A Greek-English Lexicon

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A Greek-English Lexicon (1901)
Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott
39634A Greek-English Lexicon1901Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott

















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THE First Edition of this Lexicon appeared in 1843, and was stated to be 'based on the German work of FRANCIS PASSOW.' In the Preface to our Fourth Edition (1855) it was said that 'we had omitted the name of PASSOW from our Title-page,—assuredly not from any wish to disown or conceal our obligations to that Scholar, without whose Lexicon, as a base to work upon, our own would never have been compiled,—but because our own was now derived from so many and various sources, that we could no longer fairly place any one name in that position*.' This argument applied with still greater cogency to the Fifth Edition (1861), which was very much augmented and improved, not only by continued reference to the great Paris Thesaurus (then drawing near to completion), but also to the Greek-German Lexicon of Rost and Palm, and to various other sources. The Sixth Edition (1869) was revised throughout; and though brevity was studied, the number of pages was increased by one eighth. Much of this increase was due to the length at which the forms of Verbs were treated; and here, in particular, we must express our obligation to the excellent and exhaustive Greek Verbs Irregular and Defective, by Dr. Veitch. We referred in some cases especially to this work, and have to thank him for the great assistance we have constantly derived from his labours.

In this, the Seventh Edition, the last that we can hope to see published, the whole work has been thoroughly revised and large additions made. But by compression, and a slight enlargement of the page, the bulk of the volume has been reduced by ninety page. The additions consit mainly of fuller references to the classical authors, and a free use of the Indices to the Berlin Aristotle and to the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum.

We have gratefully to acknowledge the assistance rendered us by many scholars. More particularly must we mention the names of Professor Drisler, of New York; Goodwin, of Cambridge, Massachusetts; and Gildersleeve, of Baltimore. Professors Goodwin and Gildersleeve have rewritten several important Articles, which their well-known Grammatical learning makes peculiarly valuable; we may specify the Articles on ἄν, εἰ, ἐπεί, ἔστε, ἵνα, ὅτε, ὁπότε, οὐ, μή, and πρίν: the former has also supplied some excellent additions to Attic law-terms, such as γραμματεύς, παραγραφή, σύνδικος, ὕβρις, ὑπωμοσία. Professor Drisler has gone carefully over the whole Book, and there is hardly a page which does not bear some trace of his accurate observation.

In the Arrangement of the work, it will be found that in Verbs, the Grammatical forms come first; then Etymological remarks, inclosed in curved brackets ( ); then notices of the Prosody, inclosed in square brackets [ ]; then the Interpretation of the word, with examples, etc. In Nouns, the Etymological remarks have been generally left at the end of the word.

The Tenses of Compound Verbs will be found under the Simple forms, except when the Compound Verb itself has anything peculiar.

Adverbs must be sought at the end of their Adjectives.

The science of Comparative Philology has made such rapid progress since the publication of our First Edition (1843),—in which we had adopted for our textbook the valuable Etymologische Forschungen of Professor A. F. Pott,—that it was necessary entirely to recast this portion of our work. And in doing so we availed ourselves of the Grundzüge der griechischen Etymologie of Georg Curtius, an excellent summary of the most approved results of modern inquiry into the relations of the Greek language to Sanskrit**, Latin, Gothic, Old High German, Lithuanian, the Ecclesiastical Slavonic, and other cognate languages. We inserted these results in a compendious form, and have now, to save space, omitted special references to Curtius' book: this work has copious Indices, and the English translation by Messrs. Wilkins and England (Murray, 1875) renders it easily accessible to all Students.

We have been urged to incorporate all Proper Names in the Lexicon. But this would have added so much to the bulk of a Book, already bulky enough, that we have been obliged to put the suggestion aside. Many Proper Names, however, appear in their places. Under some words, as Άπόλλων, Ζεύς, etc., a short account of their mythological bearings has been retained, as important for the young Student in reading Homer. Others are given which have in themselves some force and significance, or present something remarkable in their grammatical forms, e. g. Άγαμέμνων, Ἡρακλῆς, Ὀδυσσεύς. It may be observed that the proper names of the mythological and heroic times contain elements of the language which sometimes cannot be traced elsewhere: cf. Ζεύς, Σείριος, etc.

In all these cases it is difficult to draw a line between what is essential to general Lexicography and what is not. We have done this to the best of our judgment; and if the line waves more or less, we must shelter ourselves under the plea that it could hardly be otherwise.

