An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/C

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain
C

C

c', for co, cia, who, what, q.v.

, ca, where, Ir. , how, where, who; a by-form to cia, , q.v.

cab, a gap, indentation, mouth, Ir. cab, mouth, head, gap, cabach, babbling, indented. The word is borrowed from two English words—gap and gab (M.E. gabben, chatter); G. has also gab, directly from gab of the Sc. Hence cabach, gap-toothed.

càbag, a cheese; Sc. cabback, kebbock. The latter form (kebbock) is probably from a G. ceapag, cepag, obsolete in G. in the sense of “a cheese”, but still used for the thick wooden wheel of wheel-barrows; it is from G. ceap. Sc. cabback is a side form of kebbock, and it seems to have been re-borrowed into G. as càbag. the real G. word for “a cheese” is now mulachag.

cabaist, cabbage, Ir. gabáisde; from the Eng.

càball, a cable, Ir. cabla; from Eng. cable, which, through Fr., comes from Lat. capulum.

cabar, a rafter, caber, deer’s horn, Ir. cabar, W. ceibr, rafters, O. Br. cepriou, beams; from a Med. Lat. *caprio, a rafter, capro, caprones (which exists as a genuine 8th century word), Fr. chevron, rafter. Caprio is from caper, goat; Lat. capreoli, goat-lets, was used for two beams meeting to support something, props, stays.

cabasdar, cabstar, a bit, curb, W. cebystr, Br. kabestr; from Lat. capistrum, halter, “head-holder”, from caput.

cabhag, hurry:

cabhlach, a fleet, Ir. cobhlach, cabhlach, E. Ir. coblach; *cob-lach; from kub, *quꬶ, curve, root of Lat. cymba, boat, Gr. κύμβη, boat, cup, especially Lat. cybaea, a transport (*κυβαία).

cabhladh, ship’s tackle, Ir. cábhluighe; cf. cabhlach and Eng. cable.

càbhruich, sowens, flummery, Ir. cáthbhruith; from cáth and bruith, q.v.

cabhsair, causeway, Ir. cabhsa; from Eng. causey, causeway, from O. Fr. caucie, from Lat. calciata (via).

cabhsanta, dry, snug; from Sc. cosie, colsie, Eng. cosy, whose origin is unknown.

cabhtair, an issue, drain in the body (M‘D., who, as cautair, explains it as “an issue or cauter”); from Eng. cauter.

cabhuil, a conical basket for catching fish; from M. Eng. cawell, a fish basket, still used in Cornwall, Ag. S. cawl. Cf. Br. kavell, bow-net, O. Br. cauell, basket, cradle; from Lat. cauuella, a vat, etc. (Loth, Ernault).

càblaid, turmoil, hindrance, trouble (Wh.): See càpraid.

cabon, capon (M‘D.), Ir. cabún; from Eng. capon.

cac, excrement, so Ir., E. Ir. cacc, Cor. caugh, Br. kac’h, *kakko‑; Lat. caco; Gr. κάκκη; Skr. çáka, g. çaknás.

càch, the rest, others, Ir., O. Ir. cách, quivis, W. pawb, all, Br. pep, *qáqe; root , qo, qe of co and gach, q.v.

cachdan, vexation, Ir. cacht, distress, prisoner, E. Ir. cachtaim, I capture, W. caeth, slave, confined: *kapto‑, caught; Lat. capio, captus; Got. haban, Eng. have.

cachliadh (Arm.), cachaleith (H.S.D.), a gate; co + cliath, "co-hurdle"; see cliath, cleath, hurdle, wattle. Also cachliag, (C.S.). It has also been explained as cadha-chliath, “hurdle-pass”. Carmichael gives alternate cliath-na-cadha.

cadadh, tartan cloth, hose tartan, Manx cadee, cotton; Eng. caddow (16th cent.), an Irish quilt or cloak; doubtless from Eng. caddis, worsted, crewel work, etc., Fr. cadis, woollen serge. See also catas.

cadal, sleep, Ir. codladh, O. Ir. cotlud, vb. contulim: *con-tul‑, root tol; Ch. Sl. toliti, appease, placare, Lit. tilas, quiet (Persson). The root tol, tel, appears in tlàth, gentle, Lat. tolerare, Sc. thole.

cadan, cotton (Sh.); from Eng. cotton. Properly codan, which is the usual dialect form. See cotan. For Ir. cadás, cotton, see catas.

cadha, a pass, narrow pass, entry; cf. Ir. caoi, way, road, E. Ir. cái, which Stokes, however, refers to the root ci as in Lat. cio, move, Gr. κίω, go, a derivation which does not suit the G. phonetically. Cae (Meyer).

cadhag, jackdaw, Ir. cabhóg, M. Ir. caog; *ca-óg, the ca-er or crier of ca, caw; on onomatopoetic origin. Cf. Eng. caw; also chough, from a West Teut. kâwa‑.

cadhag, a wedge (M‘A. for Skye):

cadhan, wild goose, barnacle goose, so Ir.; cf. Eng. caw, for possibly the name is onomatopoetic. Corm. (B) cadan.

cadh-luibh, the cud-weed (Sh. gives cad-luibh, and O’B.), Ir. cadh-luibh; from M. Eng. code, a cud. M‘A. omits the word; it is clearly Irish. The G. is cnàmh lus, which is its Lat. name of gnaphalium in folk etymology.

cadhmus, a mould for casting bullets; from Sc. cawmys, calmes (16th century), caums, Eng. calm, came.

cagailt, a hearth, Ir. cagailt, raking of the fire (O’R.):

cagar, a whisper, Ir. cogar, M. Ir. coccur; cechras, qui canet, cairche, sound; root kar, of Lat. carmen, Gr. κῆρυξ, herald (Stokes).

cagaran, darling: *con-car‑; root car, dear, as in caraid.

caglachan, something ground to pulp or dust (M‘D.):

cagnadh, chewing, Ir. cognadh, M. Ir. cocnum, O. Ir. cocnom: *con-cnámh; see cnàmh.

caibe, a spade, turf cutter, Ir. coibe, cuibe (O'R., Fol.), W. caib, O.Cor. cep.

caibeal, a chapel (M‘D.); from Lat. capella. The G. really is seipeal, q.v.

caibheis, giggling, laughing:

caibideil, caibdeil, a chapter, Ir. caibidil, E. Ir. caiptel, W. cabidwl; from Lat. capitulum, whence O. Fr. chapitre, Eng. chapter.

caidir, cherish, so Ir. See the next word.

caidreabh, fellowship, affection, vicinity, so Ir., M. Ir. caidrebh, Celtiberian Contrebia: *con-treb‑; see aitreabh, treabh.

caig, conversation, claque (Arg.); teaze (Perth):

caigeann, a couple (of animals), coupling: *con-ceann; from ceann, q.v.

caigeann, a winding pass through rocks and brushwood, a rough mountani pass (Dial. = cadha-éiginn).

caigeann, scrimmage (M‘D.):

càil, condition, vigour, appetite, anything (càileigin), Ir. cáil, W. cael, to have, get, enjoy, *kapli‑, *kapelo‑: root qap; Lat. capio, Eng. have.

cailbhe, a partition wall (of wattle or clay, etc.); from calbh, q.v.

cailc, chalk, Ir., E. Ir. cailc, W. calch; from Lat. calx, calcis, whence also Eng. chalk.

caile, girl, wench, Ir. caile, hussy, E. Ir. caile; cf. Br. plac’h, girl; Gr. παλλακή, concubine, Lat. pellex. Usually caileag, girl.

càileach, husks, Ir. cáithleach: cáith-lach; see càth. From càth comes also càilean, a husk.

caileadair, philosopher, star-gazer; from the Eng. calender, a mendicant dervish, from Pers. qalander.

cailidear, snot, rheum (M‘F., cailidhir in Sh.). O’R. improves this into cailidéar.

cailis, chalice, Ir. cailís; from Lat. calix, cup, Eng. chalice.

cailise, kails, ninepins (M‘D.); from Eng. kails, M. Eng. cailis, from keyle, a peg, Ger. kegel, a cane, ninepin.

cailleach, old wife, nun, so Ir., O. Ir. caillech, "veiled one"; from caille, veil, which is from the Lat. pallium, cloak, Eng. pall.

caillteanach, eunuch, so Ir.; from caill, lose. See call.

càimein, a mote, Ir. cáim, a stain, blemish; from càm.

caimeineach, saving (Carm.):

caimhleachadh, caingleachadh, restraining (Carm.).

caimir, a fold:

caimleid, camlet; from the Eng.

càin, a tax, a tribute, Ir. cáin, E. Ir. cáin, statute, law: *kap-ni‑, root qap, as in càil? Stokes refers it to the root kâs, order, Skr. çâs (do.), Lat. castigare, castus, Got. hazjan, praise. Hence Sc. cain.

càin, white: from Lat. cānus.

càin, scold, revile, Ir. cáin, M. Ir. cáined, scolding: *kag-niô or kakniô(?); Gr. καχάζω, laugh, καγχάζω, Lat. cachinnus; O. H. G. huohôn, mock; Skr. kakhati, laugh.

cainb, hemp, Ir. cnáib, M. Br. canap; from Lat. cannabis, allied to Eng. hemp.

caineal, cinnamon; from Sc. and obsolete Eng. cannel, canel, cinnamon, from O. Gr. canelle, from Lat. canella, dim. of canna, cane.

caingeann, a fine (Heb.), Ir. caingean, a rule, case, compact, etc.:

Caingis, Pentecost, Ir. cingcis, E. Ir. Cingcigais; from the Lat. quinquagesima (dies, 50th day from the Passover).

cainneag, a mote:

cainneag, a hamper (Skye):

cainnt, speech, Ir. caint; from can, say, q.v. Stokes gives the stem as *kan(s)ti, root kans, Skr çasti, prise, from çams, speak, Lat. censeo.

caiptean, a captain, Ir., M. Ir. caiptín; from M. Eng. capitain, from O. Fr. capitaine, Lat. capitaneus, caput, head.

càir, a blaze, sea foam, etc.; see rather caoir.

càir, the gum, Ir. cáir (cairib, Fol.):

càir, a peat moss, dry part of the peat moss (Dial.); from Eng. carr, boggy ground, Norse kjarr, brushwood. Also càthar, q.v.

cairb, the bent ridge of a cart saddle (srathair). Shaw gives further the meanings “plank, ship, fusee (cairb a’ ghunna) (Rob), chariot”; Ir. corb, coach. The word is the primary stem from which carbad, chariot, springs; see carbad. As “fusee” or “fusil”, i.e., “musket”, it seems a curtailed form of cairbinn.

cairbh, a carcase, carrion; also cairb (Dial.); allied to corpus?

cairbhist, carriage, tenants’ rent service; from M. Eng. cariage, in all senses (Cf. the charter terms—“Areage and cariage and all due service”), now carriage.

cairbinn, a carabine; from the Eng.

cairbinneach, a toothless person (Sh.); from †cairb, a jaw, gum, Ir. cairb. See cairb above.

cairc, flesh, person:

càird, a delay, respite, Ir. cáirde; cf. O. Ir. cairde, pactum. A special legal use of a word which originally means "friendship". See next.

càirdeas, friendship, so Ir., O. Ir. cairdes; from caraid, q.v.

càireag, a prating girl (Sh., who gives caireog); probably from càir, gum: "having jaw".

caireal, noise; see coirioll.

cairfhiadh, a hart or stag, Ir. cáirrfhiadh: *carbh-fhiadh. For *carbh, a deer; cf. W. carw, hart, stag, Cor. caruu, Br. caru; Lat. carvus; Gr. κεραός, horned.

càirich, mend, Ir. cóirighim, E. Ir. córaigim, arrange, from cóir, q.v. Cf. cairim, sutor, Z. 775.

cairidh, a weir, Ir. cora, M. Ir. coraidh for cora, g. corad, W. cored, O. W. and O. Br. coret, from Celtic korjô, I set, put. See cuir.

cairgein, sea moss, Ir. moss, Eng carrageen, so named from Carragheen (Waterford), in Ireland. This place name is a dim. of carraig, rock.

cairis, corpse, carcase; founded on M. Eng. cors, Sc. corrssys (pl. in Blind Harry), now corse.

cairmeal, wild liquorice; see carrameille.

cairnean, an egg-shell:

cairt, bark (of a tree), Ir. cairt; Lat. cortex; root qert, cut, Lit. kertù, cut, Eng. rend.

cairt, a cart, so Ir., W. cart; from the Eng. cart.

cairt, a card, so Ir.; G. is from Sc. carte, which is direct from the Fr. carte. The Eng. modifies the latter form into card. They are all from Lat. charta, paper. E. Ir. cairt meant "parchment".

cairt, cleanse, Ir. cartaighim, E. Ir. cartaim, W. carthu, purge, kar-to‑. The root idea is a "clearing out"; the root ker, kar, separate, is allied to sker in ascart, and especially in sgar.

cairteal, a quarter; from Late Lat. quartellus, Norse kvartill, Lat. quartus, fourth.

caisbheart, cais’eart, foot gear (shoes or boots), Ir. coisbheart; from cas+bheart, q.v.

caisd, listen, Ir. coisteacht, listening, E. Ir. coistim, O. Ir. coitsea, auscultet: co-étsim, co and éisd, listen, q.v. O’R. gives the modern Ir. cóisdeacht with o long, which would seem the most natural result from co-éisd.

càise, cheese, Ir., E. Ir. cáise, W. caws, Br. kaouz; from Lat. cāseus, whence Eng. cheese.

caiseal, bulwark, castle, Ir. caiseal, E. Ir. caisel, caissle; from Lat. castellum.

caisean, anything curled, etc.; from cas, curled, q.v.

caisg, check, stop, Ir. coisgim, O. Ir. cosc, castigare, W. cosp, *kon-sqo‑, *seqô, I say; Lat. inseque; Gr. ἔννεπε, say, ἔνι-σπε, dixit; Eng. say, Ger. sagen.

Càisg, Easter, Ir. Cáisg, O. Ir. cásc, W. pasc; from Lat. pascha, Eng. paschal.

caisil-chrò, a bier, bed of blood, M. Ir. cosair chró, bed of blood—to denote a violent death, E. Ir. cosair, bed. the expression appears in the Ossianic Ballads, and folk-etymology is responsible for making G. casair into caisil, bulwark. The word cosair has been explained as co-ster‑, root ster, strew, Lat. sternere, Eng. strew.

caisleach, a ford, footpath; from cas-lach, rather than cas-slighe, foot-way.

caislich, stir up, caisleachadh, shaking up, etc.; from cas, sudden.

caismeachd, an alarm (of battle), signal, march tune. The corresponding Ir. is caismirt, alarm, battle, M. Ir. caismert, E. Ir. cosmert.

caisrig, consecrate; see coisrig.

caisteal, a castle, M. Ir. castél, E. Ir. castíall; from Lat. castellum, whence Eng. castle.

càiteach, a rush mat for measuring corn, Ir. cáiteach, winnowing sheet; from càite, winnowed, from càth.

caiteag, a small bit (H.S.D.), a basket for trouts (M‘A. for Islands), basket (Sh.), a place to hold barley in (M‘L.). For the first sense, cf. W. cat, a piece, Sc. cat, a rag. In Irish Lat. the trout was called catus (Giraldus).

caiteas, scraped linen, applied for the stoppage of wounds (M‘F.); from Sc. caddis, lint for wounds, M. Eng. cadas, caddis, cotton wool, floss silk for padding, from O. Fr. cadas. See G. catas. caiteas = sawdust, scrapings (M‘D.).

caitein, nap of cloth, shag, Ir. caitín, catkin of the osier, little cat. The Eng. words caddis, catkin, and cotton seem to be mixed up as the basis of the G. and Ir. words. Cf. W. ceden, shaggy hair.

caith, spend, cast, Ir., O. Ir. caithim, *katjô, I consume, castaway; Skr. çâtayati, sever, cast down, destroy, çât-ana, causing to fall, wearing out, root çat. Allied to the root of cath, war.

caithear, just, right, Ir. caithear (Lh.), caithfidh, it behoves, M. Ir. caithfid; from caith, doubtless (Atk.).

caithream, shout of joy, triumph, Ir. caithréim; from cath, battle, and réim, a shout, E. Ir. rém. This last word Strachan refers to the root req (*rec‑m or *rec‑s‑m), Ch. Sl. reką, speak, Lith. rėkiù.

caithris, night-watching:

càl, kail, cabbage, Ir. cál, W. cawl, Cor. caul, Br. kaol; from Lat. caulis, a stalk, whence likewise Eng. cole (colewort) and Sc. kail.

cala, caladh, a harbour, Ir. caladh, M. Ir. calad. It is usual to correlate this with It. cala, Fr. cale, bay, cove (Diez, Thurneysen, Windisch), and Stokes even says the G. and Ir. words are borrowed from a Romance *calatum, It. calata, cala, Fr. cale, cove. More probably the Celtic root is qel, qal, hide, as in Eng. hollow, M. Eng. holh, hollow, cave, also Eng. hole, possibly. the root of cladh, has also been suggested.

caladair, calendar, Ir. calaindéir; from M. Eng. kalendar, through Fr. from Lat. calendarium, an account-book, from calendæ, the Calends or first of the month.

calaman, a dove; the common form of the literary columan, q.v.

calanas, spinning of wool; seemingly founded on Lat. colus, distaff. See cuigeal.

calbh, head, pate, bald, so Ir., E. Ir. calb; from Lat. calva, scalp, calvus, bald. H.S.D. gives as a meaning "promontory", and instances "Aoineadh a’ Chailbh Mhuilich", which surely must be the Calf of Mull; and Calf is a common name for such subsidiary isles—from Norse kálfr, Eng. calf. Cognate with Lat. calva, calvaria (St. Lec.).

calbh, a shoot, osier, twig, Ir. colbha, plant stalk, sceptre, hazel tree, E. Ir. colba, wand; see colbh.

calbh, gushing of water or blood (H.S.D.) from above?

calbhair, greedy of food (Suth.); from càil?

calc, drive, ram, caulk, Ir. calcaim; from Lat. calco, calx, the heel, Eng. in-culcate.

caldach, sharp, pointed (Sh., M‘L.):

calg, awn, beard of corn, bristles, Ir. calg, colg, E. Ir. colg, a sword, O. W. colginn, aristam, W. cola, beard of corn, sting, caly, penis, Br. calc’h (do.), *kalgo-, *kolgo-; Gr. κολοβός, stunted; Got. halks, poor; further is Lat. cellere, hit, culter, knife; etc. The main root is qel, qlâ, hit, break; see claidheamh, cladh. The Caledonian hero Calgacos derives his name hence. Hence calg-dhìreach, direct, “sword-straight” to a place.

call, loss, Ir. caill, E. Ir. coll, W. coll, Cor. colled, jactura, M. Br. coll, *koldo-; Eng. halt, Got. halts, O. H. G. halz, lame; root qel, as above in calg, q.v.

calla, callda, tame, callaidh (M‘A., also Sh., who gives the meaning “active” to the last form); cf. W. call, wise; from Lat. callidus?

callag, calltag, the black guillemot, diver; compare Eng. quail, Fr. caille.

callaid, a partition, fence; the same as tallaid, q.v.?

callaid, a wig, cap (M‘F.); from Eng. calotte, skull-cap.

callan, a noise, Ir. callán, callóich; from Eng. call?

calltuinn, hazel, Ir. E. Ir. coll, W. collen, Cor. coll-widen. M. Br. quel-vezenn, *koslo-; Lat. corylus; Norse hasl, Eng. hazel. *coll+tann.

