An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/G

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An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain
G

G

gab, a tattling mouth; from Sc. gab (do.), M. Eng. gabben, to chatter, mock, Norse gabb, mockery, O.Fris gabbia, accuse.

gàbairt, a transport vessel (Heb.); from Sc. gabert, a lighter, from Fr. gabarre, storeship, lighter.

gabh, take, Ir. gabhaim, O. Ir. gabaim, gaib, capit, inf. gabáil, W. gafael, prehensio (Eng. gavelkind), Cor gavel: *gabô, capio, do, *gabagli; Got. giban, give, Ger. geben, Eng. give; Lit. gabénti, bring.

gàbhadh, danger, peril, Ir. gábha(dh), E. Ir. gába, gábud: cf. E. Ir. gád, danger, Gr. χάζω, retire, χζίος, want, χωρίς, Lat. hé-res.

gabhagan, a titlark (Sh., O'R., H.S.D.):

gabhal, fork; see best G. form in gobhal.

gabhann, flattery (Kirk, etc.; O’R.), gossip (Perth); from gabh: “take in”?

gabhar, goat; see best G. form in gobhar.

gabhd, a craft trick; from Sc. gaud, a trick. Cf. M. E. gaude, specious trick (Chaucer), from Lat. gaudium, Eng. gaud.

gabhlan, a wandering, a man devoid of care (H.S.D., which makes it Dial.; M‘E.):

gach, each, every, Ir. gach, O. Ir. cach, cech, omnis, quivis, W. pob, O. W., Cor. pop, Br. pep, pob: *qo-qa, *qe-qa, root qo, qe, of interrogative co; Lat. quisque: Skr. kaç-ca; etc.

gad, a withe, switch, Ir. gad, E. Ir. gat: *gazdo‑; Got. gazds, goad, O. H. G. gart, sting, rod, Norse, gaddr, sting, Eng. yard; Lat. hasta, spear (from ghaz-dhâ?).

gàd, gàt, an iron bar; from Sc. gad, a bar of metal, Eng. gad, wedge of steel, M. Eng. gad, spike, bar, Norse, gaddr, as under gad.

gadaiche, thief, Ir. gaduigh, E. Ir. gataige; see goid.

gadair, tie the fore feet of a horse, etc. (H.S.D., Dial.); from gad.

gadhar, gaothar, lurcher dog, Ir. gadhar, mastiff, hunting dog, M. Ir. gadar, mastiff, E. Ir. gagar; from Norse gagarr, dog (K. Meyer)? The Norse has gagg, the fox’s cry, gagl, a wild-goose; this seems to prove that the Norse has a root gag, howl, and is likely the original source of gagar.

gadluinne, a slender, feeble fellow, a salmon after spawning (Sh.): *gad+?

gadmunn, hair insect, nit (H.S.D., M‘A.):

gàdraisg, tumult, confusion (H.S.D., Dial.):

gafann, henbane (Sh., O’B., H.S.D.), Ir. gafann, Cor. gahen:

gàg, a cleft, chink, Ir. gág: *gâggâ, gâs-g, I. E. root ghâꬶ, further ghô, gha; Eng. gap, gape; Gr. χάσκω, yawn, χάος, abyss, Eng. chaos; Lat. fauces, throat. Cf. W. gag. Skeat takes hence Eng. jag.

gagach, stuttering (Sh., O’R.), Br. gak; an onomatopoetic word. Cf. Eng. gag, which Skeat queries if from G.

gagan, a cluster:

gaibhteach, a person in want, craver; from gabh.

gailbheach, stormy, prodigious, E. Ir. gailbech, blustering; cf. Eng. gale, Scandinavian origin, Dan. gal, furious, Norse galinn (do.). Also gailbhinn, a storm at sea, a storm of snow.

gailbhinn, a great rough hill (Sh., "gailebhein", H.S.D.):

gaile, excitement (M‘D.):

gaill, surly look, etc.; see goill.

gàilleach, gailleach, the gum, a swelling of the gum (in cattle), seam of shoe uppers, or junction of inner and outer barks of trees, Ir. gailleach (O'B):

gailleag, a blow on the cheek, Ir. gailleóg; from gaill. Cf. sgailleag.

gaillionn, a storm; cf. Norwegian galen, wind-storm, Norse galinn, furious, Eng. gale.

gaillseach, an earwig, so Ir.:

gaillseach, a mouth overcharged so that the cheeks swell out, a mouthful of flesh. See goill.

gaineamh, sand, so Ir., E. Ir. ganem; root of Gr. γαῖα, earth? Stokes gives the stem as gasnimâ, root ghas, Lat. harēna, sand. But gasn- should give G. gann. Also gainmheach, E. Ir. ganmech.

gainisg, gainisgeag, sedge, a small divinity in marshes and sedges by water, moaning for deaths to come (Carm.):

gainne, a dart, arrow (Sh., O'B., H.S.D., M'E.), gàinne, arrowhead (Arg.), Ir. gainne: gasniâ; root gas of gad, q.v.

gainntir, a prison, Ir. gaintir (Fol.):

gair, near; see gar.

gair, call, crow; see goir.

gàir, a shout, outcry, Ir., E. Ir. gáir, W. gawr, clamor: *gâri-; Gr. γῆρυς (Dor. γᾶρυς), voice; root gar, ger, as in goir, q.v.

gàir, laugh, gàire, a laugh, Ir. gáirim, gáire, E. Ir. gáire (n.); from root gar, as in the foregoing word. Stokes give the stem as *gâsriâ, and cfs. Skr. hasrá, laughing, has, laugh.

gairbh, a greedy stomach, deer's paunch:

gairbheil, gaireal, freestone, gravel, Ir. gairbhéal, pron. grabheal; from Eng. gravel.

gairbhtheann, a species of wild grass (H.S.D.):

gàirdeachas, rejoicing, Ir. gáirdeachas, M. Ir. gáirdechad, delighting; from gáir, laugh. K.Meyer regards this as from older *gartiugud, shortening or whiling time, from goirid, E. Ir. urgartiugud, while time, amuse; with a leaning on gàir, laugh. Cf. W. difyru, amuse, divert, from byr, short.

gàirdean, gaoirdean, an arm; from Sc. gardy, arm, gardis, yards, same as yard.

gairgean, from Eng. garlic and G. garg, bitter, by popular etymology.

gairgein, stale wine, Ir. gairgín, dung; from garg.

gaireas, goireas, convenience; see goireas.

gairisinn, disgust, Ir. gairseamhuil, obscene, wanton:

gairm, a call, office, Ir. gairm, pl. garmanna, O. Ir. gairm, W., Br. garm, a shout: *garsmen-; root gar of goir, q.v.

gàirneal, a meal chest, Ir. gairnéal, a meal magazine, garner; from Sc. garnell, girnell, Eng. garner, from O. Fr. gernier, from Lat. granarium, granary.

gàirneilear, a gardener; from the English.

gais, a torrent (H.S.D. and Ir.), surfeit; from Eng. gush?

gàis, wisdom, lance, plenty (Carm.):

gais, shrivel up; from gas, twig? For sense, cf. crannadh.

gaisde, a trap (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. gaisde, O. Ir. goiste, noose; from gaoisd, horse hair?

gaisde, a wisp of straw (H.S.D.); cf. gaoisd.

gaise, a daunting (M'A.); cf gais, shrivel.

gaisge, valour, Ir. gaisge, bravery, E. Ir. gaisced, gasced, bravery, feats of arms, armour, weapons; the idea seems to be "feats" and the root the same as in gasda, q.v.

gal, weeping, Ir. gul, E. Ir. gol, I. E. ꬶel, pain; Ger. qual, pain, quälen, torment; Lit gélti, to smart. Cf. galar.

gal, valour, war, E. Ir. gal, O. Br. gal, puissance, *galâ, W. gallu, posse, Br. galloet (do.), Cor. gallos, might: *galno-; Lit. galiu, I can, Ch.Sl golemŭ, great. Hence the national name Galatae, Galatian, also gallus, a Gaul (but see Gall).

galad, good girl, brave girl, fem. for laochan, used in encouraging address: a ghalad. Root is gal (*galnat), brave.

galan, a gallon, Ir. galun; from the Eng.

galar, a disease, Ir., O. Ir. galar, W. galar, grief, Br. glar, glachar, (do.); *galro-n. Bez. suggests as allied Norse galli, flaw, Umbr. holtu, Ch. Sl. zŭlŭ, bad, sore. But cf. gal, weep.

galc, thicken cloth, fulling; from the Eng. walk, waulk.

