An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/B

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain


ba!, part of lullaby; onomatopoetic. Cf. Eng. baby, Ger. bube, etc.

, bàth, foolish, Fernaig MS. bah: "deadly", (talky?), root bā-, kill (speak?); see bàs. Cf. Lat. fatuus.

babag, tassle; see pab.

babhd, a surmise (M'A.), a quirk; from Lat. faut.

babhsganta, baosganta, cowardly; see bodhbh; babhsgadh, fright, shock (Hend.).

bàbhun, bulwark, enclosure for cattle, Ir. bábhún, whence Eng. bawn, M. Ir. bódhún (Annals of Loch Cé, 1199); from and dùn, q.v.

bac, hindrance, Ir. bac, M. Ir. bacaim (vb.). See next word.

bac, a crook, Ir. bac, O. Ir. bacc, W. bach, Br. bac'h, Celtic bakko-s; *bag-ko-, Norse bak, Eng. back. Hence bacach, lame, E. Ir. bacach, W. bachog, crooked.

bacag, a fall, tripping; from bac, q.v.

bac-mòine, turf-pit or bank (N.H.); from Norse bakki, a bank, Eng. bank. Hence also place-name Back.

bacaid, ash holder, backet; from Sc. backet, from Fr. baquet

bacastair, baker, bacaladh, oven, Ir. bacail, baker; all from the Eng. bake, baxter.

bacan, stake, hinge, Ir. and E. Ir. bacán. From bac.

bach, drunkenness, Ir. bach: from Lat. Bacchus.

bachall, shepherd's crook, crozier, Ir. bachul, O. Ir. bachall, W. bagl, crutch; from Lat. baculum, staff; Gr. βακτηριά, Eng. bacteria. Bachull gille, slovenly fellow (M'D.).

bachar, acorn, "Molucca bean", Ir. bachar; forrowed from or allied to Lat. baccar, Gr. βάκκαρις, nard.

bachlag, a shoot, a curl, Ir. bachlóg; from bachall (Thurneysen).

bachoid, the boss of a shield, Ir. bocoide, bosses of shields; from L. Lat. buccatus, Lat. bucca, cheek. See bucaid.

bad, a cluster, thicket; cf. Br. bot, bod, bunch of grapes, thicket; common in Breton and Scotch place names; probably a Pictish word. Cf. Eng. bud, earlier bodde. Cf. Lat. fascis (*fað-scis), *bað-sk-, Norse, Eng. bast?

badhal, a wandering, bàdharan; possibly from the root ba, go, as in bothar, q.v. H.S.D. suggests +dol.

bàdhan, a churchyard (Sutherland), i.e. "enclosure", same as bàbhun.

bàdhar (H.S.D.), badhar (Carm.), placenta of cow:

bag, a bag; from the Eng.

bagaid, a cluster, troop, W. bagad, Br. bogod; from Lat. bacca (Thurneysen, Ernault).

bagaire, a glutton; from bag in the sence of "belly".

bagair, threaten, so Ir., E. Ir. bacur, a threat. The W. bygwl, a threat, etc., is scarcely allied, for it comes from bwg, a spectre, bogie, whence possibly the English words bogie, boggle, etc. G. bagair may be allied with the root underlying bac; possibly bag-gar-, "cry-back".

bagaisde, baggage, lumber (of a person) (Wh.), from baggage.

bàgh, a bay, Ir. bádh; from Eng. bay, Romance baja.

baghan, a stomach (baoghan, with ao short). Dial. maghan (Sutherland); cf. Eng. maw, Ger. magen, Norse magi.

baibeil, lying, given to fables; from Eng. babble.

baideal, tower, battlement, ensign, badealach, bannered; from M. Eng. battle, battlement, which is of the same origin as battlement.

bàidh, love, Ir. báidhe, M. Ir. báide, báde, *bâdi-s (Stokes). Cf. Gr. φώτιον, friendly (Hes.), for φώθιον; root bhā, whence Gr. φώς, man.

baidreag, a ragged garment; see paidreag.

bàidse, musician's fee; from the Eng. batch?

baigeir, a beggar; from Eng.

baigileis, loose lumber or baggage (Argyle); from baggage.

bail, thrift, Ir. bail, success, careful collection, M. Ir. bail, goodness, E. Ir. bulid: φυλλα; I. E. root bhel, swell, increase. See buil, bile. Hence baileach. Cf. adhbhal, βέλτερος.

bailbheag, a corn poppy; also beilbheag, mealbhag, meilbheag.

bailc, a ridge, beam, W. balc, from Eng. balk.

bailc, seasonable rain, showers:

bailceach, strong, a strong man, E. Ir. balc, strong, W. balch, (Stokes). Likely a Celtic bal-ko-, root bal, as in bail. So Ost.; Skr. balam, strength (adhbhal), Gr. βέλτερος; Wh. St. bolijǐ, greater; Lat. debilis.

baile, town, township, Ir., E. Ir. baile, *balio-s, a pre-Celtic bhv-alio-, root bhu-, be; Gr, fwleós, a lair; Norse ból, a "bally", further Eng. build, booth.

baileach, excessive; see bail. Also buileach.

bàilisdeir, babbler, founded on Eng. Scandinavian balderdash.

bàillidh, a magistrate, balie; from Sc. bailzie (Eng. bailiff), Fr. bailli.

baineasag, a ferret, Ir. baineasóg; bán+neas, "white weasel", q.v.

bàinidh, madness, fury, Ir. báinidhe; Ir. mainigh (O'Br.), from Lat. mania; see .

bainisg, a little old woman, female satirist (Carm.) = ban-éisg; from ban, bean, q.v.

bainne, milk, Ir., M. Ir. bainne; also boinne, milk (Sutherland), a drop, Ir., M. Ir. bainne, milk. O. Ir. banne, drop, Cor., Br. banne, gutta; root bha; O. Slav. banja, bath; Eng. bath, etc.

bàir, a game, goal, Ir. báire, hurling match, goal, M. Ir. báire: *bag-ro-, root bāg-, strive; see arabhaig. bàireach, a ball.

baircinn, side timbers of a house (Sh.):

baireachd, quarrelling (Carm.); cf. bàirseag.

bairghin, bread, cake, Ir. bairghean, E. Ir. bargen, W., Cor., and Br. bara, panis, *bargo-; Lat. ferctum, oblation cake; Ag. S. byrgan, to taste, Norse bergja, taste.

bàirich, lowing; root of , cow. Cf. bùirich.

bàirig, bestow; from Eng. ware, as also bathar.

bàirleigeadh, bàirneigeadh, warning, summons; from the Eng. warning.

bàirlinn, rooling wave, billow; bàir-linn, from †bàir, wave, borrowed from Norse bára, wave, billow. For linne, see that word.

bàirneach, a limpet, Ir. báirneach (Fol.), W. brenig, Cor. brennic: from M. Eng. bernekke, now barnacle, from Med.Lat. bernaca. Stokes takes bàirnech from barenn, rock, as Gr. λεπάς, limpet, is allied to λέπας, rock.

bàirneachd, judgment (Sh.), Ir., W., Br. barn, root ber in bràth, q.v.

bàirseag, a scold (Sh.), Ir. bairseach, M. Ir. bairsecha, foolish talk, bara, wrath, W. bâr, wrath. Stokes refers bara to the same origin as Lat. ferio, I strike, Norse berja, smite, etc.

baisceall, a wild person (Sh.); M. Ir. basgell (i. geltan), boiscell; root in , foolish? +ciall.

baiseach, a heavy shower, Ir. báisdeach, rain, bais, water; cf. O. Ir. baithis, baptism, which may be borrowed from Lat. baptisma (Windisch). The root here is bad, of bàth, drown. Ir. baiseach, raining (Clare), from baisteadh, Lat. baptisma (Zim.).

baist, baptise, Ir. baisd, O. Ir. baitsim, from Lat. baptizo, which is from Gr. βαπτίζω, dip.

baiteal, a battle; from Eng. battle.

balach, clown, lad, Ir. balach, clown, churl; cf. Skr. bālakas, a little boy, from bāla, young. But cf. W. bala, budding, root bhel. Rathlin Ir. bachlach.

balaiste, ballast; from the Eng.

balbh, dumb, so Ir., E. Ir. balb; borrowed from Lat. balbus.

balc, ridge, etc.; see bailc. Also "calf of leg" (Wh.).

balc, misdeed:

balcach, splay-footed (H.S.D.). Cf. Gr. φολκός, bandy-legged(?).

balg, belly, bag, Ir. bolg, O. Ir. bolc, W. bol, boly, belly, Cor. bol, Gaulish bulga (Festus), sacculus; Got. balgs, wine-skin, Norse belgr, skin, bellows, Eng. belly.

balgair, a fox:

balgum, mouthful, M.G. bolgama (pl.), Ir. blogam; from balg. Cf. O. Ir. bolc uisce, a bubble.

ball, a member, Ir., O. Ir. ball; Gr. φαλλός; Eng. phallus; root bhel, swell.

ball, a spot, Ir., M. Ir. ball, white-spotted on forehead (of a horse), Br. bal (do.). The Gaelic suggests a stem bal-no-, Celtic root bal, white, Gr. φαλός, shining, φάλαρος (phalāros), white-spotted (of animals); I. E. bhēl: bhale, shine; whence Eng. bale-fire. Stokes says the Irish ball seems allied to the Romance balla, a ball, Eng. bale and ball(?). Hence ballach, spotted. W. bal, spotted on forehead.

ball, a ball; from Eng.

balla, wall, Ir. balla (Four Masters), fala (Munster); from M.Eng. bailly, an outer castle wall, now in Old Bailey, from Med. Lat. ballium.

ballaire, a cormorant; from ball, spot.

ballan, a vessel, tub, Ir. ballán, E. Ir. ballan. Stokes cfs. Norse bolli, bowl, Eng. bowl, and says that the Gaelic is probably borrowed.

ballart, boasting, clamour; probably from Norse ballra, strepere, baldrast, make a clatter (Eng. balderdash), Ger. poltern.

balt, a welt: see bolt.

bàn, white, Ir., O. Ir. bán; I. E. root bhā, shine; Gr. φανός (α long), bright; Skr. bhânù, light; further away is Eng. bale (bale-fire).

ban-, bana-, she-, female-; see bean.

banabachadh, worse for wear (M'D):

banachag, dairymaid:

banachdach, vaccination:

banair, sheep fold; see rather mainnir.

banais, a wedding, wedding feast, Ir. bainfheis, wedding feast, M. Ir. banais, g. baindse; from ban+féisd?

banarach, dairymaidl from ban- and àireach.

banbh, a pig, Ir. banbh, E. Ir. banb, W. banw, Br. banv, bano, *banvo-s. The word appears as Banba, a name for Ireland, and, in Scotland, as Banff. M'L. and D. gives the further meaning of "land unploughed for a year".

banc, a bank; from the Eng.

bànchuir, squeamishness at sea (H.S.D., which derives it from bàn and cuir).

bangadh, a binding, promise (Sh., H.S.D.), Ir. bangadh. H.S.D. suggests Lat. pango, whence it may have come.

bangaid, a banquet, christening feast; from Eng. banquet.

bann, a belt, band; from Eng. band. It also means a "hinge". Dialectic spann.

bannag, a Christmas cake; from the Sc. bannock. See bonnach.

bannag, corn-fan; from Lat. vannus, Eng. fan.

bannal, a troop, gang, Ir. banna; from Eng. band. Cf. E. Ir. ban-dál, assembly of ladies. Also pannail.

bansgal (Dial. banasgal), a female, a hussy, Ir. bansgal, E. Ir. banscál, O. Ir. banscala, servae; root of sgalag.

bantrach, a widow, E. Ir. bantrebthach, landlady: ban+trebthach, farmer, from treb in treabhadh, aitreabh.

baobh, a wicked woman, witch, Ir. badhbh, hoodie crow, a fairy, a scold, E. Ir. badb, crow, demon, Badba, the Ir. war-goddess, W. bod, kite, Gaul. Bodv-, Bodvo-gnatus, W. Bodnod; Norse böð, g. boðvar, war, Ag. S. beadu, g. beadwe, *badwa- (Rhys.). In Stokes' Dict. the Skr. bádhate, oppress, Lit. bádas, famine, are alone given. Also baogh.

baodhaiste, ill usage from the weather:

baoghal, danger, so Ir., O. Ir. baigul, baegul; cf. Lit. bai-mė, fear, bai-gus, shy, Skr. bhayate, fear.

baoghan, a calf, anything jolly; from baoth.

baogram, a flighty emotion (Dialectic); founded on baogadh, a dialectic form of biog, q.v.

baoileag, blaeberry; cf. Eng. bilberry, Dan. böllebær.

baoireadh, foolish talk; founded on baothaire, fool, from baoth, q.v.

baois, lust, so Ir., E. Ir. baes, *baisso- (Stokes); compared by Bezzenberger to Gr. φαιδρός, shining, and by Strachan to the root gheidh, desire, Lit. geidu, desire, Ch. Sl. żida, expetere, Goth. gaidw, a want. Possibly allied to Lat. foedus, foul.