Calluinn, New Year's Day, Ir. calláin, Calends, or first day of the month, E. Ir. callaind, the Calends, particularly the first Jan., W. calan, Calends; from Lat. calendæ (Eng. Calends).

calm, a pillar (M‘A.), Ir. columhan, colbh; from Lat. columna, etc.

calm, calma, brave, Ir., E. Ir. calma. Cf. W. celf, skill, art, celfydd, skilled, O. Br. celmed, efficax. The root cal is to be compared with that in Ger. held, hero, *haleth or *calet. The I. E. root is qel, as in Lat. celsus, high, columna, column, Eng. excel.

calman, dove; see calaman.

calmarra, the pike (Wh.)?

calpa, the calf of the leg, so Ir., E. Ir. calpda, bonus pes (Corm.), colpa, tibia; from the Norse kálfi, whence also Eng. calf.

calpa, principal set to interest, Sc. calpa, death-duty payable to the landlord, from N. kaup, stipulation, pay.

calum, hardness on the skin (H.S.D.; cathlum in M‘D.); from Lat. callum, callus. It is not the obsolete caladh, hard, E. Ir. calad, W. caled, O. Br. calat, *kaleto‑, root kal, hard; Got hallus, stone, Norse helle, hallr; Skr. çilâ, stone.

cam, crooked, one-eyed, Ir. cam, O. Ir. camm, W. cam, Br. kam, Gaul. cambo‑, root kemb, wind; Gr. κόμβος, a band, bond; Lit. kingė, door-bar. It has been referred to the root of Gr. σκαμβός, crooked (see ceum), and to Lat. camera, whence Eng. chamber. Hence camag, club, camas, bay.

camag-gharuidh, hoow above the eye, Ir. camóg-ara, “the bend of the ara,” O. Ir. aire, G. arach, tempus; Gr. παρειά, cheek.

camart, wry-neck:

camastrang, quarrelsome disputation (M‘D.):

camhach, talkative; *com-ag-ach, root ag in adhan?

camhal, a camel, Ir. camhall, E. Ir. camail, W. camyll; from Lat. camelus.

camhan, a hollow plain, Ir. cabhán (County Cavan); from the Lat. cavus.

camhanaich, break of day, twilight, Ir. camhaoir; (M‘A. sgamhanaich, “lights”):

camlag, a curl:

camp, campa, a camp, Ir., M. Ir. campa; from the Eng. camp.

campar, vexation, grief; from Sc. cummar, Eng. cumber.

can, say, sing, Ir. canaim, O. Ir. canim, W. cana, sing. Br. kana; Lat. cano, sing; Gr. κανάζω; Eng. hen.

cana, porpoise, young whale, Ir. cana (O’R.), cána (O’B.), whelp, pup, M. Ir. cana (do.); from Lat. canis?

canach, mountain down, cotton Ir. canach, O. Ir. canach, lanugo; Gr. κνῆκος, thistle, κνηκός, yellow; Skr. kāncanas, golden, a plant; *qonak‑. Stokes refers it to *casnaka, Lat. cânus, white (*casno‑), Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. hare.

cànain, language, Ir. cánamhuin. Seemingly a long-vowel form of the root qan, cry. See cainnt.

canal, cinnamon; see caineal.

canan, a cannon; from the Eng.

canastair, a canister; from the Eng.

cangaruich, fret; from Sc. canker, fret, Eng. canker.

cangluinn, trouble, vexation; from Sc. cangle.

canna, a can, so Ir., E. Ir. cann; from Eng. can.

cannach, pretty, kind; *cas‑no‑, root, qas, Lat. cānus, white (casnus), Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. haze? Or it may be allied to Lat. candidus, white, Skr. cand, shine.

canntaireachd, articulate music, chanting, Ir. cantaireachd, singing, cántaire, a singer; from Lat. cantor, cano, I sing.

cànran, wrangling, grumbling, muttering, Ir. cannrán; from can, say, sing.

cantal, grief, weeping (Sh., M‘L.), Ir. cantlamh:

caob, a clod, a bite, Ir. caob, clod, M. Ir. coep, E. Ir. caip, cáep, clot, lump, O. Ir. caebb oo, jecur.

caoch, empty (as a nut), blind, so Ir., O. Ir. caech, W. coeg, foolish, Cor. cuic, *kaiko‑s; Lat. caecus; Got. haihs, one-eyed.

caoch, caothach, rage; see cuthach.

caochan, a streamlet; from caoch, blind?

caochail, change, die, caochladh, a change, Ir. caochluighim, O. Ir. caoimchláim cóem-chlóim: imchloud, imchlóad, inversio; for co-imm-clóim; from clóim, muto: see claoidh. The aspiration of the mn of imb is unusual, but the history of the word is also unusual, for it actually appears as claemchlód in E. Ir. oftener than once, and Ir. claochlódh, claochladh.

caod Chaluim-chille, St John’s wort (Sh.):

caog, wink; apparently from Eng. cock (the eye). Cf. Norse kaga, keek; Sc. keek; Shet. caog, peep slily.

caogad, fifty, so Ir., O. Ir. cóica(t), *qenqekont; Lat. quinquaginta; Gr. πεντήκοντα. See cóig.

caoidh, lamentation, Ir. caoi, caoidh, E. Ir. cói, cái, inf. to cíim, ploro, *keiô, root qei, which appears in caoin, q.v., and in Eng. whine, whisper, etc. Bezzenberger suggests *keipô, and compares Lit. szëptis, grimace, Ch. Sl. o-sipnąti, raucescere. A former derivation of Stokes’ is repeated by Rhys (Manx. Pray.2, 26): *qesi, root qes as in Lat. questus.

caoillean, a twig or osier for wicker, M. Ir. cóelach; from caol, slender.

caoimheach, a bedfellow (Sh.), Ir. caoimhthech, E. Ir. com-aithech, neighbour; see aitheach. Also caomhach, friend, bedfellow. The latter seems from, or influenced by, caomh.

caoimhneas, kindness. This word is supposed by folk etymology to be from caomh, kind, whereas it is really allied to O. Ir. coibnes, affinitas, *co-ven-estu‑, root ven of fine, q.v.

caoin, kind, mild, so Ir., O. Ir. càin, kind, beautiful [W. cain?]: *koini‑, root koi, kei of caomh, q.v. Stokes gives base as kaini‑, and Bezzenberger compares Gr. καίνυσθαι, excel, Ch. Sl. sinąti, gleam forth. If the base idea were “beauty”, Eng. shine might be compared.

caoin, the exterior surface of cloth, right side, rind, sward; from caoin, gentle, polished?

caoin, weep, so Ir., O. Ir. cóinim, cáinim, O. W. cuinhaunt, deflebunt, Br. couen, queiniff, *koiniô; qein, qîn; Eng. whine, Norse hvína, whirr; Gr. κινυρός, wailing. See caoidh.

caoinich, dry, make dry (as hay by the sun), caoin, seasoned; from the adj. caoin?

caoir, a blaze, stream of sparks, a coal, Ir. caor, E. Ir cáer, *kairo, Eng. hoar (*kairo-), Teut. root hai in Norse heið, atmospheric clearness, O. H. G. hei, heat, Eng. heat; Skr. kêtus, light. More near are Gr. κίρις (lamp, Hes.), Skr. kiráṇa, a ray, clear, has been also suggested. caoran, a peat ember.

caoirean, a plaintive song; also caoi-ràn, moaning (H.S.D.). The root word is caoidh; possibly rán, roar, forms the latter part.

caoirnean, a drop of sheep or goats' dung, a drop or globule; cf. Ir. caoirín, a little berry, little sheep, from caor, berry, caora, sheep. The two ideas seem confused in Gaelic. In Argyle, gaoirnean; (Arg. ao here is northern ao). From skar, sharn?

caol, slender, so Ir., O. Ir. cóil, W., Cor. cul, O. Br. culed, macies, *koilo-; Lett. káils, naked; Lat. caelebs, single? Gr. κο̂ιλος, hollow? Hence caol; caolas, a firth or Kyle.

caolan, gut, intesting, Ir. caolán, E. Ir. coelán, O. W. coilion, exta; from caol.

caomh, tender, kind, so Ir., E. Ir. coem, O. Ir. cóim, W. cu, O. W. cum, Br. cuff, cun, debonnaire, *koimo-, root kei, lie; Gr. κοιμάω, put to rest, κε̂ιμαι, lie; Got. háims, a village, Ag. S. hám. Eng. home. The idea is "restful".

caomhach, bedfellow, friend, Ir. caomthach, friend; see caoimheach, and cf. Ir. caomhaighim, I protect, cherish, from caomh.

caomhain, spare, save, caomhnadh, sparing, Ir. caoimhnaim, preserve, keep, protect, caomhaighim, caomhnuighim, preserve. The last form seems the most original, if we refer the root to O. Ir. anich, protegit, aingim, I protect (a-nak), root nak and nank, as in adhlac, thig, etc. The form nak is more particularly allied to Skr. náçati, reach, Lit. neszù, draw. The G. verb may have been *com-anich-. It is possible to derive it from caomh with caomhuin as an inf. form which usurped the place of the present stem.

caonnag, strife, tumult, Ir. caonnóg, strife, a next of wild bees: *cais-no-, root kais, kai, heat, Eng. heat, G. caoir?

caor, berry of the rowan, a mountain berry, Ir. caor, O. Ir. cáer, bacca, W. cair, berries, ceirion, berry *kairâ. It is seemingly the same word as caoir, blaze, the idea arising probably from the red rowan berries.

caora, a sheep, Ir. caora, g. caorach, O. Ir. câer, *cairax, from *ka(p)erax, alliet to Lat. caper, a goat, Gr. κάπρος, a boar, Eng. heifer. Cf. W. caeriwrch, roebuck.

caorrunn, the rowan tree, Ir. caorthann, E. Ir. caerthann, W. cerddin, Br. kerzin, *cairo-tann, from caor, berry, and *tann, tree, Br. tann, oak, Cor. glas-tannen. The connection with O. H. G. tanna, fir, oak, M.H.G. tan, wood, Ger. tanne, fir, Eng. tan, tanner (Gr. θάμνος, bush?) is doubtful; it would necessitate the idea of borrowing, or that the Celtic word was dann. Ogam Maqui Cairatini, McCaorthainn. Rhys says W. is borrowed from Gadelic (C.F.L. 292).

càpa, a capl from the Eng. cap.

càpraid, drunken riotousness (Dial.); from Lat. *crâpula.

capull, a horse, mare (more commonly), so Ir., E. Ir. capall, Br. caval; from Lat. capallus, whence Eng. cavalry, etc., caple (M. Eng. capil, from Celt.) Norse kapall, nag, seems borrowed from Gaelic. The W. is ceffyl, with remarkable vocalisation. capal-coille?

car, turn, twist, Ir. cor, M. Ir. cor (=cuairt, (O'Cl.)), O. Ir. curu, gyros, W. cor-wynt, turbo, M. Br. coruent, *kuro-; Lat. curvus; Gr. κυρτός, curved. See cruinn.

càr, friendly, related to, Ir. cára(d), a friend. See caraid for the usual root.

càradh, condition, usage; from càirich, mend.

caraich, move, stir, Ir. corruighim, from corrach, unsteady. The G. confuses this with car, turn.

caraid, a friend, so Ir., O. Ir. cara, g. carat, *karant-; O. Ir. verb carim, caraim, I love, W. caraf, amo, Br. quaret, amare, Gaul. carantus, Caractacus, etc.; Lat cârus, dear, Eng. charity, etc.; Got. hôrs, meretrix.

càraid, a pair, couple, Ir. córaid, E. Ir. córait:

carainnean, refuse of threshed barley, Ir. carra, bran; see carthuinnich.

caraist, catechism; from Sc. carritch, a corruption of catechise.

caramasg, contest, confusion (Arm. M'F.): from car and measg?

caramh, beside; see caruibh.

càramh, càradh, condition, treatment:

carathaist, compulsory labour, cairiste, cairbhist, which last see.

carbad, a chariot, so Ir., O. Ir. carpat, W. cerbyd, O. Br. cerpit, Gaul. carpentoracte, Carbantia, *karbanto-; Lat. corbis, a basket; Norse hrip, pannier for peats on horse-back. Lat. carpentum (Eng. carpenter, etc.), seems borrowed from Gaulish. The root idea is "wicker", referring to the basket character of the body of these chariots.

carbad, jaw, jaw-bone, so Ir., W. car yr ên (car of the mouth), Br. karvan. The idea is "mouth chariot", from the resemblance between the lower jaw and the old wicker chariots. Loth cfs. W. carfan, beam, rail, row.

carbh, engrave, carve; from the English.

carbh, a particular kind of ship or boat (Islay); from Norse karfi, a galley for the fiords.

carbhaidh, carraway-seed; from the English.

carbhanach, a carp, Ir. carbhán, Manx, caroo; from Norse karfi, Eng. carp.

carcair, a prison, sewer in a cow-house, Ir. carcar, prison, E. Ir. carcair (do.); from Lat. carcer, prison, barrier. cacair in Glenmoriston.

carcais a carcase; from the English.

càrd, card wool, Ir. cardaighim; from the Eng. card.

cargo, a cargo, load; from the English.

Carghus, Lent, torment, Ir. Corghas, M. Ir. corgus, W. garawys; from Lat. quadragessima.

càrlàg, a lock of wool (Sh., H.S.D.), carla, a wool-card (Sh. Coneys for Ir.); *card-la-, from card of Eng. For phonetics, cf. òirleach.

càrlas, excellence, Ir. carlamh, excellent, *co-er-lam-, erlam, clever, *air-lam? For lam, see ullamh.

càrn, heap of stones, cairn, Ir. carn, E. Ir., W. carn, Br. karn, *kar-no-, root kar, be hard; Gr. κραναός, rock (κρα-, καρ); further Eng. hard, harsh. See carraig.

càrn, a horning. The G. seems a confusion between còrn, horn, Eng. horn, put to the horn, and càrn. M'F. gives àir chàrn for "outlawed", càrn-eaglais, excommunication.

càrn, a sledge, cart, peat cart, Ir. carr, dray, waggon, E. Ir. carr, biga, W. carr, biga, O. Br. carr, vehiculum (gl.), Gaul. chariot, career, carry, cargo, charge); from Celt. karso-; Lat. currus (quors-), from qṛs; Eng. horse, hurry.

carnaid, red; from Eng. carnation.

càrnag, (1) a she-terrier, (2) a small fish found in stony shores at ebb-tide. The first meaning from cárn, cairn. Terriers were used for cairn hunting.

carr, the flesh of the seal and whale (Heb.; Carmichael); founded on obsolete carn, flesh?

càrr, the itch, mange, superficial roughness, Ir. carr; carrach, scabby, M. Ir. carrach, *karsâko-, from kars, be rough, hard; (*kors-ta-); further root kar, to be hard, rough. For càrr, rocky shelf, Ir. carr, rock, see carraig.

carrachan, a frog-fish, called "cobler", Ir. carrachán, the rock fish called cobler (Coneys). From carr, a rock. Also the word means "the wild liquorice root" - carra-meille, q.v.

carragh, a pillar stone, Ir. carrthadh, cartha, E. Ir. corthe. The root, despite the vocalic difficulty caused by the E. Ir. form, is likely the same as in carraig; yet cf. kor of cuir, set.

carraid, conflict; from the root kars in càrr, "rough-work"?

carraig, rock, so Ir., O. Ir. carric, W. careg, O. W. carrecc, Br. karrek, *karsekki- (so Rhys, R.C.17 102, who thinks W. borrowed), from root kars, hard, rough; Norwegian, herren, hard, stiff, harren, hard, Eng. harsh, hard (root kar). See càrr.

carra-meille, wild liquorice, wood pease, Ir. carra-mhilis. The name is explained as "knots of honey", the carra being the same as càrr, and meille the gen. of mil. Hence Sc. carmele, etc.

carran, spurrey, spergula arvensis, Ir. carrán, scurvy grass. From the root kars of càrr. carran also means a "shrimp", and is of the same origin.

carran-creige, the conger; see carran above.

carrasan, hoarseness, wheezing, Ir. carsán; from the root kars, be rough. See càrr. Cf. κόρνζα, catarrh, rotz.

càrt, a quart, Ir. cárt; from the Eng. quart, Lat. quartus.

cartan, a small brown insect that eats into the flesh, Ir. cartán, a small brown insect that eats into the flesh, a crab. A Gadelicised form of partan, q.v.

carthannach, affectionate, charitable, Ir. carthannach; from Lat. caritas.

carthuinnich, dwell apart as in a cave, separate (M'F.). Cf. caruinnean, refuse of threshed corn, caruinnich, winnow. Possibly from the root kar, separate, a form of the root of sgar, q.v.

caruibh, an caruibh, beside, near. This is the dat.pl. of car.

cas, foot, leg, Ir. cos, O. Ir. coss, W. coes, *koksâ; Lat. coxa, hip; M.H.G. hahse, bend of the knee; Skr. kákshas, armpit.

cas, steep, sudden, Ir. casach, an ascent, M. Ir. cass, rapid, *kasto-; Eng. haste.

cas, curled, Ir., M. Ir. cas, curly, casaim, flecto; &qasto-, root qas; Norse haddr (has-da-), hair, Eng. hair; Lit. kasa, hair-plait, Ch. Sl. kosa, hair (Kluge). Stokes compares it with Lat. quasillum, a basket, root quas.

cas, gnash the teeth, Ir. cais, hate, W. câs, hate, Br. cas, *cad-s-to-; Eng. hate, Ger. hass, Got. hatis. Of the same ultimate origin as cas, sudden (Strachan).

cas, fire (as a stone) (Suth.), seemingly founded on Eng. cast. Cf. casadh ar a chéile = met (Ir.).

càs, a difficulty, Ir. cás; from Lat. casus (Eng. case).

casach, fishing tackle (part attached to hook): from cas.

casad, casad, a cough, Ir. casachdach, W. pâs, peswch, Br. pas, *qasto-; Eng. host, Ag. S. hvósta, Ger. husten; Lit. kósiu; Skr. kâsate, coughs.

casag, cassock, Ir. casóg; from the Eng. The E. Ir. word is casal, from Lat. casula.

casaid, a complaint, accusation, Ir. casoid, O. Ir. cossóit. The word is a compound, beginning with con, and seemingly of the same origin as faosaid, q.v. Stokes thinks that the word is borrowed from the Lat. causatio; this is not likely, however. Root sen, W. cynhenn, quarrel.

casair, sea drift, Ir. casair, a shower, E. Ir. casair, hail, W. cesair (do.), Br. kazerc'h (do.), *kassri-, *kad-tri-; from root cad as in Lat. cado, fall. The Ir. and G. (?) casáir, phosphorescence, seems to be the same word.

casan, a path, Ir. casán; from cas, foot.

casan, a rafter, roof-tree; from cas?

casgair, slay, butcher, so Ir., O. Ir. coscar, victory, destruction; *co-scar; see sgar.

casnaid, chips of wood (Arm.), Ir. casnaidh; *co-+snaidh, q.v.

caspanach, parallel (Sh.), Ir. cospanach (O'R.); *co-spann; see spann.

castan, a chestnut; from Lat. castanea, through M. Eng. castane, chestnut.

castaran, a measure for butter (quarter stone); from the Eng. castor.

castreaghainn, the straw on a kiln below the grain (Arm., not H.S.D.):

cat, a cat, so Ir., E. Ir. catt, W. cath, Cor. kat, Br. kaz, Gaul. Cattos; Lat. catta, perhaps also catulus; Eng. cat, Ger. katze, etc. It is a word of doubtful origin; possibly, however, Celtic, and applied first to the wild cat, then to the tame Egyptian cat introduced in the early centuries of the Christian era.

cata, càta, sheep-cot, pen; from Eng. cot.

catadh, catachadh, taming, càtadh (M'F.); cf. tataich.

catag, potatoe cellar (Dialectic); see cata.

catas, refuse at carding of wool, Ir. cadás, cotton, scraping of linen rags; from Eng. caddis. See further under caiteas.

cath, battle, Ir., O. Ir. cath, W. cad, O. W. cat, Cor. cas, Gaul. catu-; O. H. G. hadu-, fight, Ag. S. heaðo-, Ger. hader, contention; Skr. çatru, enemy; Gr. κότος, wrath.

càth, chaff, husks of corn, Ir., O. Ir. cáith, W. codem, a bag, husk, pod (?), *kûti-, root kât, kat, as in caith, spend, cast.

cathachadh, provoking, accusing, fighting, Ir. cathaighim; from cath, fight.

cathadh, snow-drift, Ir. cáthadh, snow-drift, sea-drift; cf. M. Ir. cúa, gen. cúadh, W. cawod, O.Cor. cowes, nimbus, Br. kaouad, *kavat (Stokes); allied to Eng. shower. It is possible to refer the G. word to the root of caith, càth.

cathair, a city, Ir., E. Ir. cathair, O. Ir. cathir (*kastrex, W. caer, Br. kaer, *kastro-; Lat. castrum, fort (Stokes). The root seems to be cat, cats; the phonetics are the same as in piuthar, for the final part of the word.

cathair, a chair, Ir. cathaoir, E. Ir. catháir, W. cadair, Br. kador; from Lat. cathedra, whence also, through Gr., Eng. chair.

cathan, a wild goose with black bill (Heb.); see cadhan.

cathan-aodaich, a web (M'D.):

càthar, mossy ground; see càir.

cathlunn, a corn (Sh.; not in H.S.D.); formed on Lat. callum. See calum.

catluibh, cudwort; see cadhluibh.

, cèath, cream, M. Ir. ceó, milk; cf. Br. koavenn, which suggests a form keivo- (cf. glé from gleivo-), root kei, skei, shade, cover, as in Gr. σκιά, shadow, Ger. schemen (do.)? The Br. koavenn has been refered to *co+hufen, W. hufen, cream. Cf. ceò, mist, "covering".

, the earth, used only in the phrase an cruinne cé, the (round) earth, Ir., E. Ir. , for bith ché, on this earth. The is supposed to be for "this", from the pronomial kei, Gr. κεῖνος, he, Lat. ce, cis, Eng. he. The root kei, go, move (Lat. cio, Gr. κίω), has also been suggested.

, give?

