A history of Chile

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Bernardo O'Higgins, drawing.png

Bernardo O'Higgins.

Latin-American Republics


Author of "Old Abraham Jackson," "Coitlan: A Tale of the Inca World," Etc.






Pizarro's Rivals—The Inca Empire—Almagro sets out for Chile—His claims to Cuzco—Sends forward Paullu Topu—Hardships encountered in the mountains—Sends forward party to obtain relief—Appearance of Chile—Different tribes—Their civilization and manner of living—Explorations—Almagro reinstates an ulmen—Engagement with the Indians—Return to Chile—Subsequent career of Almagro 21
Character of Valdivia—Character of the Araucanians—Their military system and social organization—De Hoz and Carmargo—Pizarro ignores the royal commission and appoints Valdivia to undertake the conquest of Chile—The expedition—Founding of Santiago and trouble with the Indians—Battle on the Mapocho river—Disaffection—Discovery of gold. 36
Valdivia determines to send Monroy and Miranda to Peru—Murder of a chief's son—Vaca de Castro sends recruits to Chile—Pastene explores the southern coasts—Massacre at Quillota
mines—Founding cities—Conquests—Valdivia goes to Peru, leaving Francisco de Villagran in command—Execution of De Hoz—Destruction of La Serena—Aguirre punishes the natives—Apportioning the lands—AilIavalu gives battle to Valdivia—Lincoyan—Valdivia establishes himself at Concepcion and seeks a title from Spain—Founding of Imperial and Villarica—Expedition toward the south—Recloma—Fortresses built—Aguirre dispatched to conquer provinces Cujo and Tucuman—Founding of Angol, the seventh city—Alderete sent to Spain—Colocolo incites Araucanians to resistance—Caupolican—Stratagems and attacks upon forts—Battle at Tucapel—Lautaro—Death of Valdivia 44
Spaniards in the south retire to Imperial and Valdivia—Skirmishes with the Araucanians—Villagran takes charge of the government—He crosses the Biobio and attacks the Indians at Mt. Mariguenu—Defeat of the Spaniards—Destruction of Concepcion—Villagran undertakes to rebuild the city, but again is defeated—Smallpox—Villagran and Aguirre submit their claims to the Royal Audience—Siege of Imperial and Valdivia—Lautaro proceeds against Santiago—Defeat and death of Lautaro—Events of the year 1557—Shipwreck of Alderete—Don Garcia arrives at Concepcion with a large force—Millalauco 55
Battle of Mt. Pinto—Battle at the Biobio—Don Garcia's inhuman acts—Galvarino—Founding of Cañete—Skirmishes with the Araucanians—Caupolican's stratagem—Rebuilding of Concepcion—The Cunches resort to an artifice—Exploring the Chiloé Archipelago—The poet Ercilla—Death of Caupolican—Caupolican II—Siege of Imperial—Defeat of the Araucanians—Rebuilding forts and cities—Quiroga 63
The Araucanians prepare for a renewal of the war—Defeat of the Spaniards at Mt. Mariguenu—Cañete burned—Sieges of Concepcion, Arauco and Angol—Defeat and death of Antiguenu—

Defeat of Lillemu—Founding of Castro and Chacao and Chiloé—The Indians of Chiloé—Establishment of an Independent Royal Audience—Renewed hostilities with the Araucanians—Don Melchor de Bravo—Earthquakes—Mestizos—Dissolution of the Royal Audience—Different governors—Continued wars with the Araucanians 73
Cayancaru elected toqui—Proceeds against the Spanish port of Karampangui—Lonconobal, Antulevu, Tarochina—Sotomayor builds forts of Trinidad and Espiritu Santo—Cayancaru attacks—Arauco—Guepotan—Defeats, successes and expeditions—Nongoniel—Cadeguala elected toqui—Pirates, English and Dutch descents upon the coast—Sir Thomas Cavendish lauds at Quintero Bay and is attacked by Alonzo Molina—Angol set on fire—The fortress of Puren taken by Cadeguala—Combat between Garcia Ramon and Cadiguala—Guanoalca elected toqui—Juan Tapia—Events of the year 1589—Janequeo determines to avenge the death of her husband—Defeats the governor—She fortifies herself in the mountains—Her force

dispersed—Quintuguenu elected toqui—Spaniards take the fort of Mt. Mariguenu—The younger Colocolo joins the Spaniards—Failure to effect a treaty of peace—Paillaeco succeeds Quintuguenu and is defeated—The governor withdraws the troops to Santiago—Leaves command to Pedro Viscarra and goes to Peru—Loyola appointed captain-general—Paillamachu sends Antipillan to Loyola

