A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature/List of Abbreviations

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List of Abbreviations

a.=and.
a. e.=and elsewhere.
a. fr.=and frequently.
a. l.=ad locum.
a. v. fr.=and very frequently.
Ab.=Aboth (Mishnah).
Ab. d'R. N.=Aboth d'Rabbi Nathan (a late Talmudic treatise).
Ab. Zar.=Abodah Zarah (Talmud).
abbrev.=abbreviated or abbreviation.
add.=additamenta (Hosafah to Pesik. R.)
adj.=adjective.
adv.=adverb.
Ag. Hatt.=Agadoth hat-Torah (quoted in Rabbinowicz Variæ Lectiones).
Alf.=Alfasi (Hilkhoth Rabbenu Alfasi).
Am.=Amos.
Ar.=Arukh (Talmudic Lexicon by R. Nathan Romi).
Ar. Compl.=Arukh Completum ed. Alexander Kohut, Vienna 1878-85.
Arakh.=Arakhin (Talmud).
art.=article.
B. Bath.=Baba Bathra (Talmud), v. Kel.
b. h.=Biblical Hebrew.
B. Kam.=Baba Kamma (Talmud), v. Kel.
B. Mets.=Baba M'tsi a (Talmud), v. Kel.
B. N.=Beth Nathan (quoted in Rabbinowicz Variæ Lectiones).
Bab.=Babli (Babylonian Talmud).
Bart.=Bartenora, Bertinora (commentary to Mishnah).
beg.=beginning.
Beitr.=Beiträge zur Sprach- und Alter- thumsforschung, by Michael Sachs, Berlin 1852—54, 2 vols, v. Berl. a. Hildesh.
Bekh.=B'khoroth (Talmud).
Ber.=B'rakhoth (Talmud).
Berl.= Berliner (editor of Targum Onkelos).
Berl. Beitr.=Berliner Beiträge zur Geographie und Ethnographie Babyloniens, Berlin 1884.
Bets.— Betsah (Talmud).
B'ḥuck.=B'ḥuḳḳothay (a pericope).
Bicc.=Biccurim, Bikkurim (Mishnah and Tosefta).
bot.=bottom of page.
B'resh.=B'reshith (name of a pericope).
B'shall.=B'shallaḥ (name of a pericope).
c.=common gender.

Cant.=Canticum (Song of Songs).
Cant. B.=Canticum Rabbah (Midrash Shir hash-Shirim or Ḥazitha).

ch.
Ch.
=Chaldaic.

Chron.=Chronicles, Book of.
cmp.=compare (mostly referring to association of ideas).
comment.=commentary or commentaries.
comp.=compound or composed.
contr.=contracted or contraction.
contrad.=contradistinguished.
corr. acc.=correct accordingly.
corrupt.=corruption.
Curt. Griech. Etym.=Curtius Griechische Etymologie.
Dan.=Daniel, Book of.
Darkhe Mish.=Frankel, Hodegetica in Mishnam, Leipzig 1859 (Hebrew).
def.=defining or definition.
Del.=Delitzsch, Friedrich.
Del. Assyr. Handw.=Delitzsch Assyrisches Handwörterbuch, Leipzig 1896.
Del. Proleg.=Delitzsch Prolegomena einesneuen Hebräisch-Aramäischen Wörterbuchs &c.
Dem.=D'mai (Mishnah, Tosefta a. Y'rushalmi).
denom.=denominative.
Der. Er.=Derekh Erets (Ethics, a late Talmudic treatise, Rabbah [the great], Zuta [the small]).
Deut.=Deuteronomy, Book of.
Deut. B.=Deuteronomy Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Deut.).

diff.
differ.
=different interpretation or differently interpreted.

dimin.=diminutive.
Du.=Dual.
ed.=edition or editions (current editions, opposed to manuscripts or especially quoted editions).
Ed=Eduyoth (Mishnah and Tosefta).
ellipt.=elliptically.
Erub.=Erubin (Talmud).
esp.=especially.
Esth.=Esther, Book of.
Esth. R.= Esther Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Esther).
Ex.=Exodus, Book of.
Ex. R.=Exodus Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Sh'moth).
expl.=explained.
explan.=explanation.
Ez.=Ezekiel, Book of.
Fl.=Fleisher, appendix to Levy's Targumic or Talmudic Lexicon.
foreg.=foregoing.
fr.=from.
freq.=frequently.
Fr.=Friedman (edition).
Prank.=Frankel, v. Darkhe, and M'bo.
Gem.=G'mara.
Gen.=Genesis, Book of.
gen. of=genitive of.
Gen. R.=Genesis Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to B'reshith).
Ges. H. Dict.=Gesenius Hebrew Dictionary, 8th German edition.
Gitt.=Giṭṭin.
Gloss.=Glossary.
Hab.=Habakkuk, Book of.
Hag.=Haggai, Book of.
Ḥag.=Ḥăgigah (Talmud).
Ḥall.=Ḥallah (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y'rushalmi).
Hif.=Hifil.
Hildesh. Beitr.=Hildesheimer Beiträge zur Geographie Palestinas, Berlin 1886.
Hithpa.=Hithpaël.
Hithpo.=Hithpolel.
Hor.=Horayoth (Talmud).
Hos.=Hosea, Book of.
Ḥuck.=Ḥuḳḳath (a pericope).
Ḥull.=Ḥullin (Talmud).
intens.=intensive.
introd.=introduction (פתיחתא‎).
Is.=Isaiah, Book of.
Isp.=Ispeel.
Ithpa.=Ithpaal.
Ithpe.=Ithpeel.
Jer.=Jeremiah, Book of.
Jon.=Jonah.
Jos.=Josephus.
Josh.=Joshua, Book of.
Jud.=Judices, Book of Judges.

