former times, when the people were Buddhists, a hermit, an ascetic, It is probably also derived from Ajara C. 610 a teacher. It may however, be a contraction of Acharya C. 61 a teacher a preceptor, dropping the final and constructive ya, and softening down the rest of the word so as to suit Polynesian organs. Thus we find the father of Sawéla hala called Balia achar Raffles vol 2 P. 84 which is most probably an abbreviation of Balia-acharya.[9]
Ajar domas Eight hundred hermits who are said to have formerly lived abont the Palosari hill in Bantam.

Ajaran, admonition, reproof; to attempt, to try, to venture ones luck- ajaran lamun daik hadé, try if it will succeed or become good. Ajaran meuli I ventured my luck and bought some

Ajĕngan, the same as ajangan.

Ajĕrutan, jumping along, skipping off- running like a hare or rabit.

Aji, to study, lo learn, as at school, the formularies of religion; to read religious books, to recite prayers. The word Aji is most probably a corruption of the Sanscrit word Adhi-i or Adhi to read.

Aji, Price, Value, see Pangaji. (The same meaning has the word in Balinese Fr).

Aji, is a title preserved in old Javanese history in the name of Aji Saka, who is supposed to have come to Java from the continent of India with colonists about A. D. 75 or 78 and to have introduced both the Hindu era and religion. Raffles vol 2 P. 66/68 The word Aji, as a title, is heard in Aji Jaya Baya, Aji Nirmala, and Aji Usi was a celebrated giant of Sourabaja. Raffles 2 vol P. 75.
In endeavouring to trace the origin of this name, there is found in Clough’s Dictionary Page 14 Ajiwaka, a kind of Hindu religious mendicant who goes about naked as a proof that he has destroyed his passions. The word is derived from A privative, and Jiwa life, which means thus death, non-existence, a person not troubled with a mundane soul. Saka C. 691 a sovereign, any prince who gives name to an era. Ajiwaka Saka may thus have been contracted into Aji Saka, for both the wa and ka are constructive particles. Probably our Aji Saka was a religions enthusiast who came to Java with his admirers to escape persecution at home.[10]

Ajir, a stake or prod, particularly for lining out work.

Ajok, to mimic, to ridicule.

Ajol, to come running up to, to approach at a trot.

Ajol-ajolan, frisky and playful as a spirited horse which will not be quiet.

Ajug, a native candle-stick; a stand, mostly made of tin, in which to place an oil lamp a tin lamp stand, fitted at the top to receive a glass with oil to serve as a lamp.

Ajul, to poke and knock off, as fruit from a tree, with a long stick.

Ajur, sloppy, moist and dissolving, in a state approaching to mud.

Akal, ar: device, cunning, contrivance, judgment. Goréng akal na, his tricks are bad. Akal jélema loba, the devices of man are many. Kudu ku akal, it must be done with contrivance.

Akalan, to circumvent by device, to work at with contrivance. Kudu di akalan ku wang, money must be used to bring the matter about. Beunang ngakalan ku linggis, it has been cunningly managed with a crowbar.

Akar, root, the root of a tree or plant.

Akar wangi. Malay. fragrant root, name of the root of the Andropogon muricatus of a brown colour and emitting a fragrant smell, used to make hand-screens or fans.

Akas, a variety of ant which bites very hard and draws blood.

Akasa, the sky- the atmosphere, occurs in Jampés, but not in the common colloquial language, sometimes heard as Angkasa. Akasa C. 60, Ether, the sky, the atmosphere.

Akbar-ar: Great, used only in the expression Allah hu akbar, God is great. (allahu Ft.)

Akeŭl, the process of kneading warm and fresh, boiled rice in a Dulang which the natitives consider improves the flavour.

Akeŭp, to take up and carry in the arms.

Akhérat-ar: the future life, the next world, (cf. ahirat P. 6.).

Akhir and akir ar: last, latter, final, termination. Akhir jaman the latter dag, hereafter. Rabiul akir, the latter Rabi, the fourth Mohammedan month.

Aki, Grandfather, a term of respect for any old man.

Aksara, a letter of the alphabet, a character, the alphabet. Akshara C. 5. a letter of the alphabet. Daun aksara, a pretty and curions leaf which grows as a lowly plant on stones amongst the moist and elevated mountains. So called Alphabet leaf from being covered with black marks having the rude resemblance of letters.

Aku, to confess, to acknowledge, to claim as property, to own to.

Akut-akut, the ichneumon fly; the kind of fly which builds small mud nests, in which it lays its eggs, and buries along with them spiders, caterpillars &c. for the food of the future larvae.

Akutan, to bear away in loads, returning again and again till done.

Ala, to take, to appropriate, to get possession of; to gather fruit.
alla C, 50, seized, laid hold of.

Ala, as Ala manan, much more so than, much more preferably, Ala is probably the root of the Malay or Javanese kalah, to lose, not to win, worsted, and thus worse than (this or that).

Alaikum, ar: with you, as Salam alaikum, Peace be with you.

Alak-ilik, to peep and spy about, to look around pryingly.

Alam, ar: the world, mostly heard prefixed to Dunya. Alam dunya the universe. Paku Alam, the title of the Independent Prince of Jugyukarta, literally „the spike nail of the world.”

Alam, ar: in the time of. Alam Inggris in the time of the English. (The same as the preceding, عَالَمٌ Fr.)

Alamat, ar: Sign, token, signal, presage, Alamat paih a presage of death. عَلَامَة

Alang-alangan, to wander away, to skulk about, to wander at random.

Alap-alap, a small but fierce variety of hawk. Falco Bengalensis.

Alas, lands or forests belonging to any district, as alas Bantan belonging to the territory of Bantan. Also a continuons ridge of land uncut by any stream of water, and in this sense is always used in conjunction with the word tali, rope or line as tali alas, the unbroken ridge connecting two hills, or leading from the lowlands to the mountains. Alas in the sense of forest is not Sundaese but Javanese. But in Sunda it is used in composition as seen from the following examples, Alasan, aswalas, kopi alas.

Alasan, to collect in the forest such articles as grow there spontaneously, such as Ratans and wild fruit. The word alas means in Javanese forest, but the Sundas do not use it so.

Alasan, rain, and wind together, particularly in the jungle. Bisi manggih alasan, lest we meet with rain.

Alaya, occurs in the composition of some proper names and means house, abode. ālaya C. 65. House. Suralaya the abode of the Gods. see voce.

Aléan, to pick and select seed, said particularly of paddy.

Alĕm, to praise, to encourage by commendation.

Alĕman, giving oneself airs. unneedfully proud.

Alĕpa, careless, off one's guard, heedless, negligent. Marsden Page 13 gives Alpa as Hindu-negligent. It is also Kawi.[11]

Aleŭm, clouded and dull, threatening for rain. Covered with mist.

Aleŭt, with intermission, one by one, said of people walking, like all natives do, in a row, one by one after each other.

