Beowulf (Wyatt)/Glossary, A to L

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The order of words is strictly alphabetical, except in the case of compound verbs, which will be found under their simple verbs.

Past participles compounded with ge- are usually glossed under the simple verb (Sievers § 366), but there are some marked exceptions; e.g. gegongen is the pp. of gongan in 822, 3036, hut of gegongan in 893, 3085.

æ comes between ad and af.

ð and þ are treated as identical, and come after t.

Numerous cross references are given, especially for unusual forms, but not as a rule for mere flexional forms which a knowledge of grammar should suffice to trace, such as parts of verbs.

All words are glossed under forms which actually occur in the poem, not under normalised forms. When divergent forms of the same word occur and cross references are not given,

io (both initial and final) should be sought under eo,
y i,
a (before nasals) o.

Dative and Instrumental are not distinguished, except when they have different forms, as in the singular of adjectives and of some pronouns.

Small capitals are used for modern renderings which are directly or almost directly descended from the Old English words.

The following abbreviations alone require explanation :

st. strong
w. weak
m. masculine
f. feminine
neut. neuter
n. noun
v. verb
sg. singular
pl. plural
subj. subjunctive
part. participle
pp. past participle
conj. conjunction
esp. especially
obl. oblique


N.B. All compound verbs must be sought under their simple verbs.


ā, adv., aye, ever, always, 455, etc.
ac, conj., but, 740, 773, etc.
ac, adv. interr., = Lat. nonne, used to mark a question, 1990.
ad, st. m., funeral pile, pyre, 1110, etc.
ād-faru, st. f., [pyre-faring] way to the funeral pile, 3010.
ādl, st. f., illness, sickness, disease, 1736, etc.
ǣdre, st. f., stream, canal, vein; dat. pl. swāt ǣdrum sprong, “blood sprang in streams,” 2966; blōd ēdrum dranc, “drank blood in streams,” 742.
ǣdre, adv., quickly, 354.
ǣfen, st. m., even, evening, 1235.
ǣfen-grom, adj., [even-angry] fierce in the evening, night-enemy, 2074.
ǣfen-lēoht, st. neut., even-light, 413.
ǣfen-ræst, st. f., even-rest, 1252.
ǣfen-sprǣc, st. f., even-speech, speech in the evening, 759.
æfnan, see efnan.
ǣfre, adv., ever, always, 70, etc.
aefter, prep., after, 85, 119, 931, 1320, 2816, etc.; after, for, concerning, 332, 1342, 1879, 2461; along, among, 140, 944, 995, 2832 (through), etc.; in accordance with, according to, 1049, 1720, 2179, 2753, etc.; on account of, in consequence of, 1606, 1943. Special passages: æfter beorne, “after (the death of) the hero, warrior,” 2260-1; æfter māððum-welan, “after obtaining wealth of treasure,” 2750; æfter faroðe, “with the tide,” 580.
æfter, adv., after, afterwards, 12, 1389, 315 (back), etc.
æf-þunca, w. m., mortification, vexation, annoyance, 502.
ǣg-hwā, ǣg-hwæt, pron., each, every one, every man, etc., 1384, 2624; qen. ǣghwæs, “of each kind,” 3135.
ǣg-hwæs, gen. neut. used adverbially, in every respect, altogether, 1865, 1886.
ǣg-hwǣr, adv. everywhere, 1059.
ǣg-hwæðer, pron., either, each (usu. of two), 2564, 2844. Special passages: ǣghwæðres sceal scearp scyldwiga gescād witan, worda ond worca, “a sharp shield-warrior must know the difference between words and works,” 287; earfoðlīce heora ǣghwæðrum, “with difficulty for each one of them,” 1636.
(1) pron., each, everyone, 1165, etc.; with gen. 1050, etc.;
(2) adj., each, every, 621.
ǣglǣca, see āglǣca.
ǣg-weard. st. f., sea-ward, watch by the sea-coast, 241.
ǣht, st. f., owning, possession, power, 42, 516.
ǣht, st. f., pursuit, chase, 2957.
-æhted, see eahtian.
ǣled, st. m., fire, 3015.
ǣled-lēoma, w. m., fire-gleam, torch, 3125.
æl-fylce, st. neut., alien folk, foreign nation, 2371.
æl-mihtig, adj. ( = eal-mihtig), almighty; weak se Ælmihtiga, 92.
æl-wiht, st. f., [alien-wight] strange monster, 1500.
ǣne, adv., once, once only, 3019.
ǣnig, adj.-pron., any, anyone, 474, 503, etc.; nom. næs se folc-cyning ymbe-sittendra ǣnig ðāra þe, “among neighbouring folk-kings there was not one that,” 2734. For ǣnige þinga see þing.
ǣn-līc, adj., [one-like] unique, peerless, 251, 1941.
ǣnne, see ān.
æppel-fealu, adj., apple-fallow, apple or reddish yellow, 2165.
ǣr, adv., ERE, erst, before, formerly, 15, 642, 718, 2595, etc.; earlier, 2500; first, 3038. Special passages: nō þȳ ǣr, “none the sooner,” 754, etc.; ǣr hē feorh seleð...ǣr hē, “he will sooner give up life than he,” 1370.
ǣror, compar., before, formerly, first, 809, 2654. ǣrest, superl., [erst] first, 6, 2157, etc.
ǣr, prep., with dat., ere, before, 1388, etc.
ǣr, conj., ere, before: usu. with subj. 252, etc.; with indic. 2019.

Correl. with ǣr adv. (q. v.), 1371.

ǣr þon, conj., ere, 732.
ǣr-dæg, st. m., [ere-day] morning twilight, day-break, 126, etc.
ǣrende, st. neut., errand, 270, etc.
ǣrest, see ǣr.
ǣr-fæder, st. m., [ere-father] father, 2622.
ǣr-gestrēon, st. neut., [ere-treasure] ancient treasure, former gain, 1757, 2232.
ǣr-geweorc, st. neut., [ere-work] ancient work, 1679.
ǣr-gōd, adj., [ere-good] good before others, very good, 130, 989, etc.
ærn, st. neut., house, 2225.
ǣrra, compar. adj. (formed from adv. ǣr), earlier, former: dat. pl. ǣrran mǣlum, “in former times,” 907, 2237, 3035.
ǣr-wela, st. m., [ere-weal] ancient wealth, 2747.
ǣs, st. neut., carrion, carcase, corpse: dat. atol ǣse wlanc, “the dire carrion-proud creature (Grendel’s mother exulting over Æschere’s corpse),” 1332.
æsc, st. m., [ash] spear, 1772.
æsc-holt, st. neut., [ash-wood] spear, 330.
æsc-wiga, w. m., [ash-warrior] spear-warrior, 2042.
æt, prep. with dat., at, in, of time and place, 32, 45, 81, 1089, 1110, 1337, 2270, 3013, 3026, etc.; from, 629, 2860, etc. Special passage: nū is se rǣd gelaug eft æt þē ānum, “now is the rede again along of thee alone,” 1377.
ǣt, st. m., eating, meal, 3026.
æt-gæedere, adv., together, 321, etc.; after samod, 387, etc.; gāras stōdon samod ætgædere, “the spears stood all together,” 329.
æt-grǣpe, adj., groping after, grasping at, at grips with, 1269.
æt-rihte, adv., almost, 1657.
æt-somne, adv., together, 2847, 3122, etc.
ættren, adj., poisonous, 1617.
æþele, adj., noble, 198, 263, etc.
æþeling, st. m., atheling, noble, prince, 3, 33, 118, 888, 1225, 1294, 1804, 2888, etc.
æþelu, st. neut. (always pl. in “Beowulf”), noble descent, lineage, 332, etc.; dat. pl. fæder æþelum, “his father’s preeminence,” 911; æþelum gōd, dīore, “good, dear, by virtue of lineage,” 1870, 1949.
ǣðm, st. m., breath, 2593.
āgan, st.-w. v., pres. āh, pret. āhte: own, possess, have, 1088, 1727, etc.; absolutely 31. Neg. form nah = ne-āh, 2252.
āgen, adj. (pp. of āgan), own, 2676.
Āgend, st. m., Owner, God, 3075.
āgend-frēa, w. m., owning lord, owner, 1883.
āglǣca, ǣglǣca, w. m., monster, monster-fighter, warrior, champion, 159, 739, etc.; acc. sg. āglǣcan, 556; gen. dat. āglæcan, 1512 (or nom. pl.?), 425; āglǣcean, 2557, 2520, etc.; āhlǣcan, 989, 646; nom. pl. āglǣcean, 2592. Used of Grendel, 433, 1269, etc.; of the dragon, 2535, etc.; of a sea-monster, 556; of Sigemund, 893; of Beowulf, 1512 (or sea-monsters?); of Beowulf and the dragon, 2592.
āglǣc-wīf, st. neut., monster-wife, monster of a woman; nom. Grendles mōdor, ides, āglǣc-wīf, 1259.
āh, āhte, see āgan.
āhsian, w. v., endure, suffer, 423, 1206.
ge-ahsian, w. v., learn by asking, learn, hear; pp. geahsod, 433.
āht ( = ā-wiht, q. v.), st. neut., aught; with gen. āht cwices, “aught living,” 2314.
aldor, see ealdor.
Al-walda, Al-wealda, w. m., the All-wielder, God, 928, 955, 1314.
al-walda, w. adj., all-wielding, all-ruling, 316.
an, 1225, pres. sg. 1st of unnan, q.v.
an, prep., see on.
ān, num. (adj. and pron.), acc. sg. m. ānne and ǣnne:

(1) one, an, a, 100, 135, 428, 699, 2280, 3077, etc.; with the def. art. 1053, 2237; emphatic, sometimes perhaps demonstrative, 1458, 1885, 2410, 2774. Special passages: on ǣnne sīð, “once,” 1579; gen. pl. ānra gehwylces, gehwylcum, “of, to, each one,” 732, 784; (= Lat. alter) ān æfter ānum, “the one for the other,” 2461.

(2) only, alone (more usual with the weak form āna, q. v.), 46, 1377, 2964 (sole); gen. ānes hwæt, “a part only,” 3010.
āna, w. adj., only, alone, 145, 1081, 2361, 2657.
ancor, st. m., anchor, 303, 1883.
anda, w. m.

(1) indignation, defiance; dat. wrāþum on andan, “in indignation against the wroth foe,” 708.

(2) mischief, horror, 2314.
and-git, st. neut., understanding, intelligence, 1059.
and-long, see ond-long.
and-rysno, st. f., etiquette, courtesy, attention due, 1796.
and-weard, adj.: acc. neut. sweord swāte fāh swīn ofer helme…and-weard scireð, “the blood-stained sword cuts the boar standing on the opposed (foe’s) helmet,” 1287.
and-wlita, w. m., face, countenance, 689.
ān-feald, adj., onefold, plain, 256.
ānga, w. adj., only, sole, 375, 1262, 1547, 2997.
ān-geng(e)a, w. m., [one-goer] one who goes alone (of Grendel), 165, 449.
ān-haga, w. m., a solitary, 2368.
ān-hȳdig, adj., one-minded, resolute, 2667.
ān-pæð, st. m., [one-path] lonesome path, or single track, 1410.
ān-rǣd, adj., [one-rede] resolute, 1529, 1575.
an-sund, adj., sound, 1000.
an-sȳn, see on-sȳn.
an-tīd, st. f., 219 (see note).
ānunga, adv., once for all, 634.
An-walda, w. m., [on-wielder] God, 1272.
ār, st. m., messenger, 336, 2783.
ār, st. f., honour, kindness, benefit, favour, grace, 2378, 2606, 1272; gen. pl. arna, 1187; dat. pl. ārum healdan, “hold in (with) honour,” 296, 1099, 1182.
ār-fæst, adj., [honour-fast] upright, dutiful, 1168.
ārian, w. v., with dat., spare, 598.
-arn, see -iernan.
ār-stæf, st. m., favour, mercy, kind help, 317, 382, 458.
atelīc, adj., dreadful, horrible, dire, 784.
āter-tān, st. m., poison-twig, 1459.
atol, eatol, adj., dire, terrible, fearful, horrible, 159, etc.; dat. pl. atolan, 1502.
attor, st. neut., poison, venom, 2715; gen. sg. attres, 2523.
attor-sceaða, w. m., [poison-scather] poisonous foe, 2839.
āð, st. m., oath, 472, etc.
āð-sweord, st. n., oath-swearing, oath, 2064.
āðum-swerian, w. m. pl., father-in-law and son-in-law; dat. āðum-swerian, 84.
āwa, adv., aye, ever; in āwa tō aldre, “for ever and ever,” 955.