K.A.T.
KAT
=Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament by Schrader (second edition), Giessen 1883.

Kel.=Kelim (Mishnah and Tosefta, the latter divided into Baba Ḳamma, M'tsiʿa, and Bathra).
Ker.=K'rithoth (Talmud).
Keth.=K'thuboth (Talmud).
Kidd.=Ḳiddushin (Talmud).
Kil.=Kilayim (Mishnah, Tosefta and Talmud Y'rushalmi).
Kin.=Ḳinuim (Mishnah).
Koh.=Koheleth, Book of Ecclesiastes.
Koh. Ar. Compl.=Kohut in Aruch Completum.
Koh. R.=Koheleth Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Ecclesiastes).
l. c.=loco citato or locum citatum.
Lam.=Lamentations, Book of.
Lam. R.=Lamentations Rabbah (Midrash Rabbah to Lam.; Ekhah Rabbathi).
Lev.=Leviticus, Book of.
Lev. R.=Leviticus Rabbah (Midrash
Rabbah to Leviticus, Vayyiḳra Rabbah).
M. Kat.=Moʿed Ḳaṭon (Talmud).
Maas. Sh.=Maʿăser Sheni (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Talmud Y'rushalmi).
Maasr.=Maʿasroth (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Talmud Y'rushalmi).
Macc.=Maccoth, Makkoth (Talmud).
Maim.=Maimonides.
Makhsh.=Makhshirin (Mishnah and
Tosefta).
Mal.=Malachi, Book of.
marg. vers.=marginal version.
Mass.=Massekheth (Treatise).
Mat. K.=Matt'noth K'hunnah (commentary to Midrash Rabbah).
M'bo=Frankel, Introductio in Talmud Hierosolymitanum. Breslau 1870 (Hebrew).
Meg.=M'gillah (Talmud).
Meil.=M'ʿilah (Talmud).
Mekh.=M'khilta(a Midrash to portions of Exodus).
Men.=M'naḥoth (Talmud).
Mic.=Micah, Book of.
Midd.=Middoth (Mishnah).
Midr.=Midrash.
  „ Sam.=Midrash Samuel.
  „ Till.=Midrash Tillim (Midrash to Psalms, Shoḥer Ṭob).
Mikv.=Mikvaoth (Mishnah and Tosefta
Mish.=Mishnah.
 „ N. or Nap.=Mishnah, editio Napolis.
 „ Pes.=Mishnah, editio Pesaro.
Mishp.=Mishpaṭim (name of a pericope).
Ms.=Manuscript
 „ F.=Manuscript Florence.
 „ H.=Hamburg.
 „ K.=Karlsruhe.
 „ M.=Munich.
 „ 0.=Oxford.
 „ R.=Rome.
Mus.=Musafia (additamenta to Arukh).
Nah.=Nahum, Book of.
Naz.=Nazir (Talmud).
Neg.=N'gaʿim (Mishnah and Tosefta, also a subdivision in Sifra).
Neh.=Nehemiah, Book of.
Neub. Géogr.=Neubauer Géographie du Talmud, Paris 1868.
Ned.=N'darim (Talmud).
Nidd.=Niddah (Talmud).
Nif.=Nifal.