Alhamdulillah, ar: God be praised, God be thanked.

Ali, ar: Eminent, sublime, noble. Ta-ali, (Perhaps تَعَاٰلي taâla Fr.). exalted, most high.

Ali, as Ali talil (تَهْلِيل, tahlîl) the exordium to the prayers in the mosque.

Ali, was the son in law of Mohamad and fourth Caliph. He is generally called Bagind' ali, His Highness Ali. He was married to Fatima the daughter of Mohamad. He died AD. 660

Alia, ar: most High. (A corrupt pronounciation of اَعْلَي, the ي, ye made mobile Fr.).

Alim, ar: wise, learned, instructed. Also much used as a genteel negative, as Alim teuyn, I really do not know.

Alip, the letter A, also of the Arabic alphabet.

Allah, ar: God, the true God. Tuhan Allah, the Lord God. The word Tuhan is most likely the usual word Tuan, Mr., Sir, and it is believed the people of the Archipelago in general insert the aspirate to draw a line of demarcation, when they apply the word to God.

Allahu-akbar, ar: God is great, a favourite expression when in consternation.

Allahu-alĕm, (âlim) ar: God knows best, God only knows. An expression implying that something has gone wrong, or that some irretrievable accident has occurred.

Allah-taāla, ar: God the most High. God Almighty.

Alo, a nephew, a niece; when the father or mother, being our brother or sister is older than ourselves. See Suan. Alu, C. 789 light, lustre, from aloka C. 65. light-seeing. Thus the light of the family.

Alok, he says, he would have us believe, he pretends; this word is always followed by manéh self. Alok manéh to bogah béja he pretends he did not get news of it.

Alon, quietly, slowly, gently.

Aluan, the course of a vessel at sea; direction in which to steer.

Alu-alu, four chĕchéndét of Haramai flax.

Alun, to swim, and at the same time to support some other person or body, as a sinking boat, a loaded raft or the like. The swell of the sea, a wave.

Alun-alun, on open plain or parade ground in front of the dwellings of native official chiefs, or governors of districts, as the Regents, where processions and public ceremonies take place. Two waringin trees are always planted in the centre.

Alur, the beaten path in the forests of wild cattle and Rhinoceroses- a furrow.

Alus, fine in texture or quality, genteel, respectable, clever, cunning.

Ama, father, a refined expression used only when speaking of men of rank.

Amal, ar: pious good works, by which the grace of God is obtained.

Amar, ar: Thing, aflair, business, order, mandate, injunction. Amar allah, the mandate of God.

Amat, very, excessively, Bener amat, very true. Beurat amat, very heavy.

Ambalu, Gum-lac. The ambalu of the Sunda mountains does not give the true gumlac of commerce, which is produced by the Coccus lacca. The Sunda ambalu is nevertheless produced by a small Coccus insect found fastened upon the trees in the same way as books describe the true ambalu of commerce. In Java this ambalu is most frequently found upon the Ficus Procera or Kiara, which in common with all other figs, yields much milky sap, but does not seem to produce the lac which is valuable in commerce. Crawfurd’s Dictionary says the word in Javanese is Tambalu, which would give Tamba C. 222 copper, Baluk or Baluka C. 469, a drug, a perfume, sand, gravel. Thus copper drug, or copper sand. The colours would suggest the copper colour, and the Hindus might have imagined the substance either a drug or formed of sand. Or Tamba-copper, and Luta or Luna, C. 609, a spider, local inflammation produced by the urine or spittle of a spider, from a sort of spider forming the lac. Tamba-luta = Tambalu[12].

Ambar, ar: amnber; ambergris.

Ambar, a small foetus brought forth at full age of nine months, but unnaturally small; this child always dies, and same of them are dried and preserved as talismans or charms for good luck.

Ambar-ambar, a lot of little instruments to be used about the person, as tweezers, toothpick &c, hung together on a small ring and carried about tied to the corner of a handkerchief.

Ambĕk, passion, will, disposition for exertion. Gedé ambek a man of exertion: often a man who wants more than he is entitled to.

Ambĕkan, to draw the breath, to breathe.

Ambĕn, a belt, the girth of a saddle.

Ambén, the stage or platform before the door of a native house.

Ambĕngan, to have in readiness

Ambĕuh, to scent, to smell, to be aware of an odour.

Amblĕng, abandoned, not cared for, deserted.

Ambon, the island of Amboyna.

Ambrĕg, a united continuous report, as of guns fired off all at once.

Ambu, mother (of a human being) Ambā C 43, a mother. Ambikāwi C. 809 a mother, a wife. Ambuwa C. 44, a wife. (Ambâ, Ambikâ and Ambâlikâ, mother, are Skr. Fr.).

Ami, a designation occurring in ancient Javanese history, as a prefix to the names of men of rank. Raffles vol 2 Page 80 and 88, Ami Luhur, Ami Jaya, derived from Swami C. 783 or Hami, a master, a lord. They were the sons of Déwa Kasuma who had them sent to India to be educated, where they probably obtained the title of Swami, this was early in the 10 Century after Christ. (This is possible; Svâmi, Skr. lord. Fr.).

Amil, ar: a village priest, a petty priest.

Amin, ar: amen! so be it.

Amina, the mother of the prophet Mohammad. In the seventh year of Mohammads life, she took him from Mecca to visit his relations at Medina. They were on their way back to Mecca, when Amina sickened and died at Abwa, half way between the two places, and here she was buried.

Amir ar: a leader, a commander, an emir. Amir-al Muminin or Amir al Mumin, the commander of the faithful, a title of the Caliphs.

Amis, Sweet to the taste, luscious. Diamis an expression used in dying yarn of a red colour when it is put ont into the Sun before applying the Changkudu.

Amis, the inner or juicy bark of trees, as distinct from the onter and dry part.

Amit, to be unwilling, a polite way of excusing oneself, a polite way of asking permission, You must excuse me. Méméh di chokot kudu ngamit heula ka nu bogah, before you take it, you must ask permission from him who owns it. Amit bohong I am unwilling to tell a lie, you must excuse my telling a lie. Amit nibahken binih occurs in a paddy planting Jampé, and means, I entreat permission to scatter out the seed. (Balin. pamit id.).

Ampar, to spread out, to strew with. A layer, a stratum. Ampar samak, to spread ont a mat (to sit or squat down on). Jalan na di ampar karëés, the road was strewed or covered with gravel. Paré sa ampar, a layer of Paddy as lying in store.

Ampĕg, to abound in, full or enough of- to heart’s content.

Ampél in Javanese is a variety of Bambu. Ampél as a place in the town of Sourabaya connected with the introduction of Mohammedanism by a certain Sunan Ampél who is buried there.