, spouse (Carm.), Ir. :

ceaba, ceibe, the iron part of a spade or other delving instrument; see caibe.

cèabhar, a fine breeze (Heb.):

ceabhar (Carm.), sky, (Prov.) ci'ar:

ceach, an interjection of dislike; see the next word.

ceacharra, dirty, mean, obstreperous (Carm.), Ir. ceachair, dirt, M. Ir. cecharda, *kekari-; from kek, the e form of the root kak seen in cac, q.v.

ceachladh, digging, Ir. ceachlaim, O. Ir. ro-cechladatar, suffoderunt, *ce-clad-, a reduplicated or perfect form of the root clad of G. cladh, q.v.

cead, permission, so Ir., O. Ir. cet, *ces-do-; Lat. cēdo, I yield (for ces-dô).

ceadan, bunch of wool, Ir. ceadach, cloth, coarse cloth, W. cadach, clout. Rhys regards W. as borrowed from Ir. For all, cf. cadadh, caiteas.

ceadha, the part of the plough on which the share is fixed. Also ceidhe. Both words are used for Eng. quay.

ceafan, a frivolous person (Dialectic):

ceàird, a trade, E. Ir. cerd; see ceàrd.

ceal, stupor, forgetfulness, Ir. ceal, forgetfulness; from the root qel of ceil, conceal. Cf. E. Ir. cel, death. ceal, end (Carm.).

ceal, same, similar hue (Carm.):

cealaich, the fire-place of a kiln:

cealaich, eat (Kirk), Ir. cealaim; root qel as in Lat. colo?

cealair, a virago (Badenoch):

cealg, guile, treachery, so Ir., E. Ir. celg, *kelgâ; Arm. ke??ch??, hypocrisy. The further root is qel of ceil.

ceall, g. cille, a church, so Ir., E. Ir. cell; from Lat. cella, a cell, a hermit's cell especially, whence the Gadelic use. Hence cealloir, superior of a cell, and the name Mackellar. "A retired spot" (Hend.).

cealtar, broad-cloth, Ir. cealtair, clothes, E. Ir. celtar, celt, raiment; from qel, cover, as in ceil, q.v.

ceana, whither, for c'iona, c'ionadh? Cf. Ir. cá h-ionad. See ionadh.

ceanalta, mild, kind, so Ir.; from *cen, as in cion, †cean, love, desire. See cion.

ceangal, a tie, binding, so Ir., E. Ir. cengal, W. cengl; from Lat. cingulum, vb. cingo, I bind, Eng. cincture.

ceann, head, so Ir., O. Ir. cend, cenn, W., Br. penn, Gaul, Penno-, *qenno. Perhaps for qen-no-, root qen (labialised), begin, Ch. Sl. koni, beginning, as in ceud, first. The difficulty is that the other labialising languages and the Britonic branch otherwise show no trace of labialisation for qen. Windisch, followed by Brugmann, suggested a stem kvindo-, I. E. root kvi, Skr. çvi, swell, Gr. Pίνδος, Pindus Mount; but the root vowel is not i, even granting the possible labialisation of kvi, which does not really take place in Greek. Hence ceannag, a bottle of hay, ceannaich, buy (="heading" or reckoning by the head; cf. Dial. ceann, sum up), ceannaich, head-wind (Hend.), ceannas, vaunting (Hend.).

ceannach, a purchasing, so Ir., E. Ir. cennaigim, I buy, O. Ir. cennige, lixa, caingen, negotium.

ceannairc, rebellion, turbulence, so Ir.; *ceann+arc; for root arc, see adharc. For meaning cf. Eng. headstrong, W. penffest (do.).

ceannard, commander, chief, Ir. ceannárd, arrogant, commanding, "high-headed", from ceann and àrd; M. kinnoort, Ir. ceannphort, commander, authority, head post or city: ceann+port.

ceannrach, ceannraig, (Cam.), a brindle or horse's head-gear, Ir. ceannrach; from ceann+rach. For rach (root rig), see cuibhreach, àrachas.

ceannsaich, subdue, tame, Ir. ceannsaighim; from ceannas, superiority, "head-ness", from ceann and the abst. termination as. Similarly ceannsal, rule.

ceap, a block, shoemaker's last, so Ir., E. Ir. cepp, W. cyff, Br. kef; from Lat. cippus.

ceap, catch, stop. This word seems borrowed from the Sc. kep, of like meaning, a bye-form of Eng. keep. The Ir. ceap, bound, bind, stop (?), seems from ceap above.

ceapach, a tillage plot, Ir. ceapach. This Stokes refers to a Celtic keppo-, garden, root kep, , Lat. campus, Gr. κῆπος, garden, Ger. hube, piece of land. Satisfactory though the meaning be, the derivation is doubtful as involving the preservation of p, even though flanked by a second p (or -nó, i.e. kep-nó-, which is still more doubtful). Hence the common place name Keppock.

ceapag, a verse, an impromptu verse, carelessly sung verse, E. Ir. cepóc, a chorus song: a rare word in Ir., and said to be Sc. Gaelic for Ir. aidbsi, great chorus. From ceap, catch? cf. Eng. catch, a chorus verse. Zimmer suggests that it stands Ce Póc, "kiss here", (?) sung by the girls as a refrain at gatherings!

ceapaire, bread covered with butter, etc. Ir. ceapaire; from ceap, a block. Cf. ceapag, a wheel-barrow wheel.

cearb, piece, article of clothing, so Ir., E. Ir. cerp, cutting, cerbaim; *kṛbh, skṛbh; Gr. κάρφος, twig, Eng. shrub; *(s)ker, cut, divide. Cf. W. carp, rag, cerpyn. Bezzenberger cfs. M.H.G. herb, asper. St. now skerb, Eng. sharp.

cearc, a hen, so Ir., M. Ir. cerc, *cercâ; from I. E. qerqo, to sound, hence "a noise-making bird"; Gr. κέρκος, a cock, κρέξ, a fowl; Lat. querquedula, a teal, O.Prus. kerko, a diver; Skr. kṛka-vâkus, a cock.

cearcall, a hoop, so Ir.; from L. Lat. circulus, circullus, a hoop, from circulus, a circle.

ceàrd, a craftsman, Ir. céard, E. Ir. cerd, W. cerdd, art; Lat. cerdo, craftsman; Gr. κέρδος, gain.

ceàrdach, a smithy, Ir. céardcha, O. Ir. cerddchae; from cerd+cae, the latter word cae meaning a house in Ir., a Celtic kaio-n, allied to Eng. home.

ceard-dubhan, scarabæbus, dung-beetle, hornet (H.S.D. for form), ceardaman (M'A.); see cearnabhan. cearr-dubhan (Carm.), "wrong-sided little black one".

cearmanta, tidy (Arm.); cearmanaich, make tidy (Perth):

ceàrn, a corner, quarter, Ir. cearn, cearna, angle, corner, E. Ir. cern; evidently an e form of the stem found in corn, horn, q.v.

cearnabhan, a hornet, Ir. cearnabhán; from *cerno-. Cf. Eng. hornet (*kṛs-en-), Lat. crabro.

ceàrr, wrong, left (hand), E. Ir. cerr, *kerso-; Lat. cerritus, crazed; Gr. ἐγκάρσιος, slantwise; Lit. skersas, crooked.

ceàrrach, a gamester, Ir. cearrbhach, a gamester, dexterous gambler. Cf. G. ceàrrbhag, cearrag, the left-hand, the use of which was considered in plays of chance as "sinister".

ceart, right, so Ir., E. Ir. cert; Lat. certus, certain, sure, cerno, discern; Gr. κρίνω, judge, κριτές, a judge, Eng. critic.

ceasad, a complaint (M'F.), Ir. ceasacht, grumbling, M. Ir. cesnaighim, complain, ces, sorrow, *qes-to-; Lat. questus, queror, I complain, querela, Eng. quarrel.

ceasg, floss (Carm.), animal with long flossy hair or wool, Ir. ceaslach, long hair or wool on fleece legs. See Ceus.

ceasnaich, examine, catechise, Ir. ceasnuighim; from Lat. quæstio, quæstionis, Eng. question. Stokes (Bk.of Lis.) has suggested that the Lat. and Gadelic are cognate; though possible (qais, qis may become by umlaut ces in G.), it is improbable from the stem form in n persisting in the G. verb.

ceathach, mist; this is really the old stem of ceò, mist, E. Ir. ciach, q.v. Ir. ceathach, showery, is from cith, a shower.

ceathairne, yeomanry, the portion of a population fit for warfare; see ceatharn.

ceatharn, a troop, so Ir., E. Ir. ceithern, *keternâ; Lat. caterua, troop, catêna, a chain; O.Sl. ceta, company (Stokes). It has also been regarded as borrowed from Lat. quaternio, which in the Vulg. means a "body of four soldiers", quaternion. Hence Eng. cateran, kern.

ceidhe, quay, coulter-place, Ir. ceigh, quay. See ceadha.

ceig, a mass of shag, clot, ceigein, a tuft, a fat man. From Scandinavian kagge, round mass, keg, corpulent man or animal, whence Eng. keg; Norse, kaggi, cask, Norwegian, kagge, round mass.

ceig, a kick; from the Eng.

ceil, conceal, Ir., ceilim, O. Ir. celim, W. celu, I. E. qel; Lat. cêle, Eng. con-ceal; Ag. S. helan, hide, Eng. Hell; Gr. καλúπτω, hide; Skr. kála, darkness.

céile, spouse, fellow, so Ir., O. Ir. céle, socius, W. cilydd (y gilydd = a chéile of G. = eguille of Br.), *keiljo-, "way-farer", from kei, go (Lat. cio, move, Gr. κίω, go, kínéw, move, kinetics. The idea is the same as in Ir. sétig, wife, from sét, way. Strachan thinks that G. and W. demand a stem ceglio-; and Dr Stokes thinks that, if céle, servus, is different from céle, fellow, it must come from kak-lio- (better keklio-), and be allied to Lat. cacula, a servant. Hence céilidh, a gossiping visit or meeting.

ceileach, martial (H.S.D.), Ir. ceallach, war, M. Ir. cellach, war; Teut. hildi-, war, Lat. per-cellere, hit.

ceileir, chirping of birds, Ir. ceileabhar, ceileabhrach, musical, M. Ir. ceilebradh eoin singing of birds, E. Ir. celebrad, a celebrating or observance, a welcome of joy; from Lat. celebratio.

céillidh, wise, sover, Ir. céillidhe; from ciall.

ceilp, kelp; from Eng.

céin, remote; really the oblique form of cian, q.v.

céir, wax, Ir., M. Ir. céir, W. cwyr, O. W. kuyr, Cor. coir, Br. coar; from Lat. cêra, wax.

céir, céire, the buttock; see péire.

ceireanaich, fondle, make much of (Perth); cf. ceirein, plaster.

ceirein, a plaster, a "clout", Ir., M. Ir., céirín, a plaster; from céir, wax. Eng. cerate.

ceirtle, a clew, ball of yarn, Ir. ceirsle (so G. too), ceirtlín, O. Ir. certle, glomus, *kertilliâ; from I. E. qert, wind, bend; Skr. kart, spin; Lat. cartilago, Eng. cartilage; Gr. κάρταλος, basket; Eng. hurdle.

céis, a case, hamper; from Eng. case. Ir. ceis, basket, M. Ir. ceiss, is a different word, possibly allied to, if not borrowed from, Lat. cista (Stokes). From Ir. ceis comes ceis-chrann, polypody, given in H.S.D. from O'R. Cf. O. Ir. cass, basket, Lat. quasillus.

ceisd, a question, so Ir., E. Ir. ceist; from Lat. quæstio. Hence ceisdein, a sweetheart, founded on "ceisd mo chridhe"—darling (i.e., question, anxiety) of my heart.

céiseach, large, corpulent woman; see ceòs.

Céitein, May, O. Ir. cétam (g. cétaman), cetsoman (cetshaman) in Cor.Gl., where it is explained as cét-sam-sín, the first weather-motion of sam or summer. The word means the "first of summer" - cét+sam-, the sam of samhradh, q.v. The termination is possibly influenced by other time words. See Samhainn.

ceithir, four, Ir. ceathair (n.), ceithre (adj.), O. Ir. cethir, W. pedwar, Cor. peswar, Br. pevar, Gaul. petor-, *qetveres, I. E. qetvôr; Lat. quatuor; Gr. τέτταρες; Got. fidvôr, Eng. four; Lit. keturi; Skr. catvâras.

ceò, mist, Ir. ceó, E. Ir. ceó, g. ciach, *cevox, g. *gevocos, I. E. sqevo-, Lat. obscūrus, Norse ský, cloud, Eng. sky. The idea is "covering".

ceòb, a dark nook, corner:

ceòban, small drizzle; ceò+boinne or -bainne, "mist-drop". The Ir. is ceóbhrán, for ceò+braon. This last is G. ciùran, q.v. Hence ceòpach (for ceòbnach?). Also ceòpan. Ir. ciabhrán, drizzle, fog, M. Ir. ciabor, mist.

ceòl, music, Ir., E. Ir. ceól, g. ciúil, *kipolo-, a Gadelicised form of *pipolo; onomatopoetic root pīp, Lat. pîpilo, chirp, pipilum, outcry, pîpo, chirp, Ag. S. pípe , Eng. pipe (hence W. pib, G. pìob, etc.). Stokes and Rhys have given a Celtic qeqlo- for stem, allied to W. pib, pipe. For phonetics, see feòil. Stokes now suggests alliance with Ger. heulen, hoot, howl, O. H. G. hiuwilôn.

ceòs, the hip, podex; see ceus, poples. Hence ceòsach, broad-skirted, bulky, clumsy.

ceòsan, burr or light down of feathers; see ceus, wool of legs, etc.

ceud, first, Ir. céad, O. Ir. cét, W. cynt, formerly, cyntaf, first, Br. kent, kenta (do.), Gaul. Cintu-, *kentu-; allied to W. cann, with Gr. κατά, down, against (=kṇta); Lat. contra. Further allied is possibly (and this is the usual derivation) I. E. qen, begin, Lat. re-cens), Eng. recent; Gr. καινός (= κανιός), new; Skr. kaná, young; Ch. Sl. koni, beginning. Some again have compared Teut. hind as in Eng. hindmost.

ceud, a hundred, so Ir., O. Ir. cét, W. cant, Cor. cans, Br. kant, *kṇto-n; Lat. centum; Gr. ἑκατόν (=se-kṇton); Got. hund, Eng. hund-red; Lit. szìmtas; Skr. çatám.

ceudfadh, sense, Ir. céadfadh, O. Ir. cétbaid, W. canfod, to perceive, *cant-buti-, "with-being", from ceud, with first, and bu, be.

ceudna, the same, so Ir., O. Ir. cétna, *centinio-s; from ceud, first.

ceum, a step, Ir. céim, O. Ir. ceimm, W., Cor. cam, O. W. cemmein, gradibus, Br. kam, *kṇgmen-, verb *kengô, I go, Ir. cingim, Gaul. Cingeto-rix, "king of marching men" - of warriors: I. E. khenꬶ, limp; Ger. hinken, limp; Skr. khañj, limp.

ceus, ham, polpes: *cencso-; Lit. kenkle, hough, bend of the knee, kinka, knee joint; Ag. S. hóh (=hanχ), Eng. hough (Strachan for Lit.). The gen. is ceòis, whence ceòs, etc.

ceus, the coarse part of the wool on sheep's legs (Heb.), M. Ir. céslach; from ceus, ham.

ceus, crucify, Ir. céasaim, ceusaim, O. Ir. céssaim, suffer, *kentsô, suffer: I. E. qentho; Gr. πένθος, πάθος, suffering, Eng. pathos; Lit. kenczù, suffering

ceutach, becoming; see ciatach.

cha, cha'n, not, Ir. nocha n-, O. Ir. ní con aspirating. The particle no or nu is no part of this negative: only and con, "non quod", con being the same as gu'n. Aspirating power of it is as yet unexplained. Ulster Ir. cha.

chaidh, went, ivit, Ir. cochuaidh, O. Ir. dochóid, he went, *coud-; Skr. codati, make haste, codayati, drive, códa, a goad; Eng. shoot. See deach.

chaoidh, for ever, Ir. choidhche, E. Ir. chaidche, coidchi; for co-aidche, gu oidhche, "till night".

cheana, already, Ir. cheana, E. Ir. chena, in sooth, quidem, jam, ol chena, ar chena, O. Ir. cene, olchene; from cen-é, "without this", root in gun, without, cion, want.

chi, will see, Ir. chidhim, chím, O. Ir. atchí, videt, *ad-cesiô, *kesiô; Skr. caksh, see, for *ca-kas; Lat. canus (*cas-no-?), grey; Ag. S. hasu, grey, Eng. hare. See chunnaic, faic. The aspiration of chì is due to the lost ad- initial, which is confused with the verbal particle do, a.

cho, co, as, so, Ir. comh, W. cyn; from com, with. See comh-. Gaelic "Cho dubh ri feannaig" = Welsh "Cyn ddued a'r frân".

chon, to; dialectic form of gu. The n belongs to the article. Also thun; q.v. Compare chugad and thugad to chon and thun in phonetics.

chuala, heard, Ir. do chuala, O. Ir. rochúala, W. cigleu, *kuklova; root kleu as in cluinn, q.v.

chugad, towards thee, so Ir., O. Ir. chucut, *cu-cu-t, where the prep. cu or gu, to, is reduplicated. See gu. The t or -ut is for tu, q.v. So with chuga, chuige, etc.

chum, chùm, a chum, to, for, in order to, Ir. chum, do chum, O. Ir. dochum n-, dochom n-; an idiomatic use of com, side? Cf. Eng. side, beside.

chun, to, until; see chon.

chunnaic, saw, Ir. chonacadar, they saw, O. Ir. conaca, vidi; from con+faic; for con, see comh-, and see faic. The old past was chunnairc, still used in Ir. as chonnairc, from con+dearc, q.v.

cia, who, what, Ir. cia, O. Ir. cía, W. pwy, Cor. pyu, Br. piu, *qei; Lat. qui (Old Lat. quei). See further under co.

ciabh, a lock of hair, so Ir., E. Ir. ciab: *kes-abu-, kes of cas?

'Ciadaoin, Di-ciadaoin, Wednesday, Ir. Céadaoin, O. Ir. cétáin, first fast, "Day of the First Fast". The first weekly fast was the latter half of Wednesday, the next was Friday - Di-h-aoine. Thursday is the day "Between two fasts" - Diardaoin, q.v. See further under Di-.

ciagach, sly-jumoured (Dialectic):

cial, side or brim of a vessel; see ciobhull.

ciall, sense, understanding, Ir., O. Ir. ciall, W. pwyll, Cor. pull, Br. poell, *qeislâ: I. E. qei, observe, see, shine; Gr. πινυτός, wise; Skr. cetati, perceive, cittam, thought, cinōti, discover; further Ger. heiter, clear.

ciamhair, sad (Sh., Arm.), Ir. ciamhair, ciamhaire (O'Cl., O'Br.):

cian, remote, so Ir., O. Ir. cían, *keino-; from the pronominal root kei, there, Gr. κε̂ινος, ille, Lat. cis, citra, Eng. he. Others have referred it to root qei, qi, Skr. ciras, long, Got. hveila, time, Eng. while. Hence cianail, sad, lonesome, Ir. cianamhuil.

cianog, a small measure of arable land (Heb.: H.S.D.); see cionag.

ciar, dusky, Ir., E. Ir. cíar, *keiro-s, "shadowy"; root sqhei, Gr. σκιερός, shady, σκιά, shadow, Skr. châyā́, shadow, Ag. S. scimo (do.). It has been compared to Eng. hoar, Norse hárr, but the vowels do not suit.

cias, g. ceòis, border, skirt, fringe:

ciatach, ciatfach, elegant, becoming, Ir. céadfadhach, discreet, belonging to the senses; from ceudfadh, q.v.

cibein, rump (of a bird, M'D.), Ir. cibín, the rump (Con.). Cf. Ir. giob, a tail.

cìbeir, a shepherd; from Sc., Eng. keeper.

cibhearg, a rag, a little ragged woman (Sh.):

cidhis, a mask, vizard (M'D.), luchd cidhis, masqueraders; from Sc. gyis, a mask, gysars, masqueraders, M. Eng. gīsen, to dress, Eng. guise, disguise; all from O. Fr. guise, modus, desguiser, disguise. The Sc. was directly borrowed in the Stuart period.

cigil, tickle (Sh.); see ciogail.

cìleag, a diminutive, weakly person (Arg.):

cìlean, a large codfish; from Norse keila, gadus longus or "long cod". Also cilig (Sutherland).

cill, a church; locative case of ceall, q.v., used for the most part in place-names.

cillein, a concealed heap, repository, Ir. cillín, a purse or store of hoarded cash (O'B.), dim of ceall, cell, church, q.v.

cineal offspring, clan, Ir. cineul, O. Ir. cenél, W. cenedl, O. W. cenetl, Corl kinethel, *kenetlo-n: I. E. qen, begin; Gr. kainós, new (κανjός); Lat. re-cens, Eng. recent; Ch. Sl. koni, beginning; Skr. kaná, young.

cinn, grow, increase, spring from, Ir., E. Ir. cinim, spring from, descend of; root qen of cineal, q.v. Also cinnich, grow, increase.

cinneadh, cinne, tribe, clan, Ir. cineadh, cine, E. Ir. ciniud (g. cineda); from root qen in cineal, q.v. Hence cinnich, gentiles, Ir. cineadhach, a gentile.

cinneag, a spindle (Sutherland):

cinnseal, need, desire (Arm.), contact, origin (M'A.). In the first sense, the word is from cion, want; in the second, from cinn. In the sense of "contact", as exemplified by M'A., the Sc. kinches, correspondence, etc. ("to kep kinches wi' one"), has to be remembered, a word apparently from kin.

