A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language/Lesson 6

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  • A. The adjectives in er, is, e are but few in number. The nominative masculine has sometimes is instead of er.
Ācer or ācris, ācris, ācre, sharp
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. ācer or ācris ācris ācre
Gen. ācris ācris ācris
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre
Voc. ācer or ācris ācris ācre
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī.

So decline alacer or alacris, cheerful; celeber or celebris, famous; celer or celeris, swift; salūber or salūbris, wholesome.

Adjectives of One Termination.[edit]

  • B. Adjectives of one termination do not differ essentially from other words of the third declension, except that they may have either e or i in the ablative. The present participle in ns is included in this class. Examples:—

Dīves, -vitis, rich. Vetus, -teris, old. Sitiēns, -ntis, thirsty.
Masc. & Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut. Masc. & Fem. Neut.
Nom. dīves vetus sitiēns
Gen. dīvitis veteris sitientis
Dat. dīvitī veterī sitientī
Acc. dīvem dīves veterim vetus sitientem sitiēns
Voc. dīves vetus sitiēns
Abl. dīvite.1 vetere or veterī. sitiente or sitientī.

So decline fēlix, fēlīcis, happy; pauper, pauperis, poor; anceps, ancipitis, doubtful; sollers, sollertis, clever; prūdēns, prūdentis, wise; amāns, amantis, loving, &c.

Remarks on the Ablative.[edit]

  1. Participles in āns or ēns have always e in the ablative, when they are used as participles proper or as substantives; as, sōle oriente, when the sun rises; īnfāns, abl. īnfante, the infant. But when used as adjectives, they have rather i than e.
  2. Comparatives have rather e than i, as mājor, mājōre, greater, &c.
  3. Praesēns, present, when said of things, has i, when said of persons, e.
  4. Proper names derived from adjectives have always e, Clēmēns, Clēmente.
  5. Those that have e exclusively are pauper, senex, princeps, and the majority of this in es as dīves, sōspes, dēses, pūbēs, impūbēs", and superstes".
Anything or something good. Aliquid (quidquam, nōnnihil) bonum.
Aliquid (quidquam, nōnnihil) bonī.
Nothing or not anything good. Nihil bonum
Nihil bonī.
Something bad (worthless). Aliquid vīle (nēquam).
Nothing bad (worthless). Nihil vīle (nēquam).

* C. Obs. The partitive genitive of neuter adjectives after aliquid, nihil, &c. can only be used when the adjective is of the second declension. Thus we can only say aliquid vīle, turpe, &c., and not aliquid turpis; but indifferently either aliquid bonum or aliquid bonī.

Have you anything good? Estne tibi aliquid bonī?
Habēsne aliquid bonum?
I have nothing bad. Nōn est mihi quidquam vīle.
Nihil nēquam habeō.
Have you anything ugly? Num est tibi quidquam turpe?
An habēs aliquid turpe?
I have nothing ugly. Nōn est mihi quidquam turpe.
Nihil turpe habeō.
What? Quid
What have you? Quid tibi est?
Quid habēs?
What have you good? Quid est tibi bonī?
Quid habēs bonum?
I have good bread. Habeō pānem bonum
Bonum pānem habeō.
That or the one.
Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. ille illa illud.
Acc. illum illam illud.
  • D. Obs. The English that, or the one, is, among the later Latin authors, expressed by the demonstrative ille, illa, illud. By the earlier classical writers, however, the noun is either itself repeated or to be supplied from the context.
Which book have you? Quem librum habēs?
I have that of the baker. Habeō illum pistōris.
Pistōris librum habeō.
Which sugar have you? Quod saccharum habēs?
Quid est tibi saccharī?
I have that of my brother. Habeō illud meī frātris.
Est mihi saccharum frātris.
Or. An.

E. Obs. In double questions, the first member is introduced by utrum (whether) or by enclitic -ne, and the second member by an (or). Thus:—

Are you tired or sleepy? Utrum es fessus an somniculōsus?
Esne tū fessus an somniculōsus?
I am sleepy. Somniculōsus sum.
Have you my book or that of my neighbor? Esne tibi liber meus an vīcīnī?
Utrum habēs librum meum an vīcīnī?
I have that of the neighbor. Est mihi liber vīcīnī
Habeō illum vīcīnī.
Have you your hat or the baker's? Utrum tibi est liber tuus an pistōris?
Tuumne librum habēs an pistōris?
Are you hungry or thirsty? Utrum ēsurīs an sitīs?
Ēsurīsne an sitīs?
I am hungry. Ēsuriō.

Exercise 5.[edit]

See the answers here.

  1. Have you my book? — I have it not.
  2. Which book have you? — I have my good book.
  3. Have you anything ugly? — I have nothing ugly. — I have something pretty.
  4. Which table have you? — I have the baker's.
  5. Have you the baker's dog or the neighbor's? — I have the neighbor's.
  6. What have you? — I have nothing.
  7. Have you the good or bad sugar? — I have the good.
  8. Have you the neighbor's good or bad horse? — I have the good (one).2
  9. Have you the golden or the silver candlestick? — I have the silver candlestick.
  10. Have you my neighbor's paper, or that of my tailor? — I have that of your tailor.
  11. Are you hungry or thirsty? — I am hungry.
  12. Are you sleepy or tired? — I am tired.
  13. What have you pretty? — I have nothing pretty.
  14. Have you anything ugly? — I have nothing ugly.
  15. Have you the leather shoe? — I have it not.
  16. What have you good? — I have the good sugar.


1 See Remark 5
2 The words included in parentheses are not to be translated in these exercises.