Ampĕlĕm, a variety of the mango fruit. The first syllable of this word seems to be of Sanscrit origin. Amba C. 43. a mango. Pelem in Sunda is of good savour, fine taste, but to give it this interpretation, we should have to associate a pure Sanscrit with a pure Polynesian word, which is against the common run of associations. In Crawfurd’s dissertation to his Malay grammar at page 99 he has ventured to state that Mampalam a mango "is the Sanscrit. Mahâ-pala, the great fruit through the Talinga (13)."[13].

Ampihan, to put by, to keep, to take care of, to have in one’s keeping.

AmplasAmplas, the ficus politaria. A tree the rough leaves of which are much used to polish wood or horn.

Ampo, said of animals, particularly buffaloes and deer, wich lick the places where salt has been deposited, or are in the habit of licking the ground or rocks which contain some saline matter. Batu Ampo, is ampo stone which is found in many parts of Java and eaten by the natives. It is either a rock in a high state of decomposition, from having undergone a sort of caries in situ, or, in other cases, may be an aggregation of minute animal exuviae.

Ampok, a plate of Silver, or of any other metal, worn by naked children to cover their nudities.

Amprok, in conjunction with, joined to.

Amprokkěn, to shove up close to, to put together.

Ampun, forgiveness, pardon. Ménta ampun to ask pardon.

Amuk, to fight furiously, to attack indiscriminately, to smash and destroy. Said of any animal unmanageable from rage. This is the word which has given origin to the expression of "running a muck," as it is also Malay. Imah na di amuk, he pulled the house to pieces. Jelema sakitu loba na di amuk ku sorangan nana, such a large number of people, he ran a muck amongst singlehanded. Si amuk one of the three heirloom guns on Java the amuck-maker. See Guntur Gěni and Nyai Stomi.

An, is a particle of much and extensive use; its place is as a suffix to the word to which it relates, and is very extensively used with Pa as a prefix. Pa-gawé- an work, from gawé to work. Pa-mabok-an, a drunkard, from mabok, drunk. It often gives to substantives and adjectives a verbal form, as anak, a child, anakan to have a child, to bring forth. Hadé, good, Hadéan, to make good, to mend; Batur a companion, Baturan, to keep company with, to accompany; Imah, a house, Imahan, to put up a house on any spot. Jĕro deep, Jĕro-an, to deepen, to dig deep.
This dictionary has not been overburdened by inserting all derivative words formed with an which are in common use, but when an is found subjoined to a word, the meaning will easily be traced by referring to the crude or simple part of the word, as Hadé good will be found, and the composition Hadé-an will easily suggest itself, to make good, to repair.

Anak, a child; the offspring of any animal, the young, a seedling plant, an offset, a sapling; the interest on money, see Bibit. Anak is extensively used to designate not alone the young of any animal, but also a subordinate part of some larger implement or body, of which the following are examples.

Anak chau, young plantain sprouts used for transplanting.

Anak chělaka, a person habitually unlucky, a luckless wight.

Anak Jawa, a Javanese.

Anak kambing, a lamb, a kid.

Anak kěbo, Buffaloe calf.

Anak kotok, a chicken.

Anak kuda, a foal.

Anak kunci, a key

Anak létah, the uvula, at the back of the tongue.

Anak lochéng, the clap of a bell.

Anak Malayu, a malay.

Anak mas, a slave born in the master's house. Such slave children are often illegitimate, but an anak mas is not necessarily illegitimate, as the mother may be legally married either to a slave or a freeman, but the mother being a slave the child is also born in bondage. Mas in this instance is probably mas C. 55 flesh, a child of the flesh, and thus born unto the state of the mother.

Anak panah, an arrow.

Anak paré, the sterns of Paddy which tiller out form a parent stock.

Anak prahu, a sailor.

Anak roda, the spoke of a wheel.

Anak sapi, a calf, the young of the cow kind.

Anak téré, a step child.

Anak uching, a kitten.

Anak wolanda, a Dutchman, a person of European parentage.

Anakan, to bear a child, to bring forth young.

Anak-anakan, a puppet, a doll, an image.

Ananta, C. 26 from an not, and anta end; Endless, eternal, infinite; also an epithet or name of the king of the Nagalokaya the region of serpents or dragons. See Anta Boga. (Skr. Nâgaloka). Anawadak, a Pelican, called in Malay Undan-Pelicanus onocrotolos.

Anchak, a kind of temporary platter, generally about 8 inches square, made of split bambu wattled together, with a bit of plantain leaf upon it. Such anchaks are especially used when making offerings at Kramats or ancient Balais, or to the tigers in the forest, where they are always left, and not used a second time.

Anchak, Ficus Rumphiï, a variety of fig tree, found about Batavia where it is also called Kayu Bodi; it resembles the Bo-gaha of Ceylon, which is the sacred tree of Buddha, of which circumstance Kayu Bodi may be meant to convey the idea, and may then have been imported into Java with the Buddhist religion, of which it forms so prominent a feature in Ceylon. Bo C. 480 a tree, the ficus religiosa. Dhi C. 302 understanding, intellect, knowledge, thus the tree of knowledge, or knowledge derived from this particular tree. Vide voce Bodi. (14).[14]

Anchěléh, sneaking off, trying to avoid work or trouble, working with indifference.

Anchik, to put up, to hang out, said of a person's abode. Sok anchik di imah batur, he mostly hangs out with the neighbours.

Anchol, a promontory, a headland, a projection into the Sea.

Andaya ning Rat, a celebrated chief of Majapahit and successful leader of the forces of his country. He is also known by the title of Ratu Pěngging. The king of Majapahit gave him his daughter in marriage, and afterwards, admitted him to a share in the government. Raffles vol 2 P. 121/3. Andaya C. 33, share, portion, part, Ning, of the—Rat, country. (Dâja Skr. portion an prefix. Fr.).

Andé, supposing that, a figure in argument.

Andé, a close companion, a confidential friend; much used in conjunction with Sobat, as Sobat andé, a determined friend.

Anděg, to slay in one's course, to stop suddenly while running.

Anděl, to believe, to place confidence in, to trust, to confide.

Anděr, an upright post which supports the ridge-pole of a house.

Andika, thou, you. as applied to a person on equality with ourself, the same as te Javanese handiko , to order, to give command. (Handiko in Javanese means also thou, you. Fr.).

Andis, a kind of swallow.

Andong, a species of very large bambu, also called awi gédé, the big Bambu, Bambusa maxima.

Andung, a variety of thin palm tree, used for spear handles.

Ang, unwilling, I won't, a child's expression. Ang'ar, bad, poor soil; soil in which whatever is planted thrives badly.

Ang'ar-Éng'ér, to be pleased, to be smirking and in a good humour.

Ang'él, having to wait a long time; having trouble to get through business; provoking and unnecessary detention, such as native Chiefs take care to give to those who have to do with them, thereby showing, as they fancy, their importance.