cinnte, certain, so Ir., O. Ir. cinnim, definio, écintech, infinitus; from ceann, head, q.v.

cìob, bite, wound (Bib. Gl.); see caob. cìbidh (Hend.).

cìob, coarse mountain grass, tow, Ir. cíob, coarse mountain grass, scirpus cæspitosus. Club rush, flaky peat (Carm.).

ciobhull, the jaw (M'D., who writes "na cíobhuill"), ciobhal (Sh.), more properly giall (Arm.), q.v. H.S.D. gives the pl. as cibhlean.

cìoch, a woman's breast, Ir. cíoch, E. Ir. cích; cf. W. cig, flesh, M. Br. quic (do.), *kîkâ (kêkâ?). Bez. suggests (with query) connection with Bulg. cica, teat, Polish cyc.

cìocras, hunger, longing, Ir. cíocras, hunger, greed, ravenousness:

ciod, what, Ir. cad, O. Ir. cate, cote, lit. "quid est", co+ta, q.v. Ir. caidé (North goidé, O. Ir. caté, what is it, O. Ir. ité, it is.

ciogail, tickle, Ir. giglim; see diogail. In the Heb. ciogailt, tickling, also signifies terror, a crisis of timerous determination (H.S.D.).

ciom, a comb, wool-card, Ir. ciomam, I comb (O'B., Sh.); from M. Eng. kemb, to comb. H.S.D. has not the word.

ciomach, a prisoner, Ir. cimidh, O. Ir. cimbid, *kṃbiti- (Stokes), root kemb, wind; Lat. cingo, surround; Gr. κόμβος, band, Norwegian hempa (do.). See ceangal, from the same I. E. root qeng.

ciombal, bell, cymbal, so Ir.,; from Lat. cymbalum, Eng. cymbal.

ciomboll, a bundle of hay or straw (Heb.); from Norse kimbill, a bundle kimbla, to truss, Sc. kemple, fory bottles of hay or straw, kimple, a piece (Banffshire).

cion, want; from the root ken of gun, without.

cion, love, esteem, Ir. cion, cean, M. Ir. cen, O. Ir. fochen, welcome; root qino-, qi, I. E. qei, notice, as in ciall. Further, Gr. τιμή, honour, τίω, honour, τίνω, pay penalty. The sense of honour and punishment is combined in the same word. See ciont.

cionag, a small portion of land, one-fourth of a cleitig or one-eighth of a "farthing" land (Heb.), Ir. cionóg, a small coin, a kernel; cf. W. ceiniog, a penny.

cionar, music (Arm.; Sh. has cionthar; H.S.D. has cion'thar from A.M'D., querulous music):

cionn, os cionn, etc.; this is the old dat. of ceann, head (*qennō).

cionnarra, identical, idem; Ir. cionda (dial. Gaelic cìonda), for ceudna, by metathesis of the n. The G. -arra is an adjectival form of the -ar in aon-ar, etc.

cionnas, how, Ir. cionnus, O. Ir. cindas = co+indas; see co and ionnas.

ciont, guilt, Ir. cionnta, O. Ir. cintach, injustice, cin, guilt (*cin-at-), dat.pl. cintaib; also G. †cion; I. E. qin, Gr. τίνυμαι, punish, ποινή, punishment, Lat. pœna, punishment, Eng. pain. See cion.

ciora, a pet lamb or sheep, cireag, a petted sheep, ciridh, the call to a sheep to come to one: all from a shorter form of the root ka'er or kair (i.e. kir) of caora, q.v.

cioralta, cheerful, ciorbail, snug; from Eng. cheerful. Cf. tìorail.

ciorram, hurt, damage, wounding, Ir. cíorrbhadh, E. Ir. cirriud, cirud, *cir-thu-, root ker, destroy, Lat. caries, decay, Gr. κήρ, death, Skr. çṛnâtí, smash. ro cirrad, was mutilated.

cìosaich, subdue: "make tributary"; from cìs, tribute, tax.

ciosan, a bread basket, corn-skep (M'D.), Ir. cisean, cis, basket, M. Ir. ceiss, possibly allied to (if not borrowed from) Lat. cista (Stokes). See céis. Sc. cassie.

ciotach, left-handed, sinister, so Ir., W. chwith, *sqîttu- (Stokes), *sqit-tu-, and sqit is an extension of sqi, sqai in Gr. σκαιός, Lat. scaevas (*sqai-vo-), left.

ciotag, a little plaid, shawl, O. Ir. cétaig, acc. case (Bk.of Armagh);

cìr, a comb, Ir. cìor, O. Ir. cír, *kensrâ; cf. Gr. κτέις, g. κτενός, (from skens), Ch. Sl. ceslŭ, Lit. kasýti, scratch (Stokes, Strachan), root qes, shave, scratch; cf. Gr. ξέω, ξυρόν. Zimmer refers it to the root qers, to furrow, Skr. karsha, a scratch, etc.; but qers would give a G. cerr. A Celtic cêra would be the ideal form, suggesting Lat. cêra, wax, "honey-comb".

cìr, cud, Ir., E. Ir. cír, Manx keeil, W. cil, Br. das-kiriat, ruminer. Perhaps identical with the above (Windisch). cir, ciridh, sheep (Carm.).

cìs, tribute, tax, Ir. cíos, O. Ir. cís; from Lat. census, whence Eng. census.

cisd, cist, a chest, Ir. cisde, M. Ir. ciste, W. cist; from Lat. cista, Ir. cis, piece of basket work of osiers. Cf. O. Ir. cass, basket, Lat. quasillus.

cìsean, hamper (Islay); from cèis.

ciseart, a light tweed (N.Lochaber).

cistin, a kitchen; from the Eng.

cith, a shower, Ir. cith, cioth, g. ceatha, E. Ir. cith, O. Ir. cithech, flebilium; *citu-:

cith, rage, ardour; *ketu-, cf. cuthach: an cith, attuned, where cith seems from Eng. key, mood.

cithean, a complaining; see caoin.

cithris-chaithris, confusion (M'L.): "hurly-burly"; an onomatopoetic word.

ciùbhran, ciùran, ciùrach, small rain, drizzle, Ir. ceóbhrán. See ceòban. M. Ir. ciabor, mist.

ciuchair, beautiful, dimpling (Sh., Arm.; not H.S.D.):

ciùcharan, ciùcran, a low-voiced plaint: from Norse kjökra, whine, kjökr, a voice stifled with tears.

ciùin, mild, Ir. ciúin, *kivo-ni-, I. E., kivo-, keivo-, akin, dear; Lat. civis, Eng. civil; Norse hýrr, mild, Ag. S. heóre, Ger. ge-heuer, safe; Ch. Sl. po-çivŭ, benignus; Skr. çivá, friendly.

ciùrr, hurt, Ir. cíorrbhaigim, I maim, wound: see ciorram. Cf., however, O. Ir. dufiurrsa, adteram, du-furr, attriveris, iúrthund, to hurt, root org as in tuargan.

clab, an open mouth, Ir. clab; from Eng. clap, a clap, noise, the human tongue. Hence claban, a mill-clapper.

claban, top of the head, brain-pan (H.S.D.); cf. W. clopen, G. claigionn, q.v. Possibly Pictish?

clàbar, filth, mire, clay, Ir. clábar (whence Eng. clabber); cf. làban.

clabar-nasg, the clasp of wooden cow collar (Arg.):

clabog, a good bargain, great pennyworth:

clach, a stone, Ir., E. Ir. cloch, W. clwg, a rock, detached rock, clog, a rock, clogan, a large stone, *klukâ; root kal, kl-, hard; Got. hallus, stone, Norse hella, flat stone, Skr. çilâ, a stone. Usually correlated with Lat. calculus, a pebble, Eng. calculate.

clachan, kirk or kirk town, Ir. clochán, monastic stone-cells singly or in group; also G. and Ir. "stepping stones".

clàd, comb wool, clàd, a wool comb; from Sc. claut, clauts, wool comb, also a "clutching hand, a hoe or scraper"; from claw.

cladach, a shore, beach, so Ir., *claddo-, "a score, shore"; from clad of cladh, q.v.

clàdan, a burr, a thing that sticks, Ir. cladán, burr, flake; from clàd.

cladh, churchyard, Ir. cladh, a bank, ditch, E. Ir. clad, a ditch, W. cladd, clawdd, fossa, Cor. cledh (do.), Br. cleuz (do.), *klado-, *klâdo; root kela, kla, break, split, hit; Gr. κλαδαρός, easily broken; Lat. clâdes; Russ. kladu, cut. See further claidheamh, sword. Hence cladhaich, dig.

cladhaire, a poltroon, so Ir.; "digger, clod-hopper", from cladh?

clag, a bell, Ir. clog, O. Ir. clocc, W., Cor. cloch, Br. kloc'h, *klokko-, *kloggo-; root, klog, klag, sound; Lat. clango, Eng. clang; Gr. κλάζω, κλαγγή, clang; Lit. klagėti, cackle. Bez. suggests Bul. klŭcam, hit, giving the stem of clag as *klukko-. Hence Eng. clock, etc.

clàideag, a lock, ringlet; see clàd, clàdan.

claidheag, the last handful of corn cut on the farm, the "maiden" (Badenoch); Sc. claaik-sheaf (Aberdeen, etc.), from claaick, the harvest home; the state of having all the corn in.

claidheamh, a sword, Ir. clóidheamh, O. Ir. claideb, W. cleddyf, Cor. cledhe, Br. kleze, *kladebo-s; root klad, Skr. kladga: Gr. κλάδος, a twig; Ch. Sl. kladivo, a hammer. Further root kela, klâ, hit, split; Lat. culter, per-cellere, etc. See cladh.

claidhean, better clàidhean, the bolt of a door, Ir. claibín; from the same source as claidheamh. H.S.D. gives it in supp. as clàimhean.

claidreach, a damaging, shattering: *claddo-; root clad of claidheamh.

claigionn, a skull, Ir. cloigionn, M. Ir. cloicend, W. clopen, Br. klopenn, *cloc-cenn, from clag and ceann, "bell-head, dome-head". Stokes considers the Ir. borrowed from the Welsh. Cf. claban.

clais, a furrow, ditch, so Ir., E. Ir. class, W. clais, *clad-s-ti-; from *clad of cladh. Br. kleus, pit.

clàistinn, hearing, listening; from *clôstâ, ear; see cluas.

clàiteachd, gentle rain (Arran):

clambar, wrangling, Ir. clampar; from Lat. clamor.

clamhan, a buzzard:

clamhradh, a scratching, so Ir.: *clam-rad; see cloimh, itch.

clamhsa, an alley, close, so Ir.,; from Eng. close.

clàmhuinn, sleet:

clann, children, clan, so Ir., O. Ir. cland, W. plant, *qlanatâ: I. E. root qel; Gr. τέλος, company; O. Slav. celjadǐ, family, Lit. kiltis = Lett. zilts, race, stock; Skr. kúla, race. Some have added Lat. populus. Usually regarded as borrowed from Lat. planta, a sprout, Eng. plant, whence G. clannach, comatus.

claoidh, vex, oppress, Ir. claoidhim, O. Ir. clóim, W. cluddio, overwhelm, *cloid; I. E. klei, incline, as in claon, q.v. Windisch and Stokes refer it to *cloviô, root qlov, qlav, qlu, shut in, Lat. claudo, close, claudus, lame, Gr. κλείς, κλειδός, key.

claon, inclining, squint, oblique, Ir. claon, O. Ir. clóin: *kloino-; Lat. clīno, acclīnis, leaning, Eng. incline; Gr. κλίνω (ι long), incline; Eng. lean; Lit. szlë/ti, incline; Skr. çrayati (do.).

clap, clapartaich, clap, clapping; from the Eng. clap.

clàr, a board, tablet, Ir., O. Ir. clár, W. claur, O. W. claur; Gr. κλήρος (for κλᾶρος), a lot, κλάω, break; root qela, qlâ, break, etc., as in claidheamh, coille, q.v. Hence, inter alia, clàrach, a woman of clumsy figure, "board-built".

clàrsach, a harp, Ir. cláirseach; from clár. Cf. for meaning fiodhcheall, chess-play, "wood-intelligence".

clasp, claspa, a clasp, Ir. clasba; from the Eng.

clàtar, mire (Dial.); from Sc. clart.

clathnàire, bashfulness (M'D., who writes clàthnàire. H.S.D. gives the form in the text): clath+nàire; see nàire. clath seems from the root qel, hide, as in ceil, q.v. (H.S.D.).

cleachd, a practice, custom, Ir. cleachdadh, E. Ir. clechtaim, I am wont, *kḷcto-, root qel, as in Lat. colo, Eng. cultivate, Gr. πέλομαι, go, be, etc. Cf., however, cleas.

cleachd, a ringlet, a fillet of wool, E. Ir. clechtaim, I plait (Cam.), W. pleth; from Lat. plecto, Eng. plait.

clearc, a curl, lock of hair:

cleas, a play, trick, feat, so Ir., E. Ir. cless, *clessu-, *clexu-; root klek, klok, as in cluich, q.v.

cleath, concealment, hiding; also cleith (*kleti-s); inf. to ceil, hide, q.v.

cleibe, an instrument for laying hold of fish, or of sea-fowls, Ir. clipe; from Eng. clip, a gaff or cleek, a fastener, Norse klýpa, to pinch, O. H. G. chluppa, tongs.

cléir, the clergy, Ir. cléir; from Lat. clêrus. See the next word.

cléireach, a clerk, a cleric, O. G. clérec (Bk.of Deer), Ir. cléireach, E. Ir. clérech, Br. kloarek; from Lat. clēricus, a clerk, cleric, from Gr. κληρικός (do.), from κλῆρος, a lot, office: "the lot (κλῆρον) of this ministry" (Acts i. 17).

cleit, a quill, feather, down, Ir. cleite:

cleit, a rocky eminence; from Norse klettr, rock, cliff. Common in Northern place-names.

cleit, bar, ridge (Carm.).

cleith, a stake, wattle, Ir. cleith, cleath, E. Ir. cleth, tignum, W. clyd, sheltering, M. Br. clet, warm (place); root qleit, qlit, O. Sax. hhlîdan, cover, Got. hleiðra, hut, Ch. Sl. kleti, house. Hence cleith, roof; the E. Ir. cléthe, roof, roof-pole, appears to be for kleitio-, the same root in its full vocalic form (Schräder).

cleith, concealing, O. Ir. cleith; see cleath.

cleitig, clitig, a measure of land—an 8th of the "penny" land:

cleòc, a cloak, Ir. clóca; from the Eng.

cleuraidh, one who neglects work (Arran):

clì, vigour:

clì, left (hand), wrong, Ir. clí, E. Ir. clí, W. cledd, O. W. cled, Br. kleiz, *klijo; root klei, incline, Got. hleiduma, left, etc. See further under claon.

cliabh, a basket, hamper, the chest (of a man), Ir. clíabh, O. Ir. cliab, corbis, *cleibo-. Root klei as in cliath.

cliadan, a burr; cf. clàdan.

cliamhuinn, son-in-law, Ir. cliamhuin, G. and Ir. cleamhnas, affinity; root klei, lean, Lat. cliens, Eng. client, in-cline, lean.

cliar, a poet, hero or heroes, Ir., E. Ir. clíar, society, train, clergy; from Lat. clérus, as in cléir, q.v. Hence cliaranach, a bard, swordsman. The Cliar Sheanachain, (Senchan's Lot) was the mythic bardic company, especially on its rounds (Gaelic Folk Tales). Hence cliarachd, singing, feats.

cliatan, a level plot of ground: *cliath-t-an, a participial formation from cliath, harrow - "harrowed, level".

cliath, harrow, hurdle, Ir. clíath, E. Ir. cliath, O. Ir. Vadum clied (Adamnan), Dublin, W. clwyd, hurdle, Cor. cluit, Br. kloned, Gaul. *clêta, whence Fr. claie, hurdle, *kleitâ; root klei, lean; Lett. slita, wood fence, Lit szlité, a rack (of a waggon).

cliath, tread hens, as cock:

cliathach, side, the side of the ribs, Ir. cliathán, side, breast, *kleito-, "slope", root klei, incline; Norse klíð, a slope, mountain side, Gr. κλιτúς (i long), a slope, hill-side.

clibeag, a trick, wile (H.S.D.); from cleibe, clip, as clìchd from cleek.

clibist, a misadventure; see cliob.

clic, a hook, gaff: see the next word.

clìchd, an iron hook; from Sc. cleik, Eng. cleek, click.

clìchd, a cunning trick; from the above. Sc. cleiky, ready to take the advantage, tricky, cleek, inclination to cheat: "There's a cleek in 'im" (Banffshire).

cliob, to stumble, cliobach, stumbling, awkward. Cf. Sc. clypock, a fall. See next.

cliob, anything dangling, excrescence, cliobain, a dew-lap, Ir. cliob, clibín; also Ir. cliobach, hairy, shaggy, clibóg, a (shaggy) colt, etc. Cf. Sc. clype, an ugly, ill-shaped fellow: origin unknown (Murray); clip, a colt, Ger. klepper, palfrey. Root qḷg, stumpy, Gr. κολοβός.

cliopach, halt in speech (H.S.D.): cf. Eng. clip words.

cliostar, a clyster; from the Eng.

clip, a hook, clip, Ir. clipe, a gaff; from the Eng. clip. See cleibe.

clipe, deceit (H.S.D.); see clibeag.

clis, active, Ir., M. Ir. cliste, ready, quick. Cf. W. clys, impulse: *cḷ-sto-; root kel, as in Lat. celer, swift, etc.? "Na fir chlis", the Merry Dancers. From cleas. Cf. Ir. and E. Ir. deil-clis, staff-sling.

clisbeach, unsteady of foot, cripple; from clis. Also clisneach.

clisg, start, Ir. cliosg (Meath Dial., clist); from clis.

clisinnean, boat ribs, clisneach, rib:

clisneach, the human body, carcase, outward appearance (Arm.; not H.S.D.):

clisneach, a bar-gate (H.S.D.), a rib (Wh.):

cliù, renown, praise, Ir., O. Ir. clú, W. clyw, sense of hearing, clod, praise; Gr. κλέος, fame; Skr. çravás, I. E. kleu, hear. See further under cluinn.

cliùchd, mend nets:

cliùd, a slap with the fingers; from the Sc. clout, Eng. clout, a cuff, "clout".

cliùd, a small or disabled hand; from Sc. cloot, hoof, half-hoof?

clò, clòth, broad-cloth; from Eng. cloth, clothing, etc.

clò, a print, printing press, M. G. cló (Carswell), Ir. cló, clódh (clodhuighim, Coneys; E. Ir. clod, mark?); cf. the next word. Also clòdh.

clò, a nail, Ir., E. Ir. clò, W. clo, key, Br. klao, tool, *klavo-; Lat. clâvus, nail, clavis, key; Gr. κλείς, key, etc. See claoidh.

clò-chadail, slumber; see clòth.

clobha, a pair of tongs; from Norse klofi, a fork (of a river), a forked mast, snuffers, klof, fork of the legs, "cloven, cleft". The Ir. clobh(a) in Con. and Fol., and the clomh of Lh., seems a Scottish importation, for Coneys says the vernacular is tlobh. In fact, the Ir. word is tlú, tlúgh: "lifter"; root tḷ- as in Lat. tollo?

clobhsa, a close, lane, farm-yard, Ir. clamhsa, W. claws; from Eng. close. Also, clamhsa, q.v.

clochranaich, wheezing in the throat (M'F.; Sh. has clochar, and clochan, respire); from Sc. clocher, wheezing, cloch, cough feebly. It is an onomatopoetic word, like Eng. cluck, clock.

clod, a clod, turf; from the Eng.

clogad, clogaid, a helmet, Ir. clogad, M. Ir. clogat, at chluic, E. Ir. clocatt; from ad, hat, q.v., and †clog, head, which see in claigionn.

clogais, a wooden clog; from Eng. clogs.

cloidhean, the pitch of the box-tree or any shrub tree (Arm.; not H.S.D.). Cf. glaoghan.

cloimh, scab, itch, Ir. clamh, scurvy, E. Ir. clam, leprosus, W. clafr, leprosy, claf, diseased, Cor. claf (do.), M. Br. claff (do.), Br. klanv, *klamo-, sick; Skr. klam, weary; Gr. κλαμαρός, weak (Hes.); Lat. clêmens.

clòimh, wool, down of feathers, Ir. clúmh, down, feathers, E. Ir. clúm, pluma, W. pluf, plumage; from Lat. pluma (Eng. plumage).

clòimhdich, rub or scratch as itchy; same as clamhradh in meaning and root.

clòimhein, icicle, snot; from clòimh

clois, the herb "stinking marsh, horse tail", Ir. clóis, clo-uisge (O'R.), "water nail" (Cameron).

cloitheag, a shrimp, prawn (M'D.), Ir. cloitheóg. Possibly for claidh-, *cladi-, root clad of cladh: "a digger". M'L. has instead cloidheag, a small shore-fish.

clomh, counteract, subdue (Carm.). See caochail.