baois, madness, so Ir., E. Ir. báis; from baoth (Zim. Z32 229) = báithas. Cf. sgìth, sgìos.

baoisg, shine forth: see boillsg.

baoiteag, a small white maggot; see boiteag.

baol, nearness of doing anything (M'A.); baoghal? Cf. its use in Fern. MS.

baoth, foolish, so Ir., O. Ir. báith, baeth; root bai, fear, as in baoghal; Cor. bad, Br. bad, stupidity, are not allied, nor is Goth. bauths, dumb, as some suggest. Hence baothair, fool.

bara, a barrow, Ir. bara, E. Ir. bara; from M. Eng. barowe, Eng. barrow.

barail, opinion, Ir. baramhuil, M. Ir. baramail: bar+samhail; for bar-, see bàirneachd, bràth.

baraill, a barrel, Ir. báirille, E. Ir. barille, W. baril; from M. E. barel, from O. Fr. baril.

baraisd, barraisd, borage; Ir. barraist; from the Eng. borage.

baran, a baron; Ir. barún, W. barwn; from the Eng.

barant, surety, warrant, Ir., M. Ir. baránta, W. gwarant; from M. Eng. warant, now warrant. So St.

barbair, a barber, Ir. bearrbóir (Fol.), W. barfwr; from the Eng.

barbarra, barbarous, Ir. barbartha; from Lat. barbarus, Eng. barbarous.

bar-bhrigein, silver-weed (Arm.); also brisgean (from brisg):

barbrag, tangle tops, barberry; from Eng. barberry. In Lewis, the former is called bragaire.

bàrc, a bark, boat, Ir. bárc, E. Ir. barc, W. barg, Br. barc. These words are all ultimately from the Late Latin barca, whence throught Fr. comes Eng. bark.

bàrc, rush (as water), Ir. bárcaim, break out; cf. M. Ir. barc, multitude; Lat. farcio, cram, frequens, numerous.

bàrd, a poet, Ir. bárd, E. Ir. bard, W. bardd, Br. barz, Gaul. bardos, *bardo-s; Gr. φράζω (φραδ-), speak (Eng. phrase).

bàrd, dyke, inclosure, meadow, Ir. bárd, a guard, garrison; from Eng. ward, enclosed pasture land (Liddell 35).

bargan, a bargain, W. bargen; from the Eng. bargain.

bàrlag, a rag, tatter-demalion; cf. Ir. barlín, sheet, for braith-lín, q.v.

bàrluadh, a term in pipe music; from Eng. bar + G. luath.

bàrnaig, a summons; from the Eng. warning.

barpa, barrow, cairn (H.S.D., a Skye word). Cape Wrath is Am Parph in Gaelic (An Carbh, Lewis); from Norse Hvarf, a turning, rounding, Eng. wharf.

bàrr, top, Ir. bárr, O. Ir. barr, W., Cor. bar, Br. barr, *barso-; Norse barr, pine needles, Ag. S. byrst, Eng. bristle, burr; Lat. fastiguim (for farstigium), top; Skr. bhṛshti, a point. Hence barrachd, overplus. bàrrlach, refuse, flotsam (Wh.).

barra, a spike, bar, Ir. bárra, W. bar, nail, etc.; all from the Eng. bar.

barra-gùg,, potato bloom, bud. See gucag. Also barr-guc.

bàrraisg, boasting, brag, bàrsaich, vain, prating; see bàirseag.

barramhaise, a cornice (A.M'D.); barr+maise. Also barr-maisich (verb), ornament (M'A.).

barrlait, a check (Carm.):

bas, palm of the hand, Ir., O. Ir. bas, bass, boss, Br. boz, *bostâ; Gr. ἀγοστός.

bàs, death, Ir., O. Ir. bás; Celtic root , ba, hit, slay, whence Gaul. Lat. batuere (Eng. battls, etc.); Ag. S. beadu, war.

basaidh, a basin; from Sc. bassie, Eng. basin.

bascaid, a basket, Ir. basgaod, W. basged; from the Eng. basket.

basdal, noise, gaiety; from Norse bastle, turmoil.

basdard, a bastard, so Ir. and M. Ir., W. basdardd; all from the Eng. bastard.

basgaire, mourning, Ir. bascarrach, lamentation, clapping with the hands, M. Ir. basgaire; bas+gaire, "palm-noise"; for baire, see goir. Also basraich.

basganta, melodious:

basg-luath, vermilion; from the obsolete adg. basg, red, E. Ir. basc, and luath, ashes, q.v. Stokes cfs. basc to Lat. bacca (for bat-ca), berry.

bat, bata, a stick, Ir. bata; from M. Eng. batte, stick, now bat, which comes from O. Fr. batte, from Gaul. Lat. battuere, as under bàs, q.v. The Br. baz seems borrowed from the Fr. thought it may be native.

bàta, a boat, Ir. bád, M. Ir. bát, W. bâd; all from Ag. S. bât, Eng. boat, Norse, bátr (Stokes). K. Meyer takes Ir. and G. from the Norse.

batail, a fight; see baiteal.

bàth, drown, Ir. báthaim, O. Ir. bádud (inf.), W. boddi, Br. beuzi; I. E. ꬶādh, sink, Gr. βαθύς, deep, ‑βδύω, sink, Skr. gāhas, the deep. Gl. fodio (Ern.).

bàth, vain, foolish (Hend.); see . Skye.

bàthaich, a byre, Ir. bothigh, W. beudy; +tigh, "cow-house".

bathais, forehead, Ir. baithis, pate, E. Ir. baithes, crown of the forehead; *bat-esti-, from bat, I. E. bhā, shine, Gr. φάσις, appearance, phase. See bàn further. Lat. facies, face, appearance, may be allied, though the latest authorities connect it with facio, make.

bathar, wares; from the Eng. wares.

beabhar, beaver, Ir. beabhar (Lh.), Cor. befer, Br. bieuzr, Gaul. Bibrax; Lat. fiber; Eng. beaver, Ag. S. béofor. Gaelic and Ir. are doubtful.

beach, a bee, so Ir., O. Ir. bech, W. begegyr, drone, *biko-s; a root bi- appears in Eng. bee, Ag. S. beó (=*bija), Ger. biene (=*bi-nja), Lit. bitis. Stokes makes the Celtic stem beko-s, but does not compare it with any other language.

beachd, opinion, notice, Ir. beacht, certain, E. Ir. becht, bechtaim, I certify; *bhig-to-; Lat. figo (St. Z.C.P. 71).

beadaidh, impudent, fastidious, Ir. béadaidh, beadaidh, sweet-mouthed, scoffing; E. Ir. bet, talking, shameless girl (Corm.): *beddo-, *bez-do-, root bet, ꬶet, as in beul.

beadradh, fondling, caressing, beadarrach, pampered:

beag, little, Ir. beag, O. Ir. becc, W. bach, Cor. bechan, Br. bic'han, bian, *bezgo-; Lat. vescus (=gvesgus)? Some have connected it with Gr. μικρός, Dor. Gr. μικκóς, and Dr Cameron suggested Lat. vix, scarcely.

beairt, engine, loom: see beart.

beairtean, shrouds, rigging; see beart.

bealach, a pass, Ir. bealach, pass, road, E. Ir. belach, cf. Skr. bíla, gap, mouth; bilako-n (C.RR. 174). Cf. W. bwlch, pass, etc? See bile.

bealaidh, broom, Ir. beallýi (Lh. Comp. Voc.); cf. Br. balan, M. Br. balazn, O. Fr. balain; also Fr. balai, older balain, a broom. This might be referred to the common root bhel, bloom (prolific as a root, like the corresponding root of broom, as in W. balannu, to bud), but the W. for "broom" is banadl, Cor. banathel, which M. Ernault has compared with Lat. genista, broom (root gen, beget?). Jub. gives Br. as banadlon (R.C.18 106). The Br. might be a metathesis of W. banadl (cf. Br. alan v. anail). It is possible that Gaelic is borrowed from the Pictish; the word does not appear in the Ir. Dictionaries, save in Lh.'s Celt. part, which perhaps proves nothing.

bealbhan-ruadh, a species of hawk (Sh., O'R.); for bealbhan, cf. †bealbhach, a bit, from beul, mouth?

bealltuinn, May-day, Ir. béalteine, E. Ir. beltene, belltaine, *belo-te(p)niâ (Stokes), "bright-fire", where belo- is allied to Eng. bale ("bale-fire"), Ag. S. bael, Lit. baltas, white. The Gaul. god-names Belenos and Belisama are also hence, and Shakespeare's Cym-beline. Two needfires were lighted on Beltane among the Gael, between which they drove their cattle for purification and luck; hence the proverb: "Eadar dà theine Bhealltuinn"—Between two Beltane fires.

bean, wife, so Ir. ben, W. bun, benyw, Cor. benen, sponsa, Celtic benâ, g. bnâs, pl.n. bnâs; Gr. γυνή, Bœot. Gr. βανά; Got. ginô, Eng. queen, Sc. queyn; Skr. gnâ.

bean, touch, Ir. beanaim, beat, touch, appertain to, O. Ir. benim, pulso, ferio, Br. bena, to cut, M. Br. benaff, hit; *bina, root bin, bi (O. Ir. ro bi, percussit, bithe, perculsus), from I. E. bhi, bhei, hit; Ch. Sl. bija, biti, strike; O. H. G. bîhal, axe; Gr. φιτρός, log. Further is root bheid, split, Eng. bite. Usually bean has been referred to I. E. ꬶhen, ꬶhon, hit, slay; Gr. φεν-, slay, επεφνον, slew, φόνος, slaughter, θείνω, strike; Skr. han, hit; but ꬶh = G. b is doubtful.

beann, top, horn, peak, Ir. beann, O. Ir. benn, pinna, W. ban, height, peak, M. Br. ban, also benny, horn, pipe (music), Gaul. canto-bennicus mons, "white peak" mount; proto-Gaelic bennâ; root ꬶen-, ꬶn-, as in Eng. knoll, Sc. knowe. In Scotch Gaelic, the oblique form beinn has usurped the place of beann, save in the gen. pl.

beannachd, blessing, so Ir., O. Ir. bendacht, W. bendith; from Lat. bendictio, whence Eng. benediction.

beannag, a skirt, corner, coif, Ir. beannóg; from beann.

beantag, a corn-fan; see bannag.

bearach, dog-fish (M'A.); O. Ir. berach, verutus, from bior; cf. Eng. "picked or horned dogfish"; "bone-dog".

bearachd, judgement (Sh., O'R.); root bera, brâ, as in bràth, q.v.

bearbhain, vervain; from Eng. vervain, Lat. verbena.

bearn, a breach, cleft, Ir. bearna, E. Ir. berna; I. E. bher, cut, bore; Lat. forare, bore; Gr. φάρος, a plough, φαρω, split; Arm. beran, mouth; Ch. Sl. bar, clip; Eng. bore. Also bern, fen in E. Ir.

beàrr, shear, Ir. béarraim, O. Ir. berraim, O. W. byrr, short, Cor. ber, Br. berr, short, *berso-; Gr. φάρσος, any piece cut off; root bhera, as in bearn.

bearraideach, flighty, nimble; from beàrr?

beart, a deed, Ir. beárt, load, action, E. Ir. bert, bundle, birth; Gr. φόρτος, burden; root, bher, in beir, q.v. Also beairt, engine, loom. It is used in many compounds in the sense of "gear", as in cais-bheart, foot-gear, shoes; ceann-bheart, head-gear, helmet, etc.

beartach, rich; from beart; W. berth, rich, berthedd, riches.

beatha, life, so Ir. O. Ir. bethu, g. bethad, Celtic stem bitât-, divided into bi-tât; see bith (i.e. bi-tu-) for root. It is usual for philologists to represent the stem of beatha as bivotât, that is bi-vo-tât-, the bi-vo- part being the same as the stem bivo of beò. While the root bi is common to both beatha and beò, the former does not contain -vo-; it is the O. Ir. nom. beothu (*bi-tûs) that has set philologists wrong. Hence G. and Ir. beathach, animal. Ir. beathadhach, dial. of beathach.

beic, a curtesy; from Sc. beck, curtesy, a dialectic use of Eng. beck, beckon. Hence beiceis, bobbing, etc. (M'A.).

beil, grind; a very common form of meil, q.v.

beil, is; see bheil.

beilbheag, corn-poppy; see mealbhag. Also bailbheag.

béileach, a muzzle, Ir. beulmhach, a bridle, bit, -mhach for bach termination from bongim, beat; from beul.

béilleach, blubber-lipped, béileach (H.S.D.); from beul. The first form suggests a stem bél-nac-. Cf. béilean, a prating mouth. Also méilleach.

beilleag, outer coating of birch, rind; also méilleag, q.v.

beince, being (H.S.D.), a bench; from Sc. bink; Eng. bench. Cf. Ir. beinse, W. mainc, Br. menk.