Angěn, anatomically, the liver; morally, the heart, disposition; the pith of a tree, the inner part of a bambu; the soft part which lines the tubes of bambu. Leutik ang'en, little hearted, wanting pluck, discouraged. Gedé ang'en, great hearted, having courage, in spirits, enterprising. Ang'en goréng, bad hearted, deceitful, malicious. Ang'en putih, white-hearted, sincere, candid.

Ang'ět, warm, a genial glow, agreeably warm as clothing &c.

Ang'ěun, stewed or boiled vegetables, immersed in their juice.

Anggal, light in water, buoyant, easily floating.

Anggang, apart, gaping, with an interstice between any two objects.

Anggara, Tuesday, an ancient denomination for this day, derived from Bhuddist times, see Dité.

Angaharuw-a, C. 13. the planet mars. (Angâra Skr. the planet Mars.)

Anggarhéman, the word with wich some songs commence, particularly accompaniments to the angklung, but of which no one can give any intelligible meaning.

Anggěl, a pillow, a cushion.

Anggěus, Done, fineshed, used up, completed- an exclamation as, all's over! it's done! a preposition set before verbs and adjectives to show that an action has been completed, and in this case it is generally contracted into geus, as geus datang he has come; geus gedé, he has become great, geus béak, it is all gone, all used up.

Anggo, to reserve for one's own particular use; to have for one's own private use.

Anggo, a method of taking fish by making enclosures which allow the water to pass through but retaining the fish; much the same as Agombongan which see.

Anggon–anggon, apparel clothing.

Anggor, Persian-wine-Buah anggor, grapes.

Anggor, a bunch or string of Peuteui fruit.

Anggrék, a beautiful and fragrant epidendron or orchideous plant, often found on fruit trees.

Anggrit, Nauclea lanceolata, a hard, heavy and durable wood.

Anggur, rather, in preference. Angguran montong leumpang manan nindak ayeuna, I would rather not go at all, than start now.

Angin, the wind, a whisper of information as if brought bij the wind. angin kalér, the north wind; angin puyuh, a whirlwind; Luhuran ang’in, above the wind, to windward; Handapan ang’in below the wind, to leeward. Kula meunang angin, I have got information, literally I have got wind of anything.

Ang'ir, to wash and cleanse the head and hair with some lixivium.

Ang'it, to arrange or compile a book.

Angka, a figure, a cipher, a letter, shape, outline. Angka, C. 11 a mark, a spot, a badge, a vestige, a line, a stroke; ornament, decoration. (In Skr. also a cipher. Fr.).

Angkanan, to intend to do, to propose doing.

Angkat, to take away, to lift up, to raise, to remove from its place, to carry off, to proceed on a journey.

Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, when it was destroyed in anno Javae 1400 AD. 1478. The word means the ,, Badge of Victory.” He is also called Alit Wijaya or Brawijaya. Alit in Javanese means little.

Angkĕr, any thing that must be done quickly, expedition. Paréntah angker, an order that must be immediately attended to; a sharp order.

Angkĕuh, to have a mind, to intend, to have in view. Angkeuh na daik ka Batawi, I intend to go to Batavia, Di angkeuhan kénéh, I still intend to do it.

Angklung, a musical instrument made of bambus, cut off at the ends, like the pipes of an organ, and being strung together in a frame, are shook to elicit their tones.

Angkuh, proud, arrogant, impolite, rude.

Angkul, a wattled hurdle of split bambus, used in the construction of dams in the mountain rivers. The pole of such an angkul is called Ranchatan, and the split wattled bambu Tali pitik.

Angkul golér, an angkul which in constructing a dam in a river, lies flat on the bottom of the river, and on which the damn is constructed. It often prevents the whole dam from settling, and holds the Chagaks or stakes in their places.

Angkup, the slough cast by a fresh leaf bursting from its bud.

Angkus, to refrain, to hold in passion or desire.

Ang'on, to watch or take care of buffaloes, or other cattle, whilst at pasture, whilst grazing. This is the usual occupation of children and young lads, who are hence called Budak ang'on, and to whom the buffaloes become much attached.

Angot, exceedingly, violently, in an excessive degree.

Angsana, name of a tree, Pterocarpus Indica. It grows up to be a large tree. Its leaves are pennate, and fall off about once in eight months. The tree frequently becoming quite bare for a few days before the new ones make their appearance. The tree bears handsome bunches of yellow flowers, terminal on the branches. The seeds have thin butterfly-wing appendages, and hence the Botanical name Pterocarpus, wing-fruit. The word is evidently Sanscrit, though the nearest approach to it in Clough is only Asanâ C. 66. a seat; also a tree, ficus religiosa, possibly from such tree being holy, and under its shade the seat of holy men. In the Sunda districts it will frequently be found planted in old grave yards or Kramats. The tree grows plentifully throughout the Archipelago, and is said to yield the large slab tables of the Moluccos, where it is called Kayu Lengoa Mr. Friederich informs me that in Sancrit Asana has also the meaning of „sitting in some peculiar position, as is the custom of devotees” May the word asana, as the etymon of our Angsana tree have had its origin in this tree being often selected for the place where former devotees chose to sit and meditate, and from this holy character of the tree, it was planted about the graves of the deceased? (15).[15].

Angsěrot, a syrringe, a squirt-usually made of a bit of bambu and used for squirting Tuba or intoxicating water at fish in holes.

Angsěuk, to push forward to, to attack, to force forward.

Angsur, to push forward, to shove together, to push along the ground Suluh na angsurken deui, push the fire wood together again, when mending a fire of logs lying on the ground.

Anjěrogkěn, to come to a crisis, to come to the denoument of story.

Anjian, to copulate, said only of brutes.

Anjing, a dog, canis- a term of reproach; the big-headed ants, which bite so hard, and appear to be the guardians in a hillock of white ants.

Anjing awéwé, a female dog, a bitch.

Anjingan, to hunt or bait with dogs.

Anjog, Prematurely, too early, untimely.

Anjukan, haughty, overbearing, always having one's own way. Jélema anjukan, a bully, an unruly person.

Anjur, a kind of shovel shaped instrument made by fixing the upih of a Pinang tree, or a bit of broad bark of any kind, between a forked stick for the purpose of throwing up water from a hole; for baling out water.

Anom, properly Javanese- young, youthful.

Anta, brackish, having a taste of sea water.

Anta Boga, The presiding deity over the lowest region of the universe; he was in shape like a dragon. He caught in his mouth the Chupu with its Retna Dumila as it fell from the hands of the superior deities and swallowed it. The Retna Dumila subsequently became the Dayang Trusnawati, who presides over Paddy cultivation. Anta Boga afterwards delivered up the Retna Dumila to Sengyang Guru. The name Anta Boga occurs in Sunda Jampe's for paddy planting, associated with Trusnawati, which see. Anta, C. 32, a boundary, a limit; final, ultimate and sometimes death. Bhoga, C. 500, a snakes body, the extended hood of a snake; food, eating, wealth, riches. The Dragon of death. See Ananta. If Anta here is an abbreviation of ananta, then it will mean the „Eternal Dragon” the „undying dragon.”