clomhais, cloves; from the Eng.

clos, rest, sleep, stillness; *clud-to-, root klu, klav; see claoidh.

closach, a carcase; from clos, q.v.

clòsaid, a closet, Ir. closeud; from the Eng.

clòth, mitigate, still; from the root klav, of claoidh, q.v.

cluain, a green plain, pasture, Ir. and E. Ir. cluain: *clopni-; Lit. szlapti, become wet, szlapina, a wet spot; Gr. κλέπας (Hes.), a wet muddy place (Strachan).

cluaineas, cluain, intriguing, deceit, Ir. cluainearachd, cluain, *clopni; Gr. κλέπτω; steal, Eng. lift, cattle lifting (Strachan). cluain = sense (Glenmoriston).

cluaran, a thistle; cf. W. cluro, whisk.

cluas, ear, Ir., O. Ir. cluas, W. clust, *kloustâ, root kleus, klus, kleu, hear; O.Sax. hlust, hearing, Eng. listen, etc. See cluinn.

clùd, a patch, clout, Ir. clúd, W. clwt; from the Eng. clout, Ag. S. clút (Rhys, Murray).

cluich, play, Ir. cluiche, a game, E. Ir. cluche, a game, O. Ir. cluichech, ludibundus: *klokjo-; Got. hlahjan, Eng. laugh, Ger. lachen (Windisch, Stokes). placere?

cluigein, a little bell, anything dangling; from clag.

cluinn, hear, Ir., E. Ir. cluinim, W. clywed hearing, Cor. clewaf, audio, Br. klevet, audire, *klevô, I hear; Lat. clueo, am reputed, inclustus, famous; Gr. κλεvô, hear; Eng. loud, listen; Skr. çru, hear, crâvas, sound. Hence cliù, cluas, etc.

cluip, cheat: hardly *kloppi-; Gr. κλέπτω.

clupaid, the swollen throat in cattle:

cluthaich, cover, clothe, Ir. cluthmhar, sheltered, warm. Cf. E. Ir. clithaigim, I shelter, clith, clothing, W. clyd, sheltering; root qel of ceil, q.v. Ir. clúdaim, I clothe, cover, from Eng. clothe, has possibly influenced the vowel both in G. and Ir.

cluthaich, chase, Ir. cluthaighim: *kluto-, *klu; see claoidh?

cnab, pull, haul; see cnap.

cnabaire, an instrument for dressing flax, Ir. cnáib, hemp; see cainb.

cnag, a crack, Ir. cnag; from the Eng. crack.

cnag, a pin, knob, Ir. cnag; from the Eng. knag, a peg, Dan. knag, a peg, Sw. knagg, a knag.

cnàid, a scoff, Ir. cnáid:

cnàimh, bone, Ir. cnáimh, O. Ir. cnáim, *knâmi-s; Gr. κνήμη, leg; Eng. ham.

cnaimhseag, a pimple, bear-berry:

cnàmh, chew, digest, Ir. cnaoi, cnaoidhim, E. Ir. cnám, gnawing, W. cnoi; Gr. κνώδων, a tooth, κνάω, scrape; Lit. kandú, bite; Skr. khâd, chew. Root qnē, qen. Hence cnamhuin, gangarene.

cnàmhaiche, matured person (M'D.):

cnap, a knob, Ir. cnap, E. Ir. cnapp; from Norse knappr, a knob, M. Eng. knap. Hence also G. and Ir. cnap, a blow, Sc. knap, Eng. knappe, blow.

cnapach, a youngster; from cnap. But cf. Norse knapi, boy, varlet, Eng. knave.

cnarra, a ship, Ir. cnarra; from Norse knörr, g. knarrar, Ag. S. cnear.

cnatan, a cold: *krod-to-; Ger. rotz, catarrh; Gr. κόρυζα (do.). Also cneatan.

cnead, a sigh, groan, so Ir., E. Ir., cnet; from the root can of can, say, sing.

cneadh, a wound, so Ir., E. Ir. cned, *knidâ; Gr. κνίζω, sting, κνίδη, nettle; Ag. S. hnítan, tundere. Cf. Teut. hnit, hit; Gr. κνιζω, stick, cut; cneidh-ghalar, painful complaint.

cneap, a button, bead; see cnap.

cneas, skin, waist, Ir. cneas, E. Ir. cnes; from cen of cionn, skin; see boicionn; Corn. knes, body, W. cnawd, human flesh.

cneasda, humane, modest, Ir. cneasda; from cen as in cineal, kin.

cnèatag, fir cone, shinty ball:

cneisne, slender (M'D.); from cneas.

cniadaich, caress, stroke:

cnò, a nut, Ir. cnó, O. Ir. cnú, W. cneuen, pl. cnau, Cor. cnyfan, Br. knaouenn, *knovâ; Norse, hnot, Ag. S. hnutu, Eng. nut, Ger. nuss.

cnoc, a hillock, Ir, cnoc, O. Ir. cnocc, O. Br. cnoch, tumulus, Br. kreac'h, krec'henn, hill, *knokko-; from knog-ko-, Norse, hnakki, nape of the neck, Ag. S. hnecca, necl, Eng. neck. Some have given the stem as *cunocco, and referred it to the root of Gaul. cuno-, high, W. cwn, height, root ku, be strong, great, as in curaidh, q.v. Cf. Ag. S. hnoll, O. H. G. hnol, vertex, head. See ceann.

cnòcaid, a young woman's hair bound up in a fillet. Founded on the Sc. cockernonny.

cnod, a knot, Ir. cnota; from the Eng.

cnòd, a patch, piece on a shoe; cf. Sc. knoit, knot, large piece.

cnòdaich, acquire, lay up, Ir. cnódach, acquiring (O'R.); see cnòd.

cnòdan, the gurnet, Ir. cnúdán (Fol.); cf. Sc. crooner, so-called from the croon or noise it makes when landed. The G. seems borrowed from Sc. crooner, mixed with Sc. crout, croak.

cnòid, a sumptuous present (Heb.); cròid:

cnoidh, tooth-ache, sever pain; see cnuimh.

cnomhagan, a large whelk, buckie; cf. cnò, nut.

cnot, unhusk barley; from cnotag, the block or joint of wood hollowed out for unhusking barley. The word is the Eng. knot?

cnuachd, head, brow, temple, Ir. cruaic (O'R.); cf. W. cnuwch, bushy head of hair, cnwch, knuckle, cnuch, joint, *cnoucco-, "a prominence"; root kneu, knu; Norse hnúkr, hnjúkr, knoll, peak, hnuðr, a knob. Hence cnuachdach, shrewd: "having a head".

cnuas, gnash, chew, crunch; for cruas, cruais, founded on Eng. crush, crunch?

cnuasaich, ponder, collect, Ir. cnuasuighim, cnuas, a collection, scraping together, G. and Ir. cnuasachd, reflection, collection, *knousto-; root knu, knevo, scrape, Gr. κνúω, scratch, Norse hnöggr, niggard, Eng. niggard, Ag. S. hneáw, sparing. The idea is "scraping together": a niggard is "one who scrapes". Stokes (Dict.) gives the root as knup, and compares Lit. knupsyti, oppress. St. now, possibly, *knoud-to, Norse, knúðr, ball. Cf. cruinnich, for force.

cnuimh, a worm; wrong spelling for cruimh, q.v.

cnumhagan, a handful (Heb.); for crobhagan, from †crobh, the hand? See cròg.

co, , who, O. Ir. co-te, now G. ciod, q.v.; W. pa, Cor. py, pe, Br. pe, quia, root qo-, qa, qe; Lat. quod; Gr. πό-θι, etc.; Eng. who.

co, cho, as, so; see cho.

còb, plenty (Sh.); from Lat. copia. Ir. cóib, party, followers.

cobhair, assistance, so Ir., O. Ir. cobir, *cobris, co+ber, root bher, carry, see beir; and cf. for meaning Gr. συμφέρει, it is of use.

cobhan, coffer, box, Ir. cofra; from Eng. coffin, coffer.

cobhar, foam, Ir. cubhar, E. Ir. cobur: co+bur; for bar, see tobar, well.

cobhartach, spoil, booty:

cobhlach, fleet. See cabhlach.

coc, cock, to cock; from the Eng.

còcaire, a cook, Ir. cócaire, M. Ir. cocaire, Cor. peber, pistor; from the Lat. coquo, I cook.

cochull, also coich (Carm.), husk, hood, Ir. cochal, O. Ir. cochull, W. swcwll, hood, cowl; from Lat. cucullus, Eng. cowl.

cocontachd, smartness (A.M'D.); see coc, gog.

codaich, share, divide; from codach, gen. of cuid.

còdhail, a meeting; see comhdhail.

cogadh, war, so Ir., O. Ir. cocad: *con-cath, "co-battle"; see cath.

cogais, conscience, Ir. cogus, O. Ir. concubus: con+cubus; and O. Ir. cubus, conscience, is for con-fis, co and fios, knowledge, q.v.

cogan, a loose husk, covering (H.S.D.), a small vessel; see gogan for latter force.

cogull, tares, cockle, Ir. cogal; borrowed from M. Eng. cackel, cokkul, now cockle.

coibhneas proper spelling of caoimhneas, which see.

coibhseachd, propriety, so Ir. coibhseach, becoming; cf. M. Ir. cuibdes, fittingness, from cubaid; see cubhaidh.

coicheid, suspicion, doubt:

cóig, five, Ir. cúig, O. Ir. cóic, W. pump, E.W. pimp, Cor. pymp, Br. pemp, Gaul. pempe, *qenqe; Lat. quinque; Gr. πέντε; Lit. penki; Got. fimf; Skr. páñca.

coigil, spare, save, so Ir., E. Ir. coiclim, cicill (n.); *con-cel, root qel, as in Lat. colo, etc. Also cagail. The E. Ir. cocell, concern, thought, is for con-ciall; ciall, sense.

coigreach, a stranger, Ir. coigcrigheach, cóigcríoch, *con-crích-ech, "provincial", E. Ir. cocrích, province, boundary. See crìoch. The meaning is, "one that comes from a neighbouring province".

coilceadha, bed materials, †coilce, a bed, Ir. coilce, a bed, E. Ir. colcaid, flock bed, O. W. cilcet, now cylched; from Lat. culcita, a pillow, Eng. quilt.

coilchean, a little cock, water spouting; from coileach, q.v.

coileach, a cokc, so Ir., O. Ir. cailech, W. ceiliog, Cor. celioc, Br. kiliok, *kaljákos, the "caller"; rrot qal, call; Lat. calare, summon, Eng. Calends; Gr. καλέω, call; Lit. kalba, speech, etc.

coileag, a cole of hay; from the Sc. cole, a cole or coil of hay. See góileag. còileag (Perth.).

coileid, a stir, noise (Heb.); cf. Eng. coil, of like force. The G. seems borrowed therefrom.

coileir, a collar, Ir. coiléar; from the Eng.

coilionn, a candle; see coinneal.

coi'lige (Dial.), race, course (Hend.): coimhliong.

coiliobhar, a kind of gun; see cuilbheir.

coille, coill, wood, Ir. coill, O. Ir. caill, W. celli, Cor. kelli, *kaldet-, Gr. κλάδος, a twig; Eng. holt, Ger. holz. Further root qla, qela, split, hit, as in cladh, claidheamh, q.v.

coilleag, a cockle (M'D.), Ir. coilleóg (O'R.), Cor. cyligi:

coilleag, a rural song, a young potato, a smart blow:

coilleag, coileig (accent on end syllable; Perth.), a smart stroke:

coilpeachadh, equalizing cattle stock (Heb.); colpach.

coilpein, a rope:

coimeas, comparison, co-equal, Ir. coimheas, E. Ir. coimmeas: com+meas. See meas.

coimh-, co-; see comh-.

coimheach, strange, foreign, cruel, Ir. coimhtheach, cóimhthigheach, cóimhightheach, strange, M. Ir. comaigthe, foreign, O. Ir. comaigtech, alienigena; for comaitche (Stokes). See tathaich.

Coimhde, God, Ir. Cóimhdhe, God, the Trinity, O. Ir. comdiu, gen. comded (Bk.of Deer), Lord, *com-mediôs, "Providence", root med, think as in G. meas, esteem, Lat. modus, mediator, mediate. See meas. The fanciful "Coibhi, the Celtic arch-druid", is due to a confusion of the obsolete Coimhdhe with the Northumbrian Coifi of Bede.

coimhead, looking, watching, Ir. cóimhéad, O. Ir. comét, *com-entu-. For entu, see dìdean.

coimhearsnach, a neighbour, Ir. cómharsa, gen. cómharsan, E. Ir. comarse; from com and ursainn, a door-post (Zimmer). See ursainn.

coimheart, a comparison; *com-bért, root ber, of beir. Cf. Lat. confero.

coimheirbse, wrangling: com+farpauis, q.v.

coimhirp, rivalry, striving (Arg.); same root as oidhirp.

coimhliong, a race, course, also coi'lige (Dial.); Ir. cóimhling; from com and lingim, I leap. For root, see leum.

coimsich, perceive, Ir. coimighim: com-meas; see meas.

coimirc, mercy, quarter, so Ir.; see comairce.

coimpire, an equal, match; from Eng. compeer or Lat. compar.

coimrig, trouble; from Sc., Eng. cumber, cumbering.

coimseach, indifferent (Sh.); from coimeas, co-equal.

coindean, a kit (Arm.: not in H.S.D.):

còineag, a nest of wild bees (M'L.); from còinneach, moss. See caonnag.

coinean, a rabbit, coney, Ir. coinín, W. cwning; from M. Eng. cuinin, from O. Gr. connin, connil, from Lat. cuniculus, whence Eng. coney, through Fr.

coingeis, indifferent, same as, no matter; con-geas, from geas, desire, etc. Cf. àilleas, from ail-ges.

coingeal, a whirlpool (H.S.D.):

coingheall, a loan, Ir. coinghioll, obligation; con+giall, q.v.

coingir, a pair (Sh.):

coinlein, a nostril; see cuinnean.

coinn, fit of coughing; a nostril (Hend.):

coinne, a supper, a party to which every one brings his own provisions (Heb.). Cf. E. Ir. coindem, coinmed, coigny, conveth, quartering, *kond, eat, as in cnàmh, q.v.

coinne, woman (Hend.); from N. kona, kvenna (gen. pl.), woman, Eng. queen.

coinne, coinneamh, a meeting, Ir. coinne, E. Ir. conne, *con-nesiâ; root nes, come, dwell, Gr. νέμοι, go, ναίω, dwell; Skr. nas, join some one. Stokes seems to think that kon-dê- is the ultimate form here, being the I. E. dhê, set, Gr. τίθημι, etc. coinneamh, when used as adverb = coinnibh, dat.pl.?

còinneach, moss, Ir. caonach, M. Ir. cúnnach, O. Ir. coennich, muscosi:

coinneal, candle, so Ir., E. Ir. candel, W. canwyll, O. W. cannuill, Cor. cantuil; from Lat. candela, whence Eng. candle.

coinneas, a ferret; *con-neas, "dog-weasel"? See neas.

coinnseas, conscience (Hend.):

coinnlein, a stalk, Ir. coinlín, M. Ir. coinnlin, O. Ir. connall, stipula, *konnallo-; Lat., canna, a rood, Gr. κάννα. Stokes also joins W. cawn, reed, *kâno.

còir, just, right, Ir., O. Ir. cóir, W. cywir: *ko-vêro-, "co-true", from vêro-, now fíor, q.v. Hence còir, justice, right, share. Also in the phrase 'n an còir, in their presence; see comhair.

coirb, cross, vicious, Ir. corbadh, wickedness, E. Ir. corpte, wicked; from Lat. corruptus. Also see coiripidh.

coirceag, a bee-hive (Sh., O'R.):

coire, fault, so Ir., O. Ir. caire, O. W. cared, W. cerydd, Br. carez, *karjâ; Lat. carinare, blame, abuse; Let. karinát, banter, Ch. Sl. karati, punish.

coire, a cauldron, so Ir., E. Ir. core, coire, W. pair, Cor., Br. per, *qerjo; Norse hverr, kettle, Ag. S. hwer; Skr. carú; Gr. κέρνος, a sacrificial vessel.

coireal, coral, from the Eng.

'coireall, a quarry, Ir. coireul, coilér (F.M.); from Fr. carriere, with dissimilation of rs (Stokes).

coireaman, coriander, so Ir.; founded on the Lat. coriandrum, Gr. κορίαννον.

coirioll, a carol; from the Eng.

coiripidh, corruptible; from Lat. corruptus.

còirneil, a colonel, Ir. curnel, corniel (F.M.); from the Eng.

coirpileir, a corporal; from the Eng.

coiseunuich, bless (Sh.); con+seun or sian, q.v.

coisich, walk, Ir. coiseachd (n.); from cas, coise, q.v.

coisinn, win; see cosnadh.

coisir, a festive party, chorus, Ir. coisir, feast, festive party, cóisir (O'R., O'B., and Keat.), feasting, "coshering":

coisrigeadh, consecration, O. G. consecrad (Bk.of Deer), Ir. coisreagadh, O. Ir. coisecrad; from Lat. consecratio.

coit, a small boat, Ir. coit, E. Ir. coite. Cf. Lat. cotta, species navis, Norse kati, a small ship, Eng. cat. Stokes suggests that the G. and Ir. are from the Low Lat. cotia, navis Indica. Hence Eng. cot. Now from *quontio; Gaul. ponto, whence Eng. punt.

coitcheann, common, public, so Ir., O. Ir. coitchenn: *con-tech-en?

coiteir, a cottar, Ir. coiteóir; from the Eng. cottar.

coitich, press one to take something: *con-tec-, root tek, ask, Eng. thig; see atach.

col, an impediment, Ir. colaim; root qela, qlâ, break, split? See call; and cf. Gr. κωλúω, hinder, which is probably from the same root.

col, sin, Ir., E. Ir. col, W. cwl, O. Br. col, *kulo-; Lat. culpa, colpa, fault. Stokes hesitates between referring it to the root of Lat. culpa or to that of Lat. scelus, Got. skal, Eng. shall, Ger. schuld, crime.

colag, a small steak or collop (Arg.); from Eng. collop.

colaiste, a college, Ir. colaisde; from the Eng.

colamoir, the hake (Sh., O'B.), Ir. colamóir; cf. Sc. coalmie, colemie, the coal-fish.

còlan, a fellow-soldier, companion; cf. còmhla, together. The Ir. cómhlach is for com-lach, the lach of òglach.

colann, colainn, a body, so Ir., O. Ir. colinn, gen. colno, W. celain, carcase, O. W. celein, cadaver, *colanni- (Brugmann); root qela, break, the idea being "dead body"? Cf. for meaning Gr. νέκυς, corpse, from nek, kill.

colbh, pillar, Ir. colbh, E. Ir. colba, W. celff, Br. kelf; Lat. columna, Eng. column; root qel, high. G. colbh, plant stalk, Ir. colmh, is allied to Lat. culmus. The Celtic words, if not borrowed from, have been influenced by the Lat.

colc, an eider duck (Heb.); from Sc., Eng. colk, E. Fris. kolke, the black diver.

colg, wrath, Ir., colg; a metaphorical use of calg (i.e. colg), q.v.

colg, sword (ballads). See calg.

collachail, boorish (H.S.D.; O'R. quoted as authority), Ir. collach-amhuil; from Ir. collach, boar. See cullach.

collaid, a clamour, Ir. collóid; see coléid.

collaidh, carnal, sensual, so Ir., E. Ir. collaide; for colnaide, from colann, body, flesh.

collaidin, codalan, white poppy (H.S.D.; O'R. only quoted), Ir. collaidín, codalán; from colladh, codal, sleep.

collainn, a smart stroke; also coilleag.

colman, a dove; see calman.

colpach, a heifer, steer, Ir. colpack, M. Ir. calpach; apparently founded on Norse kálfr, a calf. Hence Sc. colpindach.

coltach, like; for co-amhuil-t-ach. See amhuil, samhuil.

coltar, a coulter, Ir. coltar, E. Ir. coltar; from M. Eng. cultre, Lat. culter.

columan, a dove, Ir. and O. Ir. colum, W. colomen, cwlwm, Corn. colom, Br. coulm; from Lat. columbus, columba.

còm, the cavity of the chest, Ir. com, coim, chest cavity, waist, body. The G. is allied to W. cwm, a valley, "a hollow", *kumbo-; Gr. κῦφος, Lat. cumbere; Ger. haube, hood; root kumbo-, bend. The O. Ir. coim, covering, is from the root kemb, wind, as in cám, q.v.

coma, indifferent, so Ir., E. Ir. cuma, O. Ir. cumme, idem, is cumma, it is all the same; from root me, measure: "equal measure".

comaidh, a messing, eating together, E. Ir. commaid, *kom-buti-s, "co-being", from *buti-s, being. See , be.

comain, obligatino, Ir. comaoin, O. Ir. commáin: *com-moini-; Lat. communis. See maoin.

comairce, protection; see comraich.

comanachadh, celebration of the Lord's Supper; from comann or comunn, society, Lat. communio, Eng. communion.

comannd, a command; from the Eng.†

comar, a confluence, Ir. comar, cumar, E. Ir. commar, W. cymmer, Br. kemper, confluent, *kom-bero-; Lat. con-fero. Root bher, as in beir.

comas, comus, power, Ir. cumas, E. Ir. commus, *com-mestu-, *mestu-, from med, as in meas (Zimmer, Brugmann).

combach, a companion; a shortened form of companach.

combaid, company (Dial.):

combaiste, compaiste, a compass, Ir. compás; from the Eng.

comh-, prefix denoting "with, com-, con-", Ir. comh-, O. Ir. com-, *kom-; Lat. cum, com-, con-, Eng. com-, con-, etc. It appears as comh-, com- (before m and b), con- (before d, g), etc.

comhach, prize, prey: *com-agos-; root ag, drive?

comhachag, owl, W. cuan, Br. kaouen, O. Br. couann; L. Lat. cavannus (from the Celtic - Ernault), Fr. chouette, O. Fr. choue. Cf. Ger. schugu, uhu. An onomatopoetic word originally.

co had, a comparison (Sh.); comh+fada, q.v.

co haib, contention about rights (M'A.):

comhaich, dispute, assert, contend:

comhailteachd, a convoy, Ir. comhailtim, I join; from comhal, a joining, so Ir., E. Ir. accomallte, socius, O. Ir. accomol, conjunctio, W. cyfall, *ad-com-ol. For ol, see under tional, alt.

comhair, presence, e regione, etc., Ir. cómhair, E. Ir. comair, W. cyfer, O. W. cwer: com+air, the prep. comh and air, q.v. (Asc.). Cor. kever. Cf. comhghar of Ir.

comhairc, an outcry, appeal, forewarning, Ir. cómhairce, E. Ir. comaircim, I ask: com+arc. For arc, see iomchorc.

comhairle, advice, Ir. cómhairle, O. Ir. airle, air+le. This le is usually referred to the root las, desire, Skr. lash, desire, Lat. lascivus, wanton. Ascoli suggests the root of O. Ir. láaim, mittere, Gr. ἐλαúνω.

comhal, a joining - an Ir. word; see comhailteachd.

comhalta, a foster-brother, Ir. cómhalta, E. Ir. comalta, W. cyfaillt, friend, *kom-altjos, root al, rear, Lat. alo. See altrum.

comharradh, a mark, Ir. cómhartha, O. Ir. comarde; from com and O. Ir. airde, signum, W. arwydd, M. Br. argoez, *are-video-; root vid, as in Lat. video, here prœ-video, etc.

comhart, the bark of a dog; from comh and art, O. Ir. artram, latratus, W. cyfarth, arthio, to bark, O. Br. arton. Cf. Ir. amhastrach, barking.

còmhdach, clothing, covering, Ir. cúmhdach, veil, covering, defence, E. Ir. comtuch, cumtach, covering, "shrine": *con-ud-tog; root teg, tog, as in tigh, q.v. Cf. cúintgim, peto: *com-di-segim.

còmhdaich, allege, prove: *com-atach; see atach?

