A Statistical Account of Bengal/Volume 1

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PRESENTED BY THE

SECRETARY OF STATE

FOR INDIA

A STATISTICAL ACCOUNT OF BENGAL.

MURRAY AND GIBB, EDINBURGH,
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE

A Statistical Account of Bengal — Volume 1 Map.jpg

A Statistical Account of Bengal.

By W. W. HUNTER, B.A., LL.D.,

DIRECTOR-GENERAL OF STATISTICS TO THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA;

ONE OF THE COUNCIL OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY ; HONORARY OR FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF NETHERLANDS INDIA AT THE HAGUE, OF THE INSTITUTO VASCO DA GAMA OF PORTUGUESE INDIA, OF THE DUTCH SOCIETY IN JAVA, AND OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY, LONDON ; HONORARY FELLOW OF THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY; ORDINARY FELLOW OF THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC.

VOLUME I.

DISTRICTS OF THE 24 PARGANAS AND SUNDARBANS.

TRÜBNER & CO., LONDON 1875.


TABLE OF CONTENTS:

DISTRICTS OF THE 24 PARGANAS AND THE SUNDARBANS,

WITH GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL NOTES OF THE BARDWAN AND PRESIDENCY DIVISIONS.

DISTRICT OF 24 PARGANAS.

PAGE
Geography and General Aspect, 17-38
Area, Boundaries, etc., 17-18
British Acquisition of the District, 18-21
Civil, Criminal, and Revenue Jurisdictions, 21-22
Physical Aspects, 22-24
River System, 24-28
Legendary Origin of the Ganges and Húglí, 28-29
Changes in the Courses of the Rivers, etc., 29-30
Lakes, Marshes, etc., 30
Canals and Artificial Watercourses, 30-32
Boat Routes between Calcutta and the Eastern Districts, 32-33
Varieties of Passenger and Cargo Boats, 33
River-side Trading Towns and Villages, 34-35
Irrigation, 35
Fisheries and Fishing Towns, 35
Marsh Cultivation, 36
Lines of Drainage, 36
PAGE
District of 24 Parganascontinued.
Geography and General Aspect—continued.
Forest and Jungle Produce; Pasture Grounds, etc. 36-37
Feræ naturæ 37-38
The People 38-133
Population at different Periods, and the Census of 1872, 38-45
Occupations of the People, 45-50
Ethnical Divisions of the People, 50-51
Immigration and Emigration, 51-52
List of Castes, 52-71
Religious Divisions of the People, 71-76
Urban and Rural Population, 76-77
Towns and Villages, 77-121
Comparative Importance of the Town and Rural Population, 121-123
Village Officials, 124-127
Material Condition of the People; Food, Clothing, Dwellings, etc., 127-133
Agriculture 134-158
Rice Cultivation and Cereal Crops, 134-139
Green Crops and Vegetables, 139-140
Fruit Trees, 140-143
Fibre Crops, 143-145
Sugar-cane, Tobacco, pán, Indigo, and Miscellaneous Crops, 145-148
Out-turn of Crops, etc., 148
Condition of the Cultivators, 148-149
Domestic Animals, 149-150
PAGE
District of 24 Parganascontinued.
Agriculture—continued.
Agricultural Implements, 150-151
Wages and Prices, 151-152
Weights and Measures, 152-154
Landless Day-labourers, 154
Land Tenures, 154-155, also 261-281
Rates of Rent, 155-157
Manure, Irrigation, Rotation of Crops, etc., 157-158
Natural Calamities 159-163
Natural Calamities, such as Floods, Droughts, etc., 158-159
The Famine of 1866 as it affected the 24 Parganás, 159-162
Famine Warnings, 162-163
Foreign and Absentee Landholders, 163-164
Means of Communication, Commerce, Manufactures, etc., 166-175
Roads, 164-165
Railways, 166-170
Manufactures, 170-171
Commerce and Trade, 171-173
Capital and Interest, 173
Newspapers, 173
Railway and Canal Traffic, 174
Estimated Income of the District, 175
Working of the Income Tax, 175-182
Administration 175-244
Administrative History 183
PAGE
District of 24 Parganascontinued.
Administration—continued.
Revenue and Expenditure at different Periods, 183-188
Land Revenue, 188
Civil and Criminal Courts, 189
Police and Jail Statistics, 189
Educational Statistics, 199-221
Postal Statistics, 221-222
Administrative Subdivisions, 222-225
Fiscal Divisions or Parganás, 225-241
Meteorological, Medical, and Sanitary, 241-261
Climate, Temperature, and Rainfall, 241-261
Endemic and Epidemic Diseases, 244
Cattle Diseases, 244-247
Indigenous Drugs, 247-249
Charitable Dispensaries, 249-255
Lunatic Asylums, 256-259
Conservancy Arrangements, 259
The Cyclone of 1864, 259-261
Land Tenures in the 24 Parganas. 261-281
The First Class of Tenures 262-268
Zamindari. 262-264
Taluk. 264-265
Resumed Lakhiraj Tunures. 265
Taufir Estates. 265-266
Khas Mahal. 266-267
Ijara or Farms. 267
Jangalburi Taluks 267-268
The Second Class of Tenures 268-276
(1) Shamilat Taluks. 268-269
(2) Patni Taluk. 269-270
(3) Istimrari, Mukarrari, and Maurusi. 270-271
(4) Ijara 271-272
(5) A Ganthi 272
(6) Thika. 272-273
(7) Jot or Jama. 273-275
(8) Zar-I-Pesghi or Lahona Tenures 275
(9) Khanabari Tenures 275
(10) Chakdari Pattas. 275-276
(11) Jalkar Jama. 276
(12) Peculiar Tenures 276
The Third Class of Tenures 276-278
The Fourth Class of Tenures 278-281
The Lkhiraj Rent-free Tenures 278-281
Estates held in Fee-simple. 281