beinn, hill, ben; oblique form of beann (f.n.), used as a fem.nom., for beann sounds masculine beside ceann, etc. See beann.

beinneal, binding of a sheaf of corn, bundle; from Sc. bindle, a cord of straw or other for binding, Eng. bundle; from bind.

beir, catch, bring forth, Ir. beirim, O. Ir. berim, W. cymmeryd, to take, accept, Br. kemeret (=com-ber-); I. E. bher, whence Lat. fero, Gr. φέρω, Eng. bear, Skr. bharami.

beirm, bairm, (Hend.), barm, yeast; from Sc. barm (pronounced berm, Eng. barm; Lat. fermentum.

beisear, plate-rack on dresser (Rob.).

béist, a beast, Ir. bíast, péist, O. Ir. béist, W. bwystfil; from Lat. bestia (Eng. beast). Also biast.

beith, birch, so Ir., O. Ir. bethe, W. bedw, Br. bezuenn, Celtic betvâ, Lat. betula, Fr. boule.

beithir, a serpent, any wild beast, monster, a huge skate, Ir. beithir, wild beast, bear, E. Ir. beithir, G. bethrach. In the sense of "bear", the word is, doubtless, borrowed; but there seems a genuine Celtic word betrix behind the other meanings, and the beithir or beithir béimneach is famed in myth. Cf. Lat. bēstia, for bet-tia? Norse bera, bear (fem.), beirfhall, bearskin, Eng. bear (Zim. K.B.1 286).

beitir, neat, clean (M'F.):

beò, living, Ir., O. Ir. beó, W. byw, Br. beu, *bivo-s; Lat. vîvus, living, vîta; Gr. βίοτος, a living; Eng. quick; Skr. jîvá, living; I. E. ꬶei-, ꬶi-, live. See also beatha, bith.

beòir, beer, Ir. beór; from Ag. S. beór, Norse bjórr (Eng. beer).

beòlach, ashes with hot embers (M'A.); from beò + luathach, "live-ashes". Another beòlach, lively youth, hero, stands for beò-lach; for -lach, see òglach.

beuban, anything, mangled:

beuc, roar, Ir. béic, O. Ir. béccim, W. beichio, baich, *beikkiô; Cor. begy, Br. begiat, squeal, baeguel, bleat, *baikiô (Stokes). The difficulty of the vowels as between G. and W. (é should give wy) suggests comparison with creuchd, W. craith, *crempt- (Strachan). Thus beuc, baich suggests benk-ko-, further gṇk-ko-, root ꬶem, Lat. gemo, etc. The same result can be derived from the root geng- of geum, q.v.

beud, mischief, hurt, Ir. béad, E. Ir. bét, *bento-n; allied to Eng. bane.

beul, mouth, so Ir., O. Ir. bél, *bet-lo-, I. E. ꬶet-, whence Eng. quoth, Got. qithan. The idea is the "speaker". Some connect W. gwefl (=vo-bel), but this is probably *vo-byl, byl, edge (Ernault).

beulaobh, front, E. Ir. ar-bélaib, O. Ir. bélib; of beul; also mixed with this is the O. Ir. acc. pl. béulu.

beum, a stroke, cut, taunt, Ir. and O. Ir. béim, nom. pl. bémen, blow, from the root beng, bong, which appears in buain; cf. ceum from ceng-men, leum from leng-men. This agrees with Cor. bom, blow. Some suggest beid-men or beids-men, root bheid, Eng. bite, which suits G. best as to meaning. The favourite deri­vation has been *ben-s-men, root ben of bean.

beur, beurra, beurtha, sharp, pointed, clear; gibe, jeer (Hend.); cf. Ir. béarrtha, clipped, from beàrr; from berr-tio‑s, with i regres­sive into berr, giving beirr.

beurla, English, language, Ir. beurla, speech, language, especial­ly English; O. Ir. bélre; bél+re, bél, mouth, and the abstract termi­nation ‑re (as in luibhre, buidhre, etc.).

beus, conduct, habit, so Ir., O. Ir. bés, Br. boaz, *beissu‑, beid-tu‑, root beid, I. E. bheidh, Gr. πειθω, persuade, Lat. fides, English faith. Others derive it from bhend, bind, giving bhend-tu- as the oldest stem. Windisch suggests connec­tion with Got. bansts, barn, Skr. bhâsa, cowstall. The Breton oa seems against these deriva­tions.

bha, bhà, was, Ir. do bhámar, we were (bhá‑), do bhí, was, M. Ir. ro bói, was, O. Ir., bói, bái, búi, a perfect tense, *bove(t), for bebove; Skr. babhūva; Gr. πέφυ-κε; I. E. bheu, to be, as in Lat. fui, was (an aorist form), Eng. be.

bhàn, a bhàn, down; by eclipsis for a(n) bh‑fàn, “into declivity”, from fàn, a declivity, Ir., O. Ir., fán, proclive, W. gwaen, a plain, planities montana, *vag-no‑, root, vag, bow, etc., Lat. vagor, wander, Ger. wackeln, wobble. Ir. has also fán, a wandering, which comes near the Lat. sense. In Suther­land­shire, the adj. fàn, prone, is still used.

bheil, is, Ir. fuil, bh‑fuil, O. Ir. fail, fel, fil, root vel (val), wish, prevail, Lat. volo, valeo, Eng. will.

bho, o, from Ir. ó, ua, O. Ir., ó, úa, *ava; Lat. au‑fero, "away"‑take; Ch. Sl. u‑; Skr. ava, from.

bhos, a bhos, on this side; from the eclipsed form a(n) bh‑fos, “in station”, in rest, Ir. abhus, O. Ir. i foss, here, O. Ir. foss, remaining, staying, rest. See fois, rest, for root.

bhur, bhur n‑, your, Ir. bhar n‑, O. Ir. bar n‑, far n‑, *svaron (Stokes), *s‑ves-ro‑n. For sves‑, see sibh. Cf. for form Got. izvara, Lat. nostrum (nos-tero‑, where ‑tero- is a fuller com­parative form than Celtic ‑(e)ro‑, ‑ro- of sves‑ro-n, svaron).

bi, , be Ir. , be thou, O. Ir. bíu, sum, be thou, O. W. bit, sit, bwyf, sim, M. Br. bezaff. Proto-Celtic bhv‑ijô, for O. Ir. bíu, I am; Lat fio; Eng. be; I. E. root bheu, be. See bha. Stokes differs from other author­ities in referring bíu, to Celtic beiô, root bei, bi, live, as in bith, beatha, Lat. vivo, etc.

bi, bigh, doorpost, threshold (Hend.), E. Ir. di bí = two posts. M'A. has bìgh, post, pillar.

biadh, food, so Ir., O. Ir., O. Ir. biad, *bivoto-n, whence W. bywyd, vita, Cor. buit, cibus, Br. boed, food. bivoto-n is a derivative from bivo- of beò, living, q.v.

bian, a hide, Ir., E. Ir. bían, *beino-; root bhei-, as in Eng. bite, Lat. findo. For force, cf. Gr. δέρμα, skin, from der, split, Eng. tear. Cf., for root, bean, hit.

biasgach, niggardly; from biast. In some parts biast is applied to a niggardly person. H.S.D. refers it to biadh+sgathach, catching at morsels.

biast, a beast, worthless person; see béist. The word biast, abuse, is a metaphoric use of biast.

biatach, a raven (Sh.); cf. biatach, biadhtach, a provider, farmer, from biadh.

biatas, betony, beet, Ir. biatuis, W. betys; from Lat. bētis, bēta, Eng. beet. Also biotais.

biathainne, earth-worm, hook-bait, biathaidh (Dialectic); from biadh. Cf. Lat. esca, bait, for ed-sca, ed=eat. The word biathadh in many places means "to entice".

biatsadh, provisions for a journey, viaticum; formed from biadh, with, possibly, a leaning on viaticum.

bicas, viscount (Arm.). Founded on the Eng., and badly spelt by Armstrong: either biceas or biocas.

bicein, a single grain (Arg.). From bioc, pioc? (Wh.)

biceir, a wooden dish; from Sc. bicker, Eng. beaker. Also bigeir, bigein.

bìd, a very small portion, a nip, a chirp. In the sense of "small portion", the word is from the Sc. bite, bit, Eng. bite, bit. In the sense of "chirp, a small sound", O'R. has an Ir. word bíd, "song of birds". See bìog. Hence bìdein, diminutive person or thing. Cf. W. bidan, of like force.

bìdeag, a bit, bittie; from Sc. bittock, dim. of Eng. bit.

bidean, a fence (Stew.), bid (Sh.), Ir. bíd, bídeán (O'R.), W. bid, quickset hedge, bidan, a twig; *bid-do-, root bheid, split?

bidhis, a vice, screw, so Ir.; from Eng. vice.

bidse, a bitch; from the English.

bìgh, bigh, pith of wood, gum. See bith.

bil, bile, edge, lip, Ir. bil, mouth, E. Ir., bil, bile, W. byl, *bili-, bilio-. Root bhi, bhei, split; cf. Skr. bíla, a hole, mouth of a vessel, etc.; vil, edge : W. also myl.

bileag, bile, a leaf, blade, Ir. billeóg, bileóg, *biliâ, I. E. root bhela, bhale, bhlē, bhlō, as in blàth; Lat. folium; Gr. φúλλον, a leaf; further, Eng. blade.

bilearach, bileanach, sea-grass, sweet-grass; from bile.

bileid, a billet; from the Eng.

bilistear, a mean, sorry fellow, a glutton, Ir., E. Ir. bille, mean, paltry. In the Heb. it means, “rancid butter” (H.S.D.).

binid, also minid (Arg.), cheese, rennet, bag that holds the rennet, stomach, Ir. binid, O. Ir. binit, rennet; *binenti‑, “biter”, root of bean? Cf. muinne, stomach.

binn, melodious, so Ir., O. Ir. bind, *bendi, *bydi‑; O. Br. bann (St.); Skr. bhandate, joyful, bhand, receive loud praise, bhandána, shouting (Stokes, who adds Lat. fides, lyre). The idea may, however, be "high", root of beann, peak, binneach, high-headed. See next also.

binn, sentence, verdict; *bendi‑, *benni‑; cf. E. Ir. atboind, proclaims, *bonnô, I ban. Cf. Skr. bhan, speak, Eng. ban. It is clear that Gaelic has an ablaut in e : o connected with the root bha, speak.

binndich, curdle; from binid, q.v.

binnein, pinnacle; from beann, q.v.

bìoball, pìoball, Bible, Ir. biobla, W. bebil; from Lat. biblia, Eng. bible.

biod, pointed top; root in biodag, bidean.

biodag, a dagger, Ir. bideóg (O’R.), miodóg, W. bidog, O. Br. bitat, resicaret, *biddo‑, bid-do‑, Celtic root bid, beid, I. E. bhid, bheid, Lat. findo, Eng. bite, Skr. bhid, split. Hence Eng. bodkin, possibly.

biog, bìog, a start, Ir. bíodhg, E. Ir. bedg, O. Ir. du‑bidcet, jaculantur, *bizgo‑, root bis, ꬶis, root ꬶi‑ of beò. Consider bìogail, lively, quick.

bìog, biog, chirp; onomatopetic; cf. Lat. pipe, chirp, Eng. pipe; also Eng. cheep. Also bìd, q.v.

bìogarra, churlish; “cheepish”, from bìog, cheep.

biolagach, melodious (M‘F.); from †biol, violin; from Eng. viol, Fr. viole, violin.

biolaire, water‑cresses, Ir. biolar, E. Ir. biror, W. berwr, Cor., Br. beler, *beruro‑, Lat. berula (Marcellus), Fr. berle, Sp. berro. Possibly allied to the root of Celtic bervô, seethe, O. Ir. tipra, well, G. tobar, Eng. burn. Cf. Ger. brunnen kresse, water-cress, i.e. “well” cress. The dictionaries and old glossaries (Cormac, etc.) give bir, bior, as water or well.

biolar, dainty, spruce (Sh.); for bior‑ar, from bior, “sharp”?

biolasgach, prattling, so Ir. (Lh., O'B.); from bil, lip.

bionn, symmetrical (Carm.): Sc bien.

bior, stake, spit, Ir. bior, O. Ir. bir, W. bêr, Cor., Br. ber, Celtic beru‑; Lat. veru; Gr. βαρύες, trees (Hes.); Lit. gìrė, forest. Hence biorach, sharp.

biorach, a heifer, colt, Ir. biorach, cow-calf:

bioras, water-lily; same origin as biolar, q.v.

biorg, gush, twitch, tingle; from the roots of biolar (bior‑) and bior.

biorraid, a helmet, cap, Ir. birreud, cap; from Eng. biretta, from Late Lat. birretum.

biorsadh, a keen impatience: “goading”; from bior.

biorsamaid, a balance; from Sc. bismar, Norse bismari.

bior-snaois, bowsprit of a sailing boat (N. Lochaber), forepart of vessel:

biota, a churn, vessel; from Norse bytta, a pail, tub, Ag. S. bytt, Latin buttis, Eng. butt.