'còmhdhail, a meeting, Ir. cómhdháil, E. Ir. comdál: com+dáil; see dáil.

còmhla, together, Ir. cómhlámh: com+làmh, "co-hand, at hand". See làmh.

còmhla, door, door-leaf, Ir. cómhla, E. Ir. comla, gen. comlad: *com-lā, root (p)lā, fold, groove (cf. Lat. sim-plu-s, O. H. G. zwîfal, two-fold); root pal, pel, as in alt, joint.

comhlann, a combat, Ir. cómhlann, E. Ir. comlann: *com+lann; see lann.

comhluadar, conversation, colloquy, Ir. cómhluadar, company, conversation; from luaidh, speak (*com-luad-tro-). See luaidh.

còmhnadh, help, Ir. cúngnamh, O. Ir. congnam, inf. to congniu, I help: com+(g)nì, "co-doing". See , do gnìomh, deed.

còmhnard, level, Ir. cómhárd: com+àrd, "co-high, equally high".

còmhnuidh, a dwelling, Ir. cómhnuidhe, a tarrying, dwelling, E. Ir. comnaide, a waiting, delay, (also irnaide): *com-naide; root nes, nas, dwell; Gr. ναίω, dwell, νέομαι, go, ναέτες, inhabitant; Skr. nas, join any one.

còmhradh, conversation, Ir. còmhradh; com+ràdh; see ràdh.

còmhrag, a conflict, Ir. cómhrac, E. Ir. comrac, battle, O. Ir. comracc, meeting, W. cyfrang, rencounter, *kom-ranko-; root renk, assemble; Lit. rìnkti, assemble, surinkìmas, assembly.

comhstadh, a borrowing, loan: *com-iasad-; see iasad? Cf. E. Ir. costud, consuetudo.

compàirt, partnership, Ir. cómpártas; from com- and pàirt, q.v.

companach, companion, Ir. cómpánach, M. Ir. companach; from E.Eng. compainoun, through Fr., from L. Lat. compâniô, "co-bread-man", from pânis, bread. Dialectic combach.

comradh, aid, assistance:

comraich, protection, sanctuary, Ir. cómairce, comruighe, E. Ir. comairche, M. Ir. comairce; from the root arc, defend, as in teasairg, q.v.

comunn, society, company, Ir. cumann; from Lat. communio, Eng. communion.

con-, with; see comh-.

cona, cat's tail or moss crops (Sh.); see canach. Cf. gonan, grass roots.

conablach, a carcase, so Ir.; for con-ablach; see con- and ablach. "Dog's carcase" (Atkinson).

conachag, a conch (M'A.); from the Eng.

conachair, a sick person who neither gets worse nor better (M'A.), uproar (M'F.):

cona-ghaothach, tempest, raging gale (Hend.):

conair, a path, way (Sh., O'B.), so Ir., O. Ir. conar:

conaire, the herb "loose-strife", Ir. conair (O'R.); see conas.

conal, love, fruitage (Carm.):

conalach, brandishing (Sh.; not H.S.D.); cf. the name Conall, *Cuno-valo-s, roots kuno (see curaidh) and val, as in flath, q.v.

conaltradh, conversation, Ir. conaltra (O'R.; Sh.): *con-alt-radh? For alt, see alt, joint.

conas, a wrangle, so Ir. (O'R., Sh.); from con-, the stem of , dog: "currushness"?

conas, conasg, furze, whins, Ir. conasg (O'R., Sh.): cf. conas above. Manx conney, yellow furze.

condrachd, contrachd, mischance, curse, E. Ir. contracht; from Lat. contractus, a shrinking, contraction.

confhadh, rage, Ir. confadh, M. Ir. confad: con+fadh; for fadh, see onfhadh.

cònlan, an assembly, Ir. conlán. H.S.D. gives as authorities for the Gaelic word "Lh. et C. S.".

conn, sense, so Ir., E. Ir. cond: *cos-no-, root kos, kes, as in G. chì, see; Gr. κοννέω, understand, κόσμος, array ("what is seen"), world. See further under chí for kes. Stokes equates cond with Got. handngs, wise; but this is merely the Eng. handy. It has been suggested as an ablaut form to ceann, head. Got. hugs, sense, has also been compared; *cug-s-no- is possible.

connadh, fuel, so Ir., O. Ir. condud, W. cynnud, Cor. cunys, *kondutu-; rrot kond, kṇd; Lat. candeo, incendo; Gr. κάνδαρος, coal.

connan, lust:

connlach, straw, stubble, so Ir. O. Ir. connall, stipula: konnallo-; Lat. cannula, canna, a reed, canalis, Gr. κάννα, reed. See coinnlein.

connsaich, dispute; see under ionnsaich.

connspair, a disputant: *con-desbair; see deasbair.

connspeach, a wasp, Ir. connspeach (Fol.); see speach, wasp.

connspoid, a dispute, Ir. conspóid; from a Lat. *consputatio, for *condisputatio. See deasbud.

connspunn, conspull, cònsmunn, a hero, Ir. conspullach, heroic (O'R.):

constabal, the township's bailiff (Heb.); from Eng. constable.

contraigh, neaptide, O. Ir. contracht; from Lat. contractus, shrinking (Zeuss, Meyer). See condracht and traogh.

contran, wild angelica, Ir. contran (O'R.):

conuiche, a hornet (H.S.D.), cònuich (Arm.), conuibhe, connuibh (M'L., M'A.); used by Stewart in the Bible glosses. Same root as conas.

cop, foam, M. Ir., E. Ir. copp; from Ag. S., M. Eng. copp, vertex, top, Ger. kopf, head.

copag, docken, Ir. copóg, capóg; M. Ir. copóg. Founded on the Eng. cop, head, head-dress, crest, tuft; W. copog, tufted. The same as cop, q.v.

copan, a boss, shield boss, cup; from the Norse koppr, cup, bell-shaped crown of a helmet, Eng. cup.

copar, copper, Ir. copar; from the Eng.

cor, state, condition, Ir. cor, O. Ir. cor, positio, "jactus", *koru-, vb. *koriô, I place. See cuir.

còram, a faction, a set (M'A.); from the Eng. quorum.

corc, a cork, so Ir.; from the Eng.

corc, a knife, gully, dirk, Ir. corc: *korko-, *qor-qo-, root qor, qer cut; Lit. kirwis, axe; Gr. κέρμα, a chip, κείρω, cut. Allied to the root sqer of sgar, q.v.

corc, oats, Ir. coirce, M. Ir. corca, W. ceirch, Br. kerc'h, *korkjo-. Bezzenberger suggests connect with Lettic kurki, small corn. Possibly for kor-ko-, where kor, ker is the root which appears in Lat. Ceres, Eng. cereal, Gr. κόρος, satiety, Lit. szérti, feed. The meaning makes connection with Gr. κόρκορος, pimpernel, doubtful.

corcur, crimson, Ir. corcur, scarlet, O. Ir. corcur, purple, W. porphor; from Lat. purpura (Eng. purple).

còrd, a rope, Ir. corda; from Eng. cord, Lat. corda.

còrd, agree, Ir. cord; from obsolete Eng. cord, agree, bring to an agreement, from Lat. cord-, the stem of cor, heart, whence Eng. cordial, etc. The Sc. has the part. as cordyt, agreed.

cordaidhe, spasms (Sh.): "twistings", from còrd.

còrlach, bran, refuse of grain (M'D.; O'R has corlach), còrrlach, coarsly ground meal, over-plus. A compound of còrr, "what is over"?

còrn, a drinking horn, Ir., E. Ir. corn, W. corn, Br. korn, *korno-; Lat. cornu; Eng. horn; Gr. kéras, horn.

còrnuil, retching, violent coughing: *kors-no-? For kors, see carrasan.

coron, a crown, Ir., E. Ir. coróin, corón, W. coron; from Lat. corona (Eng. crown).

corp, a body, Ir., O. Ir. corp, W. corff, Br. korf; from Lat. corpus (Eng. corpse, Sc. corp).

corpag, tiptoe (Arm.); seemingly founded on corr of corrag.

corr, a crane, Ir., E. Ir. corr, W. crychydd, Cor. cherhit, O. Br. corcid, ardea, *korgsâ, korgjo-s; Gr. κέρχω, be hoarse, κερχνη, a hawk, O. Sl. kraguj, sparrow-hawk. Cf. W. cregyr, heron, "screamer", from cregu, be hoarse; Ag. S. hrágra, Ger. reiher, heron, Gr. κρίζω, κρίκε, screech.

còrr, excess, overplus, Ir. corr; G. corr, odd, Ir. cor, corr, odd; also Ir. corr, snout, corner, point, E. Ir. corr, rostrum, corner. The E. Ir. corr, rostrum, has been referred by Zimmer and Thurneysen to corr, crane - the name of "beaked" bird doing duty for "beak". The modern meanings of "excess, odd" (cf. odd of Eng., which really means "point, end") makes the comparison doubtful. Refer it rather to kors-, stick out, point, head; Gr. κόρση, head; stem keras-; Lat. crista, Eng. crest; further is Gr. κέρας, horn, Lat. cerebrum, Norse hjarsi, crown of the head; and also corn, horn, q.v. Hence corran, headland.

corra-biod, an attitude of readiness to start; from còrr, point, and biod = biog, start. corra-beaga (M'A.).

corrach, abrupt, steep, Ir., M. Ir. corrach, unsteady, wavering; "on a point", from corr, point, odd?

corra-chagailt, glow-worm-like figures from raked embers, Ir. corrchagailt; from còrr, a point, and cagailt.

corradhuil, first effor of an infant to articulate. An onomatopoetic word.

corrag, a forefinger, finger; from còrr, point, etc.

corra-ghriodhach, a heron, crane, Ir. corr-ghrian, heron; from còrr, and (E. Ir.) grith, a cry, scream, *gṛtu-, root gar, of goir, q.v.

corran, a sickle, Ir. corrán, carrán, M. Ir. corrán, *korso-, root kors, kers, an extension of I. E. qero, Gr. κείρω, etc., as in corc, q.v. Cf. I. E. qerpo, cut, from the same root, which gives Lat. carpo, cull, Gr. καρπός, fruit (Eng. harvest), Lit. kerpu, cut, Skr. kṛpana, sword. G. may be from a korpso-, korso-. The Gaelic has also been referred to the root kur, round, as in cruinn, Ir. cor, circuit (O'Cl.).

corran, headland; see còrr.

corran, a spear, barbed arrow (Ossianic Poems); from corr, a point, q.v.

corranach, loud weeping, "coronach", Ir. coránach, a funeral cry, dirge: co+ràn-ach, "co-weeping"; see rán.

corrghuil, a murmur, chirping (Heb.); see corradhuil.

còrrlach, coarsely ground meal, overplus; see còrlach.

corruich, anger, rage, Ir. corruighe, vb. corruighim, stir, shake; from corrach. The striking resemblance to M. Eng. couroux, O. Fr. couroux (from Lat. corruptus), has been remarked by Dr Cameron (Rel.Celt. II, 625).

còrsa, a coast; from the Eng. course. Cf. còrsair, a cruiser.

cor-shìomain, thraw-crook; from cor or car, q.v., and sìoman, q.v.

cos, a foot, leg; see cas.

còs, a cave, Ir. cuas, topographically Coos, Coose, M. Ir. cuas, a cave, hollow: *cavosto-, from cavo-, hollow; Lat. cavus. It is possible to refer it to *coud-to, koudh, hide, Gr. κεúθω, Eng. hide, hut. The Norse kjós, a deep or hollow place, is not allied, but it appears in Lewis in the place-name Keose.

cosanta, industrious; see cosnadh.

cosd, cost, Ir. cosdus (n.), M. Ir. costus, W. cost; from O. Fr. cost, Eng. cost.

cosgairt, slaughtering; see casgairt.

cosgaradh, valuation of the sheep and cattle which a crofter is entitled to; Norse kost-gorð, state of affairs (Lewis).

cosgus, cost; a by-form of cost.

coslach, like, coslas, likeness, Ir. cosmhuil, like, O. Ir. cosmail, cosmailius (n.): con+samhail, q.v.

cosmhail, like; see the above.

cosmal, rubbish, refuse of meat, etc. (M'A.):

cosnadh, earning, winning, Ir. cosnamh, defence, O. Ir. cosnam, contentio, *co-sen-, root sen, Skr. san, win, sangias, more profitable, Gr. ἒναρα, booty. M. Ir. aisne, gain, *ad-senia, Skr. sanati, Gr. ἄνυμι.

costag, costmary; from the Eng.

cot, a cottage; from Eng. cot.

còta, a coat; Ir. cóta; from the Eng.

cota-bàn, a groat:

cotan, cotton, Ir. cotún; from the Eng.

cothachadh, earning support, Ir. cothughadh, M. Ir. cothugud, support; from teg, tog, as in tigh?

cothaich, contend, strive; from cath, battle?

cothan, pulp, froth; see omhan.

cothar, a coffer, Ir. cófra; from the Eng.

cothlamadh, things of a different nature mixed together:

cothrom, fairplay, justice, Ir. cómhthrom, equilibrium, E. Ir. comthrom, par: com+trom, q.v.

cràbhach, devout, Ir. crábhach, O. Ir. cráibdech, crabud, fides, W. crefydd, *krab, religion; Skr. vi-çrambh, trust.

crabhat, a cravat, Ir. carabhat; from the Eng.

cracas, conversation; from Sc., Eng. crack.

cràdh, torment, Ir. crádh, E. Ir. crád, cráidim (vb.). Ascoli has compared O. Ir. tacráth, exacerbatione, which he refers to a stem acrad-, derived from Lat. acritas. This will not suit the à of cràdh. Possibly it has arisen from the root ker, cut, hurt (ker, krâ).

crà-dhearg, blood-red, E. Ir. cró-derg; see crò.

crag, crac, a fissure; from the Eng. crack.

crag, knock; from the Eng. crack

craicionn, skin, Ir. croiceann, O. Ir. crocenn, tergus, Cor. crohen, Br. kroc'hen, *krokkenno-, W. croen, *krokno- (?) From *krok-kenn: krok is allied to Ger. rücken, back, Eng. ridge, Norse hryggr; and kenn is allied to Eng. skin. For it, see boicionn.

craidhneach, a skeleton, a gaunt figure, craidhneag, a dried peat; for root, see creathach, crìon (*krat-ni-).

cràigean, a frog, from cràg, cròg, q.v.: "the well-pawed one".

craimhinn, cancer, Ir. cnamhuinn; from cnàmh, q.v.

cràin, a sow, Ir. cráin, M. Ir. cránai (gen. case): *crācnix, "grunter", root qreq, as in Lat. crōcio, croak, Lit. krõkti, grunt.

cràiteag, a niggard woman; likely from cràdh.

cràlad, torment; from cràdh-lot, cràdh and lot, q.v.

cramaist, a crease by folding (Skye):

cramb, a cramp-iron, Ir. crampa; from the Eng.

crambadh, crampadh, a quarrel:

cràlaidh, crawl, crawling; from the Eng.

crann, tree, a plough, Ir. crann, a tree, lot, O. Ir. crann, W. and Br. prenn: *qrenn-; cf. Gr. κράνον, cornel, Lat. cornus, Lit. kéras, tree stump, O.Pruss. kirno, shrub (Bezzenberger). Windisch correlated Lat. quernus, oaken, but this form, satisfactory as it is in view of the Welsh, rather stands for quercnus, from quercus, oak.

crannadh, withering, shrivelling, Ir. crannda, decrepit; from crann: "running to wood".

crannag, a pulpit, a wooden frame to hold the fir candles, Ir. crannóg, a hamper or basket, M. Ir. crannoc, a wooden vessel, a wooden structure, especially the "crannogs" in Irish lakes. From crann; the word means many kinds of wooden structures in Gadelic lands.

crannchur, lot, casting lots, Ir. crannchar, O. Ir. crannchur; from crann and cuiir.

crannlach, the teal, red-breasted merganser; from crann and lach, duck, q.v.

craobh, tree, so Ir., E. Ir. cróeb, cráeb, *croib? "the splittable", root krei, kri, separate; as tree of Eng. and its numerous congeners in other languages is from the root der, split; and som other tree words are from roots meaning violence of rending or splitting (kládos, twig, e.g.). For root kri, see criathar.

craoiseach, a spear, E. Ir. cróisech; from craobh?

craoit, a croft; see croit.

craos, a wide, open mouth, gluttony, so Ir., E. Ir. cróes, cráes, O. Ir. crois, gula, gluttony. Zimmer cfs. W. croesan, buffoon. Possibly a Celtic krapestu-, allied to Lat. crāpula, or to Gr. κραιπάλη, headache from intoxication.

crasgach, cross-ways, crasg, an across place; for crosg, from cros of crois, a cross, q.v.

crasgach, corpulent (Sh.; H.S.D. for C. S.); from obsolete cras, body (O'Cl.), Ir. cras, for *crapso-, *kṛps, root kṛp of Lat. corpus?

cratach, back of person, side (Skye): crot?

crath, shake, Ir. crathadh, O. Ir. crothim, *kṛto-; perhaps allied to Lit. kresti, kratýi, shake. But it may be allied to crith, q.v. It has been compared to Gr. κραδάω, brandish, which may be for σκαρδάω, root sker in σκαίρω, spring, Ger. scherz, joke. This would suit G. crith, W. cryd and ysgryd.

crè, clay, Ir., O. Ir. cré, g. criad, W. pridd, Cor., Br. pry. Its relation to Lat. crêta, which Wharton explains as from crêtus, "sifted", from cerno, is doubtful. If cerno be for *crino, Gr. κρίνω, we should have the root kri, krei, separate, as in criathar, and it is not labialised in any language (not qrei). The Celtic phonetics are not easily explained, however. Stokes gives the stem as qreid-, but the modern G. has the peculiar è sound which we find in gnè, . This points to a stem qrē-jâ, root qrê, which is in agreement with Lat. crêta without doing the violence of supposing crino to give cerno, and this again crêtus. Cf. O. Ir. clé, left.

crè, creubh, body; see creubh.

crèabag, a ball for playing, fir cone:

creach, plunder, so Ir., E. Ir. crech, plundering, hosting; cf. Br. kregi, seize, bite, catch (as fire). From the root ker, cut, ultimately. See corc, knife, and creuchd.