bǣdan, w. v., beset, press, press hard, oppress, urge, incite, encourage, 2018; pp. gebǣded, 2580, 2826; strengum gebǣded, “sent by the strings,” 3117.
bǣl, st. neut., fire, burning, 2308, 2322; the fire of the funeral pile, funeral pile, pyre, 1019, etc.
bǣl-fȳr, st. neut., fire of the funeral pile, 3143.
bǣl-stede, st. m., pyre-stead, place of the funeral pile, 3097.
bǣl-wudu, st. m., pyre-wood, wood for the funeral pile, 3112.
bǣr, st. f., bier, 3105.
-bǣran, w. v.
ge-bǣran, w. v., bear oneself, behave, fare, 2824; with two comparatives, ne gefrægen ic þā mǣgþe māran weorode…sēl ge-bǣran, “I heard not that that people in greater numbers ever bore themselves better,” 1012.
bærnan, w. v., trans., burn, 2313.
bǣtan, w. v., bridle, bit; pp. gebǣted, 1399.
bæð, st. neut., bath, 1861.
balder, see bealdor.
balu, adj., baleful; dat. pl., bal-won, 977.
bān, st. neut., bone, 2692 (of the dragon’s teeth).
bana, see bona.
bān-cofa, w. m., [bone-cove] body, 1445.
bān-fæt, st. neut., [bone-vat] body; acc. pl. bān-fatu, 1116.
bān-fāg, adj., bone-dight, adorned with bones or antlers, 780.
bān-hring, st. m., bone-ring, vertebra, 1567.
bān-hūs, st. neut., bone-house, body, 2508, 3147.
bān-loca, w. m., bone-locker, flesh, 818.
bannan, st. v.
ge-bannan, st. v., order; inf. ðā ic wīde gefrægn weorc gebannan manigre mǣgþe, “then I learnt that orders for the work were given widely to many a tribe,” 74.
bāt, st. m., boat, 211, etc.
bāt-weard, st. m., [boat-ward] captain, 1900.
be, bī, prep., with dat., by in its various meanings, originally and usu. local, more rarely instrumental (nearer in meaning to Ger. bei than Eng. by): beside, near, by, 36, 814, 1191, 1537, 1722, 1872, 1905, 1950, 2219, 2243, 2538, 2717, 2756; by, along 566 (rest), 1188 (motion), 1573; by (in “I’ll do my duty by you”), in connexion with, 1723. Following its case, him big, 3047. Special passages: wǣpen hafenade heard be hiltum, “raised the sharp weapon by the hilt,” 1574; be ðē lifigendum, “during thy life,” 2665; wæs se gryre lǣssa efne swā micle, swā bið mǣgþa cræft…be wǣpned-men, “the terror was less even by so much, as is women’s power beside (in comparison with) a man, or, as women’s power is [accounted less] by a man,” 1284.
be () sǣm twēonum = be-twēonum sǣm, “between the seas,” 858, 1297, 1685, 1956.
bēacen, st. neut., beacon, sign, monument, 570; nom. bēcn, 3160.
bēacnian, w. v., [beckon] indicate; pp. gebēacnod, 140.
beado, beadu, st. f., battle, war, 709; gen. beadwe, 1539.
beado-grīma, w. m., battle-mask, helmet, 2257.
beado-hrægl, st. neut., [battle-rail] war-dress, coat of mail, 552.
beado-lēoma, w. m., [battle-ray] sword, 1523.
beado-mēce, st. m., battle-sword, 1454.
beado-rinc, st. m., [battle-]warrior, 1109.
beadu-folm, st. f., battle-hand, 990.
beadu-lāc, st. neut., battle-play, battle, war, 1561.
beadu-rōf, adj., battle-strong, mighty in war, 3160.
beadu-rūn, [battle-rune] quarrel, 501.
beadu-scearp, adj., battle-sharp, 2704.
beadu-scrūd, st. neut., [battle-shroud] coat of mail, 453.
beadu-sērce, w. f., battle-sark, coat of mail; acc. sg. beadu-sērcean, 2755. [Sievers § 159. 1.]
beadu-weorc, st. neut., battle-work, battle, 2299.
bēag, bēah, ring, circlet, (armlet, necklace, etc.); often = money, treasure; 1211, 80, 523, etc.; acc. pl. bēg, 3163.
bēag-gyfa, w. m., ring-giver, 1102.
bēag-hroden, adj. (pp.), ring-adorned, adorned with diadem, bracelets, or rings, 623.
bēah-hord, st. neut., ring-hoard, 894, etc.
bēah-sele, st. m., ring-hall, hall in which rings were given, 1177.
bēah-þegu, st. f., ring-receiving, 2176 (referring to Hygd’s receiving from Beowulf the wonderful necklace which Wealhtheow gave him).
bēah-wriða, w. m., ring-wreath, circlet, 2018.
bealdian, w. v., bear oneself boldly, 2177.
bealdor, baldor, st. m., prince, lord, 2428, 2567.
bealo, bealu, st. neut., bale, evil, ruin, 2826; gen. pl. bealwa, 909, bealuwa, 281, bealewa, 2082.
bealo-cwealm, st. m., baleful or violent death, 2265.
bealo-hycgende, adj. (pres. part.), [bale-thinking] intending evil, 2565.
bealo-hȳdig, adj., [bale-minded] intending evil, 723.
bealo-nīð, st. m., [bale-envy, -hate, -mischief] baleful envy, malicious hatred, 1758, 2404; poison, venom, 2714.
bearhtm, st. m.

(1) brightness, 1766.

(2) sound, 1431.
bearm, st. m., [barm] lap, bosom, 35, 1137, 2404 (possession).
bearn, st. neut., bairn, child, son, 150, 469, 3170, etc.; pl. ylda bearn, 605, gumena bearn, 878, niðða bearn(a), 1005, “the children of men.”
bearn-gebyrdo, st. f., bairn-birth, child-bearing; gen. 946.
bearu, st. m., grove, wood, 1363.
bēatan, st. v., beat, smite, paw, 2265; pp. gebēaten, 2359.
bēcn, see bēacen.
bed(d), st. neut., bed, 140, 1240, etc.
be-foran, adv., before; of place, 1412, of time, 2497.
be-foran, prep., with acc., before, 1024.
bēg, see bēag.
bēgen, m., bā, f. and neut., num. and adj.-pron., both, 536, 1305, 2196, etc.; gen. bēga folces, “of the folk of both [peoples],” 1124; bēga wēn, “expectation of both things” (Beowulf’s return home and revisiting the Danes; see ll. 1868—9), 1873.
be-gong, be-gang, st. m., extent, expanse, compass, circuit, 362, 860, etc.; acc. bigong, 2367.
belgan, st. v., swell with anger, anger oneself; pp. gebolgen “swollen,” 2401, “swollen with anger, enraged,” 723, 1539, 2220; pl. gebolgne, 1481.
ā-belgan, st. v., anger; pret. ābealh, 2280. ge-belgan, st. v., with dat., anger; pret. subj. gebulge, 2331.
bēn, st. f., [bene] boon, request, 428, 2284.
bēna, w. m., suppliant, 352, 364; nom. swā hē bēna wæs, “as he had begged,” 3140.
benc, st. f., bench, 327, etc.
benc-swēg, st. m., bench-sound, noise from the benches, 1161.
benc-þel, st. neut., [bench-thill] bench-board, bench, 486, 1239.
bend, st. m. f., band, bond, 977, 1609.
ben-geat, st. neut., wound-gate, opening of a wound, 1121.
benn, st. f., wound, 2724.
bēodan, bīodan, st. v.

(1) announce, 2892.
(2) offer, give, 385, 1085, 2957.

ā-bēodan, st. v., announce, 390; offer, 668. Special passages: pret. him hǣl ābēad, “bade him hail, wished him health,” 653; hǣlo ābēad, “bade farewell,” 2418.

be-bēodan, st. v., bid, command, order, 401, 1975.

ge-bēodan, st. v.
(1) bid, command; inf. hēt þā gebēodan byre Wihstānes…hǣleða monegum, “then the son of Weohstan ordered that command should be given to many heroes,” 3110.

(2) proclaim, offer, give, 603, 2369.
bēod-genēat, st. m., board-comrade, table-companion, 343, 1713.
bēon, irreg. v., be, usu. with a fut. sense, 183, etc.; be, happen, 1762, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd bið, 186, etc., byð, 1002, 2277; pl. bēoð, 1838, bīoð, 2063; imperat. sg. bēo, 386, etc., bīo, 2747.
bēor, st. neut., beer, beer-drinking, 480, 2041, etc.
beorgan, st. v., with dat., defend, protect, save, 1445, etc.; pret. pl. burgan, 2599.
be-beorgan, st. v., with refl. dat. and acc. or dat. rei, defend, protect (oneself) against, 1746 (see note on 1747), 1758.

ge-beorgan, st. v., with dat., protect, save; pret. gebearg, 2570, gebearh, 1548.

ymb-beorgan, st. v., [about-protect] surround and protect, 1503.
beorh, biorb, beorg, st. m., hill, mountain, mount, barrow, grave-mound, 211, 2241, 2524, 2529, 2807.
beorht, adj., bright, light, shining, splendid, 158, 231, etc.; weak forms, beorhte, 997, byrhtan, 1199, etc.
beorhtost, superl., brightest, 2777.
beorhte, adv., brightly, 1517.
beorhtian, w. v., intrans., brighten, sound clearly, 1161.
beorn, biorn, st. m., hero, warrior, 1024, 2404, 2559, etc.
beornan, st. v., intrans., burn, 2280 (see note); pres. part, byruende, 2272.
for-beornan, st. v., intrans., pret. forbarn, forborn: burn up, 1616, 2672, etc. ge-beornan, st. v., intrans., burn, be burnt, 2697.
beorn-cyning, st. m., hero-king, warrior-king, 2148.
bēor-scealc, st. m., beer-seneschal, steward, 1240.
bēor-sele, bīor-sele, st. m., beer-hall, 482, 2635, etc.
bēor-þegu, st. f., [beer-taking] beer- drinking, 117, 617.
bēot, st. neut., boast, promise, 80, 523.
bēotian, w. v.
ge-bēotian, w. v., boast, make a boastful promise, 480, 536.
bēot-word, st. neut., [boast-word] boastful word, 2510.
beran, st. v.

(1) bear, carry, wear, 48, 437, 2055, 2281, etc.; pres. sg. 3rd, byreð, 296, etc.; pret. pl. bǣron, 213, etc., bǣran, 2850.
(2) bear, give birth to; pp. geboren, born, 1703.

æt-beran, st. v., bear to, carry to, bear, 28, 519, etc.

for-beran, st. v., forbear, restrain, 1877.

on-beran, st. v., bear off, carry away, 2284 ; take off, 990.

oþ-beran, st. v., bear to, bear, 579.
berian, w. v., bare, clear, 1239.
berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, 760 (crack), 818, 1121.
for-berstan, st. v., intrans., burst, break in pieces, snap, 2680.
bētan, w. v.
ge-bētan, w. v., amend, make good, requite, 1991, 2465; pp. pl. gēbette, 830.
betera, adj. compar. (of gōd), better, 469, 1703.
betost, betst, superl., best, 453, 3007, etc.; weak forms betsta, 947, betstan, 1871.
betlīc, adj., excellent, splendid, 780, 1925.
bī, see be.
bi-, see be-,
bicgan, see bycgan.
bīd, st. neut., biding, tarrying, delay, 2962.
bīdan, st. v., with gen. or absolutely, bide, abide, remain, await, wait for, 87, 400, 709, etc.
ā-bīdan, st. v., with gen., abide, await, 977.

ge-bīdan, st. v.
(1) usu. with acc. or governed clause, bide, abide, endure, experience, 264, 929, 1618, 1720, 2445, etc.; pp. gebiden, 1928; imperat. absolutely, gebīde gē, 2529.
(2) with gen., wait for; dat. inf. ōðres…tō gebīdanne…yrfeweardas, “to wait for another heir,” 2452.

on-bīdan, st. v., with gen., abide, await; inf. lætað hildebord hēr onbīdan…worda geþinges, “let your battle-boards here abide the issue of words,” 397.

or-bīdan, st. v., abide, wait, tarry, 2302.
biddan, st. v., [bid] ask, beg, pray, 29, 176, 1994, etc.; pret. sg. bæd hine blīðne, “begged him to be blithe,” 617; with acc. pers. and gen. rei, ic þē…biddan wille…ānre bēne, “I will ask of thee one boon,” 427.
big, see bī.
bil(l), st. neut., bill, sword, 40, 1567, 2777, etc.
bindan, st. v., bind: pp. bunden, 216, 1285 (see ll. 1531, 1900), 1900; gebunden, 871, 1531, 1743, 2111.
ge-bindan, st. v., bind, 420. on-bindan, st. v., unbind; pret. sg. onband beadu-rūne, “opened a quarrel,” 501.
bisgu, bisigu, see bysigu.
bītan, st. v., bite, cut, 742, 1454, etc.
bite, st. m., bite, 2060, 2259.
biter, adj., bitter, cutting, sharp, furious, 1431, 1746, 2704; dat. pl. biteran, 2692.
bitre, adv., bitterly, 2331.
blāc, adj., bleak, bright, brilliant, 1517.
blæc, adj., black, 1801.
blǣd, st. m., breath, life, prosperity, renown, 1124, 18, 1703, 1761.
blǣd-āgende, adj. (pres. part.), abuudance-owning, prosperous, 1013.
blǣd-fæst, adj., prosperous, renowned, 1299.
blanca, w. m., a white horse, 856.
blēate, adv., miserably, pitifully, 2824.
blīcan, st. v., shine, gleam, 222.
blīðe, adj., blithe, joyous, 617; gracious, with gen., 436.
blīð-heort, adj., blithe of heart, joyful, 1802.
blōd, st. neut., blood, 742, etc.
blōdegian, w. v., make bloody: pp. geblōdegod, 2692.
blōd-fāg, adj., blood-stained, 2060.
blōdig, adj., bloody, 2440, etc.
blōdig-tōð, adj., bloody-toothed, 2081.
blōd-rēow, adj., blood-fierce, blood-thirsty, 1719.
blonden-feax, adj., [blended-haired] gray-haired, 1594, 1791, 1873; weak nom. sg. blonden-fexa, 2962.
bodian, w. v., [bode] announce, 1802.
bolca, w. m., gangway, 231.
bold, st. neut., building, 997, 1925, etc.
bold-āgend, st. m. (pres. part.), house-owner, 3112.
bolgen-mōd, adj., [bulged-mood] angry in mind, enraged, 709, etc.
bolster, st. m., bolster, 1240.
bona, bana, w. m., bane, banes-man, slayer, 158, 1968, 2506, etc.
bon-gār, st. m., bane-spear, deadly spear, 2031.
bord, st. neut., [board] shield, 2524, etc.
bord-hæbbende, adj. (pres. part.), [board-having] shield-bearing, 2895.
bord-hrēoða, w. m., [board-cover] shield, 2203.
bord-rand, st. m., [board-]shield, 2559.
bord-weal, st. m., [board-wall] wall of shields, 2980.
bord-wudu, st. m., [board-wood] shield; acc. pl. 1243.
bōt, st. f., boot, remedy, help, compensation, 158, 909, etc.
botm, st. m., bottom, 1506.
brād, adj., broad, wide, ample, 2207, 2978, 3105, etc.
brǣdan, w. v., broaden.
geond-braǣdan, w. v., over-spread, 1239.
brēatan, st. v.
ā-brēatan, st. v., break up, kill, 2930.
brecan, st. v.

(1) trans., break, 1100, 1511 (injure), 2980; pp. pl. 2063. Special passages: hine fyrwyt bræc, “curiosity tormented him (as to),” 232, 1985, 2784.
(2) intrans., break, 2546.

ge-brecan, st. v., break, crush, shatter, 2508.

tō-brecan, st. v., break to pieces, knock about, 780, 997.

þurh-brecan, st. v., break through, 2792.
brecþ, st. f., breaking, grief, 171.
-bredwian, w. v.
ā-bredwian, w. v., overthrow, slay, 2619.
bregdan, st. v., with acc. or dat.