Loyola founds Coya—Exploits of the toqui, Paillamachu—Forts erected at Puren and Lumaco—Attacked by Paillamachu and demolished—Governor Loyola killed—All the southern cities besieged by the Araucanians—Concepcion and Chillan burned—Viscarra takes charge of the government—Francisco Quinones chosen governor—His cruelties—Valdivia burned and other cities besieged—The Dutch plunder Chiloé—Ramon appointed governor—Rivera succeeds him—The Biobio fortified—Fall of Vallarica, Imperial and Orsorno—Inez Aguillera—Successes of the Araucanians and close of the war—Huenecura as toqui—Ramon restored to the office of captain-general and
arrives with troops—Builds a fort at Boroa—Lisperguer—Huenecura attacks a fort—Ramon's army destroyed—King Philip III. reestablishes the Royal Audience—Huenecura defeated—Aillavilu, toqui—Luis de Valdivia undertakes to negotiate a treaty of peace—Recall of Rivera—Ancanamon, toqui—Failure of treaty—Utiflame—Talavaranno, Ulloa 91

CHAPTER IXThe seventeenth century

Loncothegua succeeded by Lientur as toqui—Successes of the Araucanians—Cerda succeeds Ulloa as captain-general—Pedro Ulloa—Noruena—Cordova—Putapichion attacks Fort of Nativity—Cordova ravages the Indian country—Governor La Vega carries on war against the Araucanians for ten years—The Dutch—Sir James Narborough—The Marquis of Baides—Treaty of Quillin and close of the Araucanian war—Renewal of the war—Spanish governors to 1665—Second treaty of peace—Events from 1665 to close of the century—French blockade—Condition of the country 101

CHAPTER XThe eighteenth century

The condition of Spain—The French—Character of settlers—Captains of Friends and renewal of the Araucanian wars—The peace of Negrete—Cano—Founding of cities—Different captains-general—Establishment of the University of San Felipe—Mint—Earthquake of 1751 and the destruction of Concepcion—Amat—Failure of the attempt to compel the Araucanians to build cities—Jauregui—Conspiracy of Gramuset and Berney—Ambrosio O'Higgins—Condition of Chile at the close of the century—Expelling the Jesuits—Religious orders—Brief accounts of the administrations of different captains-general of this century to the time of the revolution 109


Spain at the beginning of the eighteenth century—Organization of the Juntas—The causes of the revolution—Tyranny of Spain-

ish viceroys and captains-general—Spanish monopolies—Tithes—Peculations—Tupac Amaru—Ubalde—Purnacagua—The struggle at Buenos Ayres, La Paz and Quito—The inhuman Goyeneche—The uprising at Caracas—San Martin and Belgrano—The revolution at Buenos Ayres—Royalist successes in Peru—Buenos Ayres decides to assist Chile—Progress of the war in all the colonies—Bolivar—Aim of the first Juntas

Formation of parties in Chile—Formation of the first junta—Arrest of citizens in 1810—Disposition of the captain-general—Conde de la Conquista made president—Second congress called—Doctor Rozas—Jonte's mission to Santiago—Riot in the capital quelled by Carrera—Execution of Figueroa—Trouble in the congress over representation—Seizure of Spanish officers—The Carreras compel congress to select a new junta—Jose Miguel Carrera's power—Dissolution of congress—Reaction in favor of the Spanish party—Banishment of Rozas—High-handed measures of the Carreras—The viceroy, Abascal, dispatches Pareja to Chile with an army—Attacks at Yerbas Buenas and San Carlos—Patriot successes—O'Higgins and Mackenna—The royalists besieged in Chillan—Sanchez—O'Higgins given the chief command—Capture of the Carreras—Arrival of Gainza—Attack at Membrillar—Gainza retires to Talca—Lastra named supreme director—Arrival of Captain Hilliar and treaty of Lircay—Founding of the public library, the national institution and other schools—The first newspaper 141

The Carreras abolish the office of supreme director—Party dissensions—Arrival of Osorio to reinforce Gainza—Defeat at Cachapoal and Rancagua—Consternation of the patriots—Flight to Mendoza—Osorio restores the authority of Spain—Banishment of citizens—San Bruno and Marco, their infamous acts—San Martin organizes an army at Mendoza—Rodriguez harasses the Spaniards—The passage of the Andes—Battle of Chacabuco and defeat of the royalists—San Martin enters Santiago—Bernardo O'Higgins named supreme director—Confiscations—Skirmishes in the south