Antanan, a very common creeping herb, with circular, scalloped leaves, and seeds growing on the roots. It has a bitter taste but is much eaten by the natives. Hydrocotyle asiatica.

Antara, between, even until, even unto, until, among. Interval- Antara C. 33, within, between, amongst. Antara bukti even until obtaining. Antara gunung jeung laut, between the mountains and the sea.

Antěl, driven hard up, pressing against, so as not to be able to go any further.

Antělas, ar: Satin.

Antěn, there is, there are, to exist, to be in any particular spot- Anten siji, there is one Tanten for To anten, there are none.

Antěp, in an excessive degree. Antep ing hadé, the very best- Di antep to carry to far, to be too severe, to overdo.

Antěp-antěpan, too severely, going beyond reasonable bounds.

Antěr, to conduct, to attend, to follow as a companion, or in suit; to carry, to convey. Aing kudu di anteur ka imah, I must be conducted (or attended) home. Di anterken deui ka nu bogah, it was carried back to its owner.

Antér, Slow, intentionally drawling; causing unnecessary delay.

Anti, to wait, to delay, to tarry; to long for. Di anti-anti, to wait for, to hang on in attendance.

Anting, a variety of ear- ring, with a piece of gold, silver or other metal curving in a circle under the ear. See Karabu.

Anting, backwards and forwards, back again the same day- as Pulang anting, to go and return time same day. See Untang anting.

Anu, an undefined expression, often of forgetfulness or doubt, as we might say, „thingumee” such a one, so and so, such a thing. Si anu, Mr. Somebody- Mr. Thingumee. Di béré anu, he gave me so and so- See Étaun.

Anut, to submit, submitting to, obedient, submissive.

Anyam, to plait or braid; to work baskets or matting- to intertwine.

Anyar, new, fresh, recent, Imah anyar a new house; Jamang anyar, a new jacket.

Anyar, The name of a place in the Straits of Sunda, called by the English Anjir, after the Dutch spelling, and where ships from Europe frequently call for refreshments.

Anyaran, to renew, to make afresh.

Apa-bila, when, at what time, whenever, as soon as. Apa-bila is also Malay, from which it has most likely been taken, as betrayed by the word Apa, which, what. Marsden P. 61 gives Bila as Hindu and meaning, time, point of time. Wela and wélâ C. 672 half a day, any portion of a day- time. Apal, versed in, skilled in, well acquinted with any matter.

Apěm, a kind of confectionary or paste made with rice flour. Appa C. 63. a kind of cake or muffin made of rice flour.

Apěs, delicate, easily laid up with illness; pretending to be disgusted; nice, in the sense of not liking rough work; Babari apes, téré mepes, easily disgusted, yon will soon be at a loss- that is, you must not shrink from disagreeable work if you mean to succeed.

Api-api, to feign, to sham, to counterfeit; dissembling.

Api-api name of a tree with hard stem, growing in mud on sea-shore. It makes good fire wood. Aegiceras majus.

Apik, careful, attentive at any work; guarded in conduct; neat, smart.

Apiokkěn, to put together, join or unite together for any definite purpose.

Apis, as Apis buntut, the crupper of a saddle.

Apiun, ar: Opium- See Madat- the inspissated juice of the poppy.

Apok, in conjunction, along with, met, put together.

Aprok, to meet, to find, to be in conjunction with, to meet while out and abroad

Apu, lime, either burnt from shells, coral or limestone.

Apu-apuan, Calotropis gigantea, a plant otherwise called Badori which see. The leaves are largish with a whitish pila on them, which look as if lime had been dredged on them, hence the name which alludes to this peculiarity.

Apun, a rank of birth below mas, and above Uyang.

Apung, to fly, to dart, or to fling up into the air; to jump up; to toss up the head- Manuk apung, the lark,

Apus, the crupper of a saddle; a rope; a string.

Apus, a variety of Bambu. Bambusa apus.

Apus or Sa apus, is a quantity of three hoyas of Plantain fruit.

Arab, ar: an Arab, Arabian, Arabia. Nagara arab, the country of Arabia. Orang Arab an Arab Person.

Arad, a drag-net to catch fish with. Di arad, to drag a net for fish.

Arafat, ar: a hill to the Eastward of Mecca, to which the pilgrims resort, and which ceremony forms part of the process of becoming a Haji. The visit to the hill of Arafat is made on the 9th of time month of Haji, and terminates on the 12th. Arafat is some 15 or 16 miles to the Eastward of Mecca.

Arah, to wish for, to covet, to desire, to have in mind to get. To di arah deui, it is no longer desired, no further use will be made of it.

Arak, an ardent spirit made from rice, palm wine and molasses, Arrack-Arakku, C. 45. Arrack, a spirituous liquor.

Arak, a kind of hardwood; vitex leucoxylon; the same as Laban.

Arak, to carry in triumphal procession, especially as the bride at a marriage, or children just before they are to be circumcised. Aram, brushwood used for consolidating or giving substance to boggy roads, embankments, dikes, dams &c. brushwood laid down on a muddy road.

Aran, a name; as to- Aran hadé, nya hanto, as to its being good, indeed it is not (Jav. id).

Arang-arang, name of a fish in some rivers.

Arangan, name of a fish, the same as Arang-arang.

Arap, bits of string in weaving, which raise the alternate threads.

Arapat, ar: the mountain of Arafat near Mecca, where some of the ceremonies of becoming Haji take place. See Arafat.

Arapap-ěrěupěup, to stutter, not to be able to articulate clearly.

Arawah, also much called Roa, the eighth month of the Mohammedan year; otherwise also called Saban.

Ardi, mountain, occurs sometimes in the composition of proper names, and is Kawi. (Scr. adri, a mountain; herefrom are formed in Javanese ardi and redi, by transposition. Fr.)

Aré, The open country, or where there is little or only young jungle, in contradistinction to the mountainous and forest parts. Orang are, the people living in open country; this expression also sometimes implies evil spirits, demons.

Arěp, to exspect, to hope for, to look for; To di arep deui, I no longer expect it. I do not expect to see him again.

Arěs-arěsan, sweepings of rice mixed with sand and dust, picked up for use.

Areui, Jungle rope; the twining and long runners which abound in all tropical forests, much used as bands or ropes. Called in French Liane. Called in Malay Oyod, which word in Javanese means Root thus the idea of root is conveyed, when speaking of these lianes, which spread their roots above ground.

Argopuro, according to Javanese pronunciation: otherwise Argapura. The highest part of the Iyang mountains in Basuki, 9237 feet high, covered with rude terraces and traces of ancient worschip.