(1) brandish, cast, whirl, drag, draw, 707, 794, 1540 (throw); pret. pl. mundum brugdon, “brandished your hands,” 514; pp. brōden, brogden mǣl, “drawn (or decorated?) sword,” 1616, 1667.
(2) braid, weave; inf. bregdon, 2167; pp. brōden, 552, 1548; acc. sg. f. brogdne, 2755.

ā-bregdan, st. v., draw, lift; pret. sg. ābrǣd, 2575.

ge-bregdan, st. v., with acc. or dat.
(1) draw; pret. gebrægd, gebrǣd, 1564, 1664, 2562, 2703.
(2) braid, weave; pp. gebrōden, 1443.

on-bregdan, st. v., burst open; pret. sg. onbrǣd, 723.
brego, st. m., prince, lord, king, 427, etc.; nom. brego rōf cyning, “the prince [was] a brave king,” 1925.
brego-stōl, st. m., [prince-stool] throne, dominion, 2196, 2370, 2389.
brēme, adj., [brim] renowned, 18.
brenting, st. m., high ship, 2807.
brēost, st. neut., breast, 552, etc.
brēost-gehygd, st. neut., breast-thought, thought of the heart, 2818.
brēost-gewǣdu, st. neut. pl., [breast-weeds] coat of mail, 1211, etc.
brēost-hord, st. neut., [breast-hoard] breast’s treasure, mind, thought, 1719, 2792.
brēost-net, st. neut., breast-net, coat of chain-mail, 1548.
brēost-weorðung, st. f., breast-adornment, 2504 (see ll. 1202 ff.).
brēost-wylm, st. m., [breast-welling] heaving of the breast, grief, 1877.
brēotan, st. v., break, kill, 1713.
ā-brēotan, st. v., break up, destroy, kill, 1298, 1599, 2707.
brim, st. neut., [brim] surge, billow, sea, mere, ocean, 28, 570, 847, 1594, 2803.
brim-clif, st. neut., [brim-cliff] sea-cliff, 222.
brim-lād, st. f., ocean-way, 1051.
brim-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), sea-farer, 568.
brim-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, 1910.
brim-wīsa, w. m., [sea-wise] sea-leader, sea-king, 2930.
brim-wylf, st. f., she mere-wolf, 1506, 1599.
brim-wylm, st. m., mere-welling, surge, 1494.
bringan, st. v., bring, 1829, etc.
ge-bringan, st. v., bring; subj. pres. pl. gebringan, 3009.
brōden, see bregdan.
brōga, w. m., terror, 1291, etc.; gen. sg. 583.
brond, st. m., brand, burning, fire. sword, 1454, 2126, 2322, 3014, 3160.
bront, adj., high, 238, deep, 568.
brosnian, w. v., crumble, perish, 2260.
brōþor, st. m., brother, 1324, etc.; gen. brōðor, 2619.
brūcan, st. v., with gen., brook, use, enjoy, 1062, 1178, 1953; without expressed object, 1045, 1487, etc.
brūn, adj., brown, 2578.
brūn-ecg, adj., brown-edged, 1546.
brūn-fāg, adj., brown-coloured, of brown hue, 2615.
brȳd, st. f., bride, wife, 2031; acc. sg. brȳd, 2930, brȳde, 2956.
brȳd-būr, st. neut., bride-bower, woman’s room, 921.
bryne-lēoma, w. m., burning-ray (the dragon’s vomit of fire), 2313.
bryne-wylm, st. w., [burning-welling] surge of fire, 2326.
brytnian, w. v., distribute; pret. sg. brytnade, 2383.
brytta, w. m., distributer, giver, 35, 607, etc.
bryttian, w. v., distribute, bestow, 1726.
būan, st. v.

(1) intrans., dwell; inf. būon, 2842.

(2) trans., dwell in, inhabit, occupy, 3065; pp. gebūn, 117.
būgan, st. v., bow, bend, stoop, 327, (lie at rest) 2598, 2918, 2031, etc.; pret. sg. bēah, 2956; pp. gebogen, 2569.
ā-būgan, st. v., [bow away] give way, start, 775.

be-būgan, st. v., [bow about] encompass, 93, 1223.

ge-būgan, st. v., pret. gebēag, gebēah:
(1) intrans., bow, bend, fall, 1540, 2567, 2980.

(2) trans., bow to; pret. sg. sele-reste gebēah, “lay down on his bed in the hall,” 690; so 1241.
bunden-beorde, adj., with hair bound up, 3151 (see note on 3155).
bunden-stefna, w. m., bound stem, bound prow, ship, 1910.
būne, w. f., cup, drinking-vessel, 2775, 3047.
būr, st. neut., bower, room, 140, etc.
burg, burh, st. f., burgh, fortified place, castle, palace, city, 53, 523, 1968, 2433; dat. byrig, 1199 (see note on 1200).
burh-loca, w. m., burgh-lock, castle-lock, barrier of a castle or city, 1928.
burh-stede, st. m., burgh-stead, courtyard, 2265.
burh-wela, w. m., [burgh-weal] wealth of a castle or city, 3100.
burne, w. f., burn, stream, 2546.
būton, prep., with dat., but, except, 73, 657, 705.
būton, būtan, conj.

(1) with subj., unless, 966.

(2) with indic., without, but that, except, 1560; in elliptical sentences, 879, 1614.
bycgan, bicgan, w. v., buy, 1305.
be-bycgan, w. v., sell, 2799. ge-byegan, to. v., buy, obtain, 973; pret. his ealdre gebohte, “paid for [it] with his life,” 2481; pp. pl. 3014.
byldan, w. v., embolden, encourage, 1094.
bȳme, w. f., trumpet; gen. 2943.
byrdu-scrūd, st. neut., shield-covering, shield, 2660.
byre, st. m., son, boy, youth, 1188, 2018, 2053, etc.
byrele, st. m., cup-bearer, 1161.
byreð, see beran.
byrgean, w. v., taste, 448.
byrht, see beorht.
byrig, see burg.
byrnan, see beornan.
byrne, w. f., byrny, coat of mail, 405, etc.
byrn-wiga, w. m., byrny-warrior, mailed warrior, 2918.
bysigu, st. f., [business] trouble, affliction; nom. besigu, 281; dat. pl. bisgum, 1743, bysigum, 2580.
byð, see bēon.
bȳwan, w. v., prepare, adorn, 2257.


camp, st. m., battle, 2505.
can, see cunnan.
candel, st. f., candle, 1572 (of the sun).
ceald, adj., cold, 1261, etc.
cealdost, superl., coldest, 546.
cēap, st. m., [chap] bargain, purchase, 2415, 2482.
cēapian, w. v., [cheapen, chop] purchase; pp. gecēapod, 3012.
cearian, w. v., care, take care, 1536.
cear-sīð, st. m., [care-journey] journey fraught with care, expedition that brings sorrow, 2396 (see Ēadgils in “Persons and Places”).
cearu, st. f., care, sorrow, 1303, 3171.
cear-wylm, -wǣlm, st. m., [care-welling] surge of care, wave of sorrow, extreme grief, 2821, 2066. [Sievers § 159, 2.]
ceaster-būend, st. m., castle-dweller, denizen of a city, 768.
cempa, w. m., champion, fighter, 1312, etc.; dat. 2044.
cēne, adj., keen, bold, brave, 768.
cēnost, superl., keenest, boldest, 206.
cennan, w. v.

(1) beget, bear, bring forth, 12, 943.
(2) declare; imperat. sg. refl., cen þec, 1219.

a-cennan, w. v., beget, bear, 1356.
cēnðu, st. f., keenness, boldness, 2696.
cēol, st. m., keel, ship, 38, etc.
ceorfan, st. v., carve.
be-ceorfan, st. v., with acc. pers. and dat. rei, cut off, 1590, 2138.
ceorl, st. m., churl, man, 202, 2444, 2972, etc.
cēosan, cīosan, st. v., choose, accept, 2376, 2818; pp. pl. gecorone, 206.
ge-cēosan, st. v., choose, 1201 (see note on 1200), 1758, 2469, etc.; dat. inf. gecēosenne, 1851.
cīgān, w. v.
ā-cīgan, w. v., call, summon, 3121.
cirran, w. v.
on-cirran, w. v.

(1) trans., turn, change, 2857.

(2) intrans., turn, return, 2951, 2970.
clif, st. neut., cliff, 1911.
clomm, clamm, st. m., clasp, grip, 963, 1335, 1502.
cnāwan, st. v.
ge-cnāwan, st, v., know, recognise, 2047. on-cnāwan, st. v., know, recognise, 2554.
cniht, st. m., [knight] boy, 1219.
cniht-wesende, adj. (pres. part.), being a boy or youth, 372, 535.
cnyssan, w. v., crash, clash; pret. pl. cnysedan, 1328.
cōl, adj., cool.
cōlra, compar., cooler, 282, 2066.
collen-ferhð, -ferð, adj., [swollen-minded] of proud spirit, high-minded, bold-minded, 1806, 2785.
con, const, see cunnan.
corðer, st. neut., troop, guard, crowd, 1153, 3121.
costian, w. v., with gen., try, prove, 2084.
cræft, st. m., might, strength; skill, craft; 699, 982, 2168, 2221 (mass), etc.; dat. pl. dēofles cræftum, “with devil’s devices,” 2088.
cræftig, adj., [crafty] strong, powerful, 1466, 1962.
cringan, st. v., cringe, fall, 635, 1113.
ge-cringan, st. v., cringe, fall; pret. sg. gecrong, 1568, 2505, gecrang, 1337, gecranc, 1209.
cuma, w. m., comer, 1806.
cuman, st. v., pret. c(w)ōm: come, 23, 376, 430, 569, 731, 1382, 2058, etc.; subj. pres. pl. cymen, 3106; pret. pl. cwōmon, 239, etc., cwōman, 650; pp. pl. cumene, 361. Often with foll. inf. (which is sometimes best translated by a pres. part.), 268, 710, etc.
be-cuman, st. v., pret. bec(w)ōm:

(1) come, 115, 192, 2992, etc.
(2) with. acc. pers., befall, 2883.

ofer-cuman, overcome; pret. sg. ofercwōm, 1273; pret. pl. ofercōmon, 699; pp. 845.
cumbol, st. m., standard, banner, 2505.
cunnan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. 1st, 3rd,

con, can, 2nd, const:
(1) with acc. or clause, know, be acquainted with, 359, 372, 392, 418, 1180, 1377, 1739, etc.; with acc. and clause, 1355.

(2) with inf., know how to, be able to, 50, 90, 182, 1746, etc.
cunnian, w. v., with acc. or gen., try, make trial of, explore, 508, 1426, 1444, 1500, 2045.
cūð, adj. (pp. of cunnan), known, well known, famous, 150, 867, 1913, etc.
cūð-līce, adv., openly.
cūð-līcor, compar., more openly, 244.
cwealm, st. m., [quelling] murder, death, 107, 3149.
cwealm-bealu, st. neut., death-bale, deadly evil, 1940.
cwealm-cuma, w. m., murderous comer, 792.
cweccan, w. v., [quake] brandish, 235.
cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 1334.
ā-cwellan, w. v., quell, kill, 886, etc.
cwēn, st. f., queen, wife, 62, etc.
cwēn-līc, adj., queenly, womanly. 1940.
cweðan, st. v., say, speak, 2041; pret. cwæð, “quoth,” 315, etc.
ā-cweðan, st. v., say, speak; pres. sg. ācwyð, 2046; pret. sg. ācwaeð, “quoth,” 654. ge-cweðan, st. v., say, speak, 535, 2664; pret. sg. gecwæð, “quoth,” 857, etc.
cwic, cwico, adj., quick, living, alive, 98, 2314, 3093, etc.
cwīðan, st. v., with acc., lament, mourn, 2112, 3171.
-cwyð, see -cweðan.
cyme, st. m., coming; pl. 257.
cymen, see cuman.
cym-līce, adv.
cym-līcor, compar., in more comely fashion, more fitly, 38.
cyn(n), st. neut., kin, race, 98, 107, 421, etc.
cyne-dōm, st. m., kingdom, 2376.
cyning, kyning, st. m., king, 11, 619, 3171, etc.
cyning-bald, adj., [king-bold] royally bold, 1634.
cynn, st. neut., only in pl. (of adj. cyn(n), “akin, suitable”), customs, courtesies, etiquette, 613.
cȳpan, w. v., sell.
ge-cypan, w. v., buy, purchase, hire, 2496.
cyssan, w. v.
ge-cyssan, w. v., kiss, 1870.
cyst, st. f., [choosing] choice, choiceness, choice quality, excellence, pick, 673, 802, 867, 923, etc.
cȳðan, w. v., make known, show, 659, etc.; pp. gecȳðed, “made known, famed,” 262, 700, 1971, etc.
ge-cūðan, w. v., make known, 257, 354.