THE SUNDARBANS.

Geography and General Aspect, 285-315
Area and Boundaries, 285
Jurisdiction, 286
Physical Aspects, 286-290
Subsidence of the Country, 290-293
River System, 293-299
River Traffic and River-side Marts, 299-301
PAGE
The Sundarbanscontinued.
Geography and General Aspect—continued.
Irrigation, 301
Fisheries, 301-303
Marsh Cultivation, 303 304
Timber and Wood Trade, 304-313
Other Jungle Products, 314-315
Feraæ Naturaæ, 315-316
The People, 316-324
Population, 316-317
Religious Divisions of the People, 317-318
Immigrant Population, 318-320
Traces of Ancient Buildings and Clearings in what is now Forest Land, 320-321
Material Condition of the People: Clothing, Dwellings, Food, etc., 322-324
Agriculture, 324-342
Rice Cultivation and List of Crops, 324-326
Cultivated Area, 326-327
Early Attempts at Sundarban Reclamation, 327-335
Area; Out-turn of Crops, etc., 335-33^
Condition of the Cultivators, 336-337
Domestic Animals, 337-338
Wages and Prices, 338
Landless Day-labourers, 338
Spare Land, 338-339
Land Tenures, 339-341
Rates of Rent, 341-342
PAGE
The Sundarbanscontinued.
Natural Calamities, 343-344
Natural Calamities, 342-343
Famine Warnings, 343-344
Foreign and Absentee Proprietors, 344
Means of Communication, Commerce, etc., 344-345
Means of Communication, 344
Commerce and Trade, 344-345
Capital and Interest, 345
Administration, 346
Land Revenue and Administration, 346
Geographical and Historical Notes on the Bardwán and Presidency Divisions of Lower Bengal, with Preliminary Remarks by District Officers of the 24 Parganás and Jessor, 349-389
Index, 393

ERRATA.

Page 25, last line, for Jumuná read Jamuná.

Page 32, line 23, for Ráinpur Khál read Rámpur Khál.

Page 59, line 24, for Bráhams read Bráhmans.

Page 77, lines 24-25, omit from ‘Repeated’ to ‘Bengal.’

Page 169-170, for Sáldah read Síáldah.

Page 237, line 33-35, Murágáchhá has the nasal, and is elsewhere spelt as Munrágáchhá.

Page 304, lines 21-24. The propositions for establishing Toll Stations have been excised, as Government has not adopted the plan.




I shall be grateful for any suggestions or corrections which occur to the reader. They may be addressed to me, care of the Secretary to the Government of Bengal, Calcutta.

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.