Argha, C. 47. Reverence, mode of worschip.
Arghya, C. 47. renerable, deserving worship, respectable.
Pura, C. 409. a city, a town, a collection of houses, a house or cluster of houses walled in.
Argha-pura, the worshipful city- or place to worship at.
Pûra, C. 415 a piece of water, a large quantity of water.
Argha-pāra, the worshipful water, the water deserving worship.
At one place on the top of the Argopuro, is a sort of hollow, going down into the ground about six feet perpendicular. It is so narrow that a man can with difficulty get up and down it. On the top of the Argopuro, Mr. Zollinger found several glazed pots partly whole and partly broken. They are about two feet high and have a mouth one foot wide, but belly out below.
Can there have been some worship of sacred water on the top of the Iyang? Tijdschrift 8 year 2e No. Feb. 1846. The Dayaks are still fond of possessing large earthenware jars for religious purposes, and the Sunda people often tell you of mysterious jars having been found at Balais or sacred spots amongst the mountains. (16).[16]

Ari, If, in case that, now supposing that; Ari daik, chokot bai, if you like, you have only to take it.

Aria, or Ariya, a rank of office below Tumunggung

Aryya- C. 48. a Person of eminence, a man of worth, a master.
Ayrya- C. 64, a term of high respect, of veneration, and applied to persons of high descent. One of the names of Buddha, but particularly applied to the priests of Buddha. In the Pali form it is called Ariya- C. 64. (Arya with long â, of a good family, Skr., is in the old time of Bali (and Java) one of the titles of the Xatriyas. Fr.)

Ariya Bang'a, a character in ancient Javanese history, connected with the foundation of Majapahit and Pajajaran, and elder brother of Chiung Wanara. See Raffles 2 vol P. 100. Ariya Bang'a having settled at Majapahit. Bang'a C. 486. breaking, splitting, a fissure, a division, defeat, discomfiture. Ariya Banga was probably so called from breaking or splitting the country into two separate dominions.

Ariya Damar, the son of Angka Wijaya, the last king of Majapahit, by a witch of the Gunung Lawu. He was an enterprising youth and was sent by his father in command of an army against Bali, in consequence of which Bali became tributary to Majapahit. Ariya Damar was subsequently appointed to be chief of Palembang on Sumatra. To Palembang he carried the Champa Princess, who had been married to the king of Majapahit (his father?) and who had by him a son called Raden Patah. This princess had subsequently another son by Ariya Damar, called Raden Husen, and these two brothers were instrumental in upsetting Hinduism in Java, and introducing Mohammedanism. Raffles vol 2 Pages 115/117.

Ari-ari, as Tali-ari-ari, the after birth.

Arip-ar: intelligent, wise, acute, skilful.

Ari-raya, a holiday, a festive occasion. This is Malay, but still often used by the Sundas. Raya in Achinese is great, and the Malays may have borrowed the expression from them, and it will thus mean „the Great day”. Arit, an agricultural instrument like a hedging bill, called in Malay Parang. It is universally used for cutting grass, or for cleaning away weeds in gardens.

Arjuna, C. 48. gives Arjjuna. The name of a king with a thousand arms, see Bisnu. Arjuna is a celebrated character in the old Javanese legends.

Arjuno, name of a mountain on the confines of Sourabaya and Pasuruan, 10.709 Rhine- land feet high.

Aro, the large bottlefly, such as lays the eggs for maggots. Musca vomitoria.

Aros, a kind of gingham cloth in stripes of blue and white.

Arotan, festivels in former times; the word occurs in Pantuns.

Aru-aru, to meddle with, to disturb, to oppose or give oflence.

Arum, fragrant, sweet-scented.

Asa, I think, to be under the impression, to feel. Murah kitu asa di béré, It is cheap in that way, I feel as if it were given. Asa, C. 66, an interjection of recollection.

Asā. C. 65, wish, desire, hope.

Asa-an, to taste, to try, to take a taste, to make a trial.

Asad, ar: the zodiacal sign Leo.

Asah, to sharpen, to whet, to rub or grind upon a stone. Kuda di asah it must be sharpened. Ki asahan, name of a liane or jungle rope, good for using as a rope in tying fences, or making dams in rivers, Tetracera dichotoma.

Asak, ripe, done enough in cooking. Buwah asak, ripe fruit. Kéjo asak properly boiled rice.

Asakan, to cook, to boil, to dress food.

Asal, ar: origin, source, race, descent, beginning, commencement. Asal na li Pajajaran, his descent or origin is from Pajajaran.

Asal, as long as, so that, provided that. Asal ulah di leburken, as long as you do not spoil it. Asal meunang siji bai gé hadé, provided that you get only one, it will do. Asal opat kaki jangkung na, mahi, as long as it is four feet high, it will be enough.

Asana, I think, it strikes me; Asana mohal di béré, it strikes me he will not give it.

Asang, the gills of a fish.

Asar, ar: that period of the day which is towards 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and is the third prayer hour with the Mohammedans.

Asělan, to replace seed or plants, that have failed. To fill in.

Asěm, a tamerind tree-Tamerindus Indica.

Asěm Jawa, the acid of Java; tamerind prepared for use.

Asép, a name of courtesy given to the male children of nobles, or of great men being a contraction of Kasép, handsome.

Asěruk, to walk about and examine, as a garden or a forest.

Asih, love, affection, pity, commiseration.

Asilar: revenue, income, produce, profit, gain. Asin, salt, saltish, salted. Daging asin, salt meat. Chi asin salt water, the water of the sea.

Asmara, the same as Samara, the deity of love which see. Samara C. 710. from Sa for Saha, with- Mâra an enemy; having the passions unsubdued. (17).[17]

Asongkěn, to push forward, to shove along, to push on to eucounter-to set afighting.

Asrah, to surrender, to submit, to give one self up, to ask for mercy; yielded, submitted. Sarahken in Sunda is also to give up, to surrender anything.

Asrakal, the act of standing up in prayer. (ar.)

Asta, a cubit, the measure from the elbow to the tips of fingers. Hasta C 789 the hand, a cubit measured by the hand and arm, from the elbow to the middle finger.

Astaghafarillah ar: an exclamatio nof astonishment or of sudden alarm: may God avert, may God preserve us. God bless me!

Astana, the burial ground of Chiefs or of great men. In Bali Pangastanan is a sort of temple where Siwa is worshipped by the mass of the people. Sthana, C. 774 from Stha to stay-place, spot, situation or Asthana C. 66. an assembly (of the dead as used for a burial place).

Astina, name of the Country of the Pandus, placed by the Javanese in the province of Pakalongan in their own Island-Crawfurd. (Skr. Hastinapura , ancient Delhi. Fr.)

Asuh, to nurse a small child, to fondle an infant in the arms; to hold such a child in the arms and swing it about.

Asur, to push together, particularly firewood or burning logs.

Asur , to bribe , to gain to one's interest by gifts.

Asuran, a bribe, a douceur.

