A Practical Grammar of the Latin Language/Lesson 7
Of the Fourth Declension.
- A. The fourth declension comprises all substantives which form their genitive in ūs. The nominative singular has two terminations, viz. us for masculine and feminine nouns, and ū for neuters. Examples:—
|Fructus, m., fruit.||Cornū, n., the corn.||Domus, f., the hourse|
|Gen.||fructūs||cornūs||domūs or domī1|
|Dat.||fuctuī||cornū (cornuī)||domuī or domō|
Like fructus decline aditus, access; cantus, a song; currus, a chariot; ictus, a stroke; mōtus, motion; rīsus, laughter; senātus, the senate; sumptus, expense; vīctus, living. Also the feminines acus, a needle; manus, a hand; tribus, a tribe, &c.—Like cornū decline gelū, ice; genū, the knee; verū, a spear; tonitrū, thunder.
|Have you my coat or the tailor's?||Estne tibi toga mea an sartōris?
Utrum habēs togam meam an sartōris?
|I have yours.||Est mihi tua.
- B. Obs. The possessive pronouns meus, tuus, suus, &c. may either be joined to nouns in the sense of the conjunctive my, your (thy), his, &c., or they may stand absolutely, like the English mine, yours (thine), his, &c. They are inflected like bonus, a, um. (Cf. Lesson V.)
|Is this your hat?||Estne hic pilleus tuus?|
|No, Sir, it is not mine, but yours.||Minimē, domine, nōn est meus, sed tuus.|
|Is this my ribbon?||Num haec est taenia tua?|
|No, it is not yours but mine.||Nōn est tua, sed mea.|
|Is this your sugar?||An hoc est saccharum tuum?|
|It is not mine, but that of my brother.||Nōn est meum, sed meī frātris.|
|The man.||Vir2, gen. virī, m.
Homō, inis, m. & f.
|The stick, cane.||Bāculum, i, n.
Scīpiō, ōnis, m.
|My brother.||Frāter meus, gen. frātris meī.|
|The shoemaker.||Sūtor, sutōris, m.|
|The merchant.||Mercātor, ōris, m.|
Familiāris, is, m.
- C. Obs. The disjunctive conjunctions nec and neque are used in the same sense, except that the former more frequently stands before consonants and the latter before vowels.
|Have you the merchant's stick or yours?||Tenēsne3 bāculum mercātōris an tuum?|
|I have neither the merchant's stick nor yours.||Nec mercātōris bāculum nec tuum teneō.|
|Are you hungry or thirsty?||Utrum ēsurīs an sitīs?|
|I am neither hungry nor thirsty.||Egō neque ēsuriō, nec sitiō.|
- Have you your cloth or mine? — I have neither yours nor mine.
- I have neither my bread nor the tailor's.
- Have you my stick or yours? — I have mine.
- Have you the shoemaker's shoe or the merchant's? — I have neither the shoemaker's nor the merchant's.
- Have you my brother's coat? — I have it not.
- Which paper have you? — I have your friend's.
- Have you my dog or my friend's? — I have your friend's.
- Have you my thread stocking or my brother's? — I have neither yours nor your brother's.
- Have you my good baker's good bread or that of my friend? — I have neither your good baker's nor that of your friend.
- Which bread have you? — I have mine.
- Which ribbon have you? — I have yours.
- Have you the good or the bad cheese? — I have neither the good nor the bad.
- Have you anything? — I have nothing.
- Have you my pretty or my ugly dog? — I have neither your pretty nor your ugly dog.
- Have you my friend's stick? — I have it not.
- Are you sleepy or hungry? — I am neither sleepy nor hungry.
- Have you the good or the bad salt? — I have neither the good nor the bad.
- Have you my horse or the man's? — I have neither yours nor the man's.
- What have you? — I have nothing fine.
- Are you tired? — I am not tired.
1 The genitive domī is only used in the sense at home. The dative domuī is the more usual form; but the ablative of this irregular noun is always domō.
2 Vir is used with reference to the sex, and homō with reference to the species.
3 Teneō is properly to hold, and may be used in these exercises for variety, especially where to have may signify to hold in one's hand, or to retain, keep.