A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language/Lesson 10
|The husbandman.||Agricola, ae, m.|
|The peasant, rustic.||Rūsticus, ī, m.; homō agrestis.|
|The ox.||Bōs, bovis, m. & f.
Taurus, ī, m. (a bull).
|The cook.||Coquus, ī, m.; coqua, ae, f.|
|The servant.||Minister, rī, m.; famulus, ī, m.
Ministra, ae, f.
|The bird.||Avis, is, f.
Volucris, is, m. & f.
|The broom.||Scōpae, ārum,1 f. pl.|
|The eye.||Oculus, ī, m.|
|The foot.||Pēs, gen., pedis, m.|
|The rice.||Orȳza, ae, f.|
|His (conjunctive).||Suus, sua, suum.
- A. Obs. The possessive pronoun suus is declined like meus and tuus. It corresponds to the English "his" when, in the reflexive sense of "his own," the subject of the sentence is meant; but when another person is referred to, ejus (of him) or illīus (of that man) must be employed. As:—
|Has he his (own) hat?||Tenetne pilleum suum?|
|Have you his (the other man's) hat?||Tenetne tū pilleum ejus (illīus)?|
|Has the servant his broom?||Habetne minister scōpās suās? (Cf. Lesson XIII. B.)|
|Has the cook his (own) chicken or that of the rustic?||Habetne coquus gallīnam suam, an (illam) rūsticī?|
|He has his own.||Suam propriam habet.
Habet suam propriam.
|His or his own (absolute)||Suus, sua, suum.2
Proprius, a, um.3
Ejus, illīus, (ipsīus).
- B. Obs. The absolute possessive pronoun suus is declined like the conjunctive. Instead of it, proprius is sometimes used. There is here the same distinction between suus (proprius) and ejus (illīus) as in Obs. A..
|Has the servant his (own) trunk, or mine?||Habetne famulus riscum suum (proprium), an meum?
Suumne riscum habet famulus, an meum?
|He has his own||Suum proprium habet
|Have you your (own) shoe, or his (that man's)||Utrum tuum habēs calceum, an ejus (illīus)?
Tuumne habēs calceum, an ejus (illīus)?
|I have this (that man's)||Ejus (habeō)
Habeō (calceum) ejus (illīus)
|Somebody or anybody, some one or any one. (Indefinite Pronouns.)||Aliquis; quis, quispiam.
Quisquam, ūllus; nōn nēmō.
Num quis? Ecquis?
- C. Obs. The indefinite pronouns aliquis, quis, and quispiam are always positive, and differ but little from each other, except that quispiam is more general (= "some one or another"). Quisquam (like quidquam of Lesson VI., q.v.) and nūllus, on the other hand, are only used where the sentence contains a negation either expressed or implied. Quis may stand for aliquis, but only after particles like sī (if), nisi (unless), num (whether), and ne (lest). Ecquis? and num quis? are interrogative.
|Has any one? (Yes.)||Habetne aliquis (quispiam)?
|Has any one? (No.)||Num quis (quisquam) habet?
Habetne quisquam (ūllus)?
|Some one has.||Aliquis (quispiam) habet?
Nōn nēmō habet.
|Nor has any one.||Neque quisquam habet.|
|If (unless, whether) any one has.||Sī (nisi, num) quis or aliquis habet.|
- D. The indefinite quis, and its compounds aliquis, ecquis, quisquam, and quispiam are thus inflected:—
|Has any one my hat?||Habetne aliquis meum pilleum?
Ecquis habet pilleum meum?
Num quis habet pilleum meum?
|Somebody has it.||Habet eum aliquis (quispiam, nōn nēmō).|
|Who has my stick?||Quis tenet scīpiōnem meum?
Cui est bāculum meum?
Cui est bāculum meum?
|Nobody has it.||Nēmō (nūllus) eum tenet.
Nēminī (nūllī) est.
|No one, nobody, or not anybody.||Nēmō, nūllus.
Nēmō homō, nūllus homō
Nec quisquam, neque ūllus.4.
- E. Obs. The indefinite nēmō is seldom used in the genitive, nūllīus being employed in its stead. The word homō is sometimes added to nēmō as well as to nūllus. These words are thus inflected:—
|Who has my ribbon?||Quis habet taeniam meam?
Cui est taenia mea?
|Nobody has it.||Nēmō (nūllus) eam habet.
Ea nēminī (nūllī) est.
|Who is right?||Cui est fās?
Quis loquitur vērē?
|No one is right.||Fās est nēminī (nūllī).
Nēmō vērē loquitur.
|Is any one hungry?||Ēsuritne aliquis?
Num quis ēsurit?
An quisquam ēsurit?
|No one is hungry.||Nēmō ēsurit.
|Nor is any hungry.||Nec quisquam (neque ūllus) homō ēsurit.|
- Have you the ox of the peasant or that of the cook? — I have neither that of the peasant nor that of the cook.
- Has the peasant his rice? — He has it.
- Have you it? — I have it not.
- Has his boy the servant's broom? — He has it.
- Who has the boy's pencil? — Nobody has it.
- Has your brother my stick or that of the painter? — He has neither yours nor that of the painter; he has his own.
- Has he the good or bad money? — He has neither the good nor the bad.
- Has he the wooden or the leaden horse? — He has neither the wooden nor the leaden horse.
- What has he good? — He has my good honey.
- Has my neighbor's boy my book? — He has it not.
- Which book has he? — He has his fine book.
- Has he my book or his own? — He has his own.
- Who has my gold button? — Nobody has it.
- Has anybody my thread stocking? — Nobody has it.
- Which ship has the merchant? — He has his own.
- Which horse has my friend? — He has mine.
- Has he his dog? — He has it not.
- Who has his dog? — Nobody has it.
- Who has my brother's umbrella? — Somebody has it.
- Which (quās) broom has the servant? — He has his own.
- Is anybody hungry? — Nobody is hungry.
- Is anybody sleepy? — Nobody is sleepy.
- Is any one tired? — No one is tired.
- Who is right? — Nobody is right.
- Have I his biscuit? — You have it not.
- Have I his good brother's ox? — You have it not.
- Which chicken have I? — You have his.
- Is anybody wrong? — Nobody is wrong.
1 Many nouns in Latin are never used in the singular, as angustiae, difficulties; dīvitiae, riches; fēriae, holidays; līberī, children, &c. Compare Lesson XVII. B.
2 The suffix met is sometimes added to all the cases of suus in the sense of the English "own," and commonly in connection with ipse, himself; e.g. Suummet librum ipse tenet, He himself has his own book. To the ablative singular suō, suā (and also to meō, meā, tuō, tuā, &c.) the syllable pte may be annexed in the same sense; as suāpte manū, with his own hand; meōpte ingeniō, by my own genius; nostrāpte culpā, by our own fault.
3 Both these words are sometimes put together, in order to render the notion of possession still more prominent: suus proprius, precisely like the English his own.
4 The Romans fequently employ quisquam or ūllus in connection with nec or nunquam, instead of nēmō, as in English we likewise say, "nor was there ever any", isntead of "no one ever was," &c.
5 Ūllus and nūllus are properly adjectives in us, a, um. But they deviate from the inflection of adjectives by having their genitive in īus (instead of ī, ae, ī for every gender, and their dative in ī (instead of ō, ā, ō). Compare ūnus of Lesson 18.