biotailt, victuals, E. Ir. bitáill, W. bitel, M. Br. bitaill; from O. Fr. vitaille, from Lat. victualia. Eng. victuals is from the French.

birlinn, a galley, bark, M. Ir. beirling; formed from the Norse byrðingr, a ship of burthen, from byrðr, burden, vb. bera, Eng. bear. The Sc. bierling, birlinn is from the Gaelic. Cf. feòirlig=fjórðungr.

birtich, stir up; from bior, goad.

biseach, luck; see piseach.

bith, the world, existence, Ir., O. Ir. bith, W. byd, Br. bed, Gaul. bitu‑, *bitu‑s; root bi, bei, live, I. E. ꬶei, ꬶi, whence Lat. vivo, Eng. be, etc. Hence beatha, beò, biadh, q.v.

bith, being (inf. of , be), Ir., E. Ir. beith, O. Ir. buith. The O. Ir. is from the root bhu (Eng. be, Lat. fui) = *buti‑s, Gr. φύσις. The forms bith and beith, if derived from bhu, have been influenced by bith, world, existence; but it is possible that they are of the same root ꬶi as bith. Stokes, in his treatise on the Neo-Celtic Verb Substantive, takes bith and beith from the root ga, go, Gr. βάσις (Eng. base), a root to which he still refers the O. Ir. aorist , fui (see bu).

bìth, resin, gum, birdlime, Ir. bigh, O. Ir. , pix, adj. bíde, *geis‑, a longer form of gis‑, the root of giuthas, fir (Schräder). Otherwise we must regard it as borrowed from Lat. pix, picis, whence W. pyg, Eng. pitch, against which b and í (i long) militate.

bìth, quiet (Arm.):

bith‑, prefix denoting "ever", Ir., O. Ir. bith‑, W. byth‑; from bith, world.

biùc, difficult utterance:

biùthaidh, foe, Ir. bíodhbha, E. Ir., O. Ir. bidbe, bidbid (gen.), culprit, enemy.

biùthas, fame, biùthaidh, hero; see fiù, fiùbhaidh.

blabaran, stammerer, Ir. blabarán, from the Eng. blabber, speak inarticulately. It is of onomatopoetic origin. Cf. Eng. babble.

bladair, a wide mouth, a flatterer, Ir. bladaire, flatterer; from the Eng. blatterer, bletherer, blusterer, blatter, prate; from Lat. blaterare, prate. Also blad a wide mouth (M‘F.).

bladh, fame, Ir. bládh, E. Ir. blad; root blad‑, blat‑, speak, as in Lat. blatero, babble, Norse blaðr, nonsense, Sc. blether. See bladair. Cf. glaodh, shout. Hence bladhair, expressive, a boaster.

bladhail, strong, from bladh, pith, W. blawdd, active; *blâd‑; root blā‑, swell, bloom, as in blàth, q.v.

bladhm, a boast, etc.; see blaomadh.

blad-shronach, blad-spàgach, flat-nosed, flat-footed; blad‑ is from Eng. flat.

blaisbheum, blasphemy; from Lat. blasphemia, Eng. blasphemy.

blanndaidh, rotten, stale; from Norse blanda, whey "blend".

blanndar, flattery, dissimulation, so Ir.; from Lat. blandiri, Sc. blander, Eng. blandish.

blaodh, a shout, noise, Ir. blaodh, M. Ir. blaeded, W. bloedd. Hence blaodhag, noisy girl, boaghan, calf's cry, etc.

blaomadh, loud talking, Ir. blaodhmanach, noisy person; from *blaid‑s‑men; see blaodh.

blaosg, a shell, Ir. blaosc, M. Ir. blaesc, testa, W. blisg; see plaosg.

blàr, a field, battle, peat-moss; from blàr, spotted, the idea being a "spot". See next word.

blàr, having a white face, or white spot on the face (of an animal); blā‑ro‑s, root blā, from I. E. bhale, shine, bhā; Gr. φαλαρός (second α long), having a white patch (on the head, as on a dog’s head). Cf. Dutch blaar, a white spot on the forehead (Whence Fr. blaireau, badger), M. Dutch blaer, bald. See for roots bealltuinn, bàn. Welsh has blawr, grey, iron-grey, which seems allied. This word enters largely into Pictish topography. It is not so used in Argyle (M‘K.) nor in Ireland.

blas, taste, Ir. blas, O. Ir. mlas, W. blâs, Br. blas, *mlasto‑; Czech mlasti, lick, be sweet-toothed, Russ. molsatǐ, suck (Bezzenberger). Ultimately the root seems to be mel, as in meli‑, honey, G. mil, and even meil, grind. Hence Fr. blasé?

blas-bheumnaich, blaspheme (Hend.). See blaisbheum.

blàth, bloom, blossom, Ir., E. Ir. blàth, W. blawd, blodau, Cor. blodon, M. Br. bleuzenn, *blâto‑n; I. E. root blela: bhlō, blossom forth; Lat. flōs, flower; Eng. bloom, etc.

blàth, warm, kind, Ir., E. Ir. bláith, soft, smooth, mláith, *mlâti‑; root mela, mlâ, to grind. The original idea is “ground soft”. Cf. W. blawd, meal.

blàthach, buttermilk, Ir., M. Ir. bláthach; mlā-tac-, root mel, mlâ, as in blàth. The idea is “pounded, soured”. Cf. braich, from mrac‑, “soured”, and Eng. malt, “soured”, from melt. Hence Sc. bladach.

bleachdair, a soothing, flattering fellow, Ir. bleachdaire, flatterer, cow-milker; a metaphoric use of the last word, “cow-milker”, from bliochd, milk, q.v.

bleagh, milk (vb.), Ir. blighim; see bleoghainn.

bleaghan, a dibble for digging up shell-fish, a worthless tool; possibly from Norse blað, Eng. blade.

bleid, impertinence, solicitation, Ir. bleid, cajolery, impertinence. This seems another word formed on the word bladair, blad, just like Eng. blatant, blate (talk, prate).

bleideir, coward; from Norse bleyði, cowardice, and Sc. blate(?).

bleith, grind, Ir. bleithim, E. Ir. bleith, inf. to O. Ir. melim, I grind, W. malu, Br. malaff; root mel, grind, Lat. molo, Eng. meal, etc.

bleoghainn, milking, E. Ir. blegon, inf. to bligim, mligim; Lat. mulgeo; Gr. ἀ-μέλγω; Eng. milk; Lit. mélżu.

bliadhna, year, Ir. bliadhain, O. Ir. bliadain, W. blydd, blwyddyn, Br. bloaz, blizen, *bleidni‑, *bleido‑; I. E. ꬶhleidh, whence Eng. glide: “labuntur anni” (Stokes). It is doubtful if I. E. ꬶh becomes Celtic b.

blialum, jargon; from the Sc. blellum.

blian, the flank, groin, Ir. bléin, E. Ir. blén, O. Ir. melen, for mleen, *mlakno-; Gr. μαλακός, soft (Strachan, Stokes). The meaning, if not the phonetics, is not quite satisfactory.

blian, lean, insipid, blianach, lean flesh; cf. W. blin, tired, O. Br. blinion, inertes. These may be referred to *ꬶleghno-, Lit. gleżnus, tender, weak, Gr. βληχρός, languid. See, however, the derivation suggested for blian, above. For the Brittonic words, Stokes has suggested the stem blêno‑; Skr. glána, tired.

bligh, milk; see bleagh.

bliochan, yellow marsh, asphodel, Ir. bliochan; from *blioch = *melgos‑, milk. For phonetics, cf. teach, from tegos‑.

bliochd, milk, Ir. bleachd, E. Ir. blicht, W. blith, *mḷctu‑, root melg, milk. See bleoghainn.

blìonadh, basking (Islands): “softening”? See blian.

bliosan, artichoke (Sh., O’B., O’R.), Ir. bliosán: *blig-s‑ān‑, "milk-curdler"? Its florets were used for curdling.

blob, blubber-lipped (Sh.); from Eng. blub, puffed, protruding, blubber, etc.

blocan, a little block, blog, block (Dialectic), Ir. bloc, blocán; from Eng. block.

bloigh, fragment, half, Ir. blogh, blógh, fragment, E. Ir. blog, pre-Celtic bhlog; Eng. block, further away Eng. balk, Gr. φάλαγξ. Stokes refers it to the root of Eng. pluck. (St. now Eng. blough, Ger. pflug).

bloin’gein, any plant with crisped leaves, Ir. bloinigain (O’R.); G. and Ir. bloinigean gàrraidh is “spinage”. Cameron refers the word to blonag, fat.

blomas, ostentation (Sh.). Ir. blomas; see bladhm. Ir. blamaire, means “boaster”.

blonag, fat, Ir. blonóg, blainic, blunag, M. Ir. blonac, W. bloneg, Br. blonek, *blon‑, *blen‑, root bhle, bhel, swell; a very prolific root. Rhys says W. is borrowed. [R.C.17 102.]

blosg, sound a horn, Ir. blosgaidhim, resound, sound a horn, M. Ir. blosc, voice; W. bloedd, a shout, from *blogðo‑, for bloðgo‑; cf. mèag, W. maidd. [Zeit34 502.] Cf. Gr. φλοῖσβος, din (= φλοσ-γος), Lit. blázgu, roar.

, a cow, Ir., O. Ir. , W. buw, O. Br. bou‑, *bov‑s; I. E. ꬶôus, whence Lat. bos, Gr. βοῦς, Eng. cow, Skr. go.

boban, bobug, a term of affection for a boy; cf. M. Ir. boban, calf, bóban, from . Eng. babe, earlier, baban, of uncertain origin, may be compared.

boban, a bobbin; from the Eng. bobbin

boc, a buck, Ir. boc, he-goat, O. Ir. bocc, W. bwch, Cor. boch, Br. bouc’h, *bukko‑s; Skr. bukka, goat. These may be analysed into bug-ko‑, root bug, Zend. bûza, buck, Arm. buc, lamb, Eng. buck, Ger. bock.

bòc, swell, Ir. bócaim; cf. W. boch, cheek, from Lat. bucca, puffed cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke).

bòcan, hobgoblin, Ir. bocán, E. Ir. boccánach. With these are connected W. bwg (bwci, Cor. bucca, borrowed from M. E.?), Eng. bug, bugbear, bogie; the relationship is not clear (Murray). For Gadelic a stem bukko‑, from bug-ko‑, would do, allied possibly to Norse púki, a Puck, Ag. S. puca, larbula. boc-sithe, apparition, ghost (Perth: Wh.).

bochail, proud, nimble; cf. the interjection †boch, Ir. boch, heyday! “O festum diem”.

bochuin, swelling, the sea (Carm.), boch-thonn (H.S.D.):

bochd, poor, so Ir., O. Ir. bocht; *bog-to‑, a participle from the vb. (Irish) bongaim, break, reap, Celtic bongô, break; Skr. bhanj, break, Lit. banga, breaker (wave). See buain.

bocsa, a box, so Ir., pronounced in Ir. bosca also, W. bocys; from Eng. box. Hence bocsaid, a thump, Eng. box.

bodach, an old man, a carle, Ir. bodach, a rustic, carle; *bodd-aco‑, “pēnitus”, from bod, mentula, M. G. bod (D. of Lismore passim), M. Ir. bod, bot, *boddo‑, *bozdo‑; Gr. πόσθη, mentula. Stokes suggests the alternative form butto‑s, Gr. βύττος, vulva, but the G. d is against this. He also suggests that bodach is formed on the O. Fr. botte, a clod.

bodha, a rock over which waves break; from Norse boði, a breaker, over sunken rocks especially.

bòdhag, a sea-lark.

bodhaig, body, corpus; from the Sc. bouk, body, trunk, Norse búkr, trunk, Ger. bauch, belly. The G. word has been compared by Fick with Eng. body, Ag. S. bodig, and Murray says it is thence derived, but the d would scarcely disappear and leave the soft g ending now so hard.

bòdhan, ham, breech, breast: *boud-āno, *boud, bhud‑; cf. Eng. butt, buttock.

bodhar, deaf, so Ir., O. Ir. bodar, W. byddar, Cor. bodhar, Br. bouzar; Skr. badhirá.

bodhbh, bobh, a fright (Perthshire), E. Ir. bodba, dangerous, *bodv‑io‑s; from bodvo- in baobh, q.v.

bodht, swampy ground:

bog, soft, Ir. bog, O. Ir. bocc, Br. bouk, O. Br. buc, putris; *boggo‑, *bug‑go‑; I. E. bhüg, bend, Skr. bhugna, bent, Got. biugan, Eng. bow, from Ag. S. boga.

bogha, a bow, so Ir., M. Ir. boga; from Ag. S. boga, Eng. bow. For root, see under bog.

bògus, a timber moth, bug; from Eng. bug, Sc. bōg.

boicineach, small‑pox; root in bucaid, q.v.