Gall, a Lowlander, stranger, Ir. Gall, a stranger, Englishman, E. Ir. gall, foreigner; from Gallus, a Gaul, the Gauls being the first strangers to visit or be visited by the Irish in Pre-Roman and Roman times (Zimmer). for derivation see gal, valour. Stokes takes a different view; he gives as basis for gall, stranger, *gallo-s, W. gal, enemy, foe: *ghaslo-? root ghas, Lat. hos-tis, Eng. guest. Hence he derives Gallus, a Gaul, so named from some Celtic dialect.

galla, a bitch; cf. W. gast, a bitch. G. is possibly for *gas-liâ. Pott has adduced Spanish galgo, greyhound, which, however, is founded on canis Gallicus. See gasradh for root.

gallan, a branch, a youth (fig.): *gas-lo-, root gas of gas, q.v. Cf. W. gelin, a shoot.

galluran, wood angelica, so Ir.: gal+flùran.

galuban, a band put upon the dugs of mares to prevent the foal sucking (H.S.D., Dial.):

gàmag, a stride, Ir. gámus, proud gait or carriage: *gang-mo-(?); Sc. gang, Ger. gang, gait. Cf. gòmag.

gamhainn, a year-old calf, a stirk, Ir. gamhuin, a calf, E. Ir. gamuin, pl.g. gamna, year-old calf; from gam, winter: "winter-old". For root, see gamhradh. Confirmed by the proverb: "Oidhche Shamhna, theirear gamhna ris na laoigh"—On Hallowe'en the calves are called stirks. Similarly and from the same root are Norse gymbr, a year-old ewe lamb, Sc. gimmer, Gr. χίμαρος, a yearling goat (Dor.). Hence gamhnach, farrow cow.

gamhlas, malice, gannlas, ganndas (Dial.); from gann?

ganail, rail, fold (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. ganail: cf. gunwale.

gangaid, deceit (Sh., O'B., etc.), bustle, light-headed creature (Sh.), Ir., M. Ir. gangaid, deceit, falsehood:

gann, scarce, Ir. gann, O. Ir. gann, gand: *gando-s; Skr. gandháyate, hurt; Lit. gendù, be injured (Stokes).

gànradh, a gander, Ir. gandal; from the Eng.

gànraich, roaring noise as of billows or birds:

gaog, a lump as in yarn or cloth; cf. goigean.

gaoid, a blemish, Ir. gaoid, a stain; cf. E. Ir. góet, a wound: *gaizdo-; Lit. żaizda, a wound.

gaoir, a noise, a cry of pain or alarm, sensation or thrill of pain (Perth.); from gàir, shout?

gaoisd, gaoisid, horse hair, M. Ir. goisideach, crinitus, O. Ir. goiste, suspendium, laqueus: *gaissinti-, *gait-tinti; Gr. χαίτη, mane, flowing hair.

gaoistean, a crafty fellow (H.S.D. from MSS.), Ir. gaistín; cf. gaisde, a trap.

gaoithean, a fop, empty-headed fellow; from gaoth, wind.

gaol, love, Ir. gaol, kin, family, E. Ir. gáel, relationship: *gailo-; Lit. gailùs, compassionate; Got. gailjan, gladden, Ger. geil, wanton; Gr. φίλος, friendly. Stokes and Strachan agree.

gaorr, fæces, ordure in the intestines, gore, Ir. garr, probably from Eng. gore, Ag. S. gor, dirt. Hence gaorran, big belly, a glutton. In Arg. pronounced with Northern ao sound; in North, pronounced with ao broad as in Arg. Consider skar in sharn (Sc.); cf gaoirnean or gaoirnean.

gaorsach, a bawd, slut: "dirty wench"; from gaorr and the female termination -sach? Cf. siùrsach.

gaort, giort, a saddle girth; from the Eng.

gaoth, wind, so Ir., E. Ir. gaeth, goeth, O. Ir. gáith: *gaito-, from root gai, I. E. ghai, ghei, ghi, drive, storm, as in G. geamhradh, q.v. Eng. ghost (I. E. ghoizdo-s) is allied. Stokes refers it to the root of gath solely, which is ghai as above.

gar, warm, Ir. goraim, O. Ir. gorim, Br. gor, burning, W. gwrês, heat: *gorô, I warm; Gr. θερος, summer heat, θερμός, warm, Eng. thermo-meter; Lat. furnus, oven, furnace; Ch. Sl. gorêti, burn; further Eng. warm (I. E. *ꬶhuormo-, Teut. gwarm.

gar, gair, gaire, near proximity, Ir. gar, near (adj. and adv.), M. Ir. gar, shortly, W. ger, gar, near. See gairid for root.

gar, although (Dial.): *ga-ro. For ga, see ge; ro is the verbal particle.

gàradh, gàrradh, a garden, Ir. gardhadh, M. Ir. garrda; from the Norse garðr, a yard, M. Eng. gard, garþ, Eng. yard, garden.

garadh, garaidh, a den, copse, garan, thicket, Ir. garán, underwood, thicket, garrán, grove, root gar, bristle, be rough, I. E. gher, stand stiff, tear, scratch; Gr. χάραξ, a stake, χαράδρα, ravine; Lat. hir-sutus, hirsute, hēr, hedge-hog, furca, a fork; Lit. żeriù, scrape, etc. See garbh.

garbh, rough, so Ir., O. Ir. garb, W. garw, Br. garu, hard, cruel: *garvo-; I. E. gher, scratchy, rough, tearing; Gr. χήρ, hedgehog, Lat. hēr (do.), hirsutus, hirsute, Skr. gárshati, be stiff. See garadh further. Some join it with Lat. gravis, but as this is allied to Gr. βαρúς, heavy, the G. would rather be barbh. Lat. horreo?

garbhag, sprat, garvie (Dial.); from the Sc. garvie. In Arran, garbhanach, is the sea-bream, but this is from G. garbh.

garbhan, the gills of a fish (N. H.). See giùran.

gàrcan, a hen's complaint; onomatopoetic. See gráchdan.

garg, fierce, angry, bitter, Ir. garg, O. Ir. garg, gargg: *gorgo-s; Gr. γοργός, rough, frightsome. There is an obsolete M. Ir. gearg, *gergo-s.

gàrlach, a screaming infant, little villian, vagabond, Ir. garlach; from gar, cry, with the termination -lach (see òglach).

garluch, a mole (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. garluch: *gar-luch; luch and gar(?).

garmainn, garman, a weaver's beam, Ir., E. Ir. garmain, O. Ir. gen. garmne, W. carfan; from the root of cuir, put? *ger, *gher, spear?

garrach, a glutton, gorbelly, dirty creature, Ir. garrfhiach, a glutton (O'B.); allied to Eng. gorbelly, gore, by borrowing(?).

gàrradh, a garden; better spelling than gàradh, q.v.

garrag, a young crow; cf. Wng. gorcrow, root gor of Eng. gore, as in garrach.

garrag, a sudden yell, Ir. gartha, clamour, roaring; from gar of goir.

gart, surly aspect, gloom; cf. goirt, sore, sour.

gart, standing corn, Ir. gort, cornfield, O. Ir. gort, seges; Gr. χόρτος, fodder. See goirtean further.

gartan, a garter; from the Eng.

gas, twig, a stalk, Ir. gas: *gastâ; Lat. hasta (see gad). Bez. queries if not from *gasksâ, Lit. zagarai, brushwood.

gàsaid, fraw (Dial.):

gasda, excellent, Ir. gasda, clever, ingenious, E. Ir. gasta (do.): *gassavo-s, *gas-tavo, root gad (gad-s); Gr. άγαθός, Eng. good, Lat. habilis?

gasg, a tail: *gad-sko-; Zend zadhañh, podex, Gr. χέζω, cacare.

gasgag, a step, stride: *gad-sko-, root gad, go, M. Ir. gaid, goes; Eng. gait, Ger. gasse, way.

gasradh, salacity in female dogs, W. gast, a bitch; root gas, gat-s, M. Br. gadales, meretrix, Fr. gouïne, O. Ir. goithimm, futuo.

gasraidh, rabble, mercenary soldiers, Ir. gasradh, band of domestic troops, "youths", from gas, military servant; borrowed from the W. gwas, whence Eng. vassal. See fasdadh.

gàt, an iron bar; see gàd.

gath, a dart, sting, Ir. gath, E. Ir. gai, gae, Gaul. gaiso-n; Norse geirr, spear, Ag. S. gâr, Eng. gar-lic; Gr. χαῖος, shepherd's crook; Skr héshas, missile.

ge, whoever, ge b' è, whatever, whoever, Ir. gibé, E. Ir. cé bé; for ge, see co, the interrogative pronoun; is the subj. of .

ge, though, Ir. gidh, O. Ir. ce, ci, cía; same root as above. See also ged.

geacach, sententious, pert; from Sc. geck, to sport, to deride, Ger. gecken, hoax.

gead, a spot of arable land, a garden bed, a spot in a horse's forehead, Ir. gead:

gead, a lock of hair (H.S.D.); aso "to clip":

geadas, a pike, Ir. geadus; from Norse gedda, Sc. ged, allied to Eng. goad.

gèadh, a goose, Ir. géadh, E. Ir. géd, W. gwydd, O.Cor. guit, auca, Cor. goydh, goose, Br. goaz, gwaz: *gegdo-, root geg, cry like a goose; Norse gagl, wild goose, M.H.G. gage, gige, cry like a goose, gigze produce inarticulate sound; Lit. gagónas, goose-like, Servian gagula, a water-fowl, Russ. gagara, silver-diver (Stokes). It cannot be referred to the roots of Eng. goose and gander (ghans-, ghandro-.

geadhail, a ploughed field, park (Arg., M'A); hence earghalt, arable land: same root as gead, viz., ged, hold, Eng. get.

geal, a leech, E. Ir. gel, W. gel, Cor. ghel, Br. gelaonen; Gr. βδέλλα, βλέτυες, leeches (Hes.); Skr. jalûka, blood-leech; I. E. root gel, devour, Lat. gula, throat, Eng. gullet, etc.

geal, white, Ir. geal, E. Ir. gel: *gelo-, I. E. root ꬶhel, clear, shine, glow; Lit. geltas, pale-yellow; Eng. gleam, glow; Gr. χλίω, be warm, χάλις, unmixed wine; etc. Stokes connects it with Lit. żila-s, grey; the usual derivation joins it with Lat. helvus, light bay, Eng. yellow, Lit żélti, grow green, Ch. Sl. zelenŭ, green. Hence gealach, the moon, so Ir.; gealan, a linnet.

