An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/I

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search
An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain
I

I

i, she, Ir. í, , O. Ir. í, , , W., Br. hi: *sî; Got. si, ea, Ger. sie, they; Skr. syā́: I. E. sjo-, sjā- (Brug.). See sa, so, sin.

iach, a yell, cry, Ir. íachdadh, O. Ir. iachtaim: *eicto-, *eig-to-, from eia of éigh.

iach, a salmon, E. Ir. , g. iach, W., Br. eog, W. ehawc, Cor. ehog: *esax; Lat. esox: Basque izokin (borrowed from Celtic).

iad, they, Ir. iad, E. Ir. iat, O. Ir. only in olseat-som, say they, W. hwynt: confusion of roots ei sjo with the 3rd plur. in nt. Of E. Ir. iat, siat, Brugmann says:- "These have the ending of the 3rd plur. of the verb;; later on iat, siat were detached, and began an independent existence". Stokes similarly says they are se and hwy with the nt of the verbal 3rd pl. added.

iadach, jealousy, Ir. éad; see eud.

iadh, encompass, Ir. iadhaim, join, shut, surround, E. Ir. iadaim: *eidâô, *ei-dho-, root ei, go? Stokes analyses it into *ei- dâmô, for epi-dâmô, Skr. api-dā́nā, a lock: for epi, see Gr. ἐπί under iar; and dâmô is from dhô, dhê, place, Gr. τίθημι, Lat. facio. It has also been correlated to Gr. πιέζομαι, press, Skr. pîdayti, press (*pisdā), from pise, stamp, press, Lat. pistor, etc.

ial, moment, season, gleam of sunshine; a poetic word, seemingly a metaphoric use of iall. Galway Ir. iall, moment, iall deireannach dá shaoghal.

iall, a thong, Ir. iall, E. Ir. íall: *peisla; cf. pileus, felt, etc.†

iall, a flock of birds, Ir. iall, a flock of birds, E. Ir. iall, grex; *eisla, Gr. ἴλη, Hence eallach (St.). Cf Ir. éilín sicini, brood or clutch of chickens.

iallach, jaunty, lithe; cf uallach.

ialtag, a bat, Ir. ialtóg, E. Ir. iathlu (iatly, O'Cl.), W. ystlum: *isatal- (Ascoli). Dial. dealtag anmoch; Lat. vesper-tilio.

ian, a bird; see eun.

iar, after, Ir. iar, O. Ir. iar n-, post: *e(p)eron; Skr. aparam, afterwards; Got. afar, post; further Gr. ὄπιθεν, behind, ἐπί, to, on, Skr. ápi, Lit. apė, to, on, Lat. op. See air(c).

iar, an iar, siar, west, Ir. iar, siar, O. Ir. íar, occidens, aníar: a special use of the prep. iar above. See ear for force.

iarbhail, anger, ferocity; from air and boile?

iarbhail, a consequence, remains of a disease:

iargainn, pain, Ir. iargan, groans of a dying man (O'B.); from air and gon.

iargail, the west, evening twilight, Ir. iargúl, remote district, iargcúl (Con.); from iar and cúl, back: "begind", west. iargalta, churlish, inhospitable, surly, turbulent (M'A.), Ir. iarcúlta, churlish, backward.

iargall, battle, contest, so Ir., O. Ir. irgal: air+gal, the air being air(a). See gal.

iarghuil, sound, noise; see uirghioll.

iarla, an earl, Ir. iarla, M. Ir. íarla; from Norse jarl, Eng. earl. W. has iarll.

iarmad, offspring, remnant, Ir. iarmat, offspring (O'B.), iarmart, consequences of anything, iarmhar, remnant; root mar, remain. See mar.

iarmailt, the firmament, for *fiarmaint, Ir. fiormaimeint, M. Ir. firmeint, E. Ir. firmimenti (g.); from Lat. firmamentum. Cf. Tormailt, Norman.

iarna, a hank of yarn, Ir. íarna, a chain or hank of yarn; from Eng. yarn.

iarnaich, smooth with an iron; from iarunn.

iarogha, great grandson, O. Ir. iarmui, abnepotes; from air and ogha: "post-nepos".

iarr, ask, Ir., E. Ir. iarraim, I seek, ask, iarrair, a seeking, iarair: *iarn-ari-, "after-go", root (p)ar, per, go, seek, bring, through, Gr. πεῖρα, experience, Lat. ex-perior, try, Eng. experience, etc. (Stokes). See aire further for root.

iarunn, iron, Ir. iarann, M. Ir. iarund, O. Ir. iarn, W. haiarn, hearn, Corn. hoern, O. Br. hoiarn, Br. houarn, Gaul. isarnodori, ferrei ostii: *eisarno-; Got. eisarn, O. H. G. isarn, Ger. eisen, Eng. iron (all borrowed from Celtic according to Brugmann, Stokes, etc.). Shräder regards the eis or îs of eisarno- as only a different vowel-scale form of I. E. ayos, ayes-, metal, whence Lat. aes, Eng. ore.

iasachd, iasad, a loan, Ir. iasachd, E. Ir. iasacht:

iasg, fish, Ir. iasg, O. Ir. íasc, œsc, g. éisc; *eisko-, *peisko-; Lat. piscis, fish; Got. fisks, Eng. fish.

ibh, drink, M. G. ibh (M'V.), Ir. ibhim (Con. íbhim), O. Ir. ibim, O. W. iben, bibimus, Cor. evaf, Br. eva: *ibô, *pibô; Lat. bibo; Skr. pibamî.

ic, cure, heal, so Ir.; see ioc.

ìc, an addition, eke, frame put under a beehive (Carm.); Sc. eik.

idir, at all, Ir. idir, O. Ir. itir, etir: *enteri, a locative case of enter, the stem of the prep. eadar, q.v.

ifrinn, hell, Ir. ifrionn, E. Ir. ifern(d), O. Ir. ifurnn; from Lat. infernum, adj. infernus, Eng. infernal.

igh, tallow (Sh.), fat (H.S.D., which marks it as obsolete), M. Ir. íth, g. itha, Manx eeh: root pi, pei, Gr. πίων, Skr. pínas, fat.

igh, ì, a burn, a small stream with green banks (Suth.). This is the Suth. pronunciation of ùidh, a ford, etc.

ilbhinn, a craggy mountain ("Mar ilbhinn ailbhein craige", Oss. Ballad); if not mere jingle, it means "many peaked": iol+bheann.

ileach, variegated, Ir. ile, diversity; see iol-.

ìm, butter, Ir. im (g. íme, Coneys), E. Ir. imb, W. ymenyn, Cor. amenen, Br. amann, amanen: *emben- or *ṃben-; Lat. unguen, Eng. unguent, vb. unguo, I smear: Ger. enke, butter; Skr. áñjas, a salve, ointment.

im-, about, also with intensive force, Ir. im-, O. Ir. im-, imm-; it is the prefixive form of prep. mu, q.v. Also iom-.

imcheist, anxiety, doubt, O. Ir. imchesti, contentiones; from im- and cheist.

imeachd, journeying, imich, go, Ir. imtheachd, imthighim, O. Ir. imthecht; from im- and teachd, tighinn: imich is for imthigh, root tig teig of tighinn, q.v.

imisg, a sarcasm, scandal: *im-isc; for isc, see inisg.

imleag, navel, Ir. imleacan, imlinn, E. Ir. imbliu, acc. imblind, imlec, imlecán: *embiliôn-, *embilenko-; Lat. umbilîcus; Gr. ὀμφαλός; Eng. navel; Skr. nā́bhi, nâbhîla; I. E. onbhelo-, nobhelo-.

imlich, lick, Ir. imlighim, lighim; im-lighim. "about-lick". With lighim is cognate O. Ir. lígim, I lick, W. llyaw, llyad, licking, Br. leat (do.): *leigô, *ligo; Lat. lingo; Gr. λείγω; Eng. lick; Ch. Sl. lizati (to lick); Skr. lihati.

imnidh, care, diligence, Ir. imnídhe, O. Ir. imned, tribulatio: *ṃbi-men-eto-, root men of menmna. Ascoli analyses the O. Ir. as *imb-an-eth, root an, breathe.

impidh, a prayer; see iompaidh.

impis, imis, imminence, an impis, about to, almost, M. Ir. imese catha, imminence of battle, root ved of tòiseach (Stokes).

imreasan, controversy, Ir. imreasán, O. Ir. imbresan, altercatio, imbresnaim, I strive, W. ymryson, contention, dispute: *imbi-bres-, root bres of M. Ir. bressa, contentions, battles, Br., Cor. bresel (from bris, break)? Windisch suggests for Gadelic *imm-fres-sennim (prep. imm or im and fris, frith), from O. Ir. sennim, I drive, *svem-no-, allied to Eng. swim.

imrich, remove, flit, Ir. imircim, E. Ir. immirge, journey, expedition: *imbi-reg-, root reg, go, stretch (as in rach). Windisch suggests imm-éirge, from éirigh. before medials, liquids, and s (ionn- only before s), Ir. in-, ion-, inn-, ionn- (before s), O. Ir. in-; it is the Gadelic prep. in, ind, now an, ann, in (q.v.), used as a prefix.

inbhe, quality, dignity, rank, Ir. inmhe, patrimony, estate, M. Ir. indme, rank: *ind-med-, prep. ind (ann) and root , med, of meas? Ir. inme, wealth, better indme or indbe (St.).

inbhir, a confluence of waters, Ir. innbhear, inbhear, E. Ir. indber, inbir, inber, W. ynfer, influxus: *eni-bero-s (Stokes), from eni or modern an, in, and bero-, stem of beir, Lat. fero. The combination is the same as Lat. infero, Eng. inference.

inghean, a daughter, Ir. inghean, O. Ir. ingen, Ogam inigena: *eni-genâ; root gen, beget (see gin) and prep. an; Lat. indigena, native; Gr. ἐγγόνη, a grand-daughter. Also nighean, q.v. Lat. ingenuus?

inich, neat, tidy, lively:

inid, Shrove-tide, Ir. inid, E. Ir. init, W. ynyd, Br. ened; from Lat. initium (jejunii, beginning of Lent.

inisg a reproach; cf. M. Ir. indsce, O. Ir. insce, speech: *eni-sqiâ, root seq, say, as in sgeul, q.v. Gr. ἔνισπε, Lat. inseque, say, are exactly the same as Ir. in root and prefix.

inn-, ionn-, (innt- before s), prep. prefix of like force with frith, ri, against, to Ir. inn-, ionn-, O. Ir. ind- (int- before s), inn-, in-: *ṇde, Gaul. ande-: *ande, from ṇdh, Goth. und, for, until, O. H. G. unt-as, until; Skr. ádhi, up to (ṇdhi).

inndrich, originate, incite:

inne, a bowel, entrail, gutter, sewer, kennel (M'A.), Ir. inne, innighe, M. Ir. inne, inde, a bowel, viscer (pl.), E. Ir. inne, inde, O. Ir. inna, d.pl. innib, viscus, viscera: prep. in+? Cf. Gr. ἒvτερον, a bowel, Ger. innere, Skr. antaram; also Dial. Eng. innards (for inwards).

inneach, woof, so Ir., E. Ir. innech: *(p)ṇ-niko-, root pan, thread, Lat. pannus, cloth, Gr. pcnós, woof thread on the bobbin? See further under anart. A compound with in or ind is possible: in-neg-, Lat. in-necto?

inneadh, want (M'F.):

inneal, an instrument, arrangement, Ir. inneal, arrangement, dress, E. Ir. indell, yoke, arrangement; G. innil, prepare, ready, Ir. inniollaim, arrange, E. Ir. indlim, get ready: *ind-el-, root pel, join, fold, as in alt, q.v. Ascoli joins O. Ir. intle, insidiæ, intledaigim, insidior, and G. innleachd, q.v.; but gives no root.

innean, an anvil, Ir. inneóin, E. Ir. indeóin, O. Ir. indéin, W. einion [engion?], Cor. ennian, Br. anneffn: *ande-bnis, "on-hit", from inn- and benô, hit as in bean, q.v. Osthoff gives the stem *endivani-, "on-hit", Zd. vaniti, hit.

innear, dung, M. Ir. indebar: *ind-ebar; cf. E. Ir. cann-ebor (= cac, O'Cl.), on the analogy of which Stokes suggests that ind- of indebar is for find, white, but G. is against this. O'Dav. has find-ebor, dung; so Meyer, but not O'Dav.!

innil, prepare, ready; see inneal.

innis, an island, Ir. inis, O. Ir. inis, W. ynys, Cor. enys, Br. enez, pl. inisi: *inissî, from ṇss, Lat. *inssa, insula, Gr. νῆσος (Dor. νᾶασος). The connection of the Celtic, Lat., and Gr. is almost certain, though the phonetics are not clear. Strachan suggests for Celtic *eni-stî, "in-standing", that is, "standing or being in the sea".

innis, tell, Ir. innisim, E. Ir. innisim, indisim: *ind-fiss-, from fiss, now fios, knowledge; root vid. Cf. adfíadim, narro (*veidô), infíadim. vet (St.)?

innleachd, device, mechanism, Ir. inntleachd, device, ingenuity: *ind-slig-tu-, root slig of slighe, way? Ascoli joins O. Ir. intle, insidiæ, intledaigim, insidior, and W. annel, a gin, Cor. antell, ruse, Br. antell, stretch a snare or bow, and Ir. innil, a gin, snare. The O. Ir. intliucht, intellectus (with sliucht, cognitio), is considered by Zimmer to be a grammatical word from Lat. intellectus. Stokes disagrees. Hence innlich, aim, desire.

innlinn, provender, forage: "preparation", from innil, prepare.

innsgin, mind, courage (H.S.D. form MSS.), also in A.M'D.'s song, "Am breacan uallach"; innsgineach, sprightly (Sh., O'R.):

inntìnn, mind, Ir. inntinn: *ind-seni-; root sen or senn, as in Ger. sinn, sense? Kluge, however, gives *sentno- as the earliest form of the Ger. Possibly it may be a plural from O. Ir. inne, sensus, meaning the "senses" originally. The Gadelic words can scarcely be from a depraved pronunciation of Lat. ingenium.

inntreadh, inntreachduinn, a beginning, entering; from Eng. entering.

iob, a raw cake, lump of dough (H.S.D. for N. H.); also uibe, q.v.

ioba, pl. iobannan, tricks, incantations (Arg.); see ubag.

iobairt, an offering, sacrifice, Ir. íodhbuirt, M. Ir. édpart, O. Ir. edpart, idpart: *aith-od-bart-, root bert, ber of beir, q.v. Cf. W. aberth (= ad-bert), a sacrifice.

ioblag, a victimised or despised female, a trollop (Glenmoriston):

ìoc, pay, remedy, iocshlaint, a cure, salve, remedy, Ir. íocaim, pay, remedy, iocshlaint, a cure, salve, remedy, Ir. íocaim, pay, remedy, íocshláinte, a cure, remedy, E. Ir. ícaim, heal, pay, O. Ir. íccaim, heal, W. iachäu, to cure, iach, sound, Cor. iach, sanus, Br. iac'h, healthy, O. Br. iac: *jakko-, sound; Gr. ἄκος, a cure; Skr. yaças, grandeur. The long vowel of the Gadelic forms is puzzling, and these have been referred to *isacco-, from iso-, eiso-, Gr. ἰαομαι, heal, Skr. ishayati, refresh.

iochd, clemency, humanity, Ir. iochd, clemency, confidence, M. Ir. icht, protection, E. Ir. icht, progeny, children: *pektus, root pek, pak, Lat. pectus, breast, paciscor, paction; allied to uchd. For iochd, progeny, cf. Norse átt, family (Rhys). See aicme.

ìochdar, the lower part, bottom, Ir. íochdar, O. Ir. íchtar. It is formed from ìos, ís, down, on the analogy of uachdar. See ìos.

iod, alas! Cf. Eng. tut. Also ud, oh dear!

iodhal, an image, Ir. íodhal, O. Ir. ídal; from Lat. idolum, Eng. idol.

iodhlann, a cornyard, Ir. iothlann, granary, O. Ir. ithla, g. ithland, area, W. ydlan, O. W. itlann, area: *(p)itu-landâ, "corn-land"; O. Ir. ith (g. etho), corn, W., Cor. yd, Br. ed, it; Skr. pitu, nourishment, eating, Zend pitu, food. For further connections, see ith, eat. For -lann, see lann.

iodhnadh, pangs of child-birth, Ir. iodhana, pangs, E. Ir. idu, pl. idain: *(p)idôn-; Got. fitan, travail in birth.

ìogan, deceit, fraud:

ioghar, ioghnadh; see iongar, iongnadh.

iol-, prefix denoting "many", Ir. iol-, O. Ir. il, multus: *elu-, *pelu-, many; Got., O. H. G. filu, Ger. viel, many; Gr. πολúς, many; Skr. purú. the root is pel, plâ, plê, as in G. làn, lìon, Eng. full, etc.

iola, a fishing station, fishing rock, fishing bank (Heb. and N. H.); Shet iela.

iolach, a shout, pæan, Ir. iolach, merriment, O. Ir. ilach, pæan; W. elwch, a shout. *elukko, root pel, roar; πελαγος? (St.). Cf. Ag. S. ealá, oh, alas.

iolair, eagle, Ir. iolar, M. Ir. ilur, for irur, *eruro-s, W. eryr, Cor., Br. er; Got. ara, O. H. G. aro, Ger. aar, Ag. S. earn; Lit. erélis, Prus. arelie; also Gr. ὄρνις, a bird.

iolar, down (Perthshire), also urlar: a degraded adverbial form of urlar? Or for *ior-ar, *air-air, "on-by"?

iolla, view, glance; gabh iolla ris, just look at it; cf. ealla.

iollagach, frolicsome; see iullagach.

iollain, expert (H.S.D.; Sh., O'R. iollan); from ealaidh.

iom-, the broad-vowel form of the prefix im-, q.v.

ioma, iomadh, many, many a, Ir. ioma, iomdha, E. Ir. immad, multitudo, O. Ir. imbed, copia, immde, multus (*imbde), immdugud, exuberantia: *imbeto-, from the prep. imbi, embi, now im-, mu, about (Z.2 64). Bez. queries if allied to Lat. pinguis, thick, Gr. παχúς, but ꬶh, ꬶhu gives in Gadelic a simple g (Ost. Ind. For.4). Also G. iomad, many, iomaididh, superabundance, Ir. iomad, a multitude, much. For d cf. liuthad.

iomadan, concurrence of disasters, a mourning:

iomagain, iomaguin, anxiety: *imb-ad-goni-, root gon of iargain?

iomain, a driving (of cattle, etc.), Ir. iomáin, tossing, driving, E. Ir. immáin, a driving (*embi-agni-), inf. to immagim, circumago; Lit. ambāges, going around, windings; root âg, ag, drive; Lat. ago, Gr. ἄγω, etc.

iomair, a ridge of land, Ir. iomaire, E. Ir. immaire, imbaire: *embi-ario-, root ar, plough; see ar.

iomair, need, behove: "serve"; Ir. timthire, servant, O. Ir. timmthirim, I serve. For force, cf. feum. The root is tìr, land?

iomair, employ, exercise, play, noun iomairt, Ir. imirt, a game, E. Ir. imbert, O. Ir. vb. imbrim, infero, etc.: for imb-berim, root ber of beir, q.v.

iomall, a border, limit, Ir. imiol, E. Ir. imbel, W. ymyl: *imb-el, "circuit", root el, go, Lat. amb-ulare, walk, which reproduces both roots. See further under tadhal. Hence iomallach, remote.

iomarbhaidh, a struggle, Ir. iomarbhaidh, E. Ir. immarbág: *imm-ar-bág-; root bâg, strive, Norse bágr, strife, O. H. G. bâga, vb. pâgan. See arabhaig. M'A. gives iomarbhuìdh, hesitation, confusion.

iomarcach, very numerous, superfluous (Carswell's imarcach), Ir. iomarcach, M. Ir. imarcraid, superfluity (also "carrying", from immarchor, cor, place, as in iomarchur). M'A. gives the meaning as "in many distresses, distressed", and the root as arc of airc.

iomarchur, a rowing, tumbling, straying, Ir. iomarchur (O'B), E. Ir. immarchor (= imm-ar-cor, from cor or cuir, put), carrying, errand.

iomchan, carriage, behaviour:

iomchar, carriage, behaviour, Ir. iomchar, E. Ir. immchor; from imm- and cuir, q.v.

iomchoire, blame, a reflection; from iom- and coire.

iomchorc, regards, salutation, petition, also G., Ir. iomchomharc, O. Ir. imchomarc, interrogatio, salutatio: *imm-com-arc-, from arc, ask, W. archaff, I ask, erchim, Cor. arghaf, M. Br. archas, will command: *(p)arkô, ask, root perk, prek, pṛk; Lat. precor, Eng. pray, prosco (= porcsco), demand; Ger. frage, forschung, question, inquiry; Lit. praszýti, beg; Skr. pracnas, question.

iomchuidh, proper, Ir. iomchubhaidh, M. Ir. immchubaid; from iom- and cubhaidh, q.v.

ìomhaigh, an image, Ir. iomhaigh, M. Ir. iomáig, imagin, Cor. auain; from Lat. imago.

iomlag, the navel; see imleag.

iomlaid, and exchange, Ir. iomlut; possibly from the G. root lud, go (see dol).

iomlan, whole, E. Ir. imshlán, quite whole.

iompaidh, a turning, conversion, Ir. iompógh, O. Ir. impúd, impúth, W. ymod, a turn: *imb-shouth, O. Ir. sóim, averto: *soviô, root su, sou, Lat. sucula, windlass. It has also been referred to the root sup, Lat. dissipo, Lit. supù, swing.

iomradh, fame, report, Ir. iomrádh, O. Ir. immrádud, tractatio, cogitatio; from iom- and ràdh, say.

iomrall, an error, wandering, Ir. iomrolladh, iomrulladh, E. Ir. imroll, mistake: *ambi-air-al, root al, el, go, as in iomall.

iomram, iomramh, rowing, Ir. iomramh, iomrámh (O'B.), E. Ir. immram, vb. immráim; from iom- and ràmh.

ion, fit, ion-, prefix denoting fitness, Ir. ion-, prefixed to passive participles, denotes fitness (O'D., who quotes inleighis, curable, inmheasta, believable): a particular use of in-, in-, which see. ion is iomlan, almost perfect (Hend.).

ion-, negative prefix an before b, d, g, Ir. ion-, O. Ir. in-; see an for derivation. The primitive before b, d, g. becomes in in Gadelic.

ionad, a place, Ir. ionad, ionnad; the E. Ir. has inad only, pointing to modern ionadh:iona(dh), in c'iona, c'ionadh, whether: co and ionadh or iona, E. Ir. inad, place. See above. The Modern Ir. is ca hionad.

ionaltair, a pasturing, pasture; from in- and *altair, a shorter form of altrum. Cf. for form Ir. ingilim, I pasture, from in- and gelim, I eat (root gel, as in G. goile). iomair ionailt, browsing rig (Carm.).

ionann, alike, Ir. ionnan, O. Ir. inonn, innon, inon. Possibly for *sin-ôn, *sin-sôn, "this-that"; see sin, and sôn of O. Ir. is for *sou-n, *sou, hoc, Gr. οὖ-τος (for root, see sa). Cf. for form Lat. idem = is-dem, Gr. ὁ αὐτός.

ionbhruich, broth; see eanraich.

ionga, g. ingne, pl. ìngnean, ìnean, a nail, Ir. ionga, g. iongan, O. Ir. inga, g. ingen, W. ewin, Cor. euuin, Br. ivin: *engînâ (Stokes); Lat. unguis; Gr. ὄνυξ, g. ὄνυχος; Got. nagljan, Eng. nail; Skr. nakhá. Fick gives the I. E. root as noꬶh, ṇꬶh, with stems noꬶhlo-, ṇꬶhlo-,

iongantach, wonderful, so Ir. ingantach; formed from the noun iongnadh, wonder.

iongar, ioghar, pus: *in-gor, root gor of guirean, q.v. Dr Cam. compared Gr. ἴχωρ, blood of the gods (Gael, No. 548). *ping-aro-, pi, swell?

iongnadh, wonder, so Ir., O. Ir. ingnád, ingnáth (adj. and n.); for in-gnáth, "not wont"; see ion- (neg. prefix) and gnàth.

ionmhas, treasure, Ir. ionmhas, ionmhus, E. Ir. indmass; from in- and -mass of tomhas, measure, q.v. Ascoli connects it with O. Ir. indeb, lucrum, M. Ir. indbas, wealth.

ionmhuinn, dear, Ir. ionmhuin, O. Ir. inmain: *eni-moni, root mon, men, mind, remember, for which see cuimhne. See muinighin.

ionn-, prefix of the same force as fri, ri; see inn- further.

ionnairidh, a watching at night; from ionn- and aire.

ionnaltoir, a bath, Ir. ionnaltóir (O'R.), bather (Con.); see ionnlad.

ionnas, condition, status, ionnas gu, insomuch that, so that, cionnas, how, Ir. ionnus, so that, O. Ir. indas, status: *ind-astu-, "in adstatu", from ad-sta, root sta. Zeuss 2 derives it from ind and the abstract termination -assu (-astu-), seemingly giving it the idea of "to-ness".

ionndruinn, missing: *ind-reth-in, "wandering"; see faondra.

ionnlad, washing, Ir. ionnlat, O. Ir. indlat, Ir. vb. innuilim, M. Ir. indalim. There is also an E. Ir. indmat, washing of the hands. From *ind-luttto-, *lutto from lu, lov, bathe, Lat. lavo, etc.?

ionnsaich, learn, E. Ir. insaigim, seek out, investigate, noun saigid, seeking out, saigim: in- and sag, root sag, seek; Lat. sa!-gio, am keen, sagax, acute; Gr. ἡγέομαι, lead; Got. sôkjan, seek, Eng. seek; I. E. sâg, sag. The G. connsaich is from co-in-saigim, sagim, say, dispute; Got. sakan, dispute, Eng. forsake, sake.

ionnsuidh, attempt, approach, Ir. ionnsuigh, E. Ir. insaigid, a visit; from in- and saigid, seeking out, visiting. See ionnsaich. Hence the prep. dh'ionnsuidh.

ionntag, a nettle; see deanntag.

ionntlas, delight (H.S.D.); from in- and tlàth?

ionntraich, miss (Dial.); see ionndruinn.

ionraic, righteous, Ir. ionnruic, O. Ir. inricc, dignus: *ind-rucci- (Ascoli); possibly *rucci- is for *rog-ki, root rog, reg of reacht.

ioraltan, harmless tricks: *air+alt.

ioras, down; from air and ìos. Dial. uireas.

iorbhail, infection, taint: *air+bail, "on-issue".

iorcallach, a robust man: "Herculean"; from Iorcall, Hercules, a Gaelic word formed from the Latin one.

iorghuil, fray, strife, so Ir., O. Ir. irgal; from air and gal, q.v. Also iorgull.

iorrach, quiet, undisturbed:

iorram, a boat song: *air-rám, "at oar" song. Cf. iomram for phonetics.

ìos, down, Ir. †íos, in phrases a nìos, from below, sìos, to below, so Ir.; O. Ir. ís, íss, infra, W. is, comp. isel, sup. isaf, Br. is, iz, isel, comp. iseloch: *enso or *endso, from en, now an, in; Lat. īmus, lowest, from *ins-mus, from in. Stokes cfs. rather Skr. adhás, under (ṇdhas), Eng. under, giving the prehistoric form as *insô; and there is much in favour of this view for the meaning's sake, though most philologists are on the side of en or end, now an, being root. Lat. imus or infimus would then follow the Celtic.

ìosal, low, Ir. iosal, O. Ir. ísel: *endslo-s; see ìos above.

iosgaid, hough, poples, Ir. ioscaid, M. Ir. iscait, E. Ir. escait:

iosop, hyssop, Ir. íosóip; from Lat. hyssopum, whence Eng.

ìotadh, thirst, Ir. íota, O. Ir. ítu, g. ítad: *isottât, root is, desire, seek; Gr. ἰóτης, wish, ἵμερος, desire; Ch. Sl. iskati, seek; Skr. ish, seek, Zend. ish, wish.

iothlann, cornyard; see iodhlann.

ìre, progress, state, degree of growth, O. Ir. hire, ire (íre), ulterior: *(p)ereio-, from per, through, over; Gr. περαῖος, on the other side. Stokes makes the proportional comparison of these forms thus:- (p)ereios: περαῖος = (p)arei (now air): παραί.

iriosal, humble: *air-ìosal, q.v.

iris, hen-roost, basket or shield handle, M. Ir. iris, pl. irsi, suspender, shield handle, stchel strap: *are-sti-, from air and sta, stand. See ros, seas.

is, is, Ir., O. Ir. is, O. Ir. iss, O. W. iss, is = Gr. ἐστì; Lat. est, is; Eng. is, etc.

is, and, Ir., E. Ir. is; seemingly an idiomatic use of is, is. Consider the idiom; "Nì e sin is mise an so" - "He will do it and I here"; literally: "He will do it, I am here". It is usually regarded as a curtailment of agus, and hence spelt variously as a's, 'us.

isbean, a sausage; from Norse íspen, a sausage of lard and suet (= í-spen, from speni, a teat).

isean, a chicken, young of any bird, Ir. iséan, E. Ir. essíne, O. Ir. isseniu, pullo: *ex(p)et-nio-? Root pet, fly; that is, *ex-én-, én being eun, bird,

isneach, a rifle gun; from oisinn, corner? Meyer suggests from isean, young of birds, comparing "fowling-piece".

ist! whist! Eng. whist! hist! Lat. st! Onomatopoetic.

ite, a feather, Ir. iteóg, O. Ir. ette: *ettiâ, *pet-tiâ, root pet, fly; Gr. πέτομαι, I fly; Lat. penna, a wing (*pet-na), Eng. pen; Eng. feather, Ger. fittich; etc. See eun. W. aden, wing, is near related. iteachan, a spool, weaver's bobbin.

iteodha, hemlok. Cameron (29) suggests a derivation from ite, the idea being "feather-foliaged".

ith, eat, Ir., O. Ir. ithim: *itô, *pitô, I eat; Ch. Sl. pi̓tati, feed: Skr. pitu, nourishment, Zend pitu, food; further Gr. πίτυς, pine. Also †ith, †ioth, corn, as in iodhlann, q.v.

iubhar, yew, Ir. iubhar, E. Ir. ibar, Gaul. Eburos; Ger. eberesche, service-tree (*ebarisc). So Schräder. It does not seem that Ir. , W. yw, Br. ivin, *ivo-, Eng. yew, can be allied to iubhar. Hence iubrach, a yew wood, stately woman, the mythic boat of Fergus Mac Ro in the Deirdre story. Eboracum?

iùc, corner, slit. See niùc.

iuchair, a key, Ir. eochair, E. Ir. eochuir, Manx ogher, W. egoriad, key, egor, agor, opening: *ekûri-; root stem pecu-, fastening, whence Lat. pecu, cattle, Eng. fee. Cf. W. ebill, key, auger.

iuchair, the roe, spawn, Ir., M. Ir. iuchair: *jekvuri, Lat. jecur, liver?

iuchar, the dog-days:

iugh, a particular posture in which the dead are placed:

iùl, guidance, Ir. iul; cf. eòlas.

iullag, a sprightly female, iullagach, sprightly:

iùnais, want, E. Ir. inguáis, O. Ir. ingnais, absence: *in-gnáth, from gnáth, known, custom; see gnàth. Aslo aonais.

iunnrais, stormy sky:

iunntas, wealth:

iurpais, fidgeting, wrestling; cf. farpuis.

iursach, suspensory (Oss. Ballads), applied to the mail-coat. From iris. H.S.D. gives the meaning as "black, dark".

iuthaidh, fiuthaidh, iùthaidh, arrow, gun, etc.:

iutharn, hell; for *ifhern, a side-form of ifrinn.