boicionn, a goat skin, skin; *boc-cionn, "buck-skin"; the word †cionn is in O. Ir. cenni, scamae, W. cen, skin, Cor. cennen, Br. kenn‑, pellis; Eng. skinn, Norse skinn. ‑cionn, skin, Norse hinna, film (Leiden) I.F.5A 127.

bóid, vow, Ir. móid, M. Ir. móit, *monti‑, root mon, men, think. A borrowing from, or leaning on Lat. vōtum seems possible in view of the Gaelic form. M. Ir. in uóit; from Lat vôtum, as is also móid (Stokes).

bòidheach, pretty; for buaidheach, "having virtues", from buaidh, q.v.

bòidheam, flattery (H.S.D.):

bòigear, puffin, ducker; also budhaigir, q.v.

boil, boile, madness, Ir. buile, E. Ir. baile:

bòilich, tall talk, boasting; cf. Eng. bawl, cry like cows ().

boillsg, gleam; *bolg-s-cio‑; Lat. fulgeo, shine, Eng. effulgent, Lit. blizgù, glance, shine, Eng. blink, I. E. bhleg, *fulgeo.

boineid, a bonnet, Ir. boineud; from Eng. bonnet.

boinne, a drop, Ir. bain (d. pl. bainnibh), O. Ir. banne, Cor., Br. banne; Celt. bannjâ (Stokes). See bainne. Hence boinneanta, healthy, well-built.

boirche, a buffalo (Sh., Lh.), so Ir.; perhaps allied to Lat. ferus, Eng. bear.

boireal, a small auger (M‘F.); founded on Eng. bore.

boiriche, rising ground, bank (M‘D.); same root as Ger. berg, mountain, Eng. ice-berg.

boirionn, female, feminine, Ir. bainionn, boinionn; *bani‑, from the word bean, ban, q.v. Hence biorionnach, a female, which is masc. in gender, having been originally neuter. Cf. doirionn for doinionn (Arg.).

bois, the palm; see bas.

boiseag, slap in the face, palmful, Ir., M. Ir. boiseóg, buffet.

boiseid, a belt, budget; from the English

boisg, gleam; boillsg.

boiteadh, boiled food for horses (H.S.D.), Eng. bait:

boiteag, a maggot; see botus.

boitean, a bundle of hay or straw; for boiteal, from Sc. buttle, Eng. bottle, bundle of hay, from O. Fr. botte.

boitidh, the call to pig, boit, a taste for (Dialectic):

bòl, a bowl; from the English.

boladh, smell, so Ir., O. Ir. bolad, *bulato‑; Lit. bu’ls, dusty air (Bezzenberger). Stokes has compared Lit. bulis, buttock, Skr. buli, vulva.

bolanta, excellent; root bol, as in adhbhal, q.v.

bolla, a boll; from Sc., Eng. boll. Hence also bolla, a buoy.

bolt, a welt, Ir. balta, welt, border; from the Lat. balteus, girdle, Eng. belt. Cf. Eng. welt, W. gwald.

boma, a bomb; from the English.

bonn, foundation, so Ir., O. Ir. bond; Lat. fundus; Skr. budhná; Eng. bottom.

bonn, a coin, so Ir.; possibly from Lat. pondo.

bonnach, cake, bannock, Ir. boinneóg, oaten cake. This word, like the Sc., bannock, appears to be founded on Lat. pānicum, pānis, bread.

bonnanach, a strapping fellow (Mrs M‘Ph.), bonnanaich, active young men (Skye):

borb, fierce, so Ir., O. Ir. borp; allied to, or, more probably, borrowed from, Lat. barbarus.

borbhan, a purling sound; *borvo‑, a stem identical with bervo‑, seethe, Fr. Bourbon, Lat. ferveo, etc. Hence bor­bhanach, base, deep.

bòrc, sprout, swell; see bàrc.

bòrc-lunn, swell-wave (Hend.):

bòrd, a table, Ir., M. Ir., bord, W. bwrdd; from Ag. S., Norse bord.

bòrlanachd, mòrlanachd, compulsory labour for the proprietor; from Eng. bordland, as under bòrlum. Hence M‘Morland. The cairiste, done for propri­etor (M‘K. and Carm.).

bòrlum, a strip of arable land (Hebrides); a frequent place name; from M. Eng. bordland, mensal land, especial­ly the royal castle lands in the Highlands.

bòrlum, a sudden flux or vomiting, a flux; for bòrc-lum; see bòrc.

borr, knob, pride, greatness, great, Ir., E. Ir. borr, *borso‑, bhorso‑; Lat. fastus (for farstus), pride; O. H. G. parrunga, superbia; allied to bàrr, q.v. Hence borrach, a haughty man, a protrud­ing bank, a mountain grass.

bòsd, a boast, Ir. bósd (O’R.), W., Cor. bost; all from Eng. boast, itself of unknown origin.

bòsdan, a little box, Br. bouist; the G. is from early Sc. boyst, M. Eng. boiste, from O. Fr. boiste, Med.Lat. buxida (bossida), which is the Gr. πύξιδα. Hence also Eng. box, G. bosca.

bosgaire, applause (Sh.); bas+gaire, q.v. "palm-noise".

bot, a mound, river bank; cf. bught, botach, a reedy bog.

bòt, a boot; from M.E. bote, Eng. boot. Also bòtuinn, from Sc. booting, Fr. bottine, half-boot.

botaidh, a wooden vessel (size, half anker); formed from M. E. butte, Eng. butt, Fr. botte.

both, perturbation, a plash; see bodhbh.

both, bothan, a hut, bothie, Ir., M. Ir. bothán, both, W. bod, residence, Cor. bod, bos, *buto‑; Lit. bùtas, house; Eng. booth, Norse búð, Ger. bude; root bhu, be. Hence Eng. bothie.

bothar, a lane, street (A.M‘D.), Ir. bothar (Con.), bóthar, E. Ir. bóthar, *bâtro‑, *bâ-tro‑, root , go; Gr. ἔ‑βην, went, βαίνω, go; Skr. , go; Eng. path.

botrumaid, a slattern, (M‘F.); see butrais.

botul, bottle, Ir. buideul, W. potel; from Eng. bottle.

botunn (Lewis), deep water pool (in moors); Norse, botn.

botus, a belly-worm; from M. E. bottes, pl. of bot, bott, of like meaning; Sc. batts. Origin unknown (Murray).

brà, bràth, a quern, Ir. bró, g. brón, E. Ir. bró, g. broon, mill-stone, *brevon‑, *bravon‑; Skr. grâvan‑; Lit. gìrnos; Eng. quern.

brabhd-chasach, bow-legged.

brabhdadh, bravado, idle talk, brabhtalachd, haughtiness (A.M‘D.); from Eng. bravado?

bràc, curve as of waves before breaking, a bellow, branch or deer-horn (Carm.), reindeer (Carm.):

bracach, grayish, braclach, brake: see words in broc-ach, ‑lach.

brachag, pustule; from brach, rot (vb.); see braich, malt. Also brachan, putrefaction.

bràchd, putrescence, fat, rich.

bradach, thievish, braid, theft, Ir. bradach, thievish, roguish, E. Ir. broit, g. braite: *mraddo‑, allied to brath, betray? Scarcely from bṛ‑ont‑, root bher, carry, Lat. fur, etc.

bradan, salmon, Ir. bradán, E. Ir. bratan. Cf. Lit. bradà, water, Ch. Sl. brożdą, wade through.

bradan, a ridgy tumour on the surface of the body (H.S.D.); metaphorically from above word?

bradhadair, a blazing fire, kindling of a fire (Hebrides). Possibly braghadair, from bragh, q.v. Cf. braghadaich, crackling.

brag (Lewis), a sudden creeking noise, Norse brak.

bragaireachd, vain boasting, Ir. bragáireachd, from bragaire, boaster; from the Eng. brag.

bragh, an explosion, peal, O. Ir. braigim, pedo; Lat. fragor, crash, fragrare, Eng. fragrant. See bram.

bràghad, neck, throat, Ir. bráighid, O. Ir. bráge, g. brágat, W. breuant, O. Br. brehant, *brâgṇt‑; Eng. craw, Ger. kragen, collar, M. H. G. krage, neck; Gr. βρόγχος, windpipe, Eng. bronchitis. Bezzenberger (Stokes’ Dict.), refers it to the root of Norse barki, weazand, Gr. φάρυγξ, Eng. pharynx. bràghad is really the gen. of bràighe.

bragsaidh, braxy; from Sc., Eng. braxy.

braich, malt, so Ir., E. Ir. mraich, W., Cor. brag, Br. bragezi, germinate, Gaul. brace (Plin.), genus farris: *mraki; Lit. mèrkti, macerate, márka, flax-hole for steeping; Lat. marcere, fade, marcidus, decayed, rotten. From W. bragod, comes Eng. bragget.

braid, theft; see bradach.

bràid, horse-collar; see bràighdeach.

bràighde, captives, pledges, Ir. bráighe, pl. bráighde, E. Ir. braga, g. bragat, hostage, prisoner, braig, a chain; Gr. βρόχος, noose; Eng. crank, Ger. kringel; I. E. ꬶregh, possibly allied to I. E. ꬶrēgh, neck, as in bràghad. Hence braighdeanas, captivity, also dialectic braigh, hostage, pledge.

bràighdeach, horse-collar, M. Ir. braigdech, older bráigtech; from bràghad. Also bràid.

bràighe, upper part (of places): this is the nom. case of bràghad, which also appears in place names, as Bra’id-Albainn, Braid­albane.

braile, a heavy rain (Sh.):

braile, braighlich, a rattling noise (Perth). Sc. bruilze, Fr. brouille. See braodh­lach.

brailis, wort of ale, Ir. braithlis, M. Ir. braichlis, from braich.

braim, bram, crepitus ventris, Ir. broim, O. Ir. braigim, pedo, W., Cor., Br. bram, *bragsmen, root brag, I. E. bhrag; Lat. fragor, crash, fragrare, etc. Hence bramaire, a noisy fellow.

braisleach, full-formed, bulky man, M. Ir. bras, great, W., Cor., Br. bras, grossus, *brasso‑; Lat. grossus, Fr. gros, bulky.

bràist, a brooch; from the Eng.

braithlìn, linen sheet, so Ir.: *brath+lìn; but brath? M‘E. suggests plài-linn.

braman, misadventure, the Devil; also dialectic broman. M. Ir. bromán means a “boor”, brománach, im­pertinent. The root seems to be breg, brog, brag of breun, braim.

bramasag, a clott-burr, the prickly head of a thistle (H.S.D.):

bran, a raven, Ir., O. Ir. bran, W. brân, crow, Br. bran, crow; *branâ, for gvranâ, with which cf. O. Slav. gavranŭ, raven, but not vrana (do.), as is usually done. The further root is ꬶra, ꬶera, cry, whence Eng. crane, Gr. γέρανος, crane, W. and Cor. garan. Used much in personal and river names.

bran, bran, Ir., W. bran, Br. brenn; G., Ir., and W. are from Eng. bran, from O. Fr. bren, bran, whence Br.

brang a slip of wood in the head-stall of a horse’s halter, resting on the jaw; horse’s collar; brangas, a pillory; from the Sc. branks, a head pillory (for tongue and mouth), a bridle with two wooden side pieces, brank, to bridle; allied to Ger. pranger, pillory, Du. prang, fetter.

branndaidh, brandy; from Eng. brandy, that is "brand or burnt wine".

branndair, a gridiron; from Sc. brander, from brand, burn, etc.

braodag, a huff (Hend.), also (Perth):

braodhlach, brawling, braoileadh, loud noise, Ir. braóilleadh, rattling; a borrowed word, seemingly from Sc., Eng. brawl, confused with Sc. brulye, Eng. broil.

braoileag, a whortleberry, Ir. broileóg, breileóg. Sc. brawlins, brylocks, comes from the Gaelic.

braoisg, a grin, Ir. braos:

braolaid, raving, dreaming; from breathal?

braon, a drop, rain, so Ir., O. Ir. broen; cf. Eng. brine. The attempt to connect it with Gr. βρέχω, or with Lat. rigare, Eng. rain, is un­satis­factory. Stokes derives it from root ver (see fear­thuinn), *vroen, but unlikely.

braonan, praonan, an earth‑nut, bunium flexuosum. Perhaps from braon, a drop—"a bead, nut".

bras, brais, active, rash, Ir. bras, E. Ir. bras, W. brys, haste: *bṛsto‑, I. E. ꬶredh‑, as in greas, q.v.? See also brisg, active.

brasailt a panegyric (M‘A.); E. Ir. bras-scélach, panegyrical; from O. Ir. bras, great, W. and Br. bras; cf. Lat. grossus, Eng. gross. See brais­leach.

brat, a mantle, Ir. brat, O. Ir. bratt, W. brethyn, woollen cloth, Br. broz, petticoat, *bratto‑, *brat-to‑. For root brat, brant, see bréid. Ag. S. bratt, pallium, is borrowed from the Celtic. Hence bratach, flag.