gealbhan, a fire, little fire: *gelvo-, I. E. ghel, glow; Eng. glow, gleam; Gr. χλίω, be warm. See geal.

gealbhonn, a aparrow, so Ir., M. Ir. gelbund, W. golfan, Cor., Br. golvan; from geal, white. Cf. Gr. χελιδών, swallow, Norse gal (do.).

geall, a pledge, Ir. geall, O. Ir. gell, pignus: *gis-lo-, root, gis, geis, of giall, hostage, q.v. Stokes derives it thus: *geldo-s, *geldo-n, now *gelno-n, gislo-n-, Got. gild, tribute, Ger. geld, money, Eng. yield, guild; Gr. ὀφέλλω, owe, τέλθος (Hes.), debt.

geall, desire, longing, Ir. geall: in the G. phrase, an geall air, Keating's i ngeall, in need of; from geall; from geall above.

gealtach, cowardly, Ir. gealtach, fearful; see geilt.

geamhradh, winter, Ir. geimhreadh, E. Ir. gemred, O. Ir. gaimred, O. W. gaem, W. gauaf, Cor. goyf, Br. goam, M. Br. gouaff: *gimo- (for Gadelic), *gaiamo-, *gaimo- (for Brittonic, Stokes); I. E. ghim, gheim, ghiem; Skr. himá, cold, Zend zima, winter; Ch. Sl. zima; Gr. χειμών; Lat. hiems. The O. Ir. gam, for gem, has its vowel influenced by the analogy of samh of samhradh (Thur.). Thur. now suggests Celt. *giamo; cf. Gaul. Giamillus.

geamhta, geamhd, anything short and thick, Ir. geamhdóg, a little cake of bread (O'R.); for root, cf. geimheal. Cf. Ir. giobhta, giota, a piece.

geamnaidh, chaste, Ir. geanmnuidh, E. Ir. genmnaid, O. Ir. genas, casitas; from the root gen, birth, Eng. genteel, gentle. See gin.

gean, mood, humour, good humour, Ir. gean, favour, approval, affection; cf. Lat. genius, ingenium, root gen, Eng. kin, kind. E. Ir. gen, laugh, may be compared to Gr. γάνος, joy (Bez.); Stokes suggests *gesno-, Skr. has, laugh.

geangach, crooked, thick and short; see gingein.

geanm-chnò, chestnut, Ir. geanmchnù: "chastity tree"; a mistaken translation of Lat. castanea, chestnut, as if from castus, chaste.

geannair, a hammer, wedge, Ir. geannaire; see geinne.

gearan, a complaint, Ir. gearán, M. Ir. gerán, root ger, cry; O. H. G., quëran, sigh, chara, weep, Ag. S. cearu, sorrow, Eng. care; further allied is root gar, sound, as in goir. Cf. W. gerain, cry, squeak, and Gr. δúρομαι, lament.

gearasdan, a garrison, Ir. gairision; from the Eng.

geàrnal, girnell; see gàirneal.

geàrr, short, cut (vb.), Ir. géarr, geárraim, E. Ir. gerr, gerraim: *gerso-s. Stokes cfs. Gr. χερείων, χείρων, worse, Skr. hrasva, short. Cf. M. Eng. garsen, gash, O. Gr. garser.

geàrr, a hare, Ir. geirrfhiadh: short deer"; from geàrr and fiadh, the latter word being omitted in G.

geàrrach, diarrhœa, bloody flux:

gearraidh, the pasture-land between the shor-land and the moor-land (Heb.); from N. γερðι, fenced field, garth. Shet. Gairdi.

gearran, a gelding, Ir., M. Ir. gearrán; from geàrr, cut.

Gearran, the 4 weeks dating from 15th March onwards (H.S.D.). This forms a part of the animal nomenclature given to the several periods of Spring-time: first the Faoilleach, explained as "Wolf-month"; then the Feadag, or Plover, a week's length; then the Gearran, or Gelding, variously estimated as to length and time; then came the Cailleach, or Old Woman, a week's time; then perhaps the three days of the Oisgean, or ewes. See Nich. pp 412-414.

geas, spell, taboo, charm, Ir., E. Ir. geis, taboo, gessim (vb.): *gessô, *ged-to, root ged of guidhe, q.v.

geata, gate, so Ir., M. Ir. geta; from Ag. S. geat, Eng. gate.

ged, although: *ge-ta; same as ciod.

geìl, a bubble, well (Carm.); also boil:

géill, yield, submit, Ir. géillim, E. Ir. gíallaim, O. Ir. geillfit, dedentur; from giall, hostage.

geilt, terror, fear, Ir. geilt, a distracted person, wild, M. Ir. geltacht, flying, E. Ir. geilt, mad by fear; Norse verða at gjalti, to turn mad with terror (borrowed from Celtic, Stokes, Thurneysen; borrowed into Celtic, Zimmer). Stokes refers it to a root ghel, fly, suggested by Gr. χελιδών, a swallow.

geimheal, a fetter, chain, Ir. géimhiol, E. Ir. geimel, gemel: *gemelo-, root gem, fasten; Gr. γέντο, grasped (*γέμ-το), γάμος, marriage; Lat. gemini, twins; Ch. Sl. żimą, com primere.

geimhleag, géimhleag, (Wh.), a crow-bar, lever; from Sc. gaie-lock, a spear, javelin, Ag. S. gafeloc, spear, possibly from an early form of W. gaflach, a dart, the root being that in gobhal, fork.

geinn, a wedge, so Ir., E. Ir. geind, W. gaing, Br. genn, O. Br. gen, M. Br. guenn: *genni-, root gen, as in Lettic dfenis, the wood wedged into the fork of the ploughshare, dfenulis, sting, Ch. Sl. żęlo (do.). N. gand, gann, a peg, stick, Lat. offendo, *fendo, Eng. offend (Stokes and Liden). Cf. Ir. ding.

geintleach, a heathen, Ir. geinteach, M. Ir. genntlige (adj.), gennti, gentiles; from the Lat. gens (gentis), gentilis.

geir, tallow, Ir., E. Ir. geir, W. gwer, gired, grease. Cf. Gr. χρίω, anoint, Skr. gharsati (do.), *ghrsjô.

geis, gestation, gestators; milk (Carm.):

géisg, creaking noise; see gìosgan.

geòb, a wry mouth; from the Eng. gape, Ag. S. geapian.

geòc, geoic, a wry neck; formed on Eng. cock? Cf. Sc. gekk, grimace.

geòcaire, a glutton, Ir. geócaire, a glutton, stroller, parasite, M. Ir. geocach, mimus; formed on Lat. jocosus (Stokes).

geòdh, geodha, a creek: from the Norse gjá, a chasm, whence N. Scotch geo.

geòla, ship's boat, yawl; from the Scandinavian - Mod.Norse jula, Swedish julle, Dan. jolle, Sc. yolle, Eng. yawl, jolly-boat.

geòlach, a wooden bier, the shoulder-bands of the dead; for root, see giùlan?

geòpraich, a torrent of idle talk; cf. geòb.

geolan, a fan geulran (Sh.), Ir. geóilrean; from the root of giùlan?

geòtan, a spot of arable ground (H.S.D.), a driblet or trifling sum (M'A.):

geuban, giaban, the craw or crop of a bird; see geòb.

geug, a branch, Ir. geug, géag, E. Ir. géc: *gṇkâ, kṇkâ, W. cainc, ysgainc; Skr. c̭añkú, twig, stake; Ch. Sl. sąkŭ, surculus.

geum, a low, Ir. geim, a lowing, roar, E. Ir. géim, shout, géssim, I low: *gengmen-; Lit. żvengiu, neigh; Ch. Sl. zvęgą sound. Cf. Eng. squeak. Cf. Ch. Sl. gangnati, murmur.

geur, giar, sharp, Ir. geur, O. Ir. gér:

gheibh, will get, Ir. gheibhim; root-accented form of faigh, q.v.

giaban, gizzard; see geuban.

giall, a jaw or cheek, jowl, Ir., M. Ir. giall, faucibus; the G. form ciobhall, seems borrowed from Ag. S. ceafl, Eng. jowl; perhaps all are from the Eng.

giall, a hostage, pledge, Ir. giall, O. Ir. giall, W. gwystl, hostage, Cor. guistel, obses, Br. goestl, Gaul. Co-gestlos, *geislo-, *geistlo-; O. H. G. gîsal, Ger. geisel, Norse gísl, Ag. S. gîsel.

giamh, giomh, a fault, blemish:

gibeach, hairy, gibeag, a rag, bundle, Ir. giobach, giobóg, and giob, tail, rag, O. Ir. gibhne, cirrus:

gibeach, neat; for sgibeach? See sgiobalt.

gibein, a piece of flesh (M'E.); from gib of giblion.

giblean, April:

giblion, entrails of a goose, gibean (St. Kilda), grease from the solan goose's stomach:

gibneach, cuttle-fish: *gebbi-; Ger. quappe, turbot?

gìdheadh, nevertheless, Ir. gidheadh: for an older cid+ed "though it (is)"; Lat. quid id. See co and eadh.

gigean, geigean, master at death revels (Carm.):

gigean, a diminutive man, little mass; native form of ceig, q.v.

gighis, a masquerade, so Ir.; from Sc. gyis, a mask, gysar, a harlequin, one that disguises himself at New Year, gys, to disguise, M. Eng. gîsen, dress, prepare, from O. Fr. (de)guiser, Eng. dis-guise.

gilb, a chisel: *gḷbi-; cf. Gr. γλάφω, carve. But cf. W. gylyf, sickle, O.Cor. gilb, foratorium, allied to G. guilbneach, q.v.

gille, lad, servant, Ir. giolla, E. Ir. gilla; cf. Eng. child, Ag. S. cild. Zimmer thinks it is borrowed from the Norse gildr, stout, brawny, of full worth, Eng. guild, Ag. S. gild, payment (see geall), gilda, fellow, used in the names of Norsemen converted to Christianity instead of maol, slave. gille-fo-luinn, sea-grass (Wh.).

gilm, a buzzard:

gilmean, a fop, flatterer; see giolam.

gimleid, a gimlet, Ir. gimléad; from the English.

gin, beget, Ir. geinim, M. Ir. genar, was born, O. Ir. ad-gainemmar, renascimur, gein, birth, W. geni, nasci, Br. ganet, born, *genô, nascor; Lat. gigno, genui, begat; Gr. γίγνομαι, become, génos, race; Eng. kin; Skr. jána, race, stock, jánâmi, beget. Hence gin, anyone.

gineal, offspring, W. genill; Ir. ginealach, a generation, G. ginealach, M. Ir. genelach, genealogy, from Lat. genealogia, root gen as in gin.

gingein, a cask, barrel, thick set person (not H.S.D.):

giobag, gibeag, fringe, rag, Ir. giobóg. See gibeach.

gioball, vesture, cast clothes, Ir. giobál; see gibeach.

gioball, a chap, odd fellow; a bad fellow (Perth); a metaphoric use of gioball, above.

giodaman, a perky fellow:

giodar, dung, ordure (H.S.D. for C. S.), Ir. giodar (do.), geadan, buttock: *geddo-, root ghed, cacare; Gr. χέζω, cacare, χόδανος, the breech; Skr. had, cacare, Zd. zadhañh, podex.

giodhran, a barnacle (bird), Ir. giodhrán, O. Ir. giugrann, W. gwyrain: *gegurannâ; root geg as in gèadh, q.v. Fick has compared Lat. gingrum, goose. Also giùran. In Is. of Arran, giúraing, a shell fish that bores holes in wreckage.

gìog, cringe; aslo "peep" (M'A.):

gìogan, a thistle (Sh., O'R. giogun):

giolam, gileim, tattle, Ir. giolmhaim, solicit:

giolc, reed, Ir. giolcach, E. Ir. gilcach:

giolc, stoop, aim at (M'A):

giolcair, a flippant fellow:

giolcam-daobhram, animalcule (H.S.D.):

giomach, a lobster, Ir. giomach, gliomach(?), W. ceimwach:

gìomanach, a hunter; from the Eng. game.

gionach, greed, M. Ir. ginach, craving; from †gin, mouth, O.Ir gin, W. gên, gena, mentum, Cor. genau, os, Br. quen, check: *genu-; Gr. γένυς, chin; Lat. gena, cheek; Eng. chin.

giorag, panic, apprehension, noise, Ir. giorac, noise (gíorac, Con.):

giort, a girth, Ir. giorta; from the Eng.

gìosgan, creaking gnashing, Ir. gíosgán; also Ir. díoscán.

giseag, a fret or bit of superstition, a charm; see geas.

gith, a shower, series (H.S.D.); cf. E. Ir. gith, way of motion, Skr. hi, set in motion, impel, hiti, impelling.

githeilis, running to and fro on trifling errands, trifling, E. Ir. gith, way, motion. See above word.

githir, gìr, corn-reapers' wrist pain:

giùd, a wile:

giugas, refuse of fish left on shore:

giùig, a drooping of the head, languor:

giùlan, a carrying: *gesu-lo-, root qes, carry, Lat. gero, gestum.

giulla, giullan, a lad, boy, Ir. giolla, servant, footman. From the same source as gille.

giullaich, prepare, manage well; from giulla, the idea being "serving"; cf. Ir. giolla above, and Ir. giollas, service.

giùmsgal, flattery:

giùram, complaining, mournful noise (H.S.D.); cf. I. E. gevo-, cry, as in guth, q.v.

giùran, gills of a fish, garbhan: *gober-, root of gob?

giùran, barnacle goose; see giodhran.

giuthas, fir, Ir. giumhas, E. Ir. gius: *gis-usto, root gis; Ger. gien, resinous wood, kien-baum, Scotch fir, kiefer (kien-föhre), pine, Ag. S. cén, fir-wood, *ki-n (Schräder). Cf. root gis of gaison, O. Ir. gae. Ag. S. gyr, abies.

glac, take, seize, Ir., M. Ir. glacaim, glaccad, grasping, E. Ir. glace, hand, handful: *glapko-(?), Eng. clasp. See glas.

glag, noise of anything falling, noise, horse-laugh, Ir. glagaire, a babbler, glagan, mill clapper: *glag-ko-; Gr. γλαζω (*glagjô), sing, noise; Eng. clack, M. Eng. clacke, mill clack, Norse klaka, chatter bird-like; aslo Eng. clap. There is a degree of onomato-poesy about these words. Cf. clag.

glàib, dirty water, puddle, Ir. gláib; cf. láib.

glaim, complaint, howling, Ir. gláim, M. Ir. gláimm: *glag-s-mâ-; Ger. klagen, weep (Strachan, Stokes).

glainne, glaine, a glass, Ir. gloine, E. Ir. gloine, glaine, W. glain, a gem, what is pur; from glan, clean.

glaiseach, foam (M'A.), glais-sheile, water-brash, from obs. glais, stream, E. Ir. glaiss, same root as glas.

glaisleun, lesser spear-wort (Sh.), Ir. glaisleun; from glas and leun or lèan, a swamp (Cameron).

glaistig, water imp; from glas, water. So Carm. Manx glashtyn, kelpie, etc.

glàm, devour, Ir. glámaim, devour, gobble, glámaire, glutton: *glad-s-mo-; Ch. Sl. gladu, hunger. Sc. glam.

glamair, a smith's vice; from the Norse klömbr, a smith's vice, Ger. glemmem, pinch, jam.

glamhsa, a snap as by a dog; for form, compare Ir. glamhsan, a murmur, which is an aspirated form of glaim, howling. The G. is similarly from glàm, devour, with possibly a leaning on the idea of noise as in glaim. H.S.D. has glamhus, open chops. glomhas, open chasm (Wh.).

glan, clean, pure, Ir., O. Ir. glan, W. glain, Br. glan, Gaul. river name Glana: *glano-s, root glê, gel, gla, shine; Gr. γλήνεα, shows, γλήνη, eyeball, γελεῖν, shine (Hes.), and γλαινοί, bright ornamentation (Hes.), from root glai, from which Eng. clean comes (thus: glê, gla: glêi, glai).

glang, a ringing noise; see gliong.

glaodh, a cry, call, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. gloed, a shout; cf. O. Ir. adgládur, appello, Skr. hrā́date, sound, Gr. γλῶσσα, tongue (*γλωθια?), Ir. and G. would then be from an O. Ir. *gláid, from *glâdi-. Hence glaodhar, glaoran, a noise, prating. O. Ir. gloidim, ringo.

glaodh, glue, Ir. glaodh, M. Ir. glóed, E. Ir. gláed; *gloi-do-, from I. E. gloi, glei, be sticky; Gr. γλοιά, γλία, γλίνη, glue: Lat. gluten; Ch. Sl. glénu, mucus; Eng. clay, Ger. klei, slime. W. glud and M. Br. glut are from the Lat.

glaodhan, pith of wood; from glaodh the idea being "resinous or gluey stuff".

glaomar, a fooish person (Dial.): "noisy one"; from glaodh.

glaoran, blossom of wood-sorrel: *gloiro-, "bright", root glei of glé?

glas, a lock, Ir., O. Ir. glas: *glapsâ; Eng. clasp.

glas, grey, Ir. glas, green, pale, E. Ir. glass, W., O. W., Br. glas, green: *glasto-, green; Ger. glast, sheen (Bez.), root glas, to which Ger. glass, Eng. glass, are probably allied.

glé, very, Ir. glé, very, pure, O. Ir. glé, bright, W. gloew, bright, O. W. gloiu, liquidum: *gleivo-, I. E. ꬶhlei-, shine; Eng. gleam, glimmer, Ger. glimmen; Gr. χλίω, χλιαρός, warm (Kluge). Bez. refers it to the root of Eng. clean (see glan).

gleac, a wrestle, fight, Ir. E. Ir. gleic: *glekki-, *gleg-ko-, I. E. ꬶleghô, wager; Ag. S. plegen, Eng. pledge, play; Skr. glah, play at dice, cast in wappenshaw.

gleadh, an onset, deed (H.S.D.); cf. Ir. gleó, g. gliadh, tumult, E. Ir. gliad, battle:

gleadh, tricks (Sh., O'B. gleádh, H.S.D.); Ir. gleadh (O'R.); for gleadh, gleg, root of gleac?

gleadhraich, gleadhair, noise, rattling, clang of arms, Ir. gleaghrach, shout, noise; cf. Norse gleðir, Christmas games, gleðr, merriment, Eng. glad. Ir. gliadrach, loquacious. If E. Ir. glechrach means "noisy", the stem is glegar, which also appears (Mart. Gorman, edited by Stokes).

gleann, a glen, so Ir., E. Ir. glenn, glend, W. glan, brink, shore, M. Br. glenn, country, Br. glann, river bank: *glennos (a neuter s-stem). Stokes compares M.H.G. klinnen, Swiss klänen, to climb, Norse klunna, cling to. Norse gil?

glèidh, preserve, keep, Ir. gléithim, keep, clear up, cleanse, E. Ir. gléim, make clear, put in order, lay by. See glé for root, and also gleus.

gleithir, a gadfly (M'D., Sh., O'R.): *glegh-; cf. Sc. cleg, Norse kleggi, gadfly.

gleò, dazzling haziness about the eyes:

gleog, a drooping, silly look; cf. sgleogair.

gleòid, a sloven, Ir. gleoid. See sgleòid.

gleòisg, gleosg, a vain, silly woman, Ir. gleosg. See next word.

gleòman, a silly, stupid fellow, Ir. gleodhmán:

gleòrann, cresses, wild angelica, Ir. gleórann, wild angelica; cf. E. Ir. gleóir, sheen, M. Ir. gleordha, bright; root is likely that of glé (*glivo-ro-).

gleus, order, trim, tune, Ir. gleus, E. Ir. glés; for root, see glèidh and glé. Strachan adduces E. Ir. glése, brightness, and takes it from *glent-t-, allied to Ger. glanz, splendour, Eng. glance. Cf. W. glwys, fair, pleasant. Hence gleusda, diligent.

glib, a lock of hair, Ir. glib: *gḷb-bi; cf. Eng. clip. Hence Eng. glib.

glìb, sleet glibshleamhuinn, slippery with sleet (Sh., who gives glib, slippery); from Sc. glib, slippery, Eng. glib.

glic, wise, Ir. glic, O. Ir. glicc: *gḷkki-. Stokes compares Gr. καλχαίνω, ponder, and takes from G. the Sc. gleg.

glidich, move, stir:

glinn, pretty, (Strathspey and Lochbroom Dialects for grinn), Ir. glinn, bright; Eng. glint, gleam, glance.

gliog, gliogar, a tinkling, clink, Ir. gliogar; Eng. click, clack: an onomatopoetic root.

gliogram, a staggering; from gliogar, the idea being "noise-making"? Cf. Ir. glingin, drunkenness. Also G. gliogach, clumsy, unstable.

gliomach, slovenly, long-limbed fellow; cf. Ir. gliomach, a lobster.

gliong, ringing noise, Ir. glionc (O'R.); allied to, or from the Eng. clink, Teut. kling.

gliostair, a clyster; from the Eng.

gliùchd, a blubbering, crying:

gloc, the clucking of a hen, noise, loud note; Eng. clock, cluck, W. clwc; Lat. glocire; etc. Onomatopoetic.

gloc, swallow greedily, glochdan, a wide throat; from the Sc. glock, gulp, glog, swallow hastily, E.Eng. glucchen, gulchen, swallow greedily, Ger. glucken, gulken, klucken.

glochar, a wheezing, difficult respiration, Ir. glocharnach; cf. Sc. glag, glagger, make a noise in the throat as if choking, glugger, to make a noise in the throat swallowing. Allied to gloc, etc.

gloc-nid, a morning dram taken in bed; from gloc and nead.

glodhar, ravine, chasm (Kintyre); in Lewis names N. gljúfr.

glog, a soft lump, glogair, a stupid fellow: "unstable one"; from glug, gluig.

glog, a sudden, hazy calm, a dozing (M'A.):

glòic, having hanging cheeks, as in hens:

gloichd, gloidhc, gloibhc (Wh.), a senseless woman, an idiot; from the Sc. glaik.

gloin, gloine, glass; see glain.

glòir, glory, Ir., E. Ir. glóir, Br. gloar; from Lat. gloria, whence, Eng. glory.

glòir, speech, Ir. glór, E. Ir. glórach, noisy; same as glòir, glory.

glòirionn, spotted in the face (H.S.D.), drab-coloured (M'A.):

glòmadh, glòmainn, the gloaming; from the Eng.

glomhar, a muzzle, an instrument put into a lamb or kid's mouth to prevent sucking, E. Ir. glomar, bridgel; root glom, glem. Ger. klemmen, jam, M.H.G. klammer, tenaculum, Lat. glomus, a clew.

glomhas, a rock, cleft, chink:

glong, a slimy substance; root ꬶlen, be slimy, Gr. βλέννα, slime snot, O. H. G. klenan, cleave. See sglongaid.

glonn, a deed of valour, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glond, a deed: *gl-onno-, root of gal?

glonn, loathing, qulm, Ir. glonn, E. Ir. glonn, crime: "facinus"; extended use of the above word.

glothagach, frog's spawn (Sh., O'R.):

gluais, move, Ir., E. Ir. gluaisim, O. Ir. gluas-; *gl-eusso-, from root ꬶel, Lat. volo-, fly, Gr. γάλλω? So Dr Cameron.

gluc, socket of the eye:

glug, noise of liquid in a vessel when moved, Ir. glug (do.), glugal, clucking of a hen; Eng. cluck. All are onomatopoetic. See gloc. Also glugach, stammering: "clucking". Cf. Sc. glugger, to make a noise in the throat by swallowing any liquid.

gluig, addled (of an egg); from the above word. Cf. W. clwc, soft, addled (of an egg).

glumadh, a great mouthful of liquid, glumag, a deep pool; allied to glug above.

glumraidh, hungriness, devouring (as sea waves) (Hend.):

glùn, the knee, Ir., O. Ir. glún, W., Br. glin: *glûnos. Stokes compares Albanian ǵu (ǵuri, ǵuni), knee. Possibly by dissimilation of the liquids for *gnûnos, from *gnû, *gneu, allied to Eng. knee, Gr. γνúξ, on the knee.

glupad, dropsy in throat of cattle and sheep (Carm.):

glut, voracity, glutair, a glutton, W. glwth (do.), Br. glout from Lat. glutire, swallow, Eng. glutton; M. Ir. glota, belly.

gnàithseach, arable land under crop (M'A.):

gnamhan, periwinkle (Sh., O'B., H.S.D.), Ir. gnamhan:

gnàth, custom, usual, Ir. gnáth, O. Ir. gnáth, solitus, W. gnawd, custom: *gnâto-, Lat. (g)nôtus, known; Gr. γνωτός (do.); Skr. jnâta (do.); root gnô, gnâ, gen, know, Eng. know, etc.

gnè, nature, kind, Ir. gné, O. Ir. gné, gen. gnée, pl. gnéthi (neuter s-stem): *gneses-; root gen, beget, Lat. genus, Gr. γένεσις, genesis, γενος, Eng. kind.

gnìomh, a deed, Ir. gníomh, O. Ir. gním: *gnêmu-; root gnê, do, from gen, beget, as in gin. Hence dèan, , rinn.

gnò, gnodh, gruff (Arm.); cf. Ir., E. Ir. gnó, derision.

gnob, a bunch, tumour: from the Eng. knob.

gnog, a knock; from Eng. knock.

gnogach, sulky (Sh., O'R., etc.), gnoig, a surly frown (H.S.D.); cf gnù, grùig.

gnoigean, ball of rosin put on horns of vicious cattle (Skye):

gnoimh, visage, grin (Arm., M'D., M'A.),; gnòimh (Rob.); cf. gnùis.

gnoin, shake and scold a person (M'A.):

gnomh, grunt of a pig (M'A.), for gromh, Ir. grossachd: an onomatopoetic word, allied to Lat. grunnire, grunt, Gr. γρῦ, swine's grunt, Eng. grunt, grumph. See gnòsd.

gnòmhan, groaning (of an animal), grunting; a long-vowel form of gnomh?

gnos, a snout (especially of a pig), Ir. gros, grossach, having a large snout: *grupso-; Gr. γρúψ, a griffin, "hook-nosed", γρυπός, bent, Ger. krumm.

gnòsd, gnòsad, gnùsd, low noise of a cow, Ir. gnúsachd; *grum-so; see gnomh, grunt, and gnòmhan. Aran Ir. gnosacht, grunt of pig.

gnothach, business, Ir. gnòthuig (pron. gnathuigh), gnó (pl. gnóthaidhe): *gnavo-, active, Lat. gnavus, active, Eng. know. See gnìomh and gnàth, for root.

gnù, gnò, surly, parsimonious, gnùgach, surly. See gnò and grùig.

gnùis, the face, countenance, Ir., O. Ir. gnúis, (fem. i-declension; *gnûsti-; root gen, know, Eng. know, etc.

gnùth, a frowning look; see gnù.