We subjoin an Alphabetical Catalogue of Authors quoted, with a note of the Edition used, when the reference is made by pages. The date of each author's 'floruit' is added in the margin; and, by comparing this with the short summary of the chief Epochs of Greek Literarure prefixed to the Catalogue, it will be easy to determine the time of a word's first use, and of its subsequent changes of signification. It will be understood, however, that the age of a word does not wholly depend on that of its Author. For, first, many Greek books have been lost; secondly, a word of Attic stamp, first occurring in Lucian, Alciphron, or later imitators of Attic Greek, may be considered as virtually older than those found in the vernacular writers of the Alexandrian age. Further, the Language changed differently in different places at the same time; as in the cases of Demosthenes and Aristotle, whom we have been compelled to place in different Epochs. And even at the same place, as at Athens, there were naturally two parties, one clinging to old usages, the other fond of what was new. The Greek of Thucydides and Lysias may be compared in illustration of this remark. We may add that, though the term 'flourished' is vague, it is yet the only one available, if we wish to observe the influence of any particular Writer on Language and Literature. The dates have generally been assigned with reference to some notable event in the life of the Writer: and this is specified in the case of the most eminent persons. In many, however, no specific note of time can be found; and here a date has been taken, as nearly as it could be fixed, so as to give the age of 30 or 35. We have in these matters been chiefly guided by Mr. Fynes Clinton's Fasti Hellenici, and Dr. Smith's Biographical Dictionary.

* Passow himself, after three Editions, omitted the name of SCHNEIDER from his Title-page.

** Sanskrit words have been written in English characters according to the system adopted in Professor M. Williams' Sanskrit Grammar;—except that k' and g' have been used as the equivalents of च and ज, in preference to ch and j; the object being to suggest to the eye of the reader the real affinity which exists between क and च (as in kirk and church), ग and ज (as in get and gem), not withstanding their difference to the ear.

OXFORD, October, 1882.


In this Eighth Edition, all corrections and additions that could be made without altering the pagination have been inserted in the text. The rest appear in the Addenda.

H. G. L.
ASCOT, June, 1897.


I. The Early Epic Period, comprising the Iliad and Odyssey, the Homeric Hymns, and the Poems of Hesiod.

II. From about 800 to 530 A. C., in which Literature flourished chiefly in Asia Minor and the Islands: the Period of the early Lyric, Elegiac, and Iambic Poets.

III. From 530 to 510 A. C., the Age of Peisistratus, etc.; the beginning of Tragedy at Athens: early Historians.

IV. From 510 to 470 A. C., the Age of τὰ Περσικά, in which the Greek Tragic Poets began to exhibit, and Simonides and Pindar brought Lyric Poetry to perfection.

V. From 470 to 431 A. C., the Age of Athenian Supremacy: perfection of Tragedy: regular Prose, Ionic of Herodotus and Hippocrates, Attic (probably) of Antipho.

VI. From 431 to 403 A. C., the Age of the Peloponnesian War: perfection of the Old Comedy: old Attic Prose in Pericles' Speeches, Thucydides, etc.

VII. From 403 to about 336 A. C., the Age of Spartan and Theban Supremacy, and of Philip: Middle Comedy: Attic Prose of Lysias, Plato, and Xenophon: perfection of Oratory, Demosthenes, etc.

VIII. From about 336 A. C. to the Roman Times: (1) Macedonian Age: Prose of Aristotle and Theophrastus: New Comedy. (2) Alexandrian Age: later Epic and Elegiac writers, Callimachus, Theocritus, Apollonius Rhodius, etc., learned Poets, Critics, etc.

IX. Roman Age: Epigrammatic Poets, Hellenic Prose of Polybius, etc.: Alexandrian Prose of Philo, etc.: Grammarians. Then the revived Atticism of Lucian, the Sophists, etc.