Aswalas, a term of reproach. The words are properly Javanese and Asu- alas, dog of the woods. Suna, C. 748. a dog, derived from Su to hear, to obey, and na affirmative. alas forest. (çvan, Nominat. çvâ; cass. obliqui çun- Skr.; cf. Gr. kyôn, kyn-os; lat. c(v)an-is; Germ. hun-d. Our form here is derived from the Nominative-çvâ, with prefixed a. Fr.)

Atah, unripe, raw, not sufficiently cooked.

Atak-atak, direction, position, as Kapahung, to nyaho di Atak-atak na I lost myself in the forest, and know not in what direction (or where abouts).

Atal, Orpiment, a yellow sulphurate of arsenic, with which the natives, especially at the east end of Java , smear their bodies , and make themselves yellow , on occasions of ceremony, especially when celebrating their marriage ceremonies. Artal is given by Crawfurd who says it is Sanscrit. Atar, ar: the planet mercury.

Atas, considering, with reference to, as to, since.

Atas pelkara itu, with reference to that affair.
Atas di béré, daik bai, since you give it, I am willing to take it.

Atawa, or- Sia masih kénéh daik chicking, atawa daik undur, do you still wish to remain, or do you wish to go away. It is perhaps the same as Tawa, C. 225, more, yet, still , moreover. (Skr. athawa, or; cf. utawa, lat. aut. Jav. atawa, utawa and utawi. Fr. )

Atěr, a variety of bambu, with substantial but not very thick stem; much used for boat-hooks. Bambusa Thouarsii.

Atěul, Itchy, having an itch to do something, ticklish, prurient-

Ateul biwir, itchy in the lips, disposed to blab.
Ateul leungan, disposed to make use of one's hand's to thrash others.
Ateul suku, disposed to wander about.
Sireum ateul, the itchy ant- a red variety of ant.
Sireum ateulan, said of things which are not even and alike, as some good, some bad- some light, some heavy.

Atoh, pleased, delighted, elated, glad.

Atu, an expletive, as Atu ho! well yes- Atu ulah! now d'ont.

Atua, or, either- atua sia, atua batur, either you or your companion; see atawa. (Is the same word; awâ corrupted to ua).

Atua, old- used only with wong person, as wong atua, the old people, parents.

Atua in the Pacific, almost every where, means God, Divinity, and has no doubt its origin in the Tua or Atua of the Archipelago, meaning old, as old age every where commands respect among these people-see Tuwa and kituwa. Wong-atua.

Aub, shade, shelter, used in conjunction with Payung an umbrella, as Aub-payung, literally the shade of the umbrella, but figuratively a duty that devolves on any person, or a right that may appertain to him. Saha nu bogah aub payung, who possesses the natural right?

Audabila men éshétan irajim, the way in which natives pronounce Audzu billahi men Sheitani r’rejimi by the aid of God, against the accursed devil- see Marsdens dictionary Page 205. a form of prayer used by the natives when in trouble, and especially used when a sudden flash of lightning is seen. The words are Arabic. (أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ Fr.)

Aulia, ar: Saints, friends of God. Although an Arabic plural, it is equally used in the Archipelago as a Singular, conformably to the genius of the languages-Crawfurd.

Awab or awap, vapour, exhalation- the breath or animal perspiration visible from cold.

Awak, the body, person, the trunk.

Awak, a pronoun, thou, you, used towards an equal, and is neither so low as Sia nor so high as Andika; little used except in songs and Pantuns. Awal, ar: first, former, beginning, see ahwal.

Awang, the clouds. The etherial space. The heavens.

Awas, seeing clearly, sharpsighted, vigilant, watchful.

Awét, lasting, enduring, which can be used for a long time. Kayu awét, durable wood. Umur awét, a long life.

Awéwé, a woman, a female.

Awi, a bambu, a general name for every variety of Bambusa. The Sunda people distinguish the following varieties-

Awi Apus, resembles Awi tali, and is used much for splitting into withes.
"Atěr, strong and good for boathooks or poles.
"Bitung, large and substantial, good for posts.
"Bongkonol, small like Tamiang, of little use.
"Buluh, large but subject to be eaten by worms.
"Buluh munti, resembles Buluh, and is of little use.
"Bunar, large, good Bambu.
"Changkeǔteǔk, small sized tubes, makes neat bilik.
"Changkoré, a useless variety, cannot stand of itself, but reposes upon other bushes.

Awi-Awi-Gědé, or big bambu, called also Awi Andong; a valuable variety, much used. Bambusa maxima.

"Gěmbong, of little use, thin in wood, joints far apart.
"Gombong, much resembles Awi Gědé.
"Haur, a peculiar variety of Bambu, with thick wood and makes goods posts.
""China, a variety introduced from China, with small tubes, and grown in gardens as ornamental.
""Chuchuk, the thorny bambu, large and bearing numerous thorns or spikes- good for posts.
""Héjo, or Green Haur, very smooth and bright green, good for posts.
""Konéng, Yellow bambu, planted as ornamental.
""Tutul, spotted variety.
"Léah, striped like Awi Gedé, but is smaller.
"Mayan, a large variety, but of little use, as the worms eat it.
"Saréngkol, small, crooked variety, of no use.
"Surat, or the written bambu, from being much striped along the tubes; of universal and great use.
"Tali, of universal use for all kinds of purposes; makes good string, as its name implies. The bambus Tali, Gedé and Surat are the most useful of the whole lot.
"Tamiang, thin, used for making temporary spears.

Awi-Tela, gives the best Iwung, or edible sprouts; otherwise of little use.

"Tereleng, smallish in tubes, but stout and strong like Ater.
"Wulung or Hideung- Black- a useful bambu.

Awis, a kind of long reed or rush, growing in bushes, with seeds terminal to the stem.

Awor, deprived of virginity, deflowered.

Awt-awt, confusedly, in disorder, without any regularity.

Awul, a mysterious and apparently fabulous animal, that is heard only at night, and is reported to be somewhat of the human figure, but with feet turned backwards; it is fancied to be found only in old forests, amongst the mountains. Its name is dirived from the cry which the animal is believed to emit.

Awun-awun, the haziness which in dry weather hangs over the country, and precludes any distant view, as of the mountains.

Awur, to spread or scatter over or out- to strew about. Béas na di awurken ka buruan, he flung the rice about the yard (in front of house). Chai na di awurken ka kebon, he sprinkled the water about the garden.

Aya, is, there is, there are, to exist. Aya siji, there is one. Aya bai datang kakiwari, it still exists to this moment.

Aya, father, a very refined and respectful expression.

Ayak, to sift, to riddle.

Ayakan, a sieve, a riddle, a screen.

Ayakĕn, to cause to be, to produce, to bring forward.

Ayanda, Father- said with much respect. Aya father; endah, good. (Cf. Adenda Fr.)

Ayat, ar: a verse of the Koran.