Nithpa.=Nithpaël.
Num.=Numeri, Book of (Numbers).
Num. R.=Numeri Rabbah (Midrash Babbah to Numbers, B'midbar Rabbah).
Ob.=Obadiah, Book of.
Ohol.=Ohŏ1oth (Ahiloth, Mishnah and Tosefta).
onomatop.=onomatopoetic.
opin.=opinion.
opp.=opposed.
Orl.=ʿOrlah (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y'rushalmi).
oth.=other, another, others.
P. Sm. = Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus.
Par.=Parah (Mishnah and Tosefta).
Par.=Parashah, referring to Sifra.
part.=participle.
Perl. Et. St.=Perles Etymologische Studien, Breslau 1871.
pers. pron.=personal pronoun.
Pes.=P'saḥim (Talmud).
Pesik.=P'siḳta d'R. Kahăna, ed. Buber.
 „ R.=P'siḳta Rabbathi (ed. Friedman).
 „ Zutr.=P'siḳta Zuṭrathi, ed. Buber.
Pfl.=Löw, Aramaische Pflanzennamen, Leipzig 1881.
phraseol.=pbraseology.
Pi.=Piël.

pl.
Pl.
=plural

pr. n.=proper noun.
pr. n. f.=proper noun of a female person.
pr. n. m.=proper noun of a male person,
pr. n. pl.=proper noun of a place.
preced.=preceding.
art.=preceding article.
w.=word.
prep.=preposition.
prob.=probably.
pron.=pronoun.
prop.=properly.
prov.=a proverb.
Prov.=Proverbs, Book of.
Ps.=Psalms, Book of.
q. v.=quod vide.
r.=root or radix.
R.=Rab, Rabbi or Rabbenu.
R. Hash.=Rosh hash-Shanah (Talmud).
R. S.=Rabbenu Shimshon (commentary to Mishnah).
Rabb. D. S.=Rabbinowicz Diḳduḳé Sof'rim (Variæ Lectiones &c., Munich 1867-84).
Rap.=Rapaport, ʿErekh Millin (Talmudic Cyclopedia, first and only volume).
ref.=referring, reference.
Ruth R.=Ruth Babbah (Midrash Rabbah to Ruth).
S.=Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods, Boston 1870.
s.=section (Parashah).
s. v.=sub voce.
Sabb.=Sabbath (Talmud).
Sam.=Samuel, Book of.
Schr.=Schrader, v. KAT.
Sef. Yets=Sefer Y'tsirah (Book of Creation, a Cabalistic work).
Shebi.=Sh'biith (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Y'rushalmi).
Shebu.=Sh'buoth (Talmud).
Shek.=Sh'ḳalim (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y'rushalmi, also a pericope in P'siḳta).
Sm. Ant.=Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Third American Edition, New-York 1858.
S'maḥ.=S'maḥoth, Treatise (Abel Rabbathi).
Snh.=Sanhedrin (Talmud).
Sonc.=Soncino.
Sot.=Soṭah (Talmud).
sub.=subaudi.
Succ.=Succah (Talmud).
suppl.=supplement(Hosafah)to Pesikta Rabbathi.
Taan.=Taʿănith (Talmud).
Talm.=Talmud.
Tam.=Tamid (Talmud).
Tanḥ.=Midrash Tanḥuma.
  „ ed. Bub.=Midrash Tanḥuma (enlarged), edited, from manuscripts, by Buber, Wilna 1885.
Targ.=Targum.
O.=Targum Onkelos.
Y.=Y'rushalmi (or Jonathan).
Targ. II=Targum Sheni (to Esther).
Tem.=T'murah (Talmud).
Ter.=T'rumoth (Mishnah, Tosefta and Y'rushalmi).
Toh.=Tohăroth (Mishnah and Tosefta).
Tosaf.=Tosafoth (Additamenta to Talmud Babli).
Tosef.=Tosefta.
ed. Zuck.=Tosefta editio Zuckermandel, Pasewalk 1881.
Treat.=Treatise(tractatus, Massekheth, one of the appendices to Talmud Babli).
Trnsf.=Transferred.
trnsp.=transposed or transposition.
Ukts.ʿUḳtsin (Mishnah and Tosefta).
usu.=usually.
Var.=Variant.
var. lect.=variatio lectionis.
Ven.=Venice.
vers.=version.
Vien.=Vienna.
Wil.=Wilna.
ws.=words.
Y.=Y'rushalmi (Palestinean Talmud).
Yad.=Yadayim (Mishnah and Tosefta).
Yalk.=Yalḳut (Collectanea from Talmudim, Midrashim &c.).
Yeb.=Y'bamoth (Talmud).
Y'lamd.=Y'lamdenu (a lost book, corresponding to Tanḥuma, quoted in Arukh).
Zab.=Zabim (Mishnah and Tosefta).
Zakh.=Zakhor (a pericope in P'siḳta).
Zeb.=Z'baḥim (Talmud).
Zech.=Zechariah, Book of.
Zeph.=Zephaniah, Book of.
Zuck.=Zuckermandel, v. Tosef.
Zuckerm.=Zuckermann Talmudische Münzen und Gewichte, Breslau 1862.

By the designation (Talmud) are meant Mishnah, Tosefta and G'mara of Talmud Babli and, eventually, Talmud Y'rushalmi. By (Mishnah and Tosefta) or (Mishnah, Tosefta, and Y'rushalmi) is meant a Talmudic treatise in the collection of Mishnah &c., to which no discussions in either G'mara or respectively in the Babylonian are extant.