bratag, the furry or grass cater­pillar, Ir. bratóg, "the mantled one", from brat. Cf. cater­pillar = "downy cat", by deri­vation.

brath, information, betrayal, Ir. brath, E. Ir. brath, treason, and mrath also, W. brad, treachery, Cor. bras, Br. barat, O. Br. brat, *mrato‑; Gr. ἁμαρτάνω (‑μαρτ‑), sin, miss, ἤμβροτον (past tense). Cf. mearachd. M. Ir. mairned, treachery.

bràth, judgement, gu bràth, for ever (pron. gu bràch) "till Judgment", so Ir., O. Ir. bráth, judgment, W. brawd, M. Br. breut, Gaul. bratu‑, *brâtu‑; *brâ, *bera, judge, decide, from I. E. bher, in the sense of “say”, as in abair. The Ir. barn, judge, and W. barn, judgment, are hence, and may be compared to Gr. φρήν, φρένες, soul, phre­nology. Hence also breath, or breith (*bṛt‑), q.v. The sense "conflag­ration" given in the Dict. is due to “Druidic” theoris­ings, and is imaginary.

bràthair, brother, Ir. bráthair, O. Ir. bráthir, W. brawd, pl. brodyr, Cor. broder, pl. bredereth, Br. breur, breuzr, pl. breudeur, *brâtêr; Lat. frâter; Eng. brother; Skr. bhrā́ta; etc.

breab, a kick, Ir. preab, M. Ir. prebach, kicking; perhaps from the root form of the following word.

breaban, a patch of leather, Ir. preabán, parcel, piece, patch; from, or allied to, O. Fr. bribe, a piece of bread, alms, Sp. briba, alms; also O. Fr. bribeur, mendicant, bribe­resse, female vaga­bondage and harloting; cf. Ir. preabóg, a wenching jade (O’B.). Eng. bribe is from the French.

breac, speckled, so Ir., E. Ir. brecc, W. brych, Br. brec'h, smallpox, *mṛkko‑s, *mṛg-ko‑, root mṛꬶ; Lit. márgas, speckled, pied; Gr. ἀμαρύσσω, twinkle. There is an O. Ir. mrecht, W. brith, of like meaning and origin, viz. mṛk-to, from mṛg-to‑. Hence breac, smallpox, W. brech, and breac, trout, W. brithyll.

breacan, plaid, Ir. breacán, W. brecan, rug; from breac. Rhys regards W. as borrowed from Irish.

breac‑shianain, freckles:

breacag, a pancake, W. brechdan, slice of bread and butter, bṛg-ko‑, bṛg, as in bairghin, bread? (Rev. Celt. 17102). See breachdan.

breachd, seizing =beireachd.

breachdan, custard (Lh.), M. Ir. brechtán, a roll, W. brithog; from mṛg-to‑, Ir. brecht, W. brith, motley, mixed. See under breac.

brèagh, fine, Ir. breágh, M. Ir. breagha (O’Cl.), *breigavo‑s, root breig, brîg, as in brìgh, q.v.? Ir. breagh or breaghda = Bregian, Tir Breg. (Ir. J. No. 119).

† breall, knob, glens mentulæ, D. of Lismore breyl, Ir. breall, bṛs-lo‑, root bers, bors, as in G. borr, bàrr, Eng. bristle. Hence bril­leanach, lewd, q.v. breall=bod (Glen­moriston).

breaman, tail of sheep or goat, podex; cf. Ir. breim, by-form of braim, q.v.

breamas, mischief, mishap, the Devil; an e vowel form of braman?

breanan, dunghill (Sh.); from breun, q.v.

breath, row, layer: *bṛtâ, a slice, root bher of beàrn.

breath, judgment, so Ir., O. Ir. breth, *bṛtâ, W. bryd, Gaul. vergo‑bretus, *bṛto‑s. For root, see bràth. Spelt also breith.

breathas, frenzy (M‘A.); see breisleach.

bréid, a kerchief, so Ir., E. Ir. bréit, *brenti‑, roots brent, brat; Skr. granth, tie, knot, grathnâti; Ger. kranz, garland, Eng. crants (Rhys). The Skr. being allied to Gr. γρόνθος, fist, seems against this deri­vation (Stokes), not to mention the diffi­culty of Gr. θ and Skr. th cor­respond­ing to Celtic t. Possibly from root bhera, cut, Gr. φᾶρος, cloth (Windisch). Cf. W. brwyd, braid.

breisleach, confusion, delirium, nightmare, Ir. breisleach (O’R., Fol.), breaghas­lach (Lh.) from breith‑, *bret, *bhre‑t; bhre, mind, as in Gr. φρέν, mind? Cf. E. Ir. Breslech Mór Mur­theimme; brislech, “overthrow”.

breith, bearing, birth, so Ir. and E. Ir., bṛtí‑s; Skr. bhṛti‑; Eng. birth; etc.: root bher, bear; see beir.

breitheal, confusion of mind; from breith‑, as in breisleach. Also breathal and preathal.

breitheanas, judgment, Ir. breith­eamhnus, E. Ir. brith­eamnas; from brithem, a judge, stem britheman, to which is added the abstract termi­nation ‑as (=astu‑). From britheamh, q.v.

breo, breoth, rot, putrefy:

breochaid, any tender or fragile thing (M‘A.); from breo.

breòcladh, clumsy patching, breòclaid, sickly person: breódh+ clad (= cail of buachail). See breóite.

breòite, infirm, Ir. breóite, breódhaim, I enfeeble (Keat.), *brivod‑; cf. W. briw, break, *brîvo‑, possibly allied to Lat. frivolus.

breolaid, dotage, delirium; cf. breitheal, etc.

breug, briag, a lie, Ir. breug, bréag, O. Ir. bréc, *brenkâ; Skr. bhramça, loss, deviation.

breun, putrid, so Ir., E. Ir. brén, W. braen, Br. brein; *bregno‑, bragno‑, foul, from root, breg, brag, of braim. Strachan takes it from *mrak-no‑; Lat. marcidus, rancid, as in braich, q.v.

briagail, prattling:

briathar, a word, so Ir. and O. Ir. *brêtrâ (O. Ir. is fem.; G. is mas., by analogy?), *brê, ablaut to brâ‑ of bràth, q.v. Bezzenberger would refer it to O. H. G. chweran, sigh (see gerain) and even to O. H. G. chrâjan, Eng. crow.

brìb, a bribe, Ir. bríb; from the Eng.

bricein‑, a prefix to certain animal names; from breac.

brìdeach, a dwarf (Arm., Sh.), Ir. brideach (Lh., O’B.). See brìdeag, little woman. Shaw also gives it the meaning of “bride”, which is due to Eng. influences.

brìdeag, a little woman, Ir. brídeag, a figure of St. Bridget made on the Saint’s eve by maidens for divination purposes. See Brighid in the list of Proper Names. Shaw gives bridag, part of the jaw, which H.S.D. reproduces as brìdeag.

brìdeun, a little bird, sea-piet (M‘A. for latter meaning): seemingly formed on the analogy of the two foregoing words.

brìg, a heap (H.S.D., M‘A.): "brìg mhòine", a pile of peats; cf. Norse brík, square tablet, piece, Eng. brick.

brìgh, pith, pwer, Ir. brígh, O. Ir. bríg, W. bri, dignity, rank, Cor. bry, Br. bri, respect, *brîga, *brîgo‑; Gr. βρῖ = βριαρός, strong, mighty, βρίμη (ι long), strength, anger; Skr. jri, overpower, jrayas, extent; an I. E. ꬶri‑, ꬶrī‑, ꬶrei‑. Bezzenberger suggests Ger. krieg, war, striving: *ꬶreigh? This may be from the root brî above.

brilleanach, lewd, briollair, briollan, from breall, q.v.

brìm, pickle (Arg.); from Eng. brine.

brimin bodaich, a shabby carle; for breimein, a side form of braman; root breg, brag? But cf. Norse brimill, phoca fetida mas.

brìobadh, bribing; see bríb, which also has the spelling brìob.

brìodal, lovers' language, caressing, flattery; also brionnda, caressing, brionnal, flattery; possibly from brionn, a lie, dream (Ir.), as in brionglaid, q.v. M. Ir. brinneal means a beautiful young maid or a matron. Cf. briagadh. Arran brìd, whisper.

briog, thrust, Ir. priocam; from the Eng. prick.

briogach, mean-spirited:

brìoghas, fervour of passion; cf. W. brywus, bryw, vigorous.

briogais, breeches, Ir. brigis; from the Eng. breeks, breeches.

briollag, an illusion (Sh.); Ir. brionn, dream, reverie. The G. seems for brion‑lag. See next.

brionglaid, a confusion, dream, Ir. brionnglóid, a dream; from brionn, a dream, a lie. In the sense of “wrangling”, briong­laid is purely a Scotch Gaelic word, from Sc., Eng. brangle, of like force.

brionnach, pretty (M‘F.), fair (Sh.), glittering, Ir. brinneall, a beautiful young woman, a matron.

brionnach, brindled, striped; from the Eng. brinded, now brindled.

brìos, mockery (A.M‘D.), half-intoxication (M‘A.):

briosaid, a girdle (Arm.), from Eng. brace?

briosg, start, jerk, so Ir.; from brisg, active, q.v.

briosgaid, a biscuit, M. Ir. brisca (F.M.); founded on Eng. biscuit, but by folk‑etymology made to agree with brisg, brittle (Gaidoz).

briosuirneach, ludicrous; cf. brìos, mockery, etc.

briot, briotal, chit‑chat, Ir. †briot, chatter, briotach, a stammerer: bṛt-to, bṛ‑t, root bar, ber, as in Lat. barbarus, Gr. βάρβαρος, βερβερίζω, I stammer. The reference of briot to the name Breat­naich or Britons as foreign­ers and stammer­ers is scarcely happy.

bris, break, so Ir., O. Ir. brissim, *brestô, I break, root bres, bhres; O. H. G. brestan, Ag. S. berstan, Eng. burst, Fr. briser, break. Distantly allied to *berso‑s, short, G. beàrr. Brugmann has compared the Gaelic to Gr. πέρθω, destroy, from bherdho‑, giving a Celtic stem bṛd-to‑, and bṛd-co‑ for brisg.

brisg, brittle, Ir. briosg, E. Ir. brisc, Br. bresq: *bres-co‑; root bres of bris above.

brisg, lively, Ir. brisc, W. brysg; all from the Eng. brisk, of Scandi­navian origin (Johansson, Zeit. xxx.).

brisgein, cartilage; from Norse brjósk, cartilage, bris, Sw. and Dan. brusk; Ger. brausche, a lump (from a bruise).

brisgein, brislein, white tansy; from brisg, brittle.

britheamh, a judge, Ir. breitheamh, O. Ir. brithem, g. britheman; root bṛt‑, of breath, judgment, q.v.

broc, a badger, so Ir., E. Ir. brocc, W., Cor., broch, Br. broc’h, *brokko‑s: *bork-ko‑, "grey one"; root bherk, bhork, bright, Gr. φορκός, grey, Lit. berszti, Eng. bright? Thurney­sen cfs. the Lat. broccus, having project­ing teeth, whence Fr. broche (from Lat. *brocca, a spike, etc.), a spit, Eng. broach, brooch; he thinks the badger was named broccos from his snout, and he instances the Fr. brochet, pike, as parallel by deri­vation and analogy. If Gr. βρύκω, bite, is allied to Lat. broccus, the underly­ing idea of broc may rather be the “biter”, “gripper”. Bezzen­berger suggests Russ. barsúkŭ, Turk. porsuk, Magyar borz; or *brokko‑s, from *bhrod-ko‑s, Skr. bradhná, dun.

brocach, greyish in the face, speckled, Ir. brocach, broc, W. broc, grizzled, roan; from broc.

brochan, gruel, porridge, Ir. brochán, O. Ir. brothchán; broth-chán, *broti‑, cookery; root bru, I. E. bhru, whence Eng. broth, Lat. defrutum, must. See bruith.

bròchlaid, trash, farrago; root bhreu, bhru, as in brochan; bhreu varies with bhrou, G. brò.

bròcladh, spoiling, mangling; see breòclaid.

brod, a lid; from Sc. brod, side form of Eng. board.

brod, a goad, prickle, Ir. brod, E. Ir. brott, W. brath, Cor. broz, Br. brout, *broddos, from broz-do‑; O. H. G. brort, edge, Norse broddr, sting, Eng. brod, brad, Ag. S. brord, sting.

brod, the choice of anything; from the above, in the sense of “excess.” Cf. corr.

bròd, pride, bròdail, proud, Ir. bród, etc. In Arran (Sc.) we find pròtail, which is a step nearer the origin. From the Eng. proud.

brodan, mastiff, E. Ir. brotchu, W. brathgi; from brod, "good".

bròd, a crowd, brood, bròdach, in crowds; from the Eng. brood?