creachag, a cockle, Ir. creach, scollop shell (O'R.); cf. W. cragen, a shell, Cor. crogen, Br. krog.

creachan, creachann, bare summit of a hill wanting foliage, a mountain: "bared", from creach?

creachan, pudding mad with a calf's entrails (M'L.):

creadhonadh, a twitching, piercing pain (Heb.); possibly for cneadh-ghonadh, "wound-piercing".

creag, a rock, so Ir.; a curtailed form of carraig. Also (Dialectically) craig. Hence Eng. crag.

creamh, garlic, Ir. creamh, earlier crem, W. craf; Gr. κρόμυον, onion; Ag. S. hramse, Eng. ramsons; Lit. kermúszė, wild garlic.

crean, crion, quake, tear up (Carm.):

creanair, sedition (Arm.; not H.S.D.), so Ir. (O'R.):

creanas, whetting or hacking of sticks (M'F.; H.S.D. considers it Dialectic), neat-handed (M'L.):

creapall, entanglin, hindering, so Ir.; it is an Ir. word evidently, from Lh.; founded on Eng. cripple.

creapall, a garter, crepailld (Skye); (Arm. creapull):

creathach, (faded) underwood, firewood, Ir. creathach, hurdle, brushwood, faggots (O'R.): *kṛto-; cf. crìon.

creathall, cradle, from Northern M. Eng. credil, Sc. creddle, Eng. cradle, Ag. S. cradol. Further derivation at present uncertain (Murray).

creathall, a lamprey:

creatrach, a wilderness, so Ir. (Lh., etc.); M'A. gives the word, but it is clearly Ir. Cf. creathach.

creic, sell, M. Ir. creicc, sale, E. Ir. creic, buying, O. Ir. crenim, I buy, W. prynn, buy; Skr. krînami (do.). There seems a confusion in G. and E. Ir.with the word reic, sell, q.v.

creid, believe, Ir. creidim, O. Ir. cretim, W. credu, Cor. cresy, Br. cridiff, *kreddiô, O. Ir. cretim, W. credu, Cor. cresy, Br. cridiff, *kreddiô; Lat. cred; Skr. çrad-dadhâmi. From cred-dô, "I give heart to".

creigeir, a grapple (M'D.); from some derivative of Norse krækja, to hook, krækill, a crooked stick, Eng. crook?

creim, creidhm, gnaw, chew, nibble, Ir. creimim, creidhmim, M. Ir. créim. Ir. is also creinim, W. cnithio, cnoi (which also means "gnaw"): from knet, knen, knō, ken, bite, scratch, as in cnàmh, q.v. The n of kn early becomes r because of the m or n after the first vowel.

crein, suffer for (W. H.. Allied to the O. Ir. crenim, buy: "You will buy for it!" See under creic.

créis, grease; from Sc. creische, from O. Fr. craisse, cress, from Lat. crass, crassus, thick. Eng. grease is of like origin.

creithleag, a gadful, so Ir. (Fol.), M. Ir. crebar, W. crëyr, root creb, scratch? Cf. Lett. kribinát, gnaw off. Ir. creabhar, horse-fly.

creòth, wound, hurt (Dialectic), Ir. creo, a wound (O'R.); creonadh, being pained: *krevo- as in crò, blood.

creubh, creubhag, cré, the body; cf. M. Ir. crí, *kreivio-, flesh, body; Got. hraiva-, Norse hrae, body, O. H. G. hreô, corpse. It is possible to refer crí, cré to *krepi-, Lat. corpus, O. H. G. href, Ag. S. hrif, body, Eng. mod-riff. Stokes: crí, kṛpes.

creubh, dun, crave; from the Eng. crave.

creubhaidh, tender in health; seemingly from creubh.

creuchd, wound, Ir. créachd, O. Ir. crécht, W. craith, scar, creithen, M. Br. creizenn (do.), *crempto-; root kerp, ker, Lit. kerpù, cut, Skr. kṛpana, sword (Strachan). Stokes gives the Celtic as krekto-s, and Bez. cfs. Norse hrekja, worry. This neglects the é of Gadelic.

creud, what, Ir. creud, créad, E. Ir. crét; for ce rét. See co and rud.

creud, creed, Ir. créidh, M. Ir. credo, W. credo; from Lat. credo, I believe; the first word of the Apostles' Creed in Lat.

creutair, creature, Ir. créatúr, W. creadwr; from Lat. creatura.

criadh, clay, so Ir. Really the oblique form of cré, q.v.

criathar, a sieve, Ir., O. Ir. criathar, O. W. cruitr, Cor. croider, M. Br. croezr, *kreitro-; Ag. S. hridder, hriddel, Eng. riddle, Ger. reiter; further Lat. crîbrum (*kri-θ??ro-n); root kri, krei, separate, whence Gr. κρίνω, Eng. critic, etc.

criachadh, proposing to oneself; from crìoch, end. Cf. Eng. define, from finis and end, used for "purpose".

cridhe, heart, Ir. croidhe, O. Ir. cride, W. craidd, Br. kreis, middle, *krdjo-n; Gr. κραδία, καρδία; Lat. cor, cordis; Eng. heart, Ger. herz; Lit. szirdis.

crìlein, a small creel (M'E.), a box, small coffer (H.S.D.), crilein (Arm., M'L.), a box, Ir. crilín, E. Ir. criol, coffer, *krêpolo. criol (Arran, Perth). Stokes gives the stem as krêpo-, and Bez. adds Skr. çū/rpa, winnowing basket (Cf. for phonetics lìon, and Skr. pûrna, full). Sc., Eng. creel, which appears about 1400, is usually derived hence; but as the G. form itself is doubtful, and, from all appearance, taken from Lh., it is best to look elsewhere for an etymology for creel, as, through Fr., from Lat. craticula. The G. criol exists only in Sh., who found it in Lh. See croidhleag.

crìoch, end, Ir. críoch, O. Ir. crích, *krîka,from the root krei, separate, as in criathar, q.v. Stokes and Bezzenberger join W. crip, a comb, and compare Lit. kreikti, strew, and, for sense, appeal to the Ger., Eng. strand, "the strewed", O.Slav. strana, side. It has also been referred to the root of Lat. circus, circle, Gr. κρίκος.

criom, nibbling, criomag, a bit; see creim.

crìon, little, withered, Ir. críon, E. Ir. crín, W. crin, fragile, dry, Br. krin, *krēno-s; the root krē appears to belong to root kēr, kera, destroy, Skr. çṛṇā/mi, break, rend, Lat. caries, decay, Gr. ἀκήρατος, pure, untouched, Got. hairus, sword. Stokes allies it to Skr. çrâṇa, cooked, çrâ, cook, possibly a form of the root kera, mix, Gr. κέραμαι, mix.

crioncanachd, a strife, quarrelsomeness, Ir. críoncánachd: an Ir. word from Lh., apparently. Perhaps críon-cán, "small reviling".

crionna, attentive to small things, prudent, so Ir. (críonna, Con.); also dialectic crìonda, which shows its connection with crìon. Cf. W. crintach, sordid.

criopag, a wrinkle, Ir. criopóg; founded on Eng. crimp, crumple. M'A. has criopag, a clew of yarn.

crios, a belt, girdle, so Ir., O. Ir. criss, fo-chridigedar, accingat, W. crys, shirt, E.W. crys, belt, M. Br. crisaff, succingere, Br. kreis, middle. Bez. suggests comparison with Lit. skritulýs, circle, knee-cap, skreistė, mantle. It has been referred also to the root krid of cridhe, heart.

Crìosdaidh, a Christian, Ir. Criosduighe, M. Ir. cristaige; from the G. Crìosd, Ir. Críosda, Christ; from Lat. Christus, Gr. Hριοστός, the Anointed One.

criostal, a crystal, so Ir; from the Eng.

criot, an earthen vessel (Dialect, H.S.D.), Ir. criotamhail, earthen, made of clay (O'B.), criot, an earthen vessel (O'R.):

criotaich, caress; see cniadaich.

criplich, a cripple; from the Eng. cripple.

crith, shake, quiver, Ir., E. Ir. crith, W. cryd, O. W. crit, *kritu-; Ag. S. hriða, fever, Ger. ritten, fever. See crath, to which crith has been suggested as cognate (root kṛt, krot, kret.

critheann, critheach, the aspen tree, Ir. crann-critheach; from crith.

crò, a sheep cot, pen, Ir. cró, M. Ir. cró caerach, ovile, crò na muice, pig-stye, W. craw, hovel, pig-stye, Br. kraou, crou, stable, *krâpo-s, a stye, roof; Ag. S. hróf, Eng. roof, Norse hróf, a shed (Stokes). The Norse kró, small pen, Sc. croo, seem borrowed.

crò, the eye of a needle, Ir., E. Ir. cró, W. crau, M. Br. cräo, Br. kraouenn.

crò, blood, E. Ir. cró, crú, W. crau, Cor. crow, *krovo-s; Lat. cruor, gore; Lit. kraújas, blood; Skr. kravis, raw flesh; Gr. κρέας, flesh; Eng. raw.†

crò, death, Ir., E. Ir. cró. From the same origin as crò, blood. This is the Sc. cro, the weregild of the various individuals in the Scoto-Celtic Kingdom, from the king downwards.

cròc, beat, pound (Dialectic, H.S.D.):

cròc, a branch of a deer's horn; cf. Norse krókr, Eng. crook.

cròcan, a crook; from the Norse krókr, Eng. crook.

croch, hang, Ir. crochaim, croch, a cross, gallows, E. Ir. croch, cross, W. crog; from the Lat. crux, crucis.

cròch, saffron, Ir. cróch; from Lat. crocus, from Gr. κρόκος, crocus, and its product saffron.

crodh, cattle, Ir. crodh, a dowry, cattle, M. Ir. crod, wealth (cattle): *krodo-, I. E. qordh, qerdh; Eng. herd, Ger. herde; Lit. kerdżus, herd (man), Ch. Sl. creda, a herd; Skr. çardhas, a troop.

cròdha, valiant, Ir. cródha, E. Ir. cróda, valiant, cruel, *croudavo-s, "hardy"; root croud of cruaidh, q.v.

crodhan, hoof, parted hoof, Ir. crobhán, a little hoof or paw, See crubh.

crog, an earthen vessel, crogan, a pitcher, Ir. crogán, pitcher, E. Ir. crocann, olla, W. crochan, *krokko-; Gr. κρωσσός, pitcher (*κρωκjος); to which are allied, by borrowing somehow, Eng. crock, Ag. S. crocca, Norse krukka, Ger. krug. G. and W. phonetics (G. g = W. ch.) are unsatisfactory. Schrader derives these words from O. Ir. crocenn, skin - a "skin" vessel being the original.

crog, an aged ewe; from the Sc. crock; cf. Norw. krake, a sickly beast, Fries. krakke, broken-down horse, etc.

cròg, large hand, hand in paw form, *crobhag, Ir. crobh, hand from wrist to fingers, paw, hoof, O. Ir. crob, hand. See crubh.

crogaid, a beast with small horns (M'A.); from crog?

crogan, a gnarled tree (Arg.); cf. cròcan.

crògan, thornbush (Arg.), from cròg, W. crafanc, claw.

cròic, foam on spirits, rage, difficulty, cast sea-weed:

croich, gallows, Ir. croch, gallows, cross, E. Ir. croch, cross, W. crogbren, gallows; from Lat. crux, crucis.

cròid, a sumptuous present (Heb.); see cnòid.

cròidh, pen cattle, house corn; from crò. Dialectic for latter meaning is cródhadh.

croidhleag, a basket, amall creel; see crìlein.

cròilean, a little fold, a group; from crò.

crois, a cross, so Ir., E. Ir. cross, W. croes; from Lat. crux.

croistara, cranntara, also -tàra, -tarra, the fiery cross: crois+tara; see crois above. As to tara, cf. the Norse tara, war (Cam.).

croit, a hump, hillock, Ir. croit, W. crwth, a hunch, harp, croth, a protuberant part (as calf of leg), *crotti-; from krot, kurt, root kur, round, as in cruinn, cruit, q.v.

croit, a croft; from the Eng. croft. In the sense of "vulva", cf. W. croth, Br. courz, which Stokes refers to cruit, harp; but the G. may be simply a metaphorical use of croit, croft.

cròlot, wound dangerously; crò+lot, q.v.

cròm, bent, Ir. E. Ir. crom, O. Ir. cromm, W. crwm, Br. krom, O. Br. crum, krumbo-; from the same root as cruinn? The Ag. S. crumb, crooked, Eng. crumple, Ger. krumm, have been compared, and borrowing alleged, some holding that the Teutons borrowed from the Celts, and vice versa. Dr Stokes holds that the Celts are the borrowers. The Teutonic and Celtic words do not seem to be connected at all in reality. It is an accidental coincidence, which is bound to happen sometimes, and the wonder is it does not happen oftener.

cromadh, measure the length of the middle finger, Ir. cruma, cromadh; from crom.

croman, kite, hawk, from crom.

cron, fault, harm, Ir. cronaim, I bewitch; cf. M. Ir. cron, rebuking. The idea is that of being "fore-spoken" by witchcraft. See next.

cronaich, rebuke, Ir. cronuighim, M. Ir. cronaigim, cron, rebuking, E. Ir. air-chron (do.), *kruno-; cf. Teut. hru, noise, Norse rómr, shouting, Ag. S. hréam, a din.

crònan, a dirge, croon, purring, Ir., E. Ir. cronán. O'Curry (Mann. and Cust. III., 246) writes the Ir. as crónán, and defines it as the low murmuring or chorus to each verse of the aidbsi or choral singing. Sc. croon, croyn (15th century), corresponds to Du. kreunen, groan, M.Du. krönon, lament, M.Low G. kronen, growl, O. H. G. chrônan, M.L.G. kroenen, chatter (Murray, who thinks the Sc. came from Low Ger. in M. Eng. period). It seems clear that the Gadelic and Teutonic are related to each other by borrowing; seemingly the Gadelic is borrowed.

cropan, deformed person (Suth.); from Norse kroppinn, deformed. See under crùb.

crosach, crossing, thwarting, Ir. crosanta; also G. crosan (and crostan), a peevish man; all from cros, the basis of crois, cross, q.v.

crosanachd, from crosan, poet, chorister.

crosda, perverse, irascible, so Ir.; from the G. base cros of crois, cross.

crotal, lichen, especially for dyeing, cudbear: *crottal; *crot-to-, from krot, cf. Gr. κροτώνη, an excrescence on a tree. Hence Sc. crottle. M. Ir. crotal means "husk" (which may be G. crotal above), "kernel, cymbal". In the last two senses the word is from the Lat. crotalum, a rattle; the Irish used a small pear-shaped bell or rattle, whence the Ir.Eng. crotal (Murray).

cruach, a pile, heap, Ir., E. Ir. cruach, W. crug, Cor. cruc, O. Br. cruc, *kroukâ; Lit. kráuti, to pile, krúvi, heap; Norse krúga, heap. Others have compared the Norse hraukr, a small stack, Ag. S. hreác, Eng. rick.

cruachan, cruachainn, hip, upper part of the hip, E. Ir. cruachait; from cruach, heap, hump. Stokes translates the Ir. as "chine", and considers it like the corresponding Ger. kreuz, derived from Lat. crûcem, cross. The Gaelic meaning is distinctly against this.

cruaidh, hard, Ir. cruaidh, O. Ir. cruaid, *kroudi-s; root kreva, to be blood, raw, whence crò, blood, q.v.; Lat. crûdus, Eng. crude. Hence cruailinn, hard, rocky.

crùb, squat, crouch, Ir. crúbadh, to bend, crook; also G. crùbach, cripple, Ir. do.; from Norse krjúpa, to creep, kneel (Eng. creep, etc.), kroppinn, crippled, root kreup, krup, as in Eng. cripple, Sc. cruppen thegether, contracted, bowed. Cf. W. crwb, bent.

crùb, bed recess (Carm.):

crùban, the crab-fish, Ir. crúban, W. crwban. From crùb above.

crubh, a horse's hoof, Ir. crobh, paw, hoof, E. Ir. crù, *kruvo-, hoof; Zend çrva, çruva, nail, horn; further Gr. κέρας, horn, and corn, q.v. (Stokes).

crudha, horse shoe, Ir. crúdh: seemingly from the above word.

crùidein, the king-fisher, Ir. cruidín:

cruidhean, paw (Arm.) = crùibhean.

cruimh, a worm, Ir. cnuimh, O. Ir. cruinn, W., Cor. pryf, Br. prenv, *qṛmi-; Lit. ki??rmis, Lett. sérms; Skr. kṛmis, krímis.

cruinn, round, so Ir., O. Ir. cruind, W. crwn, Br. krenn, *krundi-s; root kuro-, circle, turn, as in car, q.v. Cf. Lat. curvus; Gr. κυρτός, bunt, κορώνη, ring, Lat. corona, Eng. crown. Bezzenberger cfs. the form crundi- from kur to Lat. rotundus from rota.

crùisgein, a lamp, jug, Ir. crúisgín; from M. Eng. cruskyn, from O. Fr. creusequin, from Teut. krûs, whence Eng. cruse.

crùisle, crùidse, mausoleum, hollow vault of a church; from M. Eng. cruddes, vault, crypt, crowd, by-form of Eng. crypt.

cruit, a harp, so Ir., O. Ir. crot, W. crwth, fidicula, Late Lat. (600 A.D.) chrotta, *krotta: krot-ta-, from krot, kurt, root kur, as in G. cruinn, round, q.v., Gr. κυρτός (do.): "the curved instrument". Stokes refers it to the root krot, strike, as in Gr. κροτέω, rattle, clap. Hence Eng. crowd.

cruithneachd, cruineachd, wheat, Ir. cruithneachd, O. Ir. cruithnecht: *kṛt-on-, root kert, ker, cut, "that which is cut"; Lit. kertù, cut; Gr. κείρω, Lat. curtus, etc. (Rhys). It has been compared to the Lat. Ceres, Eng. cereal, and Lat. cresco, creo, as in cruth.

crùlaist, a rocky hill (H.S.D., from MSS.); from cruaidh? Cf. cruailinn.

crumag, the plant skirret; Sc. crummock. From Gaelic crom (Cameron).

cruman, the hip bone, Ir. crumán, hip bone, crooked surgical instrument; from crom.

crùn, crown, Ir. crún; from M. Eng. crune, from O. Fr. coronne, from Lat. corona.

crunnluadh, a quick measure in pipe music: cruinn+luath.

crup, crouch, contract, Ir. crupaim; founded on the M. Eng. cruppel, cripple, a root crup, appearing in Sc. cruppen, contracted. See crùbach.

crùsbal, crucible (Hend.).

cruscladh, wrinkling:

cruth, form, figure, O. Ir. cruth, W. pryd, *qṛtu-s, root qer, make; Lat. cerus, creator, creo, Eng. create; Lit. kuriù, build; Skr. kar, make, kṛtas, made.

cruthach, placenta of mare:

, a dog, Ir., O. Ir. , g. con, W. ci, pl. cwn, Cor., Br. ki, pl. Br. koun, *kuô, g. *kunos; Gr. κúων; Lat. canis; Eng. hound; Skr. çvâ, g. çúnas.

cuach, a cup, bowl, Ir. cuachóg, O. Ir. cúach: Lat. caucus, Gr. καῦκα; Skr. koça. It is generally held that cuach is borrowed from the Lat., though phonetically they may be cognate. Thw W. cawg is certainly borrowed.

cuach, curl, so Ir.; from the above.

cuag, an awkward curve, kink, an excrescence on the heel; also guag (Dialectic): *kouggâ, *kouk-gâ; root qeuq, bend; Skr. kuc, bend. Lit. kuku, hook?

cu'ag, cubhag, cuckoo, Ir. cuach, O. Ir. cúach, W. côg, of onomatopoetic origin - from the cuckoo's cry of kuku, whence Eng. cuckoo, Lat. cucûlus, Gr. κόκκυξ, Skr. kôkilas, koka.

cuailean, the hair, a lock, curl, Ir. cuailen (Stokes). This Stokes refers to a stem *koglenno-, and cfs. Gr. κόχλος, a spiral-shelled shell-fish, κοχλίας, spiral-shelled snail, Lat. cochlea. As the Gr. may be for hóhlos, the derivation is uncertain. Ir. cuailín, a bundle, faggot, suggests that a similar derivation from cual was used metaphorically for a "bundle or cord of hair".

cuaille, a club, bludgeon, Ir., E. Ir. cuaille, *kaullio-; Gr. καυλός, stalk; Lat. caulis, stalk; Lit. káulas, a bone (Stokes). It may, however, be for *coud-s-lio-, from qoud, Lat. cûdo, strike.

cuairsg, roll, wreathe, so Ir.; from cuairt, with the termination -sqô.

cuairt, circuit, so Ir., O. Ir. cúairt. Stokes gives the stem as kukṛti, from kur, circle, as in cruinn.

cual, a faggot, burden of sticks, Ir. cual, M. Ir. cual, heap, *kuglo-, root kug, qeüg; Eng. heap; Lat. cumulus (=cub-lus?); Lit. kúgis, heap.