CHAPTER IVThe battle of maypo

Abascal sends another army to Chile under Osorio—Unsuccessful siege of Talcahuano—Osorio advances toward the capital—Independence of Chile formally declared—Skirmishes at Talca and Cancha Rayada—Rout of the patriot army—Rodriguez rallies the patriots in the capital—Reorganization of the patriot army—Details of the battle of Maypo—San Martin returns to Buenos Ayres—Execution of the Carreras—Murder of Manuel Rodriguez—The war in the south—Benavides 168
Efforts in forming a navy—Capture of the "Maria Isabel"—Arrival of Lord Cochrane—Departure of the Chilean fleet to Peru—Attack and repulse at Callao—Unimportant naval operations—Cochrane chases the "Prueba"—Capture of Valdivia by Lord Cochrane 179

CHAPTER VIThe struggle in peru

O'Higgins as supreme director—San Martin's appointees—Efforts to fit out the Peruvian expedition—The purpose of the expedition—Colonel Arenales marches a detachment into the interior—Armistice and diplomatic efforts—Cochrane captures the "Esmeralda"—San Martin establishes his headquarters at Huara—Defection of the Peruvian Numancia regiment—San Martin's conciliatory policy—Lord Cochrane's exploits in the south—The second armistice—San Martin enters Lima—Proclamation of independence—San Martin assumes control of the government—San Martin and Bolivar both seek to possess Guayaquil—Monteagudo—San Martin resigns—Ayacucho and the last battles of the war 186