A. C.

P. C.

Achaeus Eretrieus, Tragicus (Aged 40) 444
Achilles Tatius, Scriptor Eroticus (an imitator of Heliodorus) 500?
Achmes, Oneirocritica. Ed. Rigalt. ?
Actuarius, Joannes, Medicus. In Ideler's Physici Gr. Minores 1300
Acusilaüs, λογογράφος. In Müller's Fragm. Historicorum 575?
Adamantius, Medicus 415
Aelianus, Rhetor, Hist. Naturalis 130
Aelianus, Rhetor, Varia Historia
Aelianus, Tacticus 120
Aelius Dionysius, Rhetor et Grammaticus 117
Aeneas Tacticus or Poliorcetes (At battle of Mantineia) 362
Aeschines, Orator. In Oratt. Attici: quoted by the pages of H. Stephens (Speech against Timarchus, at the age of 44) 345
Aeschylus, Tragicus. Ed. Dindorf. (His first prize, at the age of 41) 484
Aesopus, Fabularum scriptor, circ. 570 A. C.: but the present collections of his Fables are spurious
Aetius, Medicus 500
Agatharchides, Grammaticus, etc. 117?
Agathemerus, Medicus 50
Agathias, Hist. Byzant. 570
Agatho, Tragicus (Gains the prize) 416
Agesianax, Epicus. (Fragm. in Plutarch) ?
Alcaeus Messenius, Elegiacus. In the Anthologia (Epigram on battle of Cynoscephalae) 197
Alcaeus Mytilenaeus, Lyricus. In Bergk's Lyrici Gr. (At the war about Sigeium) 606
Alcaeus, Comicus (Vet.) In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 824 (Contends with Aristophanes) 388
Alcidamas, Rhetor. Ed. Reisk. (At Athens) 432
Alciphro, Scriptor Eroticus 200?
Alcman, Lyricus. In Bergk's Lyrici Gr. 650
Alexander Aetolus, Elegiacus. In the Anthologia (At the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus) 280
Alexander Aphrodisiensis, Philosophus 220
Alexander, Comicus (Incert.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 4. p. 553 350?
Alexander Trallianus, Medicus 570
Alexis, Comicus (Med.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 382 356
Amipsias, Comicus (Vet.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 701 (The Κωμασταί gains the prize) 423
Ammonius, Grammaticus (At Constantinople) 390
Ammonius, Hermeae fil., Philosophus 470
Ammonius Saccas, Philosophus 220
Amphilochius, Ecclesiasticus. Ed. Combefis 375
Amphis, Comicus (Med.) In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 301 350
Anacreon of Teos, Lyricus. His true Fragments collected by Bergk (Migrates to Abdera) 540
Anacreon of Teos, Lyricus. Spurious Poems, Anacreontica
Ananius, Iambographus. In Bergk's Lyrici Gr. 540
Anaxagoras, Philosophus. Ed. Schaubach (Leaves Athens, aged 50) 450
Anaxandrides, Comicus (Med.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 161 (begins to exhibit) 376
Anaxilas, Comicus (Med.) In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 341 340
Anaximander, Philosophus (30 years old) 580
Anaximenes, Philosophus 544
Anaxippus, Comicus (Nov.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 4. p. 459 303
Andocides, Orator. In Oratt. Attici; quoted like Aeschines (Imprisoned, at the age of 52) 415
Andromachus, Medicus 68
Andronicus Rhodius, Philosophus (Chief of the Peripatetics at Rome) 58
Anna Comnena, Hist. Byzant. (27 years old) 1110
Anthemius, Mathematicus (brother of Alexander Trallianus) 570
Antidotus, Comicus (Med.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 328 350?
Antigonus Carystius 250?
Antimachus, Epicus et Elegiacus. Ed. Schellenberg. 405
Antipater Sidonius In the Anthologia 106
Antipater Thessalonicensis. In the Anthologia 10
Antiphanes, Comicus (Med.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 3. p. 3 (Begins to exhibit) 387
Antipho, Orator. In Oratt. Attici: quoted like Aeschines (Aged 39) 440
Antoninus, M. Aurelius, Philosophus (Emperor) 161
Antoninus Liberalis 147?
Aphthonius, Rhetor 315
Apion, Grammaticus (Embassy to Caligula) 38
Apollodorus (tres, Comici Nov.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 4. pp. 438, 440, 450 330 260
Apollodorus, Mythologus 140
Apollonius, Archebuli fil., Grammaticus. Lexicon Homericum 10
Apollonius Dyscolus, Grammaticus. (De Constructione, by Sylburg's pages. De Conjunct. et Adverb., in Bekker's Anecdota, vol. 2. De Pronom., in Wolf's Museum Antiquitatis. Historiae Commentitiae, Ed Meursius) 138
Apollonius Pergaeus, Mathematicus 220
Apollonius Rhodius, Epicus (At the court of Egypt) 200
Apollophanes, Comicus (Vet.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 879 407
Appianus, Historicus 140
Aquila, Judaeus (Translator of O. T. into Greek) 130
Araros, Comicus (Med.). In Meineke's Comm. Fragm. 3. p. 273 (First exhibits) 375
Aratus, Poëta Physicus. Ed. Bekker (in which the Διοσήμεια and Φαινόμενα form one continuous poem) 270
Arcadius, Grammaticus. Ed. Barker 200?
Archedicus, Comicus (Nov.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 4. p. 435 302
Archilochus Parius, Iambographus. In Bergk's Lyrici Gr. (Migrates to Thasos) 700
Archimedes, Mathematicus. Ed Barker 250
Archippus, Comicus (Vet.) In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 715 (First prize) 415
Archytas Tarentinus, Philosophus 400?
Aretaeus, Medicus 70?
Arethas, Ecclesiasticus 540?
Aristaenetus, Scriptor Eroticus 450?
Aristagoras, Comicus (Vet.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 761. 410
Aristarchus, Grammaticus (At the court of Ptolomy Philopator) 210
Aristarchus Samius, Astronomus 280
Aristeas, de LXX (in Gallandii Patrum Bibl. tom. ii.) 270
Aristias, Tragicus 450
Aristides, Rhetor. Ed. Jebb (Hears Herodes Atticus) 160
Aristides Quintilianus, Musicus. In the Antiquae Musicae Auctt. of Meibomius 100?
Aristomenes, Comicus (Vet.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 730 425
Aristonymus, Comicus (Vet.). In Meineke's Com. Fragm. 2. p. 698 420

This work was published before January 1, 1929, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

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