cuallach, herding or tending cattle:

cuallach, society, family, Ir. cuallaidheachd, society, cuallaidhe, a companion:

cuan, the ocean, Ir., M. Ir. cuan, harbour, copno-; Norse köfn, Ger. hafen, Eng. haven.

cuanal, cuantal, a company, a band of singers, flocks (Carm.), E. Ir. cúan, host, *koupn-, Lit. kupa, heap, Eng. heap(?).

cuanna, cuannar, handsome, fine, Ir. cuanna; also cuanta, robust, neat: *kaun-navos, from kaun, skaun; Ger. schön.

cuar, crooked, Ir. cuar, E. Ir. cúar, *kukro-, root kuc, bend; Skr. kucati, bend, Lit. kukü?, hook (Strachan). But cf. cuairt.

cuaradh, paining, tormenting; cf. W. cur, pain, care, curio, beat. The Dictionaries refer the word to ciùrr, as a Dialectic form.

cuaran, a brogue, sock, Ir. cuaróg, M. Ir. cúarán, W. curan, a covering for the foot and leg *kourano-, "mocassin": *keu-ro-; root keu, ku, as in Lat. cu-tis, skin, Eng. hide, Ag. S. hýd (*kûtí-).

cuartach,a fever (Arg.); from cuairt.

cuartag, ringworm (Hend.):

cuas, a cave; see còs.

cuat, sweetheart (Carm.):

cùb, a tumbril, box-cart; from Sc. coop, coup, box-cart, etc., probably the same as Eng. coop, basket. Dialectic coba.

cùb, crouch, Ir. cúbaim; founded on Lat. cubo, lie

cùbaid, pulipt; ultimately from Lat. pulpitum, a speaking platform, whence Eng. pulpit, Sc. poopit. Dialectic bùbaid.

cùbair, a cooper; from the Eng.

cubhag, cuckoo; see cu'ag.

cubhaidh, fit, so Ir., O. Ir. cobaid, fit, cubaithiu, concinnior: *convedo-, "suiting"; root ved, bind, as in feadhainn.

cùbhraidh, fragrant, Ir. cumhra, cúmhra, M. Ir. cumra, cumrae, E. Ir. cumrai (i n-aballgort chumrai); *com-rae:

cubhraig, cubhrainn, a coverlet; founded on the Eng. cover, coverlet. Dialectic cuibhlig.

cuchailte, a residence (Arm.; not H.S.D.), Ir., cuclaidhe; *concladh-; from cladh, q.v.

cudaig, the fish cuddy, young of the coalfish, Ir. cudóg, códog, haddock, *cod-do-; Eng. haddock? Sc. cuddy, cudden, may be of G. origin (Murray). A.so cudainn.

cùdainn, a large bushel or tub; cf. Norse kútr, cask, Sc. coodie, quiddie, small tub. M. Ir. cuidin, coithin, catînus, is probably from a Celt. kotîno-, Gr. κοτúλη, cup, Lat. catînus, a dep vessel.

cudrom, cudthrom, weight: *con-trom-, "co-heavy"; O. Ir. cutrumme, similis. See trom. Dialectic cuideam.

cugann, delicacy, "kitchen", E. Ir. cuicen; from Lat. coquina.

cugan, food (Carm.):

cugar, mab, or wild cat (Carm.):

cugullach, precarious, unstable (Carm.):

cuibheas, sufficiency:

cuibheasach, tolerable, middling, Ir. cuibheasach, decent, pretty good, fairly good (in health), cuibheas, decency, cuibhe, decent. See cubhaidh for stem. The Ir. cuibhe shows that it is possible to derive the word from *con-vesu-, root vesu of feabhas.

cuibhle, cuibhill, a wheel; from Eng. wheel.

cuìbhne, deer's horn (Arm., M'L.), deer's tibia (H.S.D.):

cuibhreach, a bond, chain, so Ir., O.Ir cuimrech, vb. conriug, ligo, W. rhwym, vinculum, Br. rum, kevre, *kom-rigo-n; rigo-, a bond; Lat. corrigia, shoe-lace; M.H.G. ric, band, string. Stokes (rightly) now gives root is rek, bind, Skr. raçana, cord, rope, raçmi (do.).

cuibhrig, cover, coverlet; see cubhraig.

cuibhrionn, portion, so Ir., E. Ir. cuibrend, W. cyfran: *com-rann; see rann.

cuicheineach, coquetting, secretly hobnobbing (Arg.): co-ceann.

cuid, share, part, Ir. cuid, g. coda, O. Ir. cuit, W. peth, res, pars, Cor. peth, Br. pez, *qezdi-, *qozdi-; qes, qos, seemingly from the pron. root qo, qe (see co). Cf. Lat. quotidie, quota, Br. ped, how much. Bezzenberger compares Lit. kedėti, burst, Sl. cęsti, part; root qed. Hence Eng. piece. Some have suggested comparison with Lat. costa, rib, Eng. coast.

cuideachd, company, Ir. cuideachda, O. Ir. cotecht, coitio, conventus: *con-techt; see teacht.

cuideag, a spider (H.S.D.), Ir. cuideog (O'R.):

cuideal, pride (Arm.), cuidealas (M'A.); from cuid?

cuideam, weight; see cudrom.

cuidh, cuith, inclosure (Barra); from Norse kué, Orkney quoy, a pen, Orkney and Shetland quey, quay, enclosed land.

cuidhe, wreath of snow; see cuith.

cuidhtich, quit, requite, Ir. cúitighim; from Eng. quit?

cuidich, assist, Ir. cuidighim, M. Ir. cuitigim, share; from cuid.

cuidridh, common (Sh.; not H.S.D.), Ir. cuidri(dh), entertainment, commons: *con-trebi-, as in caidreabh?

cuifein, the wadding of a gun; from Sc. colfin.

cuigeal, a distaff, so Ir., M. Ir. cuigel, W. cogail, Corn. cigel, Br. kegel; from M.Lat. conucula, for colucula, from colus. From Lat. conucula comes Ger. kunkel, Fr. quenouille.

cùil, corner, recess, Ir. cúil, O. Ir. cuil, W. cil, *kûli-. See cùl

cuilbheart, a wile, trick; from cùil+beart.

cuilbheir, a gun; from the Eng. culverin.

cuilc, reed, cane, Ir. cuilc, *kolki-; root kol, as in Lat. culmus, stalk, Gr. κάλαμος, reed, Eng. haulm.

cuile, an apartment where stores are kept, O. Ir. cuile fínda, vinaria, *koliâ; Gr. καλία, hut, Skr. kulā/ya, hut, nest (Stokes); from *kol-io-, root qel of ceil.

cuileag, a fly, Ir. and E. Ir. cuil, W. cylion, flies, Cor. kelionen, Br. quelyenen, *kuli-s, kuliâno-s; Lat. culex.

cùileagan, feast (in a corner) (Carm.).

cuilean, a whelp, Ir. cuileán (O'B.), cuileann (O'R.), E. Ir. culén, W. colwyn, Cor. coloin, catulus, Br. kolenn, young of quadrupeds; Gr. κúλλα=σκúλαζ, whelp (Bez.). It may be from , *kun, dog. Ernault, *culenos: root of κúος; M. Br. colen, so D'Arbois. Rhys says W. borrowed.

cuilidh, cellar, secret place, treasury; see cuile.

cuilionn, holly, so Ir., E. Ir. cuilenn, W. celyn, Cor. celin, Br. kelenn (pl.), *kolenno-; Eng. holly, Ag. S. holegn

cuilm, a feast; Dialectic for cuirm, q.v.

cuimein, the plant cumin, Ir. cumín; from Lat. cuminum, Eng. cumin.

cuimhne, rememberance, so Ir., O. Ir. cuman, cuimnech, memor, W. cof, Cor. cov, M. Br. couff, *co-men; root men, as in Lat. memini, I remember, Eng. mention, mind, etc.

cuimir, brief, handsome, so Ir., E. Ir. cumbair, *com-berro-; for berr, see bearr.

cuimrig, trouble; see coimrig.

cuimse, a mark, aim, moderation, Ir. cuimse; from com+meas; see meas. Cf. eirmis.

cuin, when, E. Ir. cuin, W., Br. pan; Lat. quum; Eng. when; see co. The Ir. can (O'Cl.) is allied to Lat. quando, and more nearly than cuin to W., Br. pan.

cuing, a yoke, Ir., E. Ir. cuing: *con-jungi-, root jung, jug, as in Lat. jungo, Eng. joke. For phonetics, see next. Stokes since gives the stem as ko-jungi-.

cuinge, narrowness, O. Ir. cumce; see cumhang.

cùinn, coin; from the Eng.

cuinneag, a pail, milk pail, Ir. cuinneóg, M. Ir. cuindeog, W. cunnog, cynnog; cf. Lat. congius, a quart.

cuinnean, a nostril:

cuinnlein, a stalk of corn, a nostril; for the first meaning, see connlach; for the second, cuinnean above.

cuinnse, a quince; from the Eng.

cuinnsear, a dagger, sword; from the Eng. whinger.

cuip, a whip; from Eng. whip.

cuir, put, Ir., E. Ir. cuirim, O. Ir. cuiriur, W. hebgor, put aside, *koriô, I put. The root is likely ker, kor, of cruth, q.v. For meaning cf. Lat. facio and Gr. τίθημι. Bezzenberger compares it to Skr. kaláyati, drive, bear, do, Lit. karta, position, lie.

cuircinn, a particular kind of head-dress for women, Ir. cuircín, head, crest, comb (O'R.); from currachd? Sc. courche, curges (pl.), a covering for a woman's head, Eng. kerchief. E. Ir. cuirce, bow, knot; which makes the Sc. and Eng. comparison doubtful.

cuireadh, an invitation, so Ir.; from cuir, q.v.

cuireall, a kind of pack-saddle (H.S.D. from MSS.):

cuireid, cuirein, turn, wile; from car, q.v.

cuirinnein, the white water-lily (H.S.D., which quotes only O'R.), Ir. cuirinín (O'R.):

cuirm, a feast, so Ir., E. Ir. coirm, cuirm, M.W. cwrwf, W. cwrw, beer, Cor. coref, Gaul. κοῦρμι, cervisia *kurmen; Lat. cremor, broth (Eng. cream; Gr. κεράννυμι, mix; Skr. çrâ, çṛ, cook; I. E. kera, kra, mix.

cuirnean, a small heap of stones, dew-drop, ringlet, Ir. cuirneán, head of a pin, brooch, ringlet. In the first sense, it is from cárn, and possibly also in the other two senses, the idea being "cluster, heap".

cuirpidh, wicked, corrupt; see coirbte, coirb.

cùirt, court, Ir. cúirt; from the Eng.

cùirtein, a curtain, cùirteir, plaiding (Dialectic); formed on Eng. curtain.

cùis, cause, matter, Ir., E. Ir. cúis, O. Ir. cóis; from Lat. causa.

cuisdeag, the little finger (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. cuisdeog (O'R.):

cuiseag, a stalk, kind of grass, Ir. coisín, a stem, stalk, little foot; from cas, foot. But see next. di fetchoisig, "by piping".

cuisle, pulse, vein, pipe, Ir. cuisle, E. Ir. cuisli, g.pl. cuislend, a pipe for music, O. Ir. cusle, g. cuslen, cuislennach, a piper. It has no connection with Lat. pulsus, and its etymology is obscure (Stokes). Cf. Eng. hose.

cuiste, a couch, Ir. cúiste, cuiste (O'B.); from Eng. couch.

cuith, a wreath of snow, a pit, Ir., E. Ir. cuithe, a pit, W. pydew; from Lat. puteus, Eng. pit.

cuithe, pen for sheep (Carm.); see cuidh.

cùitich, quit, requite; see cuidhtich.

cùl, back, Ir., O. Ir. cúl, W. cil, Cor. chil, Br. kil, *kûlo; Lat. cûlus. Hence cùlaist, recess.

culadh, a good condition of the body, culach, fat, sleek: "well-covered", from cul of culaidh?

culaidh, apparel, so Ir.; root qel, qol, cover; Ger. hülle, a covering, Lat. occulo. See ceil.

culaidh, boat (Suth.):

cùlag, turf for the back of the fire, sitting behind another on horseback, a collop; all from cùl.

cùlan, tresses, hair; from cùl.

cùlaobh, behind, the back; E. Ir. cúlaib (dat.pl.), cúlu (acc.pl.); from cùl. The dat. (and acc.) pl. of cùl used locatively - for rest (and motion). Compare beulaobh.

cularan, a cucumber, Ir. cularán, W. cylor, earth nuts, Br. coloren, earth nut. Ernault makes the Celtic word to be *carul-an-, and compares Gr. κάρνον, nut.

cullach, a boar, Ir., E. Ir. cullach, O. Ir. callach, cullach, caullach, Br. kalloc'h, "entire", qellecq, epithet for stallions and boars, *kalluâko-s, from *kalljo-, testicle, W. caill, testiculus, M. Br. quell; root kal, hard, as in clach, q.v., Norse hella, flat stone, etc. (Bezzenberger). Cf. Lat. cuelleus, bag, scrotum, whence O. Fr. couillon, Eng. cullion, testicles, Sc. culls. Hence cullbhoc, wether-goat, Ir. culbhoc.

cullachas, impotence, cullach, eunuch; from coll, call; see call.

culraoìnidh, goal-keeper (Suth.); from cùl and raon?

culuran, birth-wort, cucumber; see cularan.

cum, keep, hold, Ir. congbhaighim, inf. congmhail, O. Ir. congabin; from con and gabh, take. The G. cum is for congv or congbh, and the gv becomes m as in ìm, ciomach, tum, etc.

cuma, cumadh, shape, form, Ir. cuma, E. Ir. cumma, vb. cummaim:

cumail, keeping, Ir. cumail, congmhail; inf.to cum, i.e., cum-gabhail.

cuman, a milking pail; Gr. κúμβη, κúμβος, cup; Ger. humpen, bowl.

cumanta, common, Ir. cumann; from the Eng. common.

cumha, mourning, so Ir., E. Ir. cuma: I. E. root qem, qom; Eng. hum, Ger. hummen.

cumha, a stipulation, Ir. cumha, E. Ir. coma, bribe, gift, condition: *com-ajo-, "co-saying", O. Ir. ái, a saying, Lat. ajo? See adhan. Cf. cunnradh.

cumhachd, power, so Ir., O. Ir. cumachte, W. cyfoeth, power, riches, *kom-akto, root ag, drive, carry, Lat. ago, Gr. ἄγω, Eng. act, etc. (Stokes). The O. Ir. cumang, potestas, is doubtless a nasalised form of the root ag (=ang); it has been referred to the root ang, Lat. angere, etc., as in cumhang below, but the meaning is unsatisfactory. The word cumhachd has also been analysed as co-mag-tu-, where mag has been bariously referred to I. E. meg, great (G. μέγας, Eng. much), or I. E. mēgh (Eng. may, Lat. machina, machine).

cumhang, narrow, Ir. cúmhang, O. Ir. cumang, W. cyfang, *kom-ango-s; root ang; Gr. ἂγω, choke, ἄγχι, near; Lat. ango, angustus; Ger. eng.

cùmhlaidean, stipulations (Hend.):

cùmhnant, covenant; from M. Eng., Sc. conand, couenant, Eng. covenant, from O. Fr. convenant, Lat. convenire. M. Br. has comanant, W. cyfammod. Dial. plurals are cùmhlaichean and cùmhlaidean.

cumraich, cumber; from the Eng.

cunbhalach, constant, steady, Ir. cungbhailteach, firm, miserly; from cungbhail, keeping, Ir. inf. of cum, q.v.

cungaidh, instrument, accoutrements: *con-gen-, root gen of gnìomh, deed. See next.

cungaisich, help, co-operate, Ir. cunghas, co-operation, vb. cungnaighim, I help, cungantach, helpful, E. Ir. cungnam, assistance: *con+gníom; see còmhnadh.

cunnart, danger, M. G. cunntabhart (M'V.), Ir. cuntabhairt, contabhairt, danger, doubt, O. Ir. cumtubart, cundubart, contubart, doubt, *con-to-bart, root ber, of beir, q.v. (Cam.).

cunnradh, cùnradh, bargain, covenant, Ir. connradh, cunnradh, O. Ir. cundrad, cunnrath, Manx coonrey: *con-rádh; see ràdh, say. Corm. derives from ráth, surety.

cunnt, count, Ir. cunntas, cuntas, reckoning, cuntaim, I count; from the Eng.

cunnuil, an objection (Sh.), Ir. cunuil (Lh.):

cùp, box-cart, coup; see cùb.

cupa, a cup, Ir. cúpán, W. cib; from Lat. cûpa, tub, Eng. cup, coop, etc.

cupull, a couple, Ir. cúpla, cupall, W. cwpl; from M. Eng. couple.

cur, a placing, setting; inf. to cuir, q.v.

curach, a boat, coracle, Ir., E. Ir. curach, Irish Lat. curucis, dat.pl. (Adamnan), W. corwc, cwrwg, cwrwgl, *kuruko- (Stokes); Armen. kur, a boat, O.Sl. korici, a kind of vessel. The Lat. carina has been compared, but the vowels are unsuitable. Hence Eng. coracle.

cùradh, affliction, obstacle, curabh (Lh.), obstacle. In the sense of affliction, cf. cuaradh.

curaideach, frisky, cunning; see cuireid.

curaidh, a champion, Ir. curadh, E. Ir. cur, g. curad, caur, W. cawr, Cor. caur, gigas, Gaul. Kαúαρος (Polyb.), Cavarillus, etc., *kauaro-s, a hero, mighty, root keva, , be strong; Skr. çavîra, mighty, çū/ra, hero; Gr. κúριος, lord, κῦρος, might.

cùraing, cùrainn, a coverlet (Dialectic, H.S.D.); founded on Eng. covering. M'A. has cùrainn, plaiding (felt); of the same origin.

cùram, care, Ir. cúram; from Lat. cura.

curcag, sandpiper, M. Ir. cuirrcech, plover; from currech, a marsh (K. Meyer). See next.

curcais, bulrush, so Ir. (O'B., etc.), E. Ir. curcas, O. Ir. curchas, O. W. cors, cannulos, W. corsen, reed, Br. corsenn, reed, *korokasto-, korkasto; Lat. cârex (Stokes, Ernault). The E. Ir. currech, a marsh, is allied, *gṛsiko-, Gaul. *parriko-, A.S. pearroc, Gr. parc (St.), Lat. cursus. Perhaps Eng. hurst (St.).

cùrr, corner, pit, Ir. curr, Keat. curr, pit, corr, well, cistern; cf. w. cwr, corner.

curracag, a bubble on the surface of liquids; see currachd.

currachd, hood, cap, night-cap, Ir. currach (O'R.), M. Ir. curracach, cuculatus (Stokes, Ir. Gl. 598, who suggested connection with W. pyrchwyn, crest of a helmet). Sc. curch, courchie, Eng. kerchief, seem to be the origin of the G. word.

currachdag, peat-heap (M'A.); cf. gurracag.

curradh, a crowding together (Macpherson's Ossian):

curraidh, exhausted (H.S.D.), currtha (Sh., O'B.), Ir. currtha; cf. ciùrr.

curran, curral, a carrot, root, radish, Ir. currán, any kind of tap-rooted plant (O'R., Sh.): *cors, head, as in corr? Cf. Eng. carrot, ultimately from Gr. καρωτόν, carrot, from κάρα, head, top; *cors and kar of κάρα are ultimately from the same source.

curran, curral, horse-panniers for heavy loads; cf. Sc. currack, corrack (do.), Eng. crooks.

currucadh, cooing of pigeons, Ir. currúcadh (O'R.), Sc., Eng. curr, curring. The word is onomatopoetic.

currucag, the lapwing: see curcag.

currusan, a milk-pail:

cùrsa, course, manner, Ir. cúrsa, from the Eng. course.

curta, bad (Sh.; not H.S.D.), curtsa (O'R.); from Eng. curst, cursed.

cus, sufficiency, overplus:

cusag, a wild mustard (Sh., Arm.; not H.S.D.):

cusp, a kibe:

cuspair, an object, mark, Ir. cuspóir, M. Ir. cuspóir (Keat., Oss.3 296). Dialectic cuspair, a customer (see cuspunn).

cuspunn, custom, tribute, also cusmunn; founded on Eng. custom.

cut, hank of yarn, Ir. cuta, one-twelfth of a hank of yarn; from Eng. cut.

cut, to gut (fish); from Eng. gut.

cutach, bobtailed, so Ir., E. Ir. do-chotta, they cut short, W. cwta. The relationship, if any, existing between cut, cutach, and Eng. cut, is one of borrowing; the history of Eng. cut is obscure, and the Celtic words mean "short, shorten", not "to cut" with a knife. Besides, the E. Ir. appears a century and a half earler than the Eng. (1139 v. 1275). Stokes has suggested a borrowing from Fr. couteau (= cultellus, knife) for the E. Ir. form. Rhys says W. is Eng. cutty, borrowed.

cuthach, caothach, rage, Ir. cuthach, *koti-aca-; root kot, Gr. κότος, wrath. See cath. Stokes says Pict. Skr. kváthati, seethe, Got. hvapjan, foam.