, a lie, fault, Ir. , lie, fraud, O. Ir. , gáo, gáu, W. gau, Br. gau, gaou: *gavo-. Cf. Gr. γαυσός, crooked, γαυσάδας, a liar (Ernault). Bezzenberger gives several alternatives; Lit. pri-gáuti, deceive, or Persian zûr, false, or Gr. χαῦνος, spongy, χάος, abyss.

gob, a beak, bill, Ir. gob, bill, mouth, E. Ir. gop-chóel, lean-jawed; *gobbo, root gobh, gebh; Gr. gamfclaí, gamfaí, jaws; Ch. Sl. ząbu, tooth, zobati, eat; Skr. jambhas, a tooth. Stokes compares it (*gobh-nó-) to Zend. zafan, mouth. The relationship to Eng. gobbet, gobble, Fr. gobet, O. Fr. gober, devour, is not clear. But cf. also Eng. gab, gabble, G. gab.

gobha, gobhainn, a smith, Ir. gobha, g. gobhann, O. Ir. goba, g. gobann, O. W. gob, W. gof, pl. gofion, Cor. gof, Br. go, Gaul. Gobann-: *gobân; root gobh, as in Gr. γόμφος, a bolt, Eng. comb (Windisch), for which see gob. Lat. faber may, however, be allied, and the root then be ghob. gobha-uisge, water ousel; aslo gobha-dubh.

gobhal, a fork, Ir. gabhal, fork, gable, O. Ir. gabul, W. gafl, Br. gaol: *gabulu-; Eng. gable, Ger. gabel, fork; Gr. κεφαλή, head.

gobhar, a goat, Ir. gabhar, O. Ir. gabor, W. gafr, Corn. gauar, Br. gabr, gaffr, Gaul. gabro-: *gabro-; root gab of gabh, take, as Lat. caper is allied to capio, take (Loth)? Stokes gives the stem as *gam-ro, root gam of geamhradh, winter, and gamhuinn, I. E. ghim; but im of ghim could not change to Gaul. ab in gabro-.

goc, a tap, cock; from the Eng. cock.

gocaman, an usher, attendant, sentinel, or look-out man; Martin's (Western Isles, p.103) gockmin, cockman; from Scandinavian gok-man, look-out man (Arms.; Mackinnon says it is Danish). For root, cf. Ger. gucken, peep. Norse gauksman; gauk maðr, cuckoo man. Norse gaukr, cuckoo; Sc. gawk.

gòdach, giddy, coquettish (Sh., etc.); cf. gabhd. godadh nan ceann, tossing of one's head (Wh.).

godsag, a titbit:

gog, a nod, tossing of the head, Ir. gog; from Eng. cock. godadh (Arg.).

gogaid, a giddy female, Ir. gogaide; from Eng., Fr. coquette.

gogail, cackling, noise of liquor issuing from a cask, Ir. gogallach; Eng. cackle. The words are onomatopoetic. Also goglais.

gogan, a wooden milk-pail, also cogan; from Sc. cogue, cog, apparently allied to M. Eng. cog, ship, Norse kuggi, a small ship, Teutonic kuggon-, ship.

goic, a tossing of the head in disdain, a scoff, Ir. goic; founded on the Eng. cock, like gog, q.v.

goid, steal, Ir. goidim, E. Ir. gataim: *gad-dô, root gad, ꬶhad, ꬶhed, seize; Gr. χανδάνω, ἔχαδον, hold, contain; Lat. prehendo, seize; praeda, booty, hedra, ivy; Eng. get. Thur. has compared the Lat. hasta, spear, giving a stem *ghazdho-.

goigean, a bit of fat meat, cluster, thread tangle or kink; cf. gagan: *gaggo-; cf. Gr. γαγγλίον, ganglion, a "knot", Eng. kink.

goil, boil, Ir. gailim, seethe, boil: *gali-; I. E. ꬶel, well, Ger. quellen, gush. See next.

goile, a stomach, appetite, Ir. goile, gaile, stomach, appetite, throat, M. Ir. gaile; also O. Ir. gelim, I consume; Lat. gula, throat (Eng. gullet), glutire, swallow (Eng. glutton); Skr. gilati, swallow; I. E. ꬶel, allied to root of goil.

gòileag, a haycock, cole; from the Sc. gole, Eng. coll.

goileam, tattle, chattering, also gothlam (l=le); see gothlam.

goileam, fire (kindling) (Carm.):

goill, distorted face, angry face, grin, blubber lipl cf. Ir. gailleóg, a blow on the cheek, G. gailleag. Cf. for root Gr. χεῖλος, lip, *χεσλος = Skr. ghas, eat, swallow.

goillir, a Lewis bird of the size of the swallow, which comes to land in winter (Arms.):

goimh, anguish, pain, Ir. goimh: *gomi-, root gom, gem, press, Lat. gemo, groan, Ch. Sl. żimą, compress.

goin, gointe; see gon.

goir, call, cry, crow, Ir. goirim, E. Ir. gairim, O. Ir. adgaur, convenio: *garô, speak, I. E. ꬶer, cry; Gr. γέρανος, crane, δειριᾶν, abuse; Skr. járate, cry, crackle; further Lat. garrio, chatter (*gars-); Eng. garrulous, Lit. garsas, noise; also root gâr, as in Gaelic gàir, Gr. γῆρυς, voice, etc.

goireas, convenience, apparatus; from gar, near, and goirid.

goirid, short, Ir. gairid, O. Ir. garit. For root, see geàrr (Skr. hrasva, short, etc.), from which comes the comparative giorra. Also gar, near, q.v.

goirt, sore, sour, Ir. goirt, sore, salt, E. Ir. goirt, bitter: *gorti-, I. E. gher, be rough, as in garbh.

goirtean, a little field of corn, croft, Ir. goirtín, gort, garden, corn-field, O. Ir. gort, seges, W. garth, enclosure, Br. garz (do.): *gorto-; Lat. hortus; Gr. χόρτος, straw-yard; Eng. garden, garth, etc.

goisear (pl. -an), guisers, waits, singers about Christmas, etc. (Carm.):

gòisinn, gòisne, a snare, Ir. gaisde, O. Ir. goiste, suspendium. Cf. gaoisid.

goisridh, company, people; see gasraidh.

goisdidh, gossip, godfather, M. Ir. goistibe, godfather; from M. Eng. godsibhe, now gossip.

golag, a gudget: *gulo-; Gr. γúλιος, wallet, O. H. G. kiulla.

gòlanach, two-headed (H.S.D.): "forked", from gobhlan?

gomag, a nip, pinch (M'L., gòmag), gàmag, large bite (Skye):

gon, wound, bewitch, Ir. gonadh, wounding, E. Ir. gonim: *gonô, I wound, I. E. ꬶhen; Gr. φόνος, slaughter, θείνω, hit; Norse, gunnr, battle, O. H. G. gundea (do.); Skr. han, strike, slay.

gonan, grass roots; cf. cona.

gòrach, silly, Ir. gorach; Gr. γαῦρος, exulting, skittish, haughty; root ꬶau, be free, Lat. gaudium, Eng. joy.

gorm, blue, green, Ir., E. Ir. gorm, blue, W. gwrm, dusky: gorsmo-, root gor, warm ("warm colour"), as in G. gar (Stokes).

gòrsaid, a cuirass, gorget; from Eng. gorget.

gort, a field, standing corn, Ir. gort; see gart, goirtean.

gort, goirt, famine, Ir. gorta, O. Ir. gorte; I. E. gher, desire, want; Gr. χρέος, necessity, χρηΐζω, wish; Eng. yearn.

goth, toss the head contemptuously or giddily (M'A.); gòth, airy gait (Arm., gothadh, Sh., O'R): possibly from Eng. go. Cf. W. goth, pride.

gothlam, prating noise, M. Ir. gothach, noisy; from guth.

grab, interrupt, grabadh, hindrance, Ir. grabadh; apparently from Eng. grab. Cf. W. crap, prehensio, Romance graffo.

grabh, abhorrence:

grabh, grabhail, engrave, Ir. grabháil; from Eng. grave, engrave.

gràchdan, querulous noise of hens, Ir. gràgoill, clucking of a hen, crow's crowing. See gràg.

grad, sudden, Ir. grad}, grod: *groddo-, root grod, gred, as in greas, q.v.

gràda, ugly; usual form of grànda, q.v.

gradan, snuff, corn kilned by burning its straw, the meal derived from the foresaid corn, Ir. gradán. Cf. greadan.

gràdh, love, Ir. grádh, E. Ir. grád: *grâdo-, *grâ-dho-, root ꬶrâ; Lat. grātus, Eng. grateful; Skr. gûrdháya, praise; Gr. γέρας, honour.

gràdran, compaining noise of hens; onomatopoetic. See grág.

gràg, croaking of crows, Ir. grág; Eng. croak, crake. Onomatopoetic words. Cf. I. E. gráq, Lat. graculus, gracillare, hen's cry, M.H.G. kragelen, crackle.

gragair, glutton (Sh., O'B., etc.), Ir. gragaire (O'B.), grágaire (Con.):

graigh, stud, flock of horses; see greigh.

gràin, abhorrence, disgust, Ir. gráin, E. Ir. gráin, W. graen, grief, rough: *gragni- (Strachan, Stokes). Ch. Sl. groga, horrible.

gràineag, a hedgehog, Ir. gráineóg: the "horrent one"; from gráin, above.

graing, disdain, a frown, Ir. grainc. Cf. sgraing.

gràinne, a grain, small quantity, Ir. gráinne, O. Ir. gráinne, granulum, grán, granum, W. grawn, Cor. gronen, Br. greun, (pl.): *grâno-; Lat. grânum (*gr@-@.no-); Eng. corn (Stokes). Some hold that the Celtic is borrowed from the Latin.

grainnseach, a grange, Ir. gráinseach; from the Eng.

grainnseag, a cracknel (M'F.), bear berry (H.S.D. for N. H.):

gràis, prosperity, blessing (N. H.); from gràs.

gràisg, a rabble, Ir. gráisg, gramhaisg, gramaisg:

gramaich, hold, keep fast, ir. gramuighim; see greim.

gramur, refuse of grain (H.S.D.):

gràn, kiln-dried grain, Ir. grán, corn, O. Ir. grán; see gràinne.