bròg, a shoe, Ir. bróg, M. Ir. brócc, E. Ir. bróc, pl. bróca, used in compounds for various nether garments; from Norse brókr, Ag. S. bróc, pl. bréc, Eng. breech, breeks (Zimmer, Zeit. xxx.). See briogais.

brog, stimulate, an awl; from Sc. brog, prog. Cf. W. procio, thrust, poke, from M. E. prokien, stimulare. Thurney­sen takes Sc. and G. from Fr. broche, Lat. *brocca (see broc). Hence brogail, “active”, “in good form”.

brogach, a boy, young lad, from brog?

broidneireachd, embroidery, Ir. broidineireachd; from the Eng. broider, embroi­dery.†

broigheal, cormorant, Ir. broighioll:

broighleadh, bustle; from Sc. brulye (Eng. broil), Fr. brouiller, It. broglio. See braodh­lach.

broighleag, whortleberry; see braoileag.

broigileineach, substantial; from broigeil, a by‑form of brogail; see brogach.

broilein, king’s hood; pig’s snout (Badenoch): root bhru, brow?

broilleach, a breast, Ir., E. Ir. brollach: *bron-lach; for *bron, see bruinne.

broineag, a rag, ill-clad female, bronag, a crum (Dialectic); possibly from the root of bronn, dis­tribute. Shaw spells it broinneag, M‘F. as above.

broinn, belly (Dialectic); the dat. of brù used dialectically as nom.; see brù.

broit, the bosom; properly the breast covering (H.S.D., for latter meaning); cf. G. brot, O. Ir. broiténe, palliolum. The word appears to be from brat, mantle, with a leaning for meaning on bruinne, breast.

brolaich, incoherent talk (as in sleep), brolasg, garrulity, Ir. brol­asgach, prattling; cf. W. brawl, brol, boasting, Eng. brawl, Du. brallen, boast.

brolamas, a mess (D. C. Mc. Ph.) (Glenmoriston); same root as brollach.

broluinn, brothluinn, boiling, "æstus", tide-boiling; from broth, boiling, as in brollach, etc.

brollach, a mess; cf. E.R. brothlach, the Fénian cooking pit, from broth, as in brochan, q.v.

bromach, a colt, Ir. bromach: *brusmo‑, *brud‑, *bru, as in Eng. em-bryo?

bròn, grief, Ir., O. Ir. brón, W. brwyn, smarting, sorrow, *brugno‑s; Gr. βρύχω (υ long), gnash the teeth; Lit. gráużiu, gnaw, Pol. zgryzota, sorrow.

bronn, grant, distribute, M. G. bronnagh (1408 charter), Ir. bronnaim, E. Ir. bronnaim, brondaim, bestow, spend: *brundo‑, *bhrud-no‑, I. E. root bhrud; Ag. S. bryttian, deal out, Norse bryti, a steward (cf. Gr. ταμίας, steward, “cutter”), brytja, chop, Eng. brittle, Teut. brut, chop; perhaps Lat. frustum, bit.

brosdaich, stir up, Ir. brosduighim, E. Ir. brostugud, inciting. The word is from the root bros‑, in brosdo‑ of brod, q.v., being here bros-to‑, which become brosso‑, and later reverts to brost, brosd, or remains as in brosnaich. Stokes says it is founded on Low Lat. brosdus, brusdus, broidery, “done by a needle”, or brosd, which is of Teutonic origin and cognate with G. brod, already given as the root. Hence brosgadh, stimu­lation, etc. The Ir. brosna, O. Ir. brosne, faggot, may be hence; the root bhrud, discussed under bronn, has also been suggested.

brosgul, flattery, fawning (especially of a dog); possibly from the root form brost, in brosdaich, brosgadh.

brosnaich, incite; see brosdaich. This is the best G. form; brosdaich is rather literary and Irish.

brot, broth; from the Eng. broth.

brot, a veil, upper garment, O. Ir. broiténe, palliolum; G. is a by-form of brat.

broth, itch, Ir. broth, *bruto‑; see bruthainn for root. Also (rarely) bruth.

broth, lunar halo (Arg.), or brogh; cf. O. Ir. bruth, heat, under bruthainn. Sc. broch, Ulster Ir. broth.

brothag, the bosom, a fold of the breast clothes; *broso‑, root brus of bruinne, breast.

brothas, farrago, brose, Ir. brothus, from M. E. brewis, Sc. brose See bruthaist, the best G. form.

brù, g. bronn, belly, so Ir., O. Ir. brú, brond; W. bru: *brûs, *brus-nos, root brus, I. E. bhrus, bhreus; Teut. breust‑, Norse brjóst, Eng. breast, Ger. brust. Stokes refers it to the root bru, to swell, Gr. βρύω, am full, ἐμ-βρυον, embryo (whence Eng. embryo), or to Skr. bhrûṇá, embryo. See bruinne.

bruach, a bank, brink, Ir., O. Ir. bruach: *brou-ko‑, I. E. bhrû, brow, Gr. ὀφρύς, eyebrow, Eng. brow, Lit. bruvis, O. Ir. brúad, (dual). Also E. Ir. brú, bank, border. Stokes suggests either the root of brùth, bruise, or Lit. briau-nà, edge.

bruachaire, a surly fellow, one that hovers about, Ir. bruachair­eachd, hovering about; bruach.

bruadar, bruadal, a dream, Ir. bruadair, W. breuddwyd: *braud or *brav‑: fraus, fraud?

bruaillean, bruaidlean, trouble, grief; from bruadal, above.

bruais, crush to peices, gnash (Dialectic): *bhraud-so‑, Lat. fraus, Eng. brittle.

bruan, thrust, wound; from the root of brùth.

bruan, a fragment; *bhroud-no‑, from *bhroud, break, Ag. S. bréostan, break, Eng. brittle, etc., as under bronn. Strachan also suggests *bhroucno‑, Lett. brukt, crumple, and Stokes the root of brùth.

brùc, seaweed cast ashore (Lewis); Norse brúk, drid heaps of seaweed.

brucach, spotted in the face, smutted, Ir. brocach: "badger-like"; see broc. The Sc. broukit, brooked, is of uncertain origin (Murray). Hence brucadh­adh, irregular digging, brucan­aich, the peep of dawn (M‘A.), etc.

brucag, bruchag, a chink, eylet (Sh.), dim candle light (H.S.D.). Sh. gives bruchag, H.S.D. brucag, which appears only to apply to the "dim candle light; from brucach.

brùchd, belch, burst out, so Ir., E. Ir. brúchtaim, eructo, vomo, W. brytheiro (vb.), brythar (n.).

bruchlag, a hovel; from brugh, q.v.

bruchlas, the fluttering of birds going to rest (Sh.):

bruchorcan, stool bent, heath rush; said to be derived from †brú, a hind, and corc-an, oats, “deer’s oats”. Also bruth-chorcan.

brudhach, a brae; see bruthach.

brudhaist, brose; see bruthaist.

brugh, large house, a tumulus, so Ir., E. Ir. brug, mrug, land, holding, mark, W. bro, country, region, land, Cym-mro, a Welshman, pl. Cymmry (*com-mroges), Br. bro, country, Gaul. Brogi‑: *mrogi (for Gadelic); Lat. margo; Got. marka, border-country, Ag. S. mearc, border, Eng. mark, march.

bruich, boil, cook; gutturalised form of bruith (cf. bràth, bràch). See bruith. The Ir. bruighim appears in O’R., and has been compared to Lat. frîgo, Gr. φρύγω, roast; but it is evidently a bad spelling of bruith.

bruid, captivity, Ir. bruid, M. Ir. *brat, g. braite, E. Ir. acc. broit, *braddâ. For root, see bradach.

bruid, bruidich, stab, goad, Ir. bruidighim: the verb from brod, a goad.

brùid, a brute, Ir. brúid; from Eng. brute.

bruidheann, bruidhinn, talk, conversation, Ir. bruíghinn, scolding speech, a brawl (also bruith­eann), O. Ir. fris-brudi, renuit, W. cyfrau, song, O. Br. co-brouol, verbialia, *mru, say; Skr. brû, bravati, says, Zend mrû, speak. O’Grady (S. Gad. xvi.) connects E. Ir. brudin, hospitium; says meaning really is “quarrel”. He gives Ir. as bruidhen. Stokes E. Ir. brudin, *brodìna, Eng. board (Z. 33).

bruidlich, stir up; see bruid, stab, goad.

brùill, bruise, thump; a derivative from brùth, q.v.

brùillig, a person of clumsy figure and gait (H.S.D., which refers the word to brù, belly); from brù?

bruim-fheur, switch grass, so Ir.: from braim-fheur, a term to denote its worthless­ness.

Brùinidh, the Brownie; from Sc. Brownie, the benevolent farmhouse goblin, from Eng. brown. Cf. the Norse Svart-álfr or dark elves.

bruinne, breast, O. Ir. bruinne, W. bron, Cor. and M. Br. bronn, *brus-no, root bhrus, bhreus; Norse brjóst, Ger. brust, Eng. breast. Stokes gives the root as brend, from I. E. ꬶrendh, swell, be haughty, Gr. βρέν­θύομαι, strut, bear oneself loftily, Lat. grandis, Ch. Sl grądǐ, breast. Usually cor­related with Got. brunjô, breast­plate, M. H. G. brünne, N. brynja, coat of mail, M. Eng. brynie, Sc. byrnie: a satis­factory enough deri­vation, and ultimate­ly from the same root as the first one given above (I. E. bhru). Indeed Stokes says the Teut. is borrowed from the Celtic.

bruinneadh, the from (Dialectic), O. Ir. bruinech, prow, Cor. brenniat, prow, *bronjo‑, to which Bez. compares Ger. grans, prow (I. E. ꬶh = G. b?). From root of bruinne.

bruis, a brush, Ir. bruis (vulg.); from the Eng. brush.

bruiteach, warm; from *bruth, heat; see bruthainn.

bruith, boil, cook, so Ir., E. Ir. bruith, cooking, *broti‑, from the root bru, I. E. bhru; Eng. broth (Teut. broþo‑, I. E. bhruto‑, and brew (I. E. bhreu); Lat. defrutum, must; Thrac. Gr. βρῦτον, beer.

brunsgal, rumbling noise; bronn + sgal? From brù, in any case.

brusg, a crumb, particle of food, Ir. bruscán, brusgar, broken ware, useless fragments, brus, refuse of corn: from *brus, short form of *brûs in brùth.

brutach, digging, the act of digging (N. H. according to H.S.D.): *brutto‑, *bhrud-to‑, root bhrud, break? See bronn.

brùth, bruise, pound, Ir. brúighim, E. Ir. brúim, *brûs, strike, graze, pound; Pre. Celt. bhreus; Ag. S. brýsan, bruise, Eng. bruise (influ­enced by Fr.); perhaps O. Slav. brŭsnąti, cor­rumpere, radere.

bruthach, a brae: *brut-acos, root bru, from bhru, brow; see bruach. Sc. brae is of a similar origin, founded on Norse brá, eyelid, brow (Murray).

bruthainn, sultriness, heat, Ir., O. Ir. bruth, fervour, W. brwd, hot, Br. brout, hot (fire), O. Br. brot: *brutu‑. For further root see bruith. Wider are Lat. ferveo, fervor, Eng. burn, etc.

bruthaist, brose; from early Sc., Eng. browes, Sc. brose; from the Fr., but allied to Eng. broth.

bu, was, Ir. budh, O. Ir. by: Proto-Gaelic *bu for a Celtic bu‑t; Gr. ἕφυ (υ long), aorist tense; Lat. fuit; Skr. ábhût, was; I. E. é‑bhû‑t. The root is bheu, bhu; Eng. be, etc. Both G. and Ir. aspirate, which shows the t of the 3rd sing. dis­appeared early.

buabhall, unicorn, buffalo, M. Ir. buabhall, W. bual; from Lat. bubalus, buffalo, gazelle, whence (būfalus) Eng. buffalo.

buabhall, a trumpet, Ir. bubhall, buadhbhall, M. Ir. buaball, W. bual, bugle; cf. M. Ir. buabhall, horn, W. bual, buffalo horn, M. Ir. corn buabhaill; whence the further force of “trumpet”.

buachaill, a herdsman, so Ir., O. Ir. bóchaill, buachaill, W. bugail, Cor., Br. bugel; Gr. βουκόλος, cowherd (Lat. bucolicus, Eng. bucolic, βου‑, cow, and ‑κολος, attendant, Lat. colo, cultivate.

buachar, cow-dung, Ir. buacar, buachar (Con.), Br. beuzel; for the stem before the suffix ‑ar, cf. W. buwch (*boukkâ), though bou-cor‑ or bouk-cor‑, "cow-offcast", may properly be the deri­vation for the Gadelic. See and, possibly, cuir. Cf. salchar.

buadhghallan, buaghallan, ragwort, Ir. buadhghallan, M. Ir. buath­bhallan, buath­fallan: “virtue bearing wort?” More probably it is buaf-bhallan, “toad-wort”, from buaf, toad, reptile, from Lat. bûfo. The Welsh call it “serpent’s weed”, llysiau’r nedir. Ir. baufanau is “mugwort”; buadhar­lann (Hend.).