dǣd, st. f., deed, act, 181, etc.; acc. dǣd, 585, etc., dǣde, 889; gen. pl. hafað…dǣda gefondad, “has experienced deeds (of violence?),” 2454.
dǣd-cēne, adj., [deed-keen] bold in act, 1645.
dǣd-fruma, w. m., [deed-chief] doer of deeds, 2090.
dǣd-hata, w. m., [deed-hater] one who shows his hatred in deeds, 275.
dæg, st. m., day, 197, 485, 3159, etc.
dæges, gen. of dæg used adverbially, by day, 1935, 2269.
dæg-hwīl, st. f., day-while, day; acc. pl. hē dæg-hwīla gedrogen hæfde eorðan wynne, “he had spent his days of earth’s joy,” 2726.
dæg-rīm, st. neut., [day-rime] number of days; nom. dōgera dæg-rim, “the number of his days,” 823.
dǣl, st. m., deal, part, portion, share, 621, 1740, 2843, etc.
dǣlan, w. v., deal, divide, distribute, share, 80, 2534, etc.
be-dǣlan, w. v., with dat. rei, deprive, bereave, 721, 1275. ge-dǣlan, w. v., deal out, 71; divide, part, 731, 2422.
daroð, st. m., dart, javelin, 2848.
dēad, adj., dead, 467, etc.
dēagan, st. v., dye; pret. dēað-fǣge dēog, “the doomed one dyed [the mere],” 850.
dēah, see dugan.
deall, adj., proud, 494.
dear, dearst, see durran.
dēað, st. m., death, 441, 2269, 2843, etc.
dēað-bedd, st. neut., death-bed, 2901.
dēað-cwalu, st. f., [death-quelling] violent death, murder, 1712.
dēað-cwealm, st. m., [death-quelling] violent death, slaughter, 1670.
dēað-dæg, st. m., death-day, 187, 885.
dēað-fǣge, adj., [death-fey] doomed to death, 850.
dēað-scūa, w. m., death-shadow, deadly sprite, 160.
dēað-werig, adj., death-weary, dead, 2125.
dēað-wīc, st. neut., [death-wick] dwelling of death, 1275.
dēman, w. v., deem; adjudge, 687; appraise, 3174.
dēmend, st. m., judge, 181.
denn, st. neut., den, 2759, 3045.
dēofol, st. m., devil, 756, etc.
dēogol, see dȳgel.
dēop, st. neut., deep, 2549.
dēop, adj., deep, 509, 1904.
dēor, dīor, adj., bold, brave, dire, 1933, 2090.
dēorc, adj., dark, 160, 275, etc.
dēore, see dȳre.
dēor-līc, adj., bold, 585.
dēð, see dōn.
-dīgan, see -dȳgan.
dīope, adv., deeply, 3069.
diore, see dyre.
disc, st. m., dish, 2775, 3048.
dōgor, st. neut., day, 219, 2200, 2573, etc.; dat. sg. dōgore, 1797, dōgor, 1395 (see note); gen. pl. dōgora, 88, dōgera, 823, dōgra, 1090.
dōgor-gerīm, st. neut., number of days, 2728.
dohtor, st. f., daughter, 375, etc.
dol-gilp, st. m., [doltish yelp] foolish boast, 509.
dol-līc, adj., rash, desperate, audacious, 2646.
dol-sceaða, w. m., doltish scather, foolish or rash foe, 479.
dōm, st. m., doom, judgment, 441, 1098, etc.; free-will, choice, 895, 2147, etc.; glory, 885, 2666, etc. Special passages: æfter dōme, “according to custom, or merit,” 1720; drēah æfter dōme, “lived, employed himself, according to right, or honour,” 2179.
dōm-lēas, adj., [glory-less] inglorious, 2890.
dōn, irreg. v., do, make, take, esteem, put, lay, 444, 1116, 1828, etc.; pres. sg. dēð, 1058; pret. sg. dyde, etc., 44, 1676, 2809, etc. Special passages: him Hūnlāfing hilde-lēoman…on bearm dyde, “the son of Hunlaf thrust the sword into his [Hengest’s] breast,” 1144 (see note); ne him þæs wyrmes wīg for wiht dyde, eafoð ond ellen, “he esteemed the worm’s warfare as naught, its strength and courage,” 2348.
gē-dōn, st. v., do, make, put, esteem, 2090, 2186; pres. sg. gedēð, 1732.
dorste, pret. of durran.
draca, w. m.

(1) drake, dragon, 892, 2088;

(2) the drake or dragon, the slaying of which forms Beowulf’s third great exploit, 2211, etc.
-drǣdan, st. v.
on-drǣdan, st. v., dread, 1674, 2275; pret. ondrēd, 2347.
drēah, see drēogan.
drēam, st. m., [dream] joy, mirth, 88, 99, etc.
drēam-lēas, adj., joyless, 1720.
drēfan, w. v., trouble, stir, 1904; pp. gedrēfed, 1417.
drēogan, st. v., [dree] do, go through, experience, endure, suffer, enjoy, 589, 1470, 2179 (see dōm), etc.; imperat. sg. drēoh, 1782; pret. sg. drēah, 131; pret. pl. drugon, 798, 1966; pp. gedrogen, “spent,” 2726. Special passage: sund-nytte drēah, “(did swimming-office, i.e.) swam,” 2360.
ā-drēogan, st. v., endure, 3078.
drēor, st. m., blood, 447.
drēor-fāh, adj., blood-stained, 485.
drēorig, drīorig, adj., [dreary] bloody, 1417, 2789.
drēosan, st. v.
ge-drēosan, st. v., fall, sink, fail, decline, 1754, 2666.
drepan, st. v., strike, hit; pret. sg. drep, 2880; pp. drepen, 1745, dropen, 2981.
drepe, st. v., stroke, blow, 1589.
drīfan, st. v., drive, 1130, 2808.
to-drīfan, st. v., drive asunder, 545.
driht-, see dryht-.
drihten, see dryhten.
drincan, st. v. drink, 742, 1233, 1945, etc.; pp. druncen, “drunk, having drunk (not necessarily intoxicated),” 531, etc.; pl. druncne, 480, etc.
drinc-fæt, see drync-fæt.
drohtoð, st. m., way of life, calling, 756.
dropen, see drepan.
drūsian, w. v., become turbid?, subside?, 1630.
dryht-bearn, st. neut., [noble bairn] noble youth, noble scion; acc. 2035.
dryhten, drihten, st. m.

(1) lord, chieftain, 1484, 1050, etc.; dat. dryhtne, 2482, etc., dryhten (?), 1831.

(2) Lord (of the Deity), 108, etc.
dryht-guma, driht-guma, w. m., [clansman] warrior, noble warrior, noble man, 99, 1790, etc.
dryht-līc, driht-līc, adj., lordly, courtly, royal, noble, excellent, 892; weak neut. drihtlīce wīf, 1158.
dryht-māðum, st. m., lordly treasure, splendid treasure, 2843.
[dryht-,] driht-scype, st. m., [warrior-ship] heroic deed, 1470.
dryht-sele, driht-sele, st. m., lordly hall, warrior-hall, 485, etc.
dryht-sibb, st. f., troop-peace, peace between bands of warriors, 2068.
drync-fæt, drinc-fæt, st. n., [drink-vat] drinking-vessel, 2254, 2306.
drysmian, w. v., darken, grow dark, 1375.
dūfan, st. v., dive.
ge-dūfan, st. v., dive into, sink into; pret. sg. gedēaf, 2700. þurh-dūfan, st. v., dive through, swim through; pret. sg. þurhdēaf, 1619.
dugan, st.-w. v., pres. sg. indic. dēah, 369, etc.; pres. sg. subj. duge, 589, etc.; pret. sg. dohte, 1344, 1821, etc.: be doughty, avail, 369, 573, etc., with gen. 526; treat (with dat.), 1821 ; rely, 1839.
duguð, st. f., doughtiness, the doughty, doughty warriors, noble warriors, 498, 2020, etc.; often coupled with geogoð, “the youthful”, 160, etc.; nom. pl. duguða, 2035; dat. pl. for dugeðum, “in virtue of doughtiness, by dint of doughty deeds,” 2501; duguðum, “doughtily, or to the doughty,” 3174.
*durran, st.-w. v., dare; pres. sg. dear, dearst, 684, 621; pres. subj. dyrre, 1379; pret. sg. dorste, 1462, 2848, etc.
duru, st. f., door, 388, 721.
dwellan, w. v., mislead, deceive, hinder; pres. sg. dweleð, 1735.
dyde, dydon, see dōn.
dȳgan, w. v.
ge-dȳgan, ge-dīgan, w. v., survive, escape, endure, 300, 578, 661, etc.
dȳgel, dēogol, adj., secret, hidden, 275, 1357.
dyhtig, adj., doughty, 1287.
dynnan, w. v., din, resound; pret. sg. dynede, 767, etc.
dȳre, dēore, adj., dear in both senses, costly and beloved, 560, 1528, 1879, etc.; nom. dīore, 1949; gen. sg. f. dēorre, 488.
dēorest, superl., dearest, 1309.
dyrne, adj., secret, hidden, 271, 1879, etc.
dyrre, see durran.
dyrstig, adj., daring, bold; with gen. 2838.


ēac, adv., eke, also, 97, etc.; once ēc, 3131.
ēacen, adj. (pp. of *ēacan), [eked] great, extensive, mighty, powerful, 198, 1621, 1663, 2140.
ēacen-cræftig, adj., enormously strong, immense, 2280, 3051.
ēadig, adj., rich, prosperous, 1225, 2470.
ēadig-līce, adv., happily, 100.
eafor, see eofor.
eafora, eafera, w. m., child, son, 12, 375, etc.; pl. descendants, successors, 1710: dat. pl. eaferan, 1185.
eafoð, st. neut., strength, might, 902, etc.; acc. pl. eofoðo, 2534; dat. pl. eafeðum, 1717. Special passage: ic him Gēata sceal eafoð ond ellen…gūþe gebēodan, “I shall proclaim to him in war the strength and courage of the Geats,” 602 (see note).
ēage, w. neut., eye, 726, etc.
ēagor-strēam, st. m., water-stream, 513.
eahta, num., eight, 1035; gen. eahta sum, “one of eight, with seven others,” 3123.
eahtian, w. v., consider, deliberate about, esteem, watch over, rule: pres. pl. ehtigað, 1222; pret. sg. eahtode, 1407; pret. pl. eahtedon, 172, eahtodan, 3173; pp. geæhted, 1885.
eal(l), adj., all, 111, 523, 652, 705, 914, 2739; nom. sg. f. eal, 1738; neut. pl. eal, 486; uninflected, 2042, 3164. In some instances it is impossible to say certainly whether the word is an adj. or an adv.: 77, 1230, 1567, 1620, 2241. Substantively, sg. and pl.: 145, 649, 2162, 2794, 1727 (all things), 2461 (everything); gen. pl. ealra, “in all,” 3170; with gen. 744, 835, 1057, 1122, 2149, 2727.
eal, adv., all, 1708, 680 (see þēah). ealles, adv. (gen. of eall), all, altogether, 1000, 1129.
eald, adj., old, 72, 357, 1776, etc.; acc. pl. neut. ealde, 2330. Special passages: eald Metod, “our God of old,” 945; gold-māðmas hēold eald under eorðan, “the old [dragon] held gold-treasures under the earth,” 2415.
yldra, compar., elder, older, 468, etc. yldesta, weak superl., eldest, oldest, 258, etc.
ealder-, see under ealdor-.
eald-gesegen, st. f., old saga, old tradition, 869.
eald-gesīð, st. m., old comrade, 853.
eald-gestrēon, st. neut., old treasure, 1381, etc.
eald-hlāford, st. m., old lord (Beowulf), 2778.
ealdor, aldor, st. m., [alder- in alderman] chief, lord, prince, sovereign, 56, 346, 369, 1644, 1848, 2920, etc.
aldor-lēas, adj., princeless, without a chief, 15. aldor-þegn, st. m., [prince-thane] chief thane, 1308.
ealdor, aldor, st. neut., life, 1371, 1442, etc.; vitals, 1434. Special phrases: tō aldre, “for life, for ever, always,” 2005, 2498; āwa tō aldre, “for ever and ever,” 955.
aldor-bealu, st. neut., life-bale, death, 1676.

aldor-cearu, st. f., life-care, 906.

aldor-dæg, ealder-dæg, st. m., life-day, day of life, 718, 757.

aldor-gedāl, st. neut., life-parting, death, 805.
ealdor-gewinna, w. m., [life-winner] life-adversary, 2903.
ealdor-lēas, aldor-lēas, adj., life-less, 1587, 3003.
eal-fela, adj., [all-many] very many, with gen., 883; acc. eal-fela…worn, “a very great number,” 869.
ealgian, w. v., defend, protect, 796, 1204, etc.
eall, see eal.
eal(l)-gylden, adj., all-golden, 1111, 2767.
eall-īrenne, adj., all-iron, 2338.
ealo-benc, ealu-benc, st. f., ale-bench, 1029, 2867.
ealo-drincend, st. m. (pres. part.), ale-drinker, 1945.
ēa-lond, st. neut., water-land; acc. ēa-lond ūtan, “the sea-board,” 2334.
ealo-wǣge, ealu-wǣge, st. neut., ale-stoup, ale-can, tankard of ale, 481, 495, 2021.
ealu-scerwen, st. f., ale-dearth, tenor as of a dearth of ale, great terror, 769.
ēam, st. m., [“eme” Spenser] uncle, mother’s brother, 881.
eard, st. m., country, estate, home, abode, dwelling, 56, 104, 1621 (expanses), 1727, 2198, 2493, 2736, etc.
eardian, w. v.

(1) intrans., dwell, rest, 3050.

(2) trans., inhabit, 166; inf. wīc eardian, “take up his abode,” 2589.
eard-lufu, w. f., home-love, dear home?, 692. [Sievers § 279, N. 1.]
eard-weall, st. m., land-wall, 1224.
earfoð, st. neut., hardship, hard battling, endurance; acc. pl. earfeðo, 534.
earfoð-līce, adv., hardly, with difficulty, 86, etc.; with trouble, sorrowfully, 2822.
earfoð-þrāg, st. f., time of stress, time of tribulation, 283.
earg, adj., cowardly; gen. absolutely, earges sīð, “coward’s way,” 2541.
earm, st. m., arm, 513, etc.
earm, adj., wretched, 2368, 2938; weak fem. earme, 1117.
earmra, compar., more wretched, 577.
earm-bēag, st. m., arm-ring, armlet, 2763.
earm-hrēad, st. f., arm-ornament, 1194.
earm-līc, adj., wretched, miserable, 807.
earm-sceapen, adj. (pp.), wretched-shapen, miscreated, miserable, 1351, 2228.
earn, st. m., eagle, 3026.
eart, art, 352, 506, 2nd sg. pres. indic. of wesan (q. v.).
ēastan, adv., from the east, 569.
eatol, see atol.
ēaðe, ȳðe, adj., easy, pleasant, 228, 1002, etc.; once ēðe, 2586.
ēaðe, adv., easily, 478, etc.
ēað-fynde, adj., easy to find, 138.
ēawan, see ȳwan.
eaxl, st. f., [axle] shoulder, 835, etc.
eaxl-gestealla, w. m., shoulder-comrade, bosom friend, 1326, 1714.
ēc, see ēac.
ēce, adj., eternal, 108, etc.
ecg, st. f., edge (of a weapon), sword, 1106, 2506, etc.
ecg-bana, w. m., [edge-bane] slayer with a weapon, sword-slayer, 1262.
ecg-hete, st. m., edge-hate, sword-hate, hatred leading to war, 84, 1738.
ecg-þracu, st. f., edge-onset, sword-onset, armed attack, 596.
ed-hwyrft, st. m., return, change, reverse, 1281.
ēdre, see ǣdre, st. f.
ed-wenden, st. f., return, change, 1774, 2188.
edwīt-līf, st. neut., life of reproach, life of infamy, 2891.
efn, adj., even.
on efn, with dat., even with, beside, 2903.
efnan, æfnan, w. v., achieve, perform, accomplish, do, make, 1041, 1254, etc.; pp. geæfned, 3106; āð wæs geæfned, “the oath was sworn,” 1107.
ge-æfnan, w. v., perform, etc., 538.
efne, adv., even, 943, etc.
efstan, w. v., hasten, 1493, etc. [“Beiträge,” x. 506.]
eft, adv., after, afterwards, again, back, 56, 135, 123, 296, etc.
eft-cyme, st. m., back-coming, return, 2896.
eft-sīð, st. m., back-journey, return, 1332, etc.
ēg-clif, st. neut., sea-cliff, 2893.
egesa, st. m., fear, terror, 784, etc.; acc. egsan, 276.
eges-full, adj., terrible, 2929.
eges-līc, adj., terrible, 1649, etc.
egl, adj., [ail = a spike or awn of barley] claw, 987.
egsa, see egesa.
egsian, w. v., cause terror, affright; pret. egsode eorl, “the earl caused terror,” 6.
ēg-strēam, st. m., water-stream, ocean current, 577.
ēhtan, w. v., with gen., pursue, 159, 1512.
ehtigað, see eahtian.
elde, see ylde.
eldo, see yldo.
el-land, st. neut., alien land, strange land, 3019.
ellen, st. m. neut., strength, courage, bravery, 573, 893, 2706, etc.; dat. sg. elne, sometimes best rendered by an adv., “courageously,” 2676; sometimes with strictly adverbial force, “quickly,” 1967, “absolutely,” 1097, “altogether,” 1129.
ellen-dǣd, st. f., [strength-deed] deed of strength or courage, 876, 900.
ellen-gǣst, st. m., [strength-ghost] powerful sprite, 86.
ellen-līce, adv., mightily, courageously, 2122.
ellen-mǣrðu, st. f., [might-greatness] fame for strength or courage, feat of strength, 824, 1471.
ellen-rōf, adj., courage-strong, famed for strength or courage, 340, 1787, etc.
ellen-sīoc, adj., [strength-sick] strengthless, 2787.
ellen-weorc, st. neut., strength-work, deed of might or courage, 661, etc.
elles, adv., else, otherwise, 138, etc.
ellor, adv., elsewhither, 55, etc.
ellor-gāst, ellor-gǣst, st. m., [elsewhither-ghost] sprite living elsewhere, alien sprite, 807, 1349, 1617, 1621.
ellor-sīð, st. m., journey elsewhither, death, 2451.
elne, see ellen.
elra, adj. (compar. of *ele), another, 752.
el-þēodig, adj., of alien nation, foreign, 336.
ende, st. m., end, 822, 1734, etc.; acc. hæfde eorð-scrafa ende genyttod, “had had the last of his earth-caves,” 3046; dat. eorlum on ende, “to the earls at the end (of the high table?, i.e. the noblest),” 2021.
ende-dæg, st. m., end-day, day of death, 637, etc.
ende-dōgor, st. m., end-day, day of death, 2896.
ende-lāf, st. f., [end-leaving] last remnant, 2813.
ende-lēan, st. neut., end-reward, final reward, 1692.
ende-sǣta, w. m., [end-sitter] coast-guard, 241.
ende-stæf, st. m., [end-staff] end; acc. on ende-stæf, “towards, in, the end,” 1753.
endian, w. v.
ge-endian, w. v., end; pp. geendod, 2311.
enge, adj., narrow, 1410.
ent, st. m., giant, 1679, etc.
entisc, adj., gigantic, 2979.
ēode, ēodon, see gān.
eodor, st. m.

(1) fence, barrier; acc. pl. under eoderas, “under the barriers, into the house,” 1037,

(2) protector, lord, prince, 428, etc.; nom. eodur, 663.
eofer, eofor, st. m., boar, figure of a boar upon a helmet, 1112, 1328; acc. eafor, 2152.
eofer-sprēot, st. m., boar-spear, 1437.
eofor-līc, st. neut., boar-likeness, figure of a boar upon a helmet; pl. 303.
eofoð, see eafoð.
eolet, st. m. or neut., sea (?); gen. þā wæs sund liden eoletes æt ende, “then was the sound traversed at the far side of the sea,” 224.
eom, am, see wesan.
eorclan-stān, st. m., precious stone, 1208.
ēored-geatwe, st. f. pl., troop-trappings, military equipments, 2866.
eorl, st. m., earl, noble, warrior, 6, 248, etc.
eorl-gestrēon, st. neut., earls’ treasure, 2244.
eorl-gewǣde, st. neut., [earl-weeds] armour, 1442.
eorlīc ( = eorl-līc), adj., earl-like, noble, 637.
eorl-scipe, st. m., earlship, courage, heroic deeds, 1727, 2133, etc.
eorl-weorod, st. neut., [earl-host] warrior-band, 2893.
eormen-cynn, st. neut., [extended, enormous kin] mankind, 1957.
eormen-grund, st. neut., [enormous ground] the whole broad earth, 859.
eormen-lāf, st. neut., [enormous leaving] immense legacy, 2234.
eorre, see yrre.
eorð-cyning, st. m., earth-king, earthly king, 1155.
eorð-draca, w. m., earth-drake, earth-dragon, 2712, etc.
eorðe, w. f., earth, world, 92, 2834, etc.
eorð-hūs, st. neut., earth-house, 2232.
eorð-reced, st. neut., earth-house, earth-hall, 2719.
eorð-scræf, st. neut., earth-cave; gen. pl. eorð-scrafa, 3046.
eorð-sele, st. m., earth-hall, 2410, etc.
eorð-weall, st. m., earth-wall, 2957, etc.
eorð-weard, st. m., earth-possession, land-property, locality, 2334.
eoten, eoton, st. m., eoten, giant, monster, enemy, 112, 421, 668, 761, 902, etc.
eotenisc, eotonisc, adj., gigantic, of a giant, 1558, 2979; acc. etonisc, 2616.
eoten-weard, st. f., [eoten-ward] ward or watch against a monster; acc. eoten-weard ābead, “offered watch against Grendel,” 668 (see note).
ēow, pers. pron., acc. and dat. pl. (of þū), you, 391, 2865, etc.
ēowan, see ȳwan.
ēower, pers. pron., gen. pl. (of þū), of you, 248, etc.
ēower, poss. adj., your, 257, etc.
ēowic, pers. pron., acc. pl. (of þū), you, 317, 3095.
ēst, st. f., favour, grace, 958, 2165, etc.; acc. þæt ic his ǣrest ðē ēst gesægde, “that I should first give thee his kindly greeting,” 2157; dat. pl. ēstum, with adverbial force, “graciously, gladly, kindly,” 1194, 2149,” 2378.
ēste, adj., gracious; with. gen. hyre…ēste wǣre bearn-gebyrdo, “was gracious to her in her child-bearing,” 945.
etan, st. v., eat, 444, 449.
þurh-etan, st. v., eat through; pp. pl. þurhetone, 3049.
etonisc, see eotenisc.
ēð-begēte, adj., [easy-begotten] easily got, 2861.
ēðe, see ēaðe.
ēðel, st. m., native land, fatherland, land, estate, 520, 1730, etc.
ēðel-riht, st. neut., land-right, 2198.
ēðel-stōl, st. m., [fatherland-stool] native seat; pl. country, 2371.
ēðel-turf, st. f., native turf, native soil; dat. ēðel-tyrf, 410.
ēðel-weard, st. m., fatherland-warden, guardian of his country, 616, 1702, 2210.
ēðel-wyn, st. f., land-joy, home joy, 2885; acc. ēðel-wyn, 2493.
ēð-gesȳne, ȳð-gesēne, adj., [easy-] manifest, easily visible (not seen, pp.), 1110, 1244.


fācen-stæf, st. m., treachery, 1018.
fæc, st. neut., period of time, 2240,
fæder, st. m., father, 55, 316 (of God), etc.; gen. fæder, 911.
fæderen-mǣg, st. m., father’s kinsman, kinsman on the father’s side, 1263.
fǣge, adj. fey, doomed, 846, etc.
fægen, adj., fain, glad, 1633.
fæger, adj., fair, beautiful, 522, etc.
fægere, fægre, adv., fairly, becomingly, courteously, 1014, 1788, etc.
-fǣgon, see -feon.
fǣhð, fǣhðo, st. f., feud, hostility, 2403, 2999; acc. fǣhðe, 153, etc., fǣghðe, 2465, fǣhðo, 2489.
fǣlsian, w. v., cleanse, 432, etc.; pp. gefǣlsod, 825, etc.
fǣmne, w. f., bride, lady, 2034, 2059.
fær, st. neut., craft, vessel, 33.
fǣr, st. m., fear, sudden danger, 1068, 2230.
fǣr-gripe, st. m., fear-grip, sudden grip, 738, etc.
fǣr-gryre, st. m., [fear-terror] sudden terror, terror of sudden danger, 174.
fǣringa, adv., suddenly, 1414, etc.
fǣr-nīð, st. m., [fear-malice] sudden mischief, sudden horror, 476.
fæst, adj., fast, 303, 1742, etc.; often with dat. 1290, 1878, etc.
fæstan, w. v., fasten.
be-fæstan, w. v., commit to, 1115.
fæste, adv., fast, 554, etc.
fæstor, compar., faster, 143.
fæsten, st. neut., fast}ness, stronghold, 104, etc.
fæst-rǣd, adj., [fast-rede] firm-purposed, steadfast, 610.
fæt, st. m., vat, vessel, flagon, 2761.
fǣt, st. neut., plating, gold-plate, 716, 2256.
fǣted, fǣtt, adj. (pp.), plated, gold-plated, 333, etc.
fǣted-hlēor, adj., with bridle covered with plates of gold, 1036.
fǣt-gold, st. neut., plated gold, 1921.
fǣtt, see fǣted.
fǣðm, st. m., [fathom] embrace, bosom, lap, 185, 188, 1393, etc.; power, 1210.
fæðmian, w. v., embrace, 2652, etc.
fāg, fāh, adj., stained, coloured, variegated, bright, shining, 305, 1615, 1631, 2217, 2701, 420 (blood-stained), 1038 (bedecked), 2671 (flashing), etc.; acc. sg. m. fāgne, fāhne, 725, 446, etc.
fāh, fāg, adj.:

(1) hostile, 554; nom. hē fāg wið God, “he a foe to God,” 811. Substantively, foe; acc. sg. m. fāne, 2655; gen. pl. fāra, 578, 1463.

(2) guilty, outlawed, 978, 1001, 1263.
fāhne, see fāg, fāh.
fāmi(g)-heals, adj., foamy-necked, 218, 1909.
fandian, see fondian.
fāne, see fāh, fāg.
-fangen, see -fon.
fāra, see fāh, fāg.
faran, st. v., fare, go, 124, 1404, 1895, etc.; dat. inf. farenne, 1805.
ge-faran, st. v., fare, 738.
faroð, st. m., tide, stream, flood, 28, etc.
fēa, pl. adj., few; acc. (with gen.) fēa worda, 2246, 2662; gen. fēara, 1412, 3061; dat. fēaum, 1081.
-feah, see -fēon.
fealh, see fēolan.
feallan, st. v., fall, 1070, etc. pret. sg. feol(l), 772, 2919, etc.
be-feallan; pp. befeallen, “deprived, bereft,” 1126, 2256.

ge-feallan, st. v.
(1) intrans., fall, 1755.

(2) trans., fall to, fall on to, 2100, 2834.
fealo, see fela.
fealu, adj., fallow, yellow, dun; acc. sg. m. fealone, 1950; f. fealwe, 916; acc. pl. fealwe, 865.
fea-sceaft, adj., wretched, destitute, 7, etc.
feax, st. neut., hair, hair of the head, 1647; dat. fexe, 2967.
fēdan, w. v., feed.
ā-fedan, w. v., bring up, 693.
-fēgon, see -fēon.
-feh, see -fēon.
fehð, see fōn.
fēl, st. f., file; gen. pl. fēla lāfe, “leavings of files, i.e. swords,” 1032.
fela, st. neut., indecl., much, many, 586, 2106.

Usu. with gen. sg. or pl. 164, 809, 876, 929, 992, 1060, 1888; fealo, 2757; see also worn.

Used as an adj. qualifying worn (q. v.), 530, etc.
fela, adv., much, greatly, 1385, 2102, 3025, 3029, 694 (see micel).
fela-gēomor, adj., very sad, 2950.
fela-hrōr, adj., very vigorous, 27.
fela-mōdig, adj., [very moody] very brave, 1637.
fela-synnig, adj., very sinful, 1379.
fell, st. neut., fell, skin, 2088.
fen(n), st. neut., fen, moor, 104, 2009, etc.
fen-freoðo, st. f., fen-refuge, 851.
feng, st. m., clutch, grasp, 578, 1764.
fēng, see fōn.
fengel, st. m., prince, 1400, etc.
fen-gelād, st. neut., fen-path, 1359.
fen-hlið, st. neut., fen-slope; pl. fen-hleoðu, 820.
fen-hop, st. neut., fen-retreat, “sloping hollow with a fenny bottom” (Skeat), 764.
feoh, st. neut., fee, property, money; dat. sg., fēo, 156, etc.
feoh-gift, -gyft, st. f., fee-gift, gift of money, valuable gift, 21, 1025, etc.
feoh-lēas, adj., fee-less, not to be atoned for with money, 2441.
feohtan, st. v.
ge-feohtan, st. v., fight, 1083.
feohte, w. f., fight, 576, 959.
fēolan, st. v., penetrate; pret. sg. fealh, 1281, 2225.
æt-fēolan, st. v., cleave, stick; pret. ætfealh, 968.
-fēon, st. v.
ge-fēon, st. v., rejoice; pret. sg. gefeah, 109, etc., gefeh, 827, etc.; pret. pl. gefǣgon, 1014, gefēgon, 1627.
fēond, st. m., fiend, foe, 101, 164, etc.
fēond-grāp, st. f., fiend-grip, foe’s grasp, 636.
fēond-scaða, w. m., [fiend-scather] dire foe, 554.
fēond-scipe, st. m., fiendship, enmity, 2999.
feor, adj., far, 1361, 1921.
feor, adv., far, afar, 42, 542, 808, 1221, etc.; once feorr, 1988; of time, “far back,” 1701.
fyr, feor, compar., farther, 143, 252, 1340.
feor-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), far dweller, dweller afar; pl. 254.
feor-cȳðð, st. f., far country; pl. feor-cȳððe, 1838.
feorh, st. m. neut., life, 73, 439, 1152 (bodies), 1210, 2040, etc.; gen. fēores, 1433, etc.; dat. fēore, 1843, etc.; dat. pl. fēorum, 73, etc. Special passages: acc. ferh (see wrecan), 2706; wæs in feorh dropen, “was mortally wounded,” 2981; wīdan feorh, “ever,” 2014; dat. tō wīdan fēore, “ever,” 933.
feorh-bealu, -bealo, st. neut., life-bale, deadly evil, 156, 2077, etc.
feorh-benn, st. f., life-wound, deadly wound, 2740.
feorh-bona, w. m., [life-bane] murderer, 2465.
feorh-cynn, st. neut., life-kin, generation or race of men, 2266.
feorg-genīðla, w. m., life-foe, deadly foe, 969, etc.
feorh-lāst, st. m., life-step, 846.
feorh-legu, st. f., laying down of life; acc. nū ic on māðma hord mīne bebohte frōde feorh-lege, “now that in exchange for the hoard of treasures I have sold the laying down of my old life,” 2800.
feorh-sēoc, adj., life-sick, mortally wounded, 820.
feorh-sweng, st. m., [life-blow] deadly blow, 24S9.
feorh-wund, st. f., life-wound, deadly wound, 2385.
feorm, st. f., food, sustenance, 451.
feormend, st. m. (pres. part.), polisher; pl. 2256.
feormend-lēas, adj., polisher-less, wanting the furbisher, 2761.
feormian, w. v.

(1) polish; subj. pres. 2253.

(2) eat, devour; pp. gefeormod, 744.
feorr, see fēor.
feorran, adv., from afar,

(1) of space, 361, etc.

(2) of time, 91, 2106 (of old times).
feorran-cund, adj. come from afar, 1795.
feor-weg, st. m., far way, distant land, 37.
fēower, num., four, 59, 1637, etc.
fēower-tȳne, num., fourteen, 1641.
fēran, w. v., fare, go, 27, 839, etc.; subj. pres. pl., fēran, 254.
ge-fēran, w. v.

(1) trans., go to, reach, gain, bring about, 1221, 1855, 2844, 3063.

(2) intrans., fare, behave; pret. pl., frēcne gefērdon, “they behaved daringly,” 1691.
ferh, 2706, see feorh.
ferh, st. m., [farrow] boar, figure of a boar on a helmet, 305.
ferhð, st. m., heart, mind, etc., 754, 1166, 3176, etc.
ferhð-frec, adj., bold-minded, 1146.
ferhð-genīðla, w. m., life-foe, deadly foe, 2881.
ferian, w. v., [ferry] bear, carry, bring; pres. pi. ferigeað, 333; pret. pl. feredon, 1154, etc., fyredon, 378 ; pp. pl. geferede, 361.
æt-ferian, w. v., bear off, 1669.

ge-ferian, w. v., bear, bring, 1638, etc.; imperat. pl. 1st, ge-ferian, “let us bear,” 3107.

of-ferian, w. v., bear off, 1583.

oð-ferian, w. v., bear away, save, 2141.
fetel-hilt, st. neut., belted hilt, 1563.
fetian, w. v., fetch; pp. fetod, 1310.
ge-fetian, w. v., fetch, bring, 2190.
fēða, w. m., troop on foot, troop of warriors, troop, 1327, 1424, 2544, etc.
fēðe, st. neut., movement, pace, 970.
fēðe-cempa, w. m., foot-champion, foot-warrior, 1544, etc.
fēðe-gest, st. m., foot-guest, 1976.
fēðe-lāst, st. m., [movement-track] foot-track, 1632.
feðer-gearwa, st. f. pl., feather-gear, 3119.
fēðe-wīg, st. m., foot-war, battle on foot, 2364.
fex, see feax.
fīf, num., five, 545; inflected, fīfe, 420.
fīfel-cynn, st. neut., monster-kin, race of monsters, 104,
fīf-tēne, num., fifteen; acc. fȳftȳne, 1582; inflected gen., fīftēna sum, “with fourteen others,” 207.
fīftig, num., fifty; as adj. 2209; with gen. 2733; inflected gen. sg. fīftiges, 3042.
findan, st. v., find, 7, 207, etc.; obtain, prevail, 2373: inf. swā hyt weorðlīcost fore-snotre men findan mihton, “as very wise men could most worthily devise it,” 3162.
on-findan, st. v., find out, perceive, observe, discover, 750, 1293, 1890, etc.
finger, st. m., finger, 760, etc.
fīras, st. m. pl., men, 91, etc.; gen. pl. fȳra, 2250. [“Beiträge” x. 487.]
firen, fyren, st. f., crime, violence, 137, 915, etc.; acc. fyrene, 153, 2480, etc., firen, 1932. dat. pl. fyrenum, “by crimes, criminally, maliciously,” 1744,


fyren-dǣd, st. f., crime-deed, deed of violence, 1001, 1669. fyren-ðearf, st. f., [crime-need] dire distress, 14.
firgen-, see fyrgen-.
flǣsc, st. neut., flesh, 2424.
flǣsc-homa, w. m., flesh-covering, body, 1568.
flān, st. m., arrow, barb, 2438, 3119.
flān-boga, w. m., arrow-bow, 1433, etc.
flēah, see flēon.
flēam, st. m., flight, 1001, etc.
flēogan, st. v., fly, 2273.
flēon, st. v., flee, 755, etc.; pret. sg., with acc., flēah, 1200 (see note), 2225.
be-flēon, st. v., with acc., flee, escape from; dat. inf. nō þæt ȳðe byð to beflēonne, “that (fate or death) will not be easy to escape from,” 1003. ofer-flēon, st. v., flee from; inf. nelle ic beorges weard oferflēon fōtes trem, “I will not flee from the barrow’s warden a foot’s space,” 2525.
flēotan, st. v., float, swim, 542, etc.
flet, st. neut., floor, floor of a hall, hall, 1025, 1086, 1540, etc.
flet-ræst, st. f., floor-rest, bed in a hall, 1241.
flet-sittend, st. m. (pres. part.), floor-sitter, hall-sitter, 1788, 2022.
flet-werod, st. neut., [floor-host] hall-troop, 476.
fliht, st. m., flight, 1765.
flītan, st. v., [sc. flite] contend, strive, 916; pret. sg. 2nd, 507.
ofer-flītan, st. v., overcome, 517.
flōd, st. m., flood, 545, etc.
flōd-ȳð, st. f., flood-wave, 542.
flōr, st. m., floor, 725, etc.
flota, w. m., [floater] bark, ship, 210, etc.
flot-here, st. m., [float-army] fleet, 2915.
flȳman, w. v., put to flight; pp. geflymed, 846, etc.
-fōh, see -fōn.
folc, st. neut., folk, nation, people, warriors, army, 14, 55, 262, 1855, 2393, etc. The plural is sometimes used with the same meaning as the singular, 1422, etc.; cf. lēod, lēode.
folc-āgend, st. m. (pres. part.), [folk-owner] folk-leader, 3113.
folc-cwēn, st. f., folk-queen, 614.
folc-cyning, st. m., folk-king, 2733, etc.
folc-rēd, st. m., folk-rede; acc. folc-rēd fremede, “did what was for the public good,” 3006.
folc-riht, st. neut., folk-right, public right, 2608.
folc-scaru, st. f., folk-share, public property?, 73.
folc-stede, st. m., folk-stead, 76 (Heorot); acc. folc-stede fāra, “the field of battle,” 1463.
folc-toga, w. m., folk-leader, 839.
fold-bold, st. neut., earth-building, hall on the earth, 773.
fold-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), earth-dweller, 309; pl. fold- būend, 2274, fold-būeude, 1355.
folde, w. f., earth, ground, world, 96, 1196, 2975.
fold-weg, st. m., earth-way, 866, etc.
folgian, w. v., follow, pursue, 1102, 2933.
folm, st. f., hand, 158, etc.
fōn, st. v., seize, take, receive, grapple, clutch, 438; pres. 3rd, fēhð ōðer tō, “another succeeds,” 1755; pret. fēng, 1542, with dat. 2989.
be-fōn, bi-fōn, st. v., seize, seize on, embrace, encircle, encompass; pp. befongen, 977, 1451, 2274, etc., bifongen, 2009, befangen, 1295, etc.

ge-fōn, st. v., with acc., seize; pret. gefēng, 740, 1563, 2215, 2609, 3090, etc.

on-fōn, st. v., usu. with dat., receive, take, seize, 911; imperat. sg. onfōh, 1169; pret. onfēng, 52, 1214, etc.; hē onfēng hraðe inwit-þancum ond wið earm gesæt, “he (Grendel) quickly seized [Beowulf] with hostile intent and sat on, fixed, came down on, his arm” (or, as Grein, “Beowulf quickly received the malignant monster, and supported himself on his arm”), 748.

þurh-fōn, st. v., with acc., [seize through] penetrate, 1504.

wið-fōn, st. v., with dat., grapple with; pret. wið-fēng, 760.

ymbe-fōn, st. v., with acc., [seize about] encircle, enclose; pret. ymbefēng, 2691.
fondian, fandian, w. v., with gen., search out, prove, experience; pp. gefandod, 2301, gefondad, 2454.
for, prep.

(1) with dat., before, 358, 1026, 1120, 2020, 1649, 2990; before or because of, 169, 2781; for, out of, from, through, because of, on account of, about, 110, 338–9, 385, 508, 832, 951, 965, 1442, 1515, 2501 (in virtue of), 2549, 2926, 2966, etc.; for (purpose), 382, 458.

(2) with acc., for, instead of, as, 947, 1175, 2348.
foran, adv., before, to the fore, forwards, 984, 1458. Special passage: þe him foran ongēan linde bǣron, “who bare their linden-shields forwards against him,” 2364.
ford, st. m., ford, 568.
fore, prep., with dat., before, 1215; for, through, because of, 136, 2059; of, about, 1064.
fore-mǣre, adj., [fore-great].
fore-mǣrost, superl., most famous of all, 309.
fore-mihtig, adj., [fore-mighty] over-powerful, 969.
fore-snotor, adj. [fore-prudent] very wise, 3162.
fore-þanc, st. m., forethought, 1060.
forht, adj., fearful, afraid, 754, 2967.
forma, adj. superl. (of fore), first, 716, etc.
forst, st. m., frost, 1609.
forð, adv., forth, forward(s), away, on, 45, 210, 745, 1718, 1795, 2289 (see tō, adv.), 3176, etc.; of time, henceforth, from now, 948, 2069.
for-ðam, for-ðan, for-ðon, adv., for that, therefore, 418, 1957,

2645, 2741, 3021, etc.

for-þon þe, conj., because, 503.
forð-gesceaft, st. f., [forth-creation] future world or destiny, 1750.
for-þon, see for-ðam.
forð-weg, st. m., forth-way, way forth, 2625.
fōt, st. m., foot, 500, 7405, etc.
fōt-gemearc, st. neut., foot-mark, foot-length, foot; gen. sg. fīftiges fōt-gemearces lang, “fifty feet long,” 3042.
fōt-lāst, st. m., foot-track, 2289.
fracod, adj., worthless, 1575.
-frægen, see -frignan.
frægn, see frignan.
frætwa, frætwe, st. f. pl., [fret-] adornments, jewels, fretted armour, 3, 37, 896, 1208, 2163 etc.; dat. frætwum, 2054, etc. frætewum, 962.
frætw(i)an, w. v., [fret] adorn, 76 pp. gefrætwod, 992.
ge-frætw(i)an, w. v., adorn pret. sg. gefrætwade, 96.
fram, see from.
frēa, w. m., lord, 271, etc.; of the Deity, the Lord, 27, 2794.
frēa-drihten, st. m., lord and master, 796.
frēa-wine, st. m., lord-friend, friendly ruler, 2357, etc.; acc. 2438.
frēa-wrāsn, st. f., lordly chain, noble chain, 1451.
freca, w. m., wolf, bold man, warrior, 1563.
frēcne, adj., [Sc. frack] daring, audacious, 889, 1104, 2689; dangerous, dread, fearful, 1359, 1378, 2250, 2537.
frēcne, adv., daringly, fiercely, 959, 1032, 1691.
fremde, adj., foreign, 1691.
freme, adj., forward, strenuous, 1932.
fremman, w. v., frame, do, perform, accomplish, bring about, try, 3, 101, 1003, 2514 (see note), etc.; further, support, 1832: pret. fremede, 3006, etc.; pp. gefremed, 954, etc., acc. f. gefremede, 640.
ge-fremman, w. v., frame, do, work, etc., 174, 636, 1315, 2449, etc.; pret. hine mihtig God…forð gefremede, “him mighty God advanced,” 1718.
frēo-burh, st. f., free burgh, free city, noble city, 693.
frēod, st. f., friendship, 2476, 2556.
frēo-dryhten, st. m., noble lord, 1169, 2627.
frēogan, w. v., love, 948, 3176.
frēo-līc, adj., [free-like] noble, 615; fem. frēolicu, 641.
frēond, st. m., friend, 915, etc.
frēond-lār, st. f., friend-lore, friendly counsel, 2377.
frēond-laþu, st. f., friendly invitation, 1192.
frēond-līce, adv.
frēondlīcor, compar., in a more friendly way, in friendlier wise, 1027.
frēond-scipe, st. m., friendship, 2069.
frēo-wine, st. m., noble friend, 430.
freoðo, st. f., protection, peace; acc. freoðo, 188, 1174; freoðe, “compact,” 1707.
freoðo-burh, st. f., protecting burgh, peaceful city, city of refuge, 522.
freoðo-wong, st. m., peace-plain, field of peace, 2959.
freoðu-webbe, w. f., peace-weaver, 1942.
frioðo-wǣr, frioðu-wǣr, st. f., peace-compact, treaty of peace, 1096, 2282. friðu-sibb, st. f., peace-kin, peace-bringer, 2017.
fretan, st. v., [fret] devour, consume, 1581, etc.
fricgean, w. v., ask; inf. fricgcean, 1985; pres. part. fricgende, 2106.
ge-fricgean, w. v., learn, 2889, etc.; pres. subj. gefricge, 1826.
friclan, w. v., seek for, 2556.
frignan, frīnan, st. v., ask, inquire, 351; imperat. sg. frīn, 1322; pret. sg. frægn, 236, etc.
ge-frignan, st. v., learn, hear of; pret. sg., gefrægn, 194, etc., gefrægen, 1011; pret. pi. gefrūnon, 2, etc., gefrungon, 666; pp. gefrūnen, 694, etc., gefrægen, 1196. Often followed by acc. and inf. 74, 1969, etc.
frīnan, see frignan.
frioðo-, frioðu-, friðu-, see freoðo-.
frōd, adj., old, wise, 1306, 279, etc.
frōfor, st. f., solace, comfort, 14, etc.; acc. frōfre, 7, etc., frōfor, 698.
from, adj., forward, keen, bold, 1641, etc.; rich, 21.
from, fram, prep., with dat., from, away from, 420, 541, 1635, 2565, etc.; of, concerning, 532, 581, etc. Following its case, 110, etc.
from, fram, adv., away, forth, 754, 2556.
fruma, w. m., beginning, 2309.
frum-cyn, st. neut., [first kin] lineage, origin, 252.
frum-gār, st. m., [first-spear, cf. Lat. primipilus] chieftain, 2856.
frum-sceaft, st. f., first creation, beginning, 45, etc.
-frūnen, -frungon, -frūnon, see -frignan.
fugol, st. m., fowl, bird, 218, etc.
ful, adv., full, very, 480, etc.
ful(l), st. neut., cup, beaker, 615, etc.; acc. ȳða ful, “the waves’ cup, i.e. the sea,” 1208.
full, adj., full, 2412.
fultum, st. m., help, aid, 698, 2662, etc.
fundian, w. v., hasten, intend, strive to go, 1137, 1819.
furðum, adv., first, 323, etc.; at first, formerly, 1707.
furður, adv., further, 254, etc,
fūs, adj., ready, eager, longing, 1241, 1475, etc.; hastening, inclined, 1966; nom. lēofra manna fūs, “longing for the dear men,” 1916.
fūs-līc, adj., ready, prepared, 1424, etc.; neut. pl. fūslicu, 232.
fȳf-tȳne, see fīf-tēne.
fyll, st. m., fall, 1544, 2912.
fyllan, w. v.
ā-fyllan, w. v., fill up, fill, 1018.
fyllan, w. v.
ge-fyllan, w. v., fell, 2655; pret. pl. gefyldan, 2706.
fyllo, st. f., fill, 562, 1333, etc.
fyl-wērig, adj., fall-weary, weary to the point of falling, 962.
fyr, see feor, adv.
fȳr, st. neut., fire, 185, etc.
fȳras, see fīras.
fȳr-bend, st. m. f., fire-band, 722.
fyrd-gestealla, w. m., army-comrade, 2873.
fyrd-hom, st. m., army-coat, coat of mail, 1504.
fyrd-hrægl, st. neut., [army-rail] armour, 1527.
fyrd-hwæt, adj., [army-active] war-like, brave; pl. fyrd-hwate, 1641, 2476.
fyrd-lēoð, st. neut., army-lay, war-song, 1424.
fȳr-draca, w. m., fire-drake, fire-dragon, 2689.
fyrd-searu, st. neut., [army-] armour, 2618; pl. 232.
fyrd-wyrðe, adj., [army-worthy] war-worthy, distinguished in war, 1316.
fyren, see firen.
fyrgen-bēam, st. m., [mountain-beam] mountain-tree, 1414.
fyrgen-holt, st. m., mountain-holt, mountain-wood, 1393.
fyrgen-strēam, firgen-strēam, st. m., mountain-stream, 1359, 2128.
fȳr-heard, adj., fire-hard, fire-hardened, 305.
fyrian, see ferian.
fȳr-lēoht, st. neut., firelight, 1516.
fyrmest, adv. superl. (of fore), fore-most, first, 2077.
fyrn-dagas, st. m. pl., former days, days of old, 1451.
fyrn-geweorc, st. neut., former work, ancient work, 2286.
fyrn-gewinn, st. neut., former strife, ancient strife, 1689.
fyrn-mann, st. m., former man, man of old, 2761.
fyrn-wita, w. m., former counsellor, old counsellor, 2123.
fyrst, st. m., time, space of time, 76, 545, etc.
fyrðran, w. v., further; pp. fræt-wum gefyrðred, “furthered by, fraught with, jewels,” 2784.
fyr-wet, -wyt, st. neut., curiosity, 232, etc.
fȳr-wylm, st. m., fire-welling, surge of fire, 2671.
fȳsan, w. v., make ready, prepare; pp. gefȳsed, 630, etc.; winde gefȳsed, “impelled by the wind,” 217. From fūs.


gād, st. neut., lack, 660, etc.
gædeling, st. m., relative, comrade, 2617, 2949.
gæst, see gist.
gǣst, see gāst.
gǣðs, see gān.
galan, st. v., sing, sound, 786, 1432; pres. sg., gæleð, 2460.
ā-galan, st. v., sing, ring; pret. āgōl, 1521.
galdor, see gealdor.
galga, w. m., gallows, 2446.
galg-mōd, adj., [sad-mood] sad in mind, gloomy, 1277.
galg-trēow, st. neut., gallows-tree, 2490.
gamen, see gomen.
gamol, see gomol.
gān, irreg. v., go, 395, etc.; pres. indic. 3rd, gǣð, 455; pres. subj. gā, 1394; pret. ēode, 358, 493, etc.; imperat. gā, 1782; pp. syððan hīe tōgædre gegān hæfdon, “after they had closed in strife,” 2630. (See also gongan.)
full-gān, st. v., with dat., follow and aid; pret. sceft…flāne full-ēode, “the shaft followed and aided the barb,” 3119.

ge-gān, st. v., pret. geēode, geīode (2200):
(1) go (intrans.), 1967, 2676.
(2) go (trans.), make, venture, 1277, 1462.
(3) gain (by going), obtain, 1535; with dependent clause, 2917.
(4) happen, 2200.

ofer-gān, st. v., with acc., go over, 1408, 2959.

oð-gān, st. v., go (to), 2934.

ymb-gān, st. v., with acc., go about, go around, 620.
gangan, see gongan.
ganot, st. m., gannet, diver, 1861.
gār, st. m., spear, javelin, 328, etc.
gār-cēne, adj., spear-keen, spear-bold, 1958.
gār-cwealm, st. m., [spear-quelling] death by the spear, 2043.
gār-holt, st. neut., spear-holt, spear-shaft, spear, 1834.
gār-secg, st. m., [spear-man, cf. Neptune] ocean, 49, etc.
gār-wiga, w. m., spear-warrior, 2674, etc.
gār-wīgend, st. m. (pres. part.), spear- warrior, 2641.
gāst, st. w., ghost, sprite, devil, 133, 1747, etc.; gen. pl. gāsta, 1357, gǣsta, 1123.
gāst-bona, w. m., [ghost-bane] soul-slayer, the devil, 177.
ge, conj., and, 1248, 1340; with swylce, 2258; correl. ge…ge, “both…and,” 1248, 1864.
gē, pers. pron. (pl. of þū), ye, you, 237, etc.
geador, adv., together, 835; with ætsomne, 491.
on geador, together, 1595.
ge-æhtla, w. m., or ge-æhtle, w. f., high esteem, 369.
geald, see gyldan.
gealdor, st. neut.:

(1) sound, blast, 2943.

(2) incantation; dat. galdre, 3052.
gealp, see gilpan.
gēap, adj., spacious, extensive, roomy, 836, 1800.
gēar, st. neut., year, 1134.
gēara, gen. pl. (in adverbial sense), of yore, formerly, 2664.
geard, st. m., yard; always pl. in “Beowulf,” courts, dwelling-place, 13, 265, 1134, etc.
gēar-dagas, st. m. pl., yore-days, days of yore, 1, 1354.
geare, see gearwe.
gearo, gearu, adj., yare, ready, prepared, 77, 1109, 1914, etc.; with gen. 1825; acc. sg. f. gearwe, 1006; pl. gearwe, 210, etc.
gearo, adv., well, 2748.
gearo-folm, adj., ready-handed, 2085.
gearwe, geare, well, 265, 2656, etc.; with ne, “not at all,” 246.
gearwor, compar., more readily, 3074. gearwost, superl., best, 715.
-geat, see -gitan.
geato-līc, adj., stately, splendid, 215, 1401, etc,
geatwa, st. f. pl., garniture, 3088,
ge-bedde, w. f., bed-fellow, 665.
ge-bræc, st. neut., [break] crash, 2259.
ge-brōðor, ge-brōðru, st. m. pl., brothers, 1191.
ge-byrd, st. neut., fate, 1074.
ge-cynde, adj., [kind] natural, hereditary, 2197, 2696.
ge-dāl, st. neut., severance, parting, 3068.
ge-dēfe, adj., meet, fitting, 561, etc; friendly, 1227.
ge-dræg, st. neut., [dray = squirrel’s nest?] band, tumult, 756.
ge-dryht, ge-driht, st. neut., band, troop, 118, 431, etc.
ge-fægra, compar. adj., more fair?, more dear; nom. hē…wearð…frēondum gefægra; hine fyren onwōd, “he (Beowulf) became more dear to his friends; him (Heremod) crime assailed,” 915.
-gēfan, see -gifan.
ge-fēa, w. m., joy, 562, etc.
ge-feoht, st. neut., fight, 2048, etc.
ge-flit, st. neut., “fliting,” contest, match, 865.
ge-frǣge, adj., renowned, notorious, 55, 2481.
ge-frǣge, st. neut., hearsay; dat. (instr.) sg. mīne gefrǣge, “as I have heard or learned,” 776, etc. [Cf. “mien escientre,” Chanson de Roland.]
gegn-cwide, st. m., reply, 367.
gegnum, adv., forwards, straight, direct, 314, 1404.
gehðo, see giohðo.
ge-hwā, pron., with gen., each, each one; acc. gehwone, gehwane, 294, 2397, etc.; dat. m. gehwām, gehwǣm, 88, 1420, etc.; dat. f. gehwǣre, 25. Masc. form with dependent gen. of fem, or neut. n. 800, 1365, 2838, 2765.
ge-hwǣr, adv., everywhere, 526.
ge-hwæðer, pron., either, 584, etc.; nom. neut. an wīg gearwe ge æt hām ge on herge, ge gehwæþer þāra efne swylce mǣla, “ready for war both at home and in the field, and either (i.e. both) of them even at such times,” 1248.
ge-hwylc, ge-hwelc, adj.-pron., with gen. pl., each, 98, 148, 732, 805, 1090, 1705, etc.
ge-hygd, st. neut., thought, 2045.
ge-hyld, st. neut., protection, 3056.
ge-lāc, st. neut., play, 1040, etc.
ge-lād, st. neut., [lode] path, 1410.
ge-lang, see ge-long.
ge-lenge, adj., belonging to, 2732.
ge-līc, adj., like, 2164.
ge-līcost, superl., likest, most like, 218, 1608, etc.
ge-lōme, adv., frequently, 559.
ge-long, ge-lang, adj.; gelong (gelang) æt þē, “along of, dependent on, thee,” 1376, 2150.
ge-mǣne, adj., common, in common, 1784, etc.
ge-mēde, st. neut., consent, 247.
ge-met, st. neut., measure, power, ability, 779, etc.
ge-met, adj., meet, 687, etc.
ge-mēting, st. f., meeting, 2001.
ge-mong, st. m., troop, 1643.
ge-mynd, st. f., reminder, memorial, 2804, etc.
ge-myndig, adj., mindful, 613, etc.
gēn, adv., again, yet, still, 734, 2070, 3006, etc.; often with þā, nū, 83, 2859, etc.
gēna, adv., still, 2800, etc.
ge-neahhe, adv., enough, 783; frequently, 3152.
genehost, superl., very often. Special passage: genehost brægd eorl Bēowulfes ealde lāfe, “many an earl of Beowulf’s drew his old sword,” 794.
ge-nip, st. neut., mist, 1360, etc.
ge-nōg, adj., enough, 2489, etc.
gēnunga, adv., wholly, utterly, 2871.
gēo, gīo, īu, adv., formerly, 1476, 2459, 2521.
gēoc, st. f., help, 177, etc.
gēocor, adj., dire, sad, 765.
geofon, gifen, gyfen, st. neut., ocean, 362, 1394, 1690, etc.
geofu, see gifu.
geogoð, giogoð, st. f., youth, time of youth, 160, 2426, etc.; gen. iogoðe, 1674.
geogoð-feorh, st. neut., youth-life, days of youth, 537, etc.
geolo, adj., yellow, 2610.
geolo-rand, st. m., yellow buckler, yellow shield, 438.
gēo-mēowle, w. f., former virgin, bride, spouse, 3150; acc. īo-mēowlan, 2931.
gēomor, gīomor, adj., sad, 49, 3150, etc.; f. gēomuru, 1075.
gēomore, adv., sadly, 151.
gēomor-līc, adj., [srd-like] sad, 2444.
gēomor-mōd, gīomor-mōd, adj., [sad-mood] sad-minded, sorrowful, 2044, 2267, etc.
gēomrian, w. v., lament, 1118.
gēomuru, see gēomor.
geond, prep., with acc., [yond] throughout, 75, etc.
geong, giong, adj., young, 13, 2446, etc.; dat. sg., geongum, 2044, etc., geongan, 2626.
gingæst, superl., youngest, last; weak, 2817.
geong, 2743, see gongan.
gēong, see gongan.
georn, adj., yearning, eager, 2783.
georne, adv., eagerly, gladly, 66, etc.; well, 968.
geornor, compar., more surely, 821.
gēo-sceaft, st. f., [former shaping] fate, 1234.
gēosceaft-gāst, st. m., [former-shaping-ghost] demon sent by fate, 1266.
gēotan, st. v., pour, rush, 1690.
ge-rād, adj., skilful, 873.
ge-rūm-līce, adv., roomily.
ge-rūmlīcor, compar., more roomily, more at large, 139.
ge-rysne, adj., befitting, 2653.
ge-saca, w. m., adversary, 1773.
ge-sacu, st. f., strife, 1737.
ge-scād, st. neut., difference, 288.
gescæp-hwīl, st. f., [shaped while] fated hour, 26.
ge-sceaft, st. f., [shaping] existence, 1622.
ge-sceap, st. neut., shape, 650; destiny, 3084
ge-scipe, st. neut., fate, 2570.
ge-selda, w. m., hall-fellow, comrade, 1984.
ge-sīð, st. m., comrade, 29, etc.
ge-slyht, st. neut., slaying, encounter, 2398.
ge-strēon, st. neut., possession, treasure, 1920, 3166, etc.
gest-sele, st. m., guest-hall, 994.
ge-sund, adj., sound, safe and sound, 1628, etc.; with gen. sīða gesunde, “safe and sound on your journeys,” 318.
ge-swing, st. neut., swing, eddy, 848.
ge-sȳne, adj., evident, visible, 1255, etc.
ge-synto, st. f., soundness, health, 1869.
-get, see -gitan.
ge-tæse, adj., quiet, pleasant, 1320.
gētan, w. v., slay, destroy; inf. cwæð, hē on mergenne mēces ecgum gētan wolde, sume on galg-trēowum fuglum tō gamene, “quoth, he would destroy [them] in the morn with the edges of the sword, [hang] some on gallows-trees for a sport for birds,” 2940. [“Beiträge” x. 313.]
ge-tenge, adj., touching, lying on, 2758.
ge-trum, st. neut., troop, 922.
ge-trȳwe, adj., true, faithful, 1228.
ge-þing, st. neut.:

(1) terms, pl. 1085.