grànda, gràda, ugly, Ir. granda, granna, E. Ir. gránde, gránna, teter, dirus; from gràin, q.v.

gràpa, a graip, dung fork, Ir. grápa; from Sc. graip.

gràs, grace, Ir., M. Ir. grás, W. gras; from Lat. gratia.

grath, terror (Dial., H.S.D.):

grathuinn, a while; for *tràthain, from tràth, influenced by greis?

gread, wound, whip, burn, Ir. greadaim; cf. W. greidio, scorch: *greddo-; root ghredh; cf. Eng. grind, Lat. frendo, *ghrendho (St.). Cf. also Eng. grist, Lat. hordeum. Swedish grädda, bake, may be compared.

greadan, a considerable time with all one's might at anything (M'A.); from gread.

greadan, parched corn; from gread. Cf. gradan. Ir. greadóg means "griddle". Eng. griddle, W. greidell, are allied. Cf. grist, hordeum, κριθή.

greadhan, greadhuinn, a convivial party, happy band. Ir. greadhanach, drolling, G. greadhnach, joyful; root gred, go, as in greas, q.v.? M. Ir. greadan, exulting shouts. Root χαρ?

grealach, greallach, entrails: *gre-lach, root gṛ, I. E. ghṛ, gut; Gr. χορδή, gut, Eng. cord; Lat. haru-spex, diviner, "entrails-inspector", hernia, rupture. Shaw has greathlach. Hence greallach, dirty, Ir. greallach, clay, dirty. Cf. Eng. gore.

greallag, a swingle-tree:

greann, hair, bristling of hair, surly look, also "cloth", "rough piled clothing", Ir. greann, beard, hair hair, E. Ir. grend, beard, W., Br. grann, eyelid, cilium: *grendâ; Ger. granne, beard of corn or cat, Norse grön, moustache, Span. greña, tangled hair, Prov.Fr. gren, O. Fr. grenon, beard of cheek and lip; Albanian krąnde. greanndag, rag, tatter. Hence greannar.

greas, hasten, urge, Ir. greasuighim, M. Ir. gressim: *gred-to-; I. E. ꬶhredh, step out, go; Lat. gradior, gradus, step; Got. grids, a step; Ch. Sl. grędą, stride, come; Skr. gṛdhyati, step out. The E. Ir. grísaim, I incite, is a different word, coming from grís, fire.

greidil, a gridiron, Ir. greidil, greideal, M. Ir. in t-slissin gretli, Sean. Mor. gretel, W. greidel, gradell, O. W. gratell; from Late Lat. graticula, from cratis, wicker-work, Eng. crate, grate, grill, hurdle. Eng. griddle, M. Eng. gredel, are the same as the Celtic words. Skeat has suggested gread above as the orogin of the Celtic forms; cf. Ir. greadóg, a griddle. Hence greidlean, an instrument for turning the bannocks on the griddle.

gréidh, prepare, dress, Ir. gréasaim; see gréis. gréidhear, gré'ar, grieve (N.Gael.).

greigh, a stud of horses, Ir., M. Ir. groigh, E. Ir. graig, W. gre: *gragi-; Lat. grex, flock; Gr. gargara, heaps; O. H. G. quarter, herd.

greim, a hold, a morsel, so Ir., O. Ir. greim, greimm, a hold, strength, W. grym, force, strength: *gredsmen-; root gher, hold, Gr. χέιρ, hand, Skr. gáras, grip. Stokes separates greim, morsel, from greim, hold, strength. greim, morsel, he refers to *gresmen, a bite, Skr. grásati, devour, Gr. γράω, eat, Norse krás, a dainty.

greis, prowess, onset, slaughter, a champion, E. Ir. gress, gréss, attack; from the root of greas above (Stokes).

greis, a while, Ir. do ghréas, always, O. Ir. do grés, do gress, semper, M. Ir. do-gres: *grend-to-, going on, root grend, gred, I. E. ghredh as in greas. Strachan gives *grencs-, and compares Norse kringr, round, Ger. kring. See treis.

gréis, greus, embroidery, needle-work, Ir. obair-ghréis, from gréas, E. Ir. gréss, any work of art or trade; see greusaich.

greód, a crowd (Arg.); from Eng. crowd.

greòs, expansion of the thighs, greòsgach, grinning (H.S.D.): *grencs-; Norse gringr, round, Ger. kring.

greusaich, griasaich, shoemaker, any worker in embroidery or gurniture, Ir. gréasaidhe, shoemaker: *greid-to-; Gadelic greid, dress, broider, I. E. ꬶhrei, rub; Gr. χροιά, χρῶμα, hide, skin, colour, χρίω, anoint (Christus).

grian, sun, Ir., O. Ir. grían: *greinâ, ꬶhr-einâ, root ꬶher, warm, as in gar. Cf. Skr. ghṛṇis, sunshine, ghramsa, heat; W. greian, what gives heat, sun. See further under grìos. Hence grianan, sunny place, summer house, solarium of Lat., from sol, sun.

griasaich, a species of aculeated fish: "cobbler" fish; from griasaich, shoemaker.

grìd, substance, quality; from Sc. grit, grain of stones, grit, grain, Eng. grit. Hence grìdeil, industrious (M'A.).

grigirean, the constellation of Charles' wain, grigleachan, a constellation; see grioglachan.

grìleag, a grain of salt, any small matter: *gris-il-, root greis, gravel, as in grinneal.

grìmeach, grim, surly; from Eng. grim, Norse grimmr.

grìmeil, warlike (H.S.D.), Ir. grimeamhuil (Lh., O'B.), grim, war; from the Norse grimmr, fierce, wroth?

grinn, pretty, Ir. grinn, E. Ir. grind: *gṛnni-, "bright"; root ꬶher, as in grian, grìos. Cf. glinn.

grinneal, bottom of the sea, gravel, Ir. grinnioll, channel, bed of a river, sand of the sea, sea bottom, M. Ir. grinnell: *gris-ni-, root, greis, gris, gravel, E. Ir. grían, gravel (*greisano-), W. graian, gravel, greienyn a grain of gravel. Rhys (Hib.Lect., 571) refers these words to the root of grian, sun, the particle of gravel being supposed to be "a shining thing". This view is supported by grioglachan and griogag, q.v.

griob, nibble (Heb.); from Sc. gnip, gnaw, eat, Eng. nip, nibble.

griobh, a pimple (M'A.):

griobhag, hurry:

grìoch, a decaying or lean young deer, grìochan, consumption (Dial., H.S.D.):

griogag, grìogag (Glen-Urquhart), a pebble, bead: *grizgu-, root gris, greis, gravel, as in grinneal.

grioglachan, Pleiades, grigleachan, a constellation, Ir. griogchán, constellation. For root, see griogag.

griomacach, thin-haired, griomagach, shrivelled grass (H.S.D.):

grioman, a certain species of lichen, malt bud (H.S.D.):

grìos, entreat, pray, Ir. gríosaim, encourage, incite, rake up a fire; from earlier gríos, heat, which see in grìosach.

grìosach, burning embers, Ir. gríosach, coals of fire, burning embers, M. Ir. gríssach, E. Ir. grís, fire, embers, Br. groez, heat: *grens, *gṛns, heat; Skr. ghramsa, sun, heat, sunshine; root ꬶher of gar, q.v. Hence grìs, inflammation; Ir. grís, pimple.

grìs, horror; from Sc. grise, to shudder, M. Eng. grīs, horror, grīseful, grīse, horrible, Eng. grisly.

grìsionn, grindled, grìs-ghion, "gray-white", grìs (Sh. gris), gray; from M. Eng. grīs, gray fur.

griùrach, the measles, griuthach (do.), grìobhach (M'A.), griùragan, indefinitely small particle, pustules on the skin; root ꬶhru, as in grothlach; grúlach (Skye) = griobhlach.

gròb, join by indentation, serrate; cf. M. Eng. grōpin, to groove, also groupe and grave. A borrowed G. word.

gróbag, a poor shrivelled woman; from gròb.

groban, top or point of a rock, hillock:

gròban, mugwort (N.G.):

gròc, croak, frown on; from Eng. croak.

grod, rotten, E. Ir. grot, gruiten, stale butter, small curds in whey; a metathesis of goirt?

groganach, wrinkled (as heather), Ir. grug, a wrinkle; cf. grùig.

gròig, awkwardness, perverseness, gròigean, awkward man; see grùig.

gròiseid, a gooseberry; from the Sc. groset, from O. Gr. *grose, grosele, goose-berry, whence Eng. gooseberry for grooseberry.

gròmhan, a groaning, growling; the same as gnòmhan.

gros, snout; correct spelling of gnos, q.v.

gròta, a groat; from the Eng.

grothlach, a gravel pit, abounding in gravel (O'B., Sh., etc.), Ir. grothlach, W. gro, pebbles, Cor. grow, gravel, Br. grouan. From these come Eng. gravel, O. Gr. gravele. Cf. Norse grjot, stones, Ag. S. greót, Eng. grit, root grut, Lit. grústi, pound, bray, Gr. χρυσός, gold (= χρυδ-σός).

grotonach, corpulent (O'B., Sh., etc.), so Ir.: "heavy-breeched" (Arms.)—*grod-tónach.

gruag, hair of the head, a wig, Ir. grúag: *grunkâ, root ꬶru, Eng. crumple? Hence gruagach, a maiden, brownie.

gruaidh, cheek, brow, Ir. gruaidh, cheek, E. Ir. gruad, W. grudd, Cor. grud, maxilla: *groudos. Bez. suggests the root ghrud, ghreud, as in grothlach, above, the idea being "pounding, mashing" (Lit. grústi, bray, pound), and the original force "jaw": cf. Lat. maxilla and macero, macerate. Stokes queries if it is from the root of Eng. great. Eng. proud?

gruaigean, a species of sea-weed (H.S.D. for Heb.), birses (M'A.); "little hairy one" (Carm.), from gruag. miorcan in Lewis.

gruaim, gloom, surly look, Ir. gruaim: *grousmen-; root ꬶreul, ꬶrût, Lat. brûtus, dull, Eng. brute, Lettic, grúts, heavy, Stokes cfs. only Ch. Sl. sŭ-grustiti sę grieve over.

grùdair, a brewer, Ir. grúdaire, grúid, malt: *grûddi-; Ag. S. grút, coarse meal, Ger. grütze, groats, Dan. gröd; Lit grúdas, corn. Eng. grit, groats are allied. Hence grùid, lees.

grùig, a drooping attitude, churlishness, churlish, Ir. grúg, a grudge, anger, gruig, churlishness (O'B.), gruc, sulky (O'Cl.); cf. Eng. grudge, M. Eng. grucchen, O. Fr. grouchier, groucier. Also grùgach, wrinkled.

gruilleamach, prancing, leaping suddenly (H.S.D.):

grunnaich, sound, fathom; see grunnd.

grunn, grunnan, a handful, lot, crowd (Dial. grainnean), O. Ir. grinne, fascis, fasciculum, Br. gronn, a heap: *grendio-, *grondo-; Gr. γρόνθος, closed fist, Skr. grantha, bind, etc. (Stokes for O. Ir.). Cf. for root bréid.

grunnasg, groundsel; formed on the Eng.

grunnd, bottom, ground, thrift; from Sc. grund, bottom or channel in water, Norse grunnr, bottom of sea or river, Eng. ground. Hence grunndail, steadfast, solid, sensible.

grùnsgul, a grunting; from *grunn, grunt, Lat. grunnire, Eng. grunt.

gruth, curds, Ir., M. Ir. gruth: *grutu-; Eng. curds, M. Eng. crud, Sc. crowdie, croods; Gr. γρúσει, will melt, grútc (u long), frippery; I. E. ꬶru, Eng. crumb, Ger. krauen, Gr. γρῦ, morsel. Hence gruitheam, curds and butter: gruth+ìm.

grùthan, grùan, liver, Ir. aeu. grúan (Lh. Comp.Voc. sub "jecur"): *grûso-: root ghru, gritty, of grothlach.

gu, to, ad, Ir. go, gu, O. Ir. co, cu, W. bw in bwy gilydd, to its fellow: *qos; Ch. Sl. , to; cf. Lat. usque for *quos-que? (Bez.). Used adverbially in gu math, gu h-olc. Cf. Gr. κας, και, Skr. -ças.

guag, a giddy, whimsical fellow, Ir. gúag, guaigín, folly, silly one; from M. Eng. gowke, gōki, a fool, Sc. gowk, Eng. gawky.

guag, a splay-foot; see cuag.

guaigean, thick, little and round: *goug-go-, root ꬶu, bend.

guailisg, false, falsity (Carm.):

guaillean, a coal of fire; see gual. Cf. caoirean, a peat, cinder, ember.

guaillich, go hand in hand: "shoulder to shoulder"; see guala.

guaimeas, quietness; see guamach.

guaineas, briskness, liveliness; see guanach.

guairdean, vertigo; cf. Ir. gúairdeán, whirlwind; from cuairt?

guairsgeach, curled, crinitus, Ir. gúaire, hair of the head; from I. E. ꬶu, bend, as in guala.

guais, danger, guaiseach, dangerous, Ir. guais, O. Ir. gúassacht

guait, leave ("Gabh no guait e"—Take or leave it); from Eng. quit? g-uait?

gual, coal, Ir. gual: *goulo-, *geulo-; root geul, gul; Teutonic *kola-, Norse kol, coals, Ger. kohle, Eng. coal. W. glo, Br. glaou, *glôvo- (Stokes), is allied to the Eng. glow.

guala, gualann, shoulder, Ir. guala, g. gualann, E. Ir. gualu, g. *gualand: *goulôn, root ꬶeu, ꬶu, gu, bend; Gr. γυῖον, limb, γúαλον, a hollow, γúης, ploughtree (Lat. bura); Old Bactrian = Zend, gāo, hand. Strachan and Stokes give the root gub, bend, stem *gublôn-, I. E. gheubh, bend, Gr. κυφός (u long), bent, stooping; Lettic gubt, stoop.

guamach, neat, snug, smirking; also "plentiful" (Sh., O'R.), careful, managing (Arran):

guanach, light, giddy, Ir. guanach, guamnach, M. Ir. guamnacha, active (O'Cl.); root guam of guamach above.

gucag, a bubble, bell, globule, bud: *gukko-, Ger. kugel, ball.

gùda, a gudgeon, Ir. guda; formed on Eng. gudgeon, M. Eng. gojon.

gudaleum, gudarleum, a bound, wild leap (Arg.):

guga, the solan goose, a fat, silly fellow, Ir. guga. See the next word for root.

gugail, clucking of poultry, Ir. gugailim: an onomatopoetic word. Cf. Eng. chuck. See also gogail.

gugairneach, a fledgling:

guidh, pray, guidhe, a prayer, wish, Ir. guidhim, guidhe, O. Ir. guidiu, gude, guide: *godio-, root ged, god, I. E. ꬶhedh, ask; Gr. πόθεω, desire, θέσσασθαι, pray for; Got. bidjan, ask, Ag. S. giddan, Eng. bid.

guil, weep, Ir., E. Ir. guilim; see gal.

guilbneach, the curlew: "beaked one", E. Ir. gulbnech, beaked, O. Ir. gulban, beak, O. W. gilbin, acumine, W. gylf, bill, beak, gylfant, Cor. gilb, foratorium, geluin, rostrum: *gulbano-; Ger. kolben, piston, knob, gun-stock. Bez. compares only N. Slovenic golbati, gnaw. Cf. Lit. gulbė, swan.

guileag, the swan's note, warbling (Sh. has guillag, chattering of birds, O'R. guilleog); root gal, cry, call, Lat. gallus, cock, Eng. call?

guileagan, custom of boiling eggs outside on Easter Sunday = latha guileagan (M'D.):

guim, cuim, conspiracy (Carm.):

guin, a wound, O. Ir. guin: *goni-; see gon.

guir, hatch, lie on eggs, gur, hatching, Ir. gur, W. gori, to brood; from the root gor, gar, warm. See gar.

guirean, a pimple, gur, a festering, Ir., M. Ir. guirín, pustule, E. Ir. gur, pus, W. gôr, pus, goryn, pustula: *goru-, fester, "heat"; root gor, gar, warm, as in gar.

guisead, a gusset; from the Eng.

guit, a corn-fan, unperforated sieve: gottiá:

guitear, a gutter, kennel; from Eng. gutter

gulm, a gloom, forbidding look; from the Eng.?

gulmag, sea-lark (H.S.D.):

gun, without, Ir. gan, O. Ir. cen; Gr. κενεός, empty; root keno-. So O. H. G. hina, hinweg, Ag. S. hin-.

gu'n, gu'm, that, Gr. ὅτι, Ir. go, O. Ir. co, con. Windisch considers this the prep. con, with, and co, to; Zim. and Thur. regard it as from co, to (see gu). The latter explains the n as the relative: *co-sn, a view supported by the verbal accent being on the first syllable and by the occasional form conn(?) See cha'n. from Celtic *vo-ouno-, root in Lat. ex-uo, doff, ind-uo, don, Lit. aunù, put on shoes, áuti.

gunna, a gun, Ir., M. Ir. gunna; from M. Eng. gunne, Eng. gun.

gur, that, Ir. gur: *co-ro; see gu'n for co. Uses are: Gur cruaidh e = O. Ir. corrop cruaid é; corrop is now Ir. gurab, that is co-ro-ba (ba, verb "to be"). gur = gun ro, con ro- (St.).

guraiceach, a blockhead (Sh., H.S.D.):

guraiceach, unfeathered bird, lump (Arg.), from gur.

gurpan, crupper; from Sc. curpon, Eng., O. Fr. croupon.

gurracag, a blot (Arg.):

gurrach, gurraban, crouching, crouching on the hunkers: *gurtha- from gur, brooding as in guir? Cf. Sc. curr, to "hunker", currie, a stool, Eng. cower. The Perthshire curraidh, hunkering, is from Scotch.

gurrach, fledgling, gurach (Arg.):

gurt, fierceness, sternness of look; also gart, q.v.

gus, to, Ir. gus, O. Ir. cossin, to the, to which; prep. gu, co, and the article or relative. The s of the article is preserved after the consonant of co (= qos).

gus, anything (Arg.):

gusair, sharp, keen, strong, Ir. gusmhar, strong; from gus, force, smartness: *gustu-, "choice", root gu, Eng. chose.

gusgan, a hearty draught:

gusgul, refuse, dirt, idle words, roaring:

guth, voice, Ir., O. Ir. guth: *gustu-; I. E. gu; Gr. γόος, groan; Skr. hu, call, cry, havatē, calls; Ch. Sl. zovą, to call. This is different from I. E. ꬶu, Gr. βοή, shout, Lat. bovare, cry (Prellwitz, Osthoff).