buaic, a wick, Ir. buaic; from Eng. wick, Ag. S. weoca?

buaic, bleaching lees, Ir. buac; from M. E. bouken, steep in lye, Eng. buck, Ger. bauchen; Fr. buer, from a Lat. type *bûcare. See fùcadh.

buaicneach, smallpox (Suth.); founded on a later form of Lat. bucca, as in bucaid, q.v.

buaidh, victory, virtue, so Ir., O. Ir. buaid, W. budd, O. Br. bud, Gaul. boud‑, in many personal names, whether as the only root (cf. Boudicca, “Victrix”) or in compounds, either initial or as second part: *boudi‑; Norse býti, exchange, Ger. beute, booty, Eng. booty, Fr. butin (do.).

buaidheam, fits of inconstancy; cf. buathadh.

buail, strike, so Ir., E. Ir. bualaim: *budlo- or *boudlo‑, *boud, Pre‑Celt. bhoud, bheud; Ag. S. béatan, Eng. beat, beetle, Ger. beutel, beetle (Strachan). See buille. Stokes gives the form *buglaô, root bug, bhug, as in Ger. pochen, Eng. poke.

buaile, a fold, pen, so Ir., E. Ir. buale; Lat. bovile; from *bov‑, cow.

buaill, place for resting and milking (Lewis). Cf. Norse ból.

buain, reap, Ir., O. Ir. buain, inf. of bongaim, reap, break: *bogni‑ or *bongni‑? For root, see bochd.

buair, tempt, vex, Ir. buaidhirim, E. Ir. buadraim, O. Ir. buadartha, turbu­lentus: *boud-ro‑; possibly from bhoud, strike, the idea coming from a form *boudro‑, a goad, goading? G. has buaireadh, buair, a rage.

bual-chòmhla, sluice (M‘L.) (an fhamh bhual, water vole); M. Ir. bual, flowing sluice water, E. Ir. roth-búali, water-wheel, *bogla, Eng. beck, Ger. bach (St.) (Zim.).

bualtrach, cow‑dung, so Ir. buartlach (Dial. Ir.); from buar, cattle.

buamastair, a blockhead.

buan, lasting, Ir. buan, lasting, fixed, E. Ir. buan: “being, during”, from *bu, be, I. E. bhu, be; Lit. butinas, being, during, from buti, be; Norse búa, dwell, Got. bauan, etc. Stokes gives the G. stem as buvano‑s, and cfs. Skr. bhûvana, existence. Hence buanaich, persevere.

buana, an idle person who lives on the best his neighbours can afford (Lewis) (M‘A.):

buanna, a mercenary, a billeted soldier, so Ir.:

buannachd, profit; from buain, reap, with irregularly doubled n (see cinne, linne, seann, bann- for ban‑, miann? Cf. Ir. buannacht, soldiers billeting from a tenant (Joyce).

buar, cattle, so Ir., E. Ir. búar, cattle of the cow kind; from , cow: *bovâro‑; cf. Lat. boarius.

buarach, cow-fetter, Ir., E. Ir. buarach: for bó-árach, "cow-fetter", árach being for ad-rig-os, root rig of cuibh­reach, q.v.

buathadh, a rushing, a mad fit:

bùb, roar, Ir. bub: onomatopoetic. Cf. Lat. baubor, bay, Gr. βαύζω, bark, Lit. bubauti, roar.

bùban, coxcomb, Ir. bubán; cf. Eng. booby.

bucach, a boy (dial.): “growing one”; founded on Lat. bucca as in the following word.

bucaid, a pustule, Ir. bucóid, a spot, E. Ir. boccóit; from Brittonic Lat. buccâtus, from bucca, puffed cheek (Eng. debouch, rebuke).

bucall, a buckle, Ir. bucla, W. bwcl; from M. Eng. bukyll, Eng. buckle, from Fr. boucle, from Lat. bucula, cheek‑strap, from bucca, cheek.

bùchd, size (Sh. buc); from Sc. bouk, i.e. bulk.

buchainn, melodious (A. M‘D.):

buchallach, nestling (adj.): *buth-chal, "house tending"? buchal­lach (M‘L. Teachd. Gaidh.):

budach, poult (Suth.): see pùt.

budagochd, snipe (M‘L.), woodcock (H.S.D.). It seems a reminis­cence of Eng. woodcock.

budhaigir, the puffin, buigire, (M‘A., for St. Kilda), Sc. bowger, the coulter-neb; somehow from Norse bugr, curve, “bent-bill”?

budhailt, a window-like recess in a wall; from Sc. bowall, boal, bole. Origin unknown (Murray).

budhag, a bundle of straw: root bud, which underlies Fr. botte, bundle? See boitean.

bugha, a green spot by a stream (Skye), bogha (Rob.).

buideal, a bottle, cask, Ir. buideul, W. potel; from Eng. bottle. See botul.

buidealaich, a conflagration, Ir. buite, fire, buitealach (Lh.†, O’Cl., O’B.), bott (O’Cl.): *bud-do‑, root bhud (Lat. fustis, bhud-tis, Eng. beetle), giving the idea of “faggot”, “firewood?”

buidhe, yellow, so Ir., O Ir. buide; Lat. badius, Eng. bay.

buidhe, now buidheachas, thanks, Ir. buidhe, O Ir. buide (W. boddaw, please, bodd, will?), *budo‑, I. E. bhudh, bheudh; Gr. πεύθομαι, learn by inquiry; Ag. S. béodan, command, Eng. for-bid.

buidhe, glad to, had to, O Ir. buithi, participle of necessity, from the verb , be: “Is amlid is buithi do chách”—Thus ought it to be with every one (9th Cent. glosses); G. “Is buidhe do gach neach”.

buidheann, a company, Ir. buidhean, O Ir. buden, W. byddin, O. Br. bodin, manus, *bodînâ; O. H. G. chutti, troop, band, O. Fries. kedde, Ger. kette, covey; I. E. : go, drive; cf. Lit. gůtas, herd.

buidhinn, gain, win, buinnig, act of gaining, gain; from the Eng. win, winning.

buil, effect, use, Ir. boil, *bol, *bel: Pre-Celt. bhel, bhol; Gr. ὄφελος, advantage, ὠφέλέω, help.

buileach, total, entirely; another form of baileach. E. Ir. has bulid, blooming.

buileastair, a bullace or sloe (M‘D., Sh.); from M. E. bolaster = bullace-tree, from bolace, now bullace.

builionn, a loaf, Ir. builín; from O. Fr. boulange, ball-shaped loaf (?), which Diez suggests as the basis of Fr. boulanger, baker.

buille, a blow, so Ir., E. Ir. bulle, buille = bollia = bus-liâ + bhud-s-liâ; root bhud, beat, as in buail, q.v. Stokes gives the stem as *boldja, allied to Lit. béldżiu, belsti, give a blow, baldas, a beetle; Ger. poltern.

buillsgean, centre, Ir. boilsceán, M. Ir. bolscén, middle, midriff = bolgán, from balg, bolg, belly.

buin, belong to, Ir. beanaim. The Ir. is from the verb bean, touch; the G., which has the idea of relationship or origin (Cha bhuin e dhomh: he is not related to me), seems to confuse bean and bun, stock.

buinne, a cataract, tide, Ir. buinne, a spout, tap, E. Ir. buinne, wave, rush of water: G. buinneach, flux, diarrhœa, so Ir.; see boinne. Also puinne (Suth.) (W.Ross).

buinneag, a twig, sprout, Ir. buinneán, E. Ir. buinne: *bus-niâ; root bus, as in Eng. bush, bosky, Ger. busch, etc.

buinnig, winning; see buidhinn.

buinnire, a footman, so Ir.; from bonn, sole of the foot.

bùir, bùirich, roar, bellow (as a bull), Ir. búireadh, roaring; E. Ir. búraim; *bû-ro‑, I. E. root ꬶevo, ꬶû, cry; Gr. βοάω, shout; Lit. gauju, howl; Skr. gu, cry. Strachan gives as G. stem bucro‑, root buq as in Lat. buccina, horn, Gr. βύκτης, howling, Skr. bukkāras, lion’s roar, Norwg. bura, to bellow, Shet. boorik, cow.

buirdeiseach, a free man, burgess, Ir. buirgéiseach; from the Eng. burgess.

buirleadh, language of folly and ridicule; from the Romance burla, to jest, etc. See burraidh.

bùirseach, a deluge of rain; a rousing fire (Heb.):

buiseal, a bushel, Ir. buiseul; from Eng. bushel.

bùit, bashful (Badenoch): "fugy", as a fowl; see pùt

bùiteach, a threat (Suth.): a form of bòidich?

buitseach, a witch, so Ir.; from Eng. witch; “buidseach agus raitseach”.

bùlas, pot hook; from the Sc. bools, a pot hook in two parts or “bools”, M. Eng. bool, a pail handle, round part of a key, Ger. bügel, arc: from Teut. beugan, bend, Eng. bow. Dialectic pùlas.

bumailear, bungler; from Sc. bummeler, from bummil, bungle, Eng. bumble; of onomatopoetic origin (Murray). Cf. Ger. bummler, a lounger.

bun, root, stock, bottom, Ir., E. Ir. bun, W. bon, stem, trunk, O. W. boned; Armen. bun; N. Pers. bun, Zd. buna‑ (Bugge). Rhys has suggested a connection with Ger. bühne, a stage, boards. Ag. S. bune, “stalk, reed”, may be allied. It cannot be connected with bonn, for the stem there is bhudh-no‑, root bhudh. The ultimate root of bun, in any case, is simply bhu, bhû, grow, swell, Gr. φύω, φῦλον, a tribe, Eng. boil (n.), Ger. beule, a swelling, Skr. bhumis, earth; bhû, grow, is identical with bhu, be.

bunach, coarse tow, refuse of flax, so Ir.; from bun.

bunait, foundation, Ir. bunáit: bun+áit, q.v.

bungaìd, a hussy (Dial.); from Sc. bungy, pettish.

bunndaist, a bounty, grassum, Ir. bunntaiste; from Eng. poundage.

bunnlum, steadiness, bunntam, bunntamas, solidity, shrewdness; from bun, foundation. Cf. Ir. buntomhas, well founded opinion: bun + tomhas, q.v.

bunnsach, a twig, so Ir., E. Ir. bunsach; see buinneag.

bunnsach, a sudden rush; from buinne.

bunntam, solidity; see bunnlum.

buntàta, potato, Ir. potáta, fataidhe; from the English. It contains a piece of folk-etymologising in the syllable bun‑, root.

buntuinn, belonging; see buin.

bùrach, turning up of the earth, digging; from the Sc. bourie, Eng. burrow. The Sc. bourach, enclosure, cluster, knoll, heap, etc., is the Eng. bower.

burgaid, a purge, Burgadoir, Purgatory; see purgaid, Purgadoir.

bùrlam, a flood, rush of water (Arg.); see bòrlum.

burmaid, wormwood; from the Eng. M. Ir. in uormoint.

bùrn, water; from Sc. burn, water, spring-water, Eng. bourne, burn, a stream, Teut. brunnon‑, a spring, Norse brunnr, well, Ger. brunnen.

burrachdadh, raging:

burraidh, a blockhead, Ir. búrraidh; from Sc. burrio (1535), Fr. bourrieau, Lat. burræ, nonsense, Eng. burlesque, etc.

burral, a howl, lamentation, so Ir.; for the root, which is here short (*bur-ro‑?), see bùir. Cf. bururus, however.

burras, a caterpillar:

burr‑, as in burr’caid, clumsy person, burr’ghlas, a torrent of rage, etc, seems from borr, great, excessive, q.v. Burr’sgadh, a burst of passion, may be from Eng. borasco, squall of wind.

bùrt, mockery; from Sc. bourd, M. Eng. bourd, jest, Fr. bourde, a lie.

bururus, infant lisping, warbling, purling; cf. Eng. purr and purl (Skeat). Evidently onomato­poetic.

bus, a mouth, kiss, Ir., M. Ir. bus, *bussu‑; Pre-Celt. ꬶuss‑; Teut. kuss, Ger. küssen, kiss, Eng. kiss (Kluge). Bezzen­berger cfs. Lit buczúti, kiss; others give buc-sa, allied to Lat. bucca, cheek.

busgadh, dressing; from the Sc., Eng. busk.

busgaid, a bustle (M‘D.); formed from Eng. busy; cf. Ag. S. bysgu, business.

bustail, puffing, blowing (Heb.); from bus.

butadh, a push; see putadh.

butag, oar pin; see putag.

bùth, a shop; from the Eng. booth, Norse búð, shop, root bhu, be. See bothan.

buthainnich, thump, thrash, bang; from the root bhud, beat (Eng. beat)? See next.

buthuinn, long straw for thatch; cf. sputhainn, straw not threshed, but seedless (Arg.), which seems from spoth.

butrais, butarrais, a mess: