Australia and the Empire

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AUSTRALIA


AND


THE EMPIRE


BY

A. PATCHETT MARTIN, F.R.G.S.


EDINBURGH: DAVID DOUGLAS
1889


[All rights reserved.]



TO THE


RIGHT HON. ARTHUR JAMES BALFOUR, M.P.


This Volume is Dedicated


AS A SLIGHT MARK OF THE PUBLIC APPRECIATION

AND

PERSONAL ESTEEM IN WHICH HE IS HELD

BY ALL CLASSES

OF HER MAJESTY'S LOYAL SUBJECTS IN THE COLONIES.



CONTENTS


I.
Robert Lowe in Sydney, p. 1-29
Arrival in Sydney, 1842, 3
Representative principle introduced in Sydney Council, 1842, 3
Sir George Gipps' new Council, 3
Dr. Lang on the first Australian Parliament, 4
Robert Lowe nominated M.L.C. by the Governor, 5
Wentworth and Lang, 5
Motion for separating Port Phillip from New South Wales, 5
Lowe's speech in favour of the motion, 8
Resignation, 8
The Atlas: a weekly Journal, 1843-45, 9
Its Contributors, 9
Opposition to the Governor and "Downing Street," 9-13
Lord Sherbrooke's retrospect, 10
Softened feelings towards Sir Geo. Gipps, 10
Lowe's "rounded creed," 11
Poems of a Life, 11
Lowe on the relations of Britain and her Colonies, 13, 14
The utterly unknown and doubly irresponsible Clerk, 13
Lowe's Remedies—Local Self-Government and Representation in the British Parliament, 13
Unwieldiness of a Common Parliament at Westminster, 14
"Council of the Empire," 15
Bismarck on the Council of the Confederation of the German States, 15, 16
Colonial orators and Imperial councils, 16, 17
Robert Lowe on the Tractarian movement, Newman, Pusey, and Keble, 17, 18
The dominant Australasian Bishops, 18
Lowe's admiration of Dr. Arnold of Rugby, 17, 18
Sir James Martin's Creed, 18, 19
Lowe's theology and the Sydney Morning Herald, 20-23
Lowe on National Unsectarian Education, 23-26
Sir Richard Bourke—a retrospect—ablest of Australian Governors, 24, 25
Sir Richard as a Re-former, 24
Dr. Ullathorne supports Sir Richard Bourke's Education Scheme, 24, 25
Arouses Dr. Lang's bigotry, 25
Lang wrecks Sir Richard's measure, 25
Lowe converts Dr. Lang, 25
Lang's repentance—estimate of him as a public man, 26
Lowe's Colonial patriotism—a foremost Australian leader, 28
Elected member for Sydney in the Legislative Council, 1850, 28
Eight well-spent years under the "Southern Cross," 28
Returns to England in 1851, 29

II.
Sir Henry Parkes in England, 31-62
London Flesh Australian Grass, 31
A different type of Colonists now come "Home," 32
The Colonial Exhibition and Conference, 1887, 32
Two Emigration Commissioners, 1860-61, 32, 33
Sir Henry Parkes and the Right Hon. W. B. Dalley, 33
Mr. Fronde's Oceana, 34
His estimate of Australian public men, 34, 35
Description of Sir Henry Parkes, 35
Parkes Letters to Sydney Morning Herald in 1861, 33
Palmerston, 37
Disraeli, Brougham, 37
The American Civil War, 38-49
Apathy of the Birmingham audience towards manhood suffrage and ballot, 39
"Conservative reaction," 39
Causes of the failure of Messrs. Parkes' and Dalley's emigration mission, 39-41
"Perhaps we could spare old Briggs," 42
Parkes' sympathy with the North 43
John Bright the true representative of the English Democracy—on America and on Ireland, 43
Beresford Hope and Tennyson both against the North, 43
Carlyle and Gladstone in favour of the South, 43
Personal influence of the Queen, 45
Death of the Prince Consort, 46
The Trent incident, 46-48
Christmas Eve, 1861, 46-49
Defenceless state of Australian colonies at that date, 49
A timely warning, 49
Disraeli on Prince Albert, 50
Palmerston and "your Mr. Cowper," 51
Colonial Defences Debate—Mr. Arthur Mills and "Sam Slick," 51
"Including Mr. Childers." Twenty-seven members present, 52
Social condition of England in 1862, 53
Panegyric on Cobden, 53
Odd speculations as to the future Statesmen, 54
A government consisting of "Cobden, Gladstone, and Stanley," 54
Brougham's Adress at the Social Science Congress, 54-56
Brougham at the International Law Section with Travers Twiss and M. Gamier Pages, 56
At the Social Science Soiree with Lord Shaftesbury, 56
"The aged poet Dean Milman," 57
Palmerston a D.C.L., Oxford, 57
Sir Henry Taylor, 57-59
Wheatstone and Palmerston, 57-59
"A boy of fourscore," 59
Rural Sights and Sounds, 59, 60
Value of a Colonial Observer, 61
Britain, America, and Australia, 61, 62

III.
Lord Beaconsfield and Young Australia, 63-75
Effect of the cable, 63
Victorian Government and the broken cable, 64
News only received monthly (until Aug. 22, 1872) during the Franco-German War, 1870—contrasted with the daily intelligence of the progress of the Russo-Turkish Campaign, 1877-78, 64, 65
Russia and Australia, 65
Beaconsfield's Imperialism, 66
"Patriotic Sonneteering," 66-68
Beaconsfield Demonstration in Melbourne, 68-71
Speech by Mr. Service, 69, 70
Mr. David Gaunson, 70
Comments of Melbourne Argus, 71-73
Meeting at Sydney, 71
Congratulations from Ballarat, Adelaide, and Newcastle, 71
Causes of Disraeli's popularity, 74
and Mr. Gladstone's unpopularity in Australia, 75

IV.
Australian Democracy, 77-114
Australasia, seven self-governing democratic states claiming to be members of the Empire, 77
Qualifications necessary in a historian, 78
Causes of the failure of more than one Colonial Historian, 77, 78
The anti-democratic bias, 79
Wentworth's failure to create Colonial aristocracy, 79
His love of Australia and his imperial instincts, 79
Colonial autonomy and Colonial aristocracy, 80
Wentworth's proposed Australian House of Lords, 80
Opposed by Robert Lowe in the British House of Commons, 80
and by Henry Parkes in Sydney, 80
If it failed in New South Wales what chance had it in Victoria? 81
Responsible Government in Victoria 81
William Nicholson, 81
Vote by ballot, 82
Democratisation of the constitution, 82
Mr. Rusden's History of Australia, 82
Secret of the rapid triumph of democratic principles, 84
The anti-colonial party, 83
Wentworth and Stawell exceptional, 84
Pessimism of the "upper-class" party, 85
Optimism of the democratic leaders, 85
An appeal to the Privy Council in 1869, 86
Bribers and bribed, 86
Hon. George Higinbotham's reply, 86, 87
His faith in the body politic, 87
Hostility of the English press, 88
Mr. Finch-Hatton's Advance Australia, 88
His estimate of Australian public men, 89
"The wealthy lower orders," 90
Mr. C. H. Pearson, Minister of Education, 91
Sir Charles Dilke's Greater Britain, 91, 92
his chapters on Democracy and Protection, 91
his estimate of Australian public men, 92
Aim of the democratic party, 93
The Crown lauds and squatters, 93
National education, 94
The Rev. J. Dalton on the Educational expenditure in Great Britain and the Colonies, 94
"Quill-driving" versus a handicraft, 95
General Gordon's wise forecast, 95
"Protection" in Victoria, Mr. Richard Heales and Sir Graham Berry, 96
"The logic of events," 96
Effect of "free soup-kitchen," in Collingwood, 96
"What shall we do with our toys? " 97
Change in the Fiscal Policy of Victoria, 98
A Free-trade Cabinet introduces Protectionist tariff, 98
Inter-Colonial restrictive duties, 98
Can we have Imperial Free Trade with Protection against the world? 100
A British Zollverein, 100
Conversation between an Australian Protectionist and a great English Free-Trader, 100
"Titles for Colonists," 101
Mr. Higinbotham's view, 102
"Impossible to discriminate their relative baseness," 102
Messrs. Higinbotham and Francis decline a title, 102
The rest have accepted K.C.M.G. when offered, 102
Sir Robert Stout's remarkable Article, 103
Sir George Grey's views, 104
Opposed to Lord Carnarvon and Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, 105, 106
A merely "local" title illegal, 105
Should the Colonial or British Cabinet "advise" the Queen as to the distribution of honours in a self-governing Colony? 105
Sir R. Stout sums up controversy, 106
Obstruction in Colonial Parliaments, 108
Mr. Alfred Deakin's proposed remedy, 108
Mr. Service's opinion of Sir Chas. Warren and the Police in Tralfalgar Square Riots, and murder of Sergeant Brett, 109
Why Colonial public-men can be outspoken, 110
Mr. Service on Armaments, 110
On the Conscription, 111
Australian Democratic Press, Age and Leader, 112
Australia and America, 112
Australian democracy must be met as a fact, 114

V.
Australia and Irish Home Rule, 115-134
A "solid" Australia, 115
Mr. Parnell and Mr. Rhodes, 115, 116
Mr. Parnell an "Imperial Federationist," 116-119
Australian Irishmen may be Home-rulers, 119
No section analogous to the Irish American Dynamite Party, 119
Sir John O'Shanassy on the brothers Redmond, 119, 12
Effect of Mr. Gladstone's "conversion" on the Australian public mind, 120
Mr. Topp's Essay on English Institutions and the Irish Race, 121
English Roman Catholics, 123
Cardinal Manning, 123
Celt and Teuton, 124
Mr. Davitt on race, 124
His "Mission of the Celts," 125
Bismarck on race, 126
Melbourne Review, 126
The Highlander and Lowlander in Scotland, 129
Bismarck on the German and French character; the former applicable to the English and Lowland Scotch, 120
The relations of England and Ireland in a sentence, 131
What is the Irish Problem? 132

VI.
The Irish in Australia, 135-156
Irish population in Australia, 135
"An Australian Example," 135
"The Irish in Australia," 136
Contrasted with "Victorian Year-Book," 136
Has the British majority played a minor rôle? 136
Victorian autonomy and Mr. Balfour, 137
Political capacity of the Irish in Australia, 138
The Anglo-Irish and the Irish Celts, 138
Marcus Clarke's nationality, 139
Wentworth, "the Australian Patriot," 140, 141
Sir Wm. Foster Stawell, 141
Judge Molesworth, 142
Wm. Edward Hearn. 142
George Higinbotham, 142
Their share in building up Victoria, 143
Early English Emigrants, 144
Sir C. Gavan Duffy on the two Irish Sections, 145
The purely Celtic Claims, 145, 146
"Why don't you stand ?" 146
I am an Englishman! 146
Disadvantages of belonging to the "Imperial and consolidating race," 146
The Celt a powerful factor in colonial affairs, 147
"The Roman Catholic vote," 147
The English clergyman as a "wire-puller," 148
"A political pessimist," 149
"Poll early, and Poll often," 149
Acts of filial piety, 150
Irish domestic servants, 150
An Englishman's anti-patriotic bias, 150
What do the Irish contribute to Australian or Imperial objects? 151
Australia's contribution to Irish famine fund, 151
Criminal Statistics, 152
Autonomy of Victoria not applicable to Ireland, 152
Major-General Sir Andrew Clarke, 152
Letter to John Bright, 154
Toleration the mark of the Victorian Era, 155
"The Weary Titan," 156

VII.
The State Schoolmaster, 157-187
Education in the colonies, 157
"Free, secular, and compulsory," 157
Not necessarily purely secular, 157
Why was religion banished from Victorian schools? 158
Voluntary and Board schools in England, 159
Dr. Rigg and the "voluntary" Church of England schools, 159
Australian difficulties and sociological differences, 160
Wilberforce Stephen's Education Act, and before, 160
Roman Catholic "Denominational" schools, 160
The Policy of Bishop Perry and Bishop Moorhouse, 161
What is to be done with an alien race? 161
Assimilation by a "Common" Education, 161
Mr. Topp's views, 161
The Roman Catholic clergy much more hostile than the laity, 163
Mr. Charles Fairfield's arguments, 163-166
Working of the Roman Catholic system in Spain and England, 164, 165
Criminal statistics, and the national and religious divisions of the people, 165-167
Sir Robert Stout's views, 166-168
"Waifs and Strays," 166
Crimes prevail not because of, but in spite of, religious belief, 168
Why religions not taught in State schools, 168-170
Anglican laity despite their bishops have built up the Australian National system, 169
"Common" schools, 169, 170
Policy of the Roman Catholic Church in denouncing "mixed marriages," 170
Real cause of the necessity for a "Common" system of State Education, 171
Otherwise two permanently hostile races, 171
Australia,—comparison with Scotland, 171
An "up-country" State schoolmaster 172-177
Charles Wesley Caddy the bush philosopher, 172-177
The late Mr. Geddie Pearse, "A Roger-Ascham of the Bush." His system of moral discipline, 176
Does the system justify the cost? 178, 179
Mr Alex. Sutherland on the "Royal Readers," 179
Opinion of the working-class electors, and of many of the Protestant clergy, 180
Attitude of the Church of England, 180, 181
A hope that the policy of Bishops Broughton and Moorhouse may be reversed, 181, 182
What has the Church gained?—only run the risk of "dis-Australianising" herself, 182
Result if she would assist in the work of the "common"; education of people, 183
She might restore some measure of religious instruction, and make herself the Church of Australia, 183
Are the State schools to be uprooted?—Opinion of an experienced Parliamentarian, 184
The University Professor, 185
Melbourne University, 186
Melbourne and Sydney not truly "so democratic as Oxford and Cambridge," 187

VIII.
Native Australians and Imperial Federation, 189-231
Lord Carnarvon on Australian development, 189
"Australia for the Australians," 189
Census Returns—Three out of every five persons in Victoria natives, 190
"Natives Association," 190
Racial and national speculations, 191
Anew "Utopia," 191-194
Comments by an old Pioneer, 195-198
Dr. Hearn's "Aryan Household," 195, 196
Are the opinions of Young Australia day-dreams? 199, 200
Echoes of the outworn traditions of Downing Street, 201, 202
Sir Henry Taylor's minute to Lord Carlingford, 1865, 202, 203
Sir Henry's comments thereon, 1885, 204
Policy of Colonial independence originated with Sir James Stephen, but never countenanced in Australia, 204, 205
Dr. Lang's "Coming Event," 204, 205
The typical colonist apathetic about Imperial Federation, 206
Lord Salisbury's opening speech at Colonial Conference, 207-210
"A matter purely of self-interest," 210
Are the colonies safer in the Empire? 210
America after the Declaration of Independence, 210
Colonies in the 18th and 19th centuries, 212
Effects of steam and telegraph, 212
Bars to legislative union, 214
What is meant by Imperial Federation? 214
Sir Henry Parkes' scheme of local federation, 214, 217
Queensland and Western Australia omitted, 216-218
Mr. James Service's successful efforts to initiate a "bund" between Victoria, Queensland, Tasmania, and West Australia, 217
"Foreign Pressure," 218
New South Wales, South Australia and New-Zealand stood out 218
"The Phantom at Hobart," 218
Imperial Federation a misnomer without Imperial Free-trade, 219
Victorian customs duties, 219
Must we drift? 220
The change of sentiment now shaping new Nationalities and combinations of peoples, 220
George Borrow and the Spanish Alcalde, 221
"The Grand Baintham," 221
South American Republics, 221, 222
Effect of the American Civil War, 222
The Republic of George Washington and that of M. Grevy, 223
The crux of the problem, 223
Can the colonies be received on equal terms into an Imperial alliance? 223
The question of Colonial Governorships—The Queen to appoint direct on advice from the Self-governing Colonies, instead of the Governor being a Downing Street nominee, 224-231
Over-centralisation, 230
Itinerant Councils, and peripatetic Secretaries-of-State, 231

IX.
The Moral of Queensland Imbroglio, 233-252
The Queensland Governorship, 233
Sir Henry Blake, 233
Sir Thomas M'Ilwraith, 234
Poaches on Sir Samuel Griffith's "Radical preserves," 234
Dispute with Sir Anthony Musgrave and with Lord Knutsford, 235
Utility of "scientific imagination," 235
Early and present-day politicians contrasted, 236-239
"Plato and the preaching friars," 237
"Colonial Jealousies and the Government" 239
Loyalists and Disloyalists, 240, 241
The Celtic element in Colonial Cabinets, 241, 242
Mrs. Campbell Praed's Policy and Passion, 247
"Thomas Longleat," Premier of "Leichardt's-Land," 247
Sir Thomas M'Ilwraith's "Opportunism," 245
Mr. Gladstone's "Idolatry of the Immediate," 246
Sir Thomas M'Ilwraith and Sir William Harcourt, 245, 246
Programme of the National Party in Queensland, 248, 249
Mr. Gowen Evans on the Irish Home-Rule Party in the colonies, 249-250
The "little finger," 250
The Victorian vote on Colonial Governorships—Moral, 251

APPENDICES.
A. Robert Lowe on the Disabilities OF Colonists, 253
B. Sir C. Gavan Duffy's "Royal Commission," 258
C. The Colonial Office and the "Foreign Noblemen," 263
D. Religion and Irish Home Rule, 267
E. Education in Australia, 271
F. "A Typical Australian Statesman," 276
G. The Late W. E. Hearn, 280
H. The late William Bede Dalley 283


This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.