CHAPTER VIIParty dissensions

Disputes concerning tariffs, and Lord Cochrane's measures to collect duties—Execution of the outlaw, Vicente Benavides—Assembling of congress—Party machinations—Official corruption—Revolt of Concepcion and Coquirabo—O'Higgins is asked to resign—Arrival of General Freire in the capital—He becomes supreme director—Review of O'Higgins' administration 194
CHAPTER I — The liberals in power — freire and pinto CHAPTER II — The conservatives in power — prieto and PORTALES — freire's REVOLUTION EXPEDITION AGAINST PERU THE BATTLE OF YUNGAY Political changes and disturbances — Revolution started by Prieto — Junta formed and congress called — Vicuna, Tagle, Ovalle, Portales — Deplorable condition of the country — The battle of Lircay — Bulnes dispatched against the Pincheiras — The con- stitution of 1833 — Freire captured and banished — Santa Cruz • — Affairs in Peru and Bolivia — War with the confederation of Peru and Bolivia — Death of Portales — Defeat of Santa Cruz — Distinguished scholars — Educational matters — William Wheel- right, and the first steamers — Church dignitaries — Markets and finances . , . . . 216 CHAPTER III — The administrations of presidents bulnes and MONTT — THE CIVIL WAR OF 1859 Bulnes' cabinet — University at Santiago — Bello— Literature, xvi CONTENTS science and art — State institutions — Mines — Colonists — Debt — Punta Arenas — Repressive measures of the conservatives — Political societies — Manuel Montt — Urriola's insurrection — Revolution headed by General Cruz — Battle of Loncomilla — Defeat of the revolutionists — Material advancement — Various lawfs — Education — The policy of Montt and Varas — Second term — Troubles in the church — Party changes — Renewed insur- rections — Civil war of 1859 — The elections . . 227 CHAPTER IV — The adminisJ'ration of president perez — out- break OF THE ARAUCANIANS CHURCH QUESTIONS THE WAR WITH SPAIN Perez forms a ministry of moderate liberals and conservatives — His policy — Guentecol — M. de Tounans as King Antoine I — Doings of congress — England claims damages — Catastrophe in a Jesuit church — Railway opened between Santiago and Val- paraiso — Measures to aid colonization — Exciting debates upon religious questions — Cause of the war with Spain — Ports blockaded — Naval operations — Bombardment of Valparaiso — Efforts to arrange treaty of peace — Immigration — Skirmishes with the Araucanians — Attempted impeachment of the supreme court — Political reforms — Treaty with the Argentine Republic — Agricultural exhibition . . " . . 237 CHAPTER V — The administration of president errazuriz Elections — Active canvass of church questions — Reformatory measures passed by congress — Circulating libraries — Party dif- ferences — The Patagonian and Bolivian boundary questions — Earthquakes — Coal fields — Loans negotiated — Railroads 255 CHAPTER VI — The administration of president pinto Political agitations — Pinto, Amunategui, Mackenna — Pinto's cab- inet — Boundary disputes — Financial difiSculties — Paper money — Failure of crops — Nitrates and minerals — Statistical items — Schools — Disputes in respect to church questions — Taforo — The Roman delegate — The civil marriage law . . . 263 CONTENTS PART IV THE WAR WITH PERU AND BOLIVIA CHAPTER I — The beginning of the war Causes of the war — The Chileans take possession of Antofagasta — Skirmish at Calama — Peru seeks to arbitrate — The armies — The navies — The Army of the South formed at Iquique — Naval operations — Bombardment of Pisagua . . 272 CHAPTER II — Naval battles — prat and grau President Prado sails south with the Peruvian fleet to take com- mand of the army — President Daza of Bolivia arrives with troops — Captain Grau attacks the " Esmeralda " and " Cova- donga " — Loss of the " Independencia " — The "Huascar" sinks the "Esmeralda" — Heroic death of Captain Prat — Other naval operations and engagements— Changes of Chilean officers — Gallant act of Lieutenant Diez — Battle between the "Huascar" and the "Cochrane" — Death of brave Captain Grau ... ... 280 CHAPTER III — The war in the south — pisagua, san francisco, TARAPACA PERU loses DESERT PROVINCES Description of the desert provinces — Forces in Tarapaca — Cap- ture of Pisagua — Cavalry action at Jeramia — Army manoeuvres — Battle of San Francisco — Defeat of the allies and evacuation of Iquique — Battle of Tarapaca — Ports blockaded — Pierola heads a revolt in Lima, Campero in La Paz — Operations along the coast — Attempts of Peruvians to destroy Chilean vessels — Callao blockaded . . 289 CHAPTER IV — The occupation of moquega, tacna and arica — NAVAL operations — THE ADVANCE UPON LIMA — FIRST ATTEMPT TO ARRANGE A TREATY The battle at Los Angeles — Revolt headed by Colonel Silva against Campero — Cavalry action at Locumba — The battle of Tacna — Assault of Arica — Further attempts made by Peruvians to blow up Chilean men-of-war — Lynch's expedition — Naval xviii CONTENTS engagements at Callao — Failure to arrange treaty of peace — Pierola turns over the government to La Puerta • • 298 CHAPTER V — The battles of choeillos and miraflores— OCCUPATION OF LIMA AND CALLAO ESTABLISHING A GOVERNMENT Peruvian army at the capital — Active preparations for the defence of Lima — Movements of the Chilean troops — The battles — Acts of vandalism — Burning of Miraflores — Mob rule — Calderon selected as provisional president — Skirmishes in the interior — Caceres — Failure to effect treaty of peace — Pinto's admin- istration . . 309 CHAPTER VI — The administration of president santa maria Active political canvass — The liberals divided — Two conventions — Baquedano a candidate — Pinto favors Santa Maria — Santa Maria's cabinet — The war in Peru — Continued skirmishing in the interior — Caceres defeated at Huamachuco — Engagement at Huancayo — Peruvian officers submit to Lynch — Treaty signed — Iglesias made president of Peru — The terms of the treaty — Expense of the war — Chile's gain of territory — Bitter disputes with the church — Turbulence caused by church ques- tions and legislation relating thereto — New laws and public improvements . . 