Ayat, used in the expression Jamany ayat, a Jacket without sleeves or neck, a sort of waistcoat, or bodice.

Ayĕr-ayĕran, sreaming, neighing, sending forth a loud shrill voice.

Ayĕr Langgia- the predecessor of Jaya Baya as sovereign of Kědiri in Java. Under these two Sovereigns were prepared the greater part of the Kawi works still extant. Friederich Bat. Trans. vol 23 Page 17. He reigned in the 8th or 9th century after Christ. The name is probably derived from Ayrya C. 64 a term of high respect, of veneration; and applied to persons of high descent. One of the names of Buddha, but particularly applied to the priests of Buddha. The nearest approach which Clough affords for solution of Langgia is Langhanya, C 602, hunger, fasting, abstinence, and then the whole name would mean, „the holy and venerable man who was abstemious” Holy and abstemious”, which were characters eminently coveted by persons professing the Hindu austerities. (There is no proper derivation of this name out of the Skr. Fr.)

Ayěr mawar- Rose-water- Properly Malay.

Ayěuh, laid as corn, fallen down from over- luxuriance of growth.

Ayeŭnah, now, at this present moment.

Ayon, to compare weights, to balance one weight with another.

Ayu, handsome, pretty- in the Kawi of Java a name for the daughter or wife of a Prince. Raden ayu, a title born by native women of royal birth.

Ayuman, to mend by insertion, as a thatched roof by inserting new materials where the old had failed; or by replacing seed or plants, where they had failed in a plantation.

Ayun, to swing backwards and forwards; to rock as a cradle; to dangle a child in the arms. A ceremony performed when an infant is first taken out of the house into the open air.

Ayunan, a swinging cot for an infant.

  1. It is written in Malay اچسAchas, but pronounced as above, the last consonant being (mostly) omitted in Sumatra pronounciation. Cf. for instance Mr. W.A. Henny in „Tijdschrift voor Ned. Indië“ Vol. IV. P. 405. Aanmerkingen Fr.
  2. Bai is Javanese ꦧꦲꦺ, bahê, it might be pronounced as above, but is, I suppose, written in Sundanese as in Javanese Fr.
  3. Rather from Adi-an-da; da or hida being a pronoun of the second and third person, used in addressing high people, at present perhaps only existing in common use at Bali– Cf. tjokor-da = tjokor-hida or tjokor-hi-deva (tjokor means foot); baginda = bhagja-an-hida, and others. Fr.
  4. Adi first, prior; first, pre-eminent. Wilson. Both words are found in the western Polynesian languages Fr.
  5. The last only by mistake. Rât can be a corruption of râshira kingdom, but it is rather the nominative case of râj, king, the meaning being altered. Fr.
  6. Here it must be Adhipati, in contraposition to pati, master, herus, which is on Java a title of lower rank, born by the second, quasi the adjutant of the Regent of a division: Adhipati being not the first pat, but the upper, superior master; on Java also a title. Fr.
  7. If the derivation of Adu be right, which I rather doubt (Wadu being not found in Wilson), biru might be Skr. bhîru, timid, fearful, and adu biru would be to fight as a coward; not withstanding I mistrust the derivation of both words, and suppose them rather to be Polynesian. The same observation is applicable to all the derivations from such words out of Clough, as are no Sanscrit. Fr.
  8. I should divide Loa or loha = loka, (Cf. Patuha, a mountain in the Priangan regencies, which I am inclined to derive from Skr. Pâtuka, the declivity of a mountain. The same alteration of K. into h. is a rule in the Battak language)- and djarâ (being old age, djarat old) thus the old of the world (or of the age) Fr.
  9. The softening of the cha to ja is not necessary for the Polynesian organ, and is a thing rather unheard of. The only softening of a tenuis to a media that takes place in Malay and Javanese is that of ka to ga. Cf. Segala, telaga with the Sakala and talaka Fr.
  10. Saka is considered by the Javanese as founder of their civilisation, of their old religion and especially as having introduced writing and reading. So the term Aji, which they put to his name. I suppose to be nothing else than the word Aji (Page 7.) which the writer and I derive from adhi-i, to read, where from by a small and common alteration becomes aji Fr.
  11. In its formation the word might be compared with jelema in the place of jalma which is the same as janma in Skr. and Kawi, meaning birth, but in Sundanese that which is born, especially mankind. Fr.
  12. Tambalu, does not occur in the Javanese dictionary of Gericke, edited by T. Roorda. Amsterdam 1847; neither exists it in Wilson. 1st edition. Tamba is no Sanscrit; the words given for copper bij the Amara Kosta are: Tâmraka, (in Wilson is also to be found tâmra), çulva, mlechamukha. dvyashta, waristha udumbara. From tamraka is the Javanese-Malay tembaga a corruption, occasioned by the difficult pronounciation of mr. Tamba might be a Ceylonese corruption of tâmra; but it is rather an established fact, that Ceylonese, or Pali words have got no intrance into the Malay and Javanese, but only true Sanscrit ones. The rest of the above derivation will perhaps not be tasted by etymologists, and I restrain from judging about it. Fr.
  13. (13) According to Wilson and the Amara Kosha are Amra and Amrâtaka or Amrâta, reap. the mango and a variety of it, the Spondias mangifera. Amba might be Pali Fr.
  14. (14) Bodhi means in the first place understanding, in the second place the holy fig tree. Wilson. The tree received this name, because the Buddha received his understanding, or revelation, sitting in meditation under such a tree. Fr.
  15. (15) Asana and Angsana are no doubt the same word; out of some hundred, where the Javanese have put a nasal sound into a Sanscrit word. it suffice to name the word angkasa in place of Skr. ākāça. Asana with first long ā now as wel as Asana and Açana, have besides some other meanings also that of a tree, Terminalia alata tomentosa, which seems to indicate the same as our Pterocarpus Indica. Clough speaks according to Ceylonese information. Asana „sitting in the position of a devotee” has certainly given the origin of the tree being also called, he sharing the holiness of some kinds of ficus, which were selected for the same purpose. Fr.
  16. Argha is not only a mode of worship; an oblation (of eight ingredients), Wilson: but also the vessel where such oblations are placed in. It appears nearly always in conjunction with the Lingga and Jonî, (the latter forming even part of the Argha) and leads us with some certainty, principally in olden times, to distinguish the worship of Siva, in his mean (originally Dekhanic) from, The mountain called „town of the Argha“, is not far from the city called Probolingo „the illustrious linga“ (Prabhâ—lingga.) Cf. Moore Hindu Pantheon, p. 385 sqq. and plates 83. 84. 85. and principally 86. Besides the Sandhya or daily prayers of the Brahmins by Mrs. Belnos Plate 13.
  17. (17) Smara Skr. derived from smri, memorem esse (memor = me- smor); cf for the application of the word (love, the God of love), the Latin cura. The a is prefixed, as in many words, to facilitate the pronunciation Fr.