318 PART V BALMACEDA AND THE CIVIL WAR OF '91 CHAPTER I — President balmaceda — material progress Turbulence in elections — Opposition to the liberals — Reforms — Railroads and public improvements — The gathering storm . 329 CHAPTER II— The revolt The constitution — Congress opposes the president — Party oppo- sition — Changes of ministries and votes of censure — The Con- stitutional Committee calls a congress — Balmaceda issues a manifesto — The Supreme Court declares his acts illegal Naval officers declare for congress, the army adheres to the CONTENTS xix cause of the president— The congressional fleet — Captain Montt takes the ' ' Huascar " out of Valparaiso harbor — The con- gressionalists proceed to Iquique — Skirmish at Zapiga — Pisagua captured and bombarded — Defeat of Colonel Robles — Fight at Huarez — Iquique taken by Colonel Soto, who subsequently surrenders it — Impressments — Defeat of Robles at Pozo al Monte . . , 333 CHAPTER III — Balmaceda's position — naval operations The opposing forces — The Tarapaca nitrate fields — The ap- proaching elections — Claudio Vicuna — The parliamentary presi- dent — General view of the struggle — Various naval engage- ments — Sinking the ' ' Blanco Encalada " — Exploits of the torpedo-catchers, " Condell " and "Lynch" . 345 CHAPTER IV — Triumph of the revolution — the affair of the BALTIMORE SAILORS The government's forces — The new congress — Elections — Dia- bolical plots — The opposition army embarks for Quintero — The landing — Consternation — The battle of Concon, or Colmo — Balmaceda's efforts to bring forward a new army — Movements of the respective armies — The battle of Placilla — Defeat of the Balmacedist army — Flight of government officers — The affair of the "Lynch" — Wild scenes iu Valparaiso — Riotous acts in Santiago — Suicide of Balmaceda — Formation of a new govern- ment — Jorje Montt elected president — Claudio Vicuna in Paris Feeling between the United States and Chile — The real cause of the difficulty — Attack upon the sailors by a Valparaiso mob — The victims — Diplomatic correspondence — Settlement of the affair . . . . .... 336 PART VI CHILE OF TO-DAY CHAPTER I — The people of chile Charactei- of the people — Tastes and habits — Scholars — Liberals and conservatives — Social traits — The ladies — Church-going — XX CONTENTS Santiago and Valparaiso society — The English in Chile — The Germans — Peons, their habits, dress and manner of living — Wakes — The Indian population — Character and habits of the Araucanians — Their huts, marriage, customs, religion, super- stitions, manners — Patagonian tribes — People of the extreme south ........... 372 CHAPTER II — Extent and resources Boundaries and extent — Geography of the country — Climate — Rains — Rivers — Lakes — Crops — Grape culture — Irrigation — The southern districts — Forests — Immigration — Hardships en- countered by immigrants — Coal mines — Manufactures — Nitrate works — Minerals — Mines , , . . 386 CHAPTER III— Natural history Physical divisions of the country — Mountains — Deserts — Valley and coast country — Lakes — Character of streams — Earth- quakes — Destruction of Concepcion — Harbors — Islands — Straits of Magellan — Juan Fernandez — Animals, reptiles, fish and birds — Forests — Plants — Vegetables — Fruits . . 398 CHAPTER IV — Railroads — army and navy — educational MATTERS Government ownership of railroads — Cost of same — Different lines in operation — The Transandine Railway — Other Traus- andine lines projected — Private lines — Military schools — The army — National Guard — The navy — Naval officers — Commer- cial fleet — Pacific Steam Navigation Company — Subsidies — Ed- ucation — Instructions in the capital — Lyceums — National library — Painting, music, science . , 409 CHAPTER V — Cities and government The cities of Chile and their population — Description .of Santi- ago, Valparaiso, Concepcion and other places — Political parties — Character of the government — The president — Intendentes — Governors — Sub-delegates — Courts — Congress — Deputies — Po- litical divisions of the country ... . . 418 APPENDIX Provinces and capitals — Debt, receipts and expenditures — Banks —Money . 423 Constitution of Chile ... . 425 Authorities for the History of Chile ... . 456 Index 455 ILLUSTRATIONS Page Bernardo O'Higgins, . . . Frontispiece Jose de San Martin, . ... 133 Manuel Blanco Encalada, ... . .179 Railroad Bridge between Santiago and Valparaiso, . 241 Houses of Congress, . 263 Jos^ Manuel Balmaceda, . . . 329 The Plaza Victoria, Valparaiso, . 363 A Private Residence in Santiago, . . 377 Plaza del Armas, Santiago, . . 418 MAPS General Map of Chile, . . . .21 Battle of Tacna, . . .299 Closing Battles of the War of i8gi . . -359



Freire's rule — Doings of the congress — The new tariff — The first

constitution — Freire's unsuccessful expedition to Chilo^ — Dis- satisfaction and demoralization — Dissolution of the senate and setting aside of the constitution — Freire's efforts to build a navy — Cienfuegos, Muzi and Ferreti — First troubles with the church — Financial difficulties — Revival of the estancos — Political excitement and attempted assassinations — Congress dissolved — Troubles in the new congress — Political parties — Freire's second expedition to Chilo^ — Defeat of the royalists and the incorporation of Chilo^ into the republic, — Attempts to form a confederacy — Freire first president, Pinto vice-presi- dent — Freire resigns — Pinto assumes the office of president — The last acts of the congress — Troubles with the Araucanians — Difficulty between a British officer and a Chilean — Assem- bling of congress — Further efforts to draft a constitution — Pin- to resigns — Party agitations