(2) issue, 398, 709; gen. pl. ge-þingea, “fates,” 525.
ge-þōht, st. m., thought, resolution, 256, 610.
ge-þonc, st. m., thought, 2332.
ge-þring, st. neut., eddy, whirlpool, 2132.
ge-þwǣre, adj. gentle, 1230.
ge-þyld, st. f., patience, 1395, etc.
ge-þȳwe, adj., [thewy] wonted, customary, 2332.
ge-wǣde, st. neut., [weeds] armour, 292.
ge-wealc, st. neut., [walk] rolling, 464.
ge-weald, st. neut., wielding, power, control, 79, 808, 2221 (see mid), etc.
ge-wealden, adj. (pp.), subject, 1732.
ge-wef, st. neut., web, woof; pl. gewiofu, 697.
ge-weorc, st. neut., work, 455, etc.
ge-wider, st. neut., weather, storm, tempest; pl. 1375.
ge-win(n), st. neut., strife, struggle, 133, etc.
ge-winna, w. m., striver, foe, 1776.
ge-wiofu, see ge-wef.
gewis-līce, adv.
gewis-līcost, superl., most certainly, 1350.
ge-witt, st. neut., wit(s), senses, 2307; head, 2882.
ge-wittig, adj., [witty] conscious, 3094.
ge-wrixle, st. neut., exchange, 1304.
ge-wyrht, st. neut., desert, merit; pl. 2657.
gid(d), gyd(d), st. neut., glee, lay, dirge, 151, 868, 1065, 3150, etc.
gif, gyf, conj., if, 442, 944, etc.; if = whether, 272, etc.
gifan, giofan, st. v., pret. geaf, gēafon, pp. gyfen: give, 49, 64, 1719, etc.
ā-gifan, st. v., give back, 355, 2929.

æt-gifan, st. v., give (to), render, 2878.

for-gifan, st. v., give, 17, etc.

of-gifan, of-gyfan, st. v., give up, leave, 1600, 2251, 2588, etc.; pret. pl. ofgēfan, 2846.
gifen, see geofon.
gifeðe, gyfeðe, adj., given, granted, 299, 555, etc.
gifeðe, neut. used as a noun, thing granted, fate, 3085.
gif-heall, st. f., gift-hall, 838.
gīfre, adj., greedy, 1277.
gīfrost, superl., greediest, 1123.
gif-sceatt, st. m., gift-tribute, treasure, valuable gift, 378.
gif-stōl, st. m., gift-stool, throne, 168, etc.
gifu, st. f., gift, 1173, 1271, etc.; gen. pl. gifa, 1930, geofena, 1173; dat. pl. geofum, 1958.
gīgant, st. m., giant, 113, etc. [“Beiträge” x. 501.]
gilp, gylp, st. m., [yelp] boast, 829, 1749, etc.
gilpan, gylpan, st. v., [yelp] boast, 586, 2006, 2583, etc.
gilp-cwide, st. m., [yelp-speech] boasting speech, 640.
gilp-hlæden, adj. (pp.), [yelp-laden] vaunt-laden, 868.
gylp-sprǣc, st. f., [yelp-speech] boasting speech, 981. gylp word, st. neut., [yelp-word] boastful word, 675.
gim, st. m., gem, 2072.
gim-fæst, see gin-fæst.
gimme-rīce, adj., gem-rich, rich in jewels, 466.
gin-fæst, gim-fæst, adj., [wide-fast] ample and lasting, 1271 (see note), 2182.
gingæst, see geong.
-ginnan, st. v.
on-ginnan, st. v., begin, undertake, attempt, 244, 409, 2878, etc.; pret. sg. ongan, 100, etc.; ongon, 2790.
gīo, see geo.
giofan, see gifan.
giogoð, see geogoð.
giohðo, st. f., sorrow, care; dat. giohðo, 2267, giohðe, 2793, gehðo, 3095.
gīomor, see geomor.
giong, see geong.
-giredan, see -gyrwan.
gist, gyst, gæst, st. m., guest, stranger, 102, 1138, 2228, etc.
git, pers. pron. (dual of þū), ye two, 508, etc.
git, gyt, adv., yet, still, hitherto, 536, 944, 956, etc.
-gitan, st. v., pret. -geat, -geaton.
an-gitan, see on-gitan.

be-gitan, st. v., get, get at, seize, befall, 1068, 2249, etc.; pret. sg. beget, 2872; pret. subj. (sg. for pl.) begēate, 2130. Special passage: ferhð-frecan Fin eft begeat sweord-bealo slīðen, “dire sword-bale afterwards befell the bold-minded Finn,” 1146.

for-gytan, st. v., forget, 1751.

on-gitan, on-gytan, st. v.
(1) get hold of, seize; pret. sg. angeat, 1291.

(2) get hold of with the mind, perceive, 14, 1431, 1723, 2748, etc.; inf. ongyton, 308.
gladian, w. v., glisten, 2036.
glæd, adj., [glad] gracious, 58,2025, etc.
glæd-man, adj., benignant, courteous, 367 (see note).
glæd-mōd, adj., glad of mood, 1785.
glēd, st. f., glede, ember, fire, 2312, etc.
glēd-egesa, w. m., glede-terror, terror of fire, 2650.
glēo, st. neut., glee, 2105.
glēo-bēam, st. m., [glee-beam] harp, 2263.
glēo-drēam, st. m., [glee-dream = joy] mirth, 3021.
glēo-mann, st. m., gleeman, minstrel, 1160.
glīdan, st. v., glide, 515, etc.
tō-glīdan, st. v., [glide asunder] fall to pieces, 2487.
glitinian, w. v., glitter, glisten, gleam, 2758.
glōf, st. f., glove, 2085.
gnēað, adj., niggardly, 1930.
gnorn, st. m., sorrow, 2658.
gnornian, w. v., mourn, 1117.
be-gnornian, w. v., with acc., bemoan, 3178.
God, st. m., God, 13, etc.
gōd, adj., good, 11, etc.; pl. gōde, “good men,” 2249. With gen., wes þū ūs lārena gōd, “be thou good to us in guidance,” 269.
gōd, st. neut., good, goodness, good thing, good gift, 20, 1952, etc.; dat. pl. manig ōþerne gōdum ge-grēttan, “many a one [shall] greet another with good things,” 1861.
gōd-fremmend, st. m. (pres. part.), [good-framing] framer of good, one who acts well or bravely, 299.
gold, st. neut., gold, 304, etc.
gold-ǣht, st. f., treasure in gold, 2748.
gold-fāg, -fāh, adj., golden-hued, adorned with gold, gold-brocaded, 994, 1800, 2811.
gold-gyfa, w. m., gold-Giver, 2652.
gold-hroden, adj. (pp.), gold-adorned, 614, etc.
gold-hwæt, adj., [gold-active] greedy for gold, 3074 (see note).
gold-māðum, st. m., gold-treasure, 2414.
gold-sele, st. m., gold-hall, 715, etc.
gold-weard, st. m., [gold-ward] guardian of gold, 3081.
gold-wine, st. m., gold-friend, prince, 1171, etc.
gold-wlanc, adj., gold-proud, 1881.
gombe, w. f., tribute, 11.
gomen, gamen, st. neut., game, mirth, joy, 1160, 2459, etc.
gomen-wāð, st. f., [game-path] joyous journey, 854.
gomen-wudu, st. m., [game-wood] harp, 1065, etc.
gomol, gomel, gamol, adj., old, gray, aged, ancient, 58, 2112, 3095, etc.; weak gomela, gamela, 1792, 2105, etc.; gen. pl. gomelra lāfe, “the heirlooms of their late [fathers],” 2036.
gamol-feax, adj., gray-haired, 608.
gongan, gangan, st. v., [gang] go, 314, 1974, etc.; imperat. geong, 2743; pret. gēong, 925, etc., gīong, 2214, etc.; gang, 1009, etc.; gengde, 1401, 1412; pp. gegongen, 822, 3036; inf. gangan cwōmon, “came going, marching,” 324; so 711, 1642, 1974. (See also gān.)
a-gangan, st. v., go forth, befall, 1236.

ge-gangan, ge-gongan, st. v.:
(1) gain (by going), obtain, 2536; pp. gegongen, 3085, with dependent clause, 893; dat. inf. gegaunenne, 2416.

(2) come to pass, happen, 1846; pp. gegongen, 2821.
grǣdig, adj., greedy, 121, etc.
grǣg, adj., gray, 330, etc.
grǣg-mǣl, adj., marked, etched, or coloured with gray, 2682.
græs-molde, w. f., grass-earth, grass-plain, 1881.
gram, adj., angry, fierce, 424, 765, etc.
grāp, st. f., grasp, claw, 438, 836, etc.
grāpian, w. v., grope, gripe, grasp, 1566, 2085.
grēot, st. m., grit, earth, 3167.
grēotan, st. v., [Sc. greet] weep, 1342.
grētan, w. v., pret. grētte: greet:

(1) salute, 347, etc.
(2) approach, seek out. attack, touch, 168, 803, 1995, 2736, 3081, etc.

ge-grētan, w. v., greet, 1980, etc.; inf. gegrēttan, 1861.
grim(m), adj., grim, 121, etc.; dat. pl. grimman, 1542.
grīm-helm, st. m., visored helmet, 334.
grim-līc, adj., grim[-like], 3041.
grimman, st. v., snort, rage, hurry; pret. pl. grummon, 306.
grimme, adv., drimly, terribly, 3012, etc.
grindan, st. v.
for-grlndan, st. v., grind down, grind to pieces, ruin, destroy; with dat., 424; with acc. 2335, 2677.
grīpan, st. v., gripe, grasp, seize, 1501.
for-grīpan, st. v., with dat., grip[e] to death, 2353. wið-grīpan, st. v., gripe at, oppose; inf. wið ðām āglǣcean…gylpe wiðgrīpan, “maintain my boast against the monster (lit. with boast oppose),” 2521.
gripe, st. m., grip, 1148, etc.
grom-heort, adj., fierce-hearted, hostile-hearted, 1682.
grom-hȳdig, adj., angry-minded, hostile-minded, 1749.
grōwan, st. v., grow; pret. sg. grēow, 1718.
grund, st. m., ground, earth, bottom, 1367, 1404, etc.
grund-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), [ground-dweller] inhabitant of earth, 1006.
grund-hyrde, st. m., [ground-herd] guardian of the bottom (of the mere), 2136.
grund-sele, st. m., ground-hall, hall or cave at the bottom (of the mere), 2139.
grund-wong, st. m., ground-plain, plain, floor (of a cave), bottom (of a mere), 1496, 2588, 2771.
grund-wyrgen, st. f., [ground-she-wolf] she-wolf at the bottom (of a mere), 1518.
gryn, st. neut., snare (= O.E. grin), or sorrow (= O.E. gyrn, q.v.), 930.
gryre, st. m., terror, terrible deed, 384, 591, 3041, etc.
gryre-broga, w. m., grisly terror, horror, 2227.
gryre-fāh, adj., [grisly-stained] horribly bright, 2576.
gryre-gēatwa, st. f. pl., grisly trappings, warlike trappings, 324.
gryre-giest, st. m., grisly guest, terrible stranger, 2560.
gryre-lēoð, st. neut., grisly lay, terrible song, 786.
gryre-līc, adj., grisly, terrible, 1441, etc.
gryre-sīð, st. m., grisly journey, terrible expedition, 1462.
guma, w. m., man, 73, 652, 2821, etc.
gum-cynn, st. neut., [man-kin] race, tribe, or nation of men, 260, 944.
gum-cyst, st. f., manly virtue, 1723, etc.; dat. pl. gum-cystum gōdnc, “munificent,” 1486.
gum-drēam, st. m., joy of men, 2469.
gum-dryhten, st. m., lord of men, 2469.
gum-fēða, w. m., troop of warriors on foot, 1401.
gum-mann, st. m., [man-]man, 1028.
gum-stōl, st. m., [groom-stool] throne, 1952.
gūð, st. f., war, battle, 483, etc.; dat., 603, etc.
gūð-beorn, st. m., war-hero, 314.
gūð-bill, st. neut., war-bill, 803, etc.
gūð-byrne, w. f., war-byrny, coat of mail, 321.
gūð-cearu, st. f., war-care, war-sorrow, 1258.
gūð-cræft, st. m., war-craft, war-might, 127.
gūð-cyning, -kyning, st. m., war-king, 199, 1969, etc.
gūð-dēað, st. m., war-death, death in battle, 2249.
gūð-floga, w. m., war-flier, 2528.
gūð-freca, w. m., war-wolf, 2414.
gūð-fremmend, st. m. (pres. part.), war-framer, warrior, 246.
gūð-geatwa, -getāwa, st. f. pl., war-raiment, war-gear, war-equipments; acc. gūð-getāwa, 2636; dat. gūð-geatawum, 395. [Sievers § 43, N. 4.]
gūð-gewǣde, st. neut., war-weeds, armour, 2623, etc.; nom. pl. gūð-gewǣdu, -gewǣdo, 227, 2730, etc.
gūð-geweorc, st. neut., war-work, battle-work, warlike deed, 678, etc.
gūð-helm, st. m., war-helmet, 2487.
gūð-horn, st. neut., war-horn, 1432.
gūð-hrēð, st. f., war-fame, 819.
gūð-kyning, see gūð-cyning.
gūð-lēoð, st. neut., war-lay, battle-song, 1522.
gūð-mōd, adj., [war-mood] of war-like mind; pl. gūð-mōd, 306.
gūð-rǣs, st. m., [war-race] attack in war, storm of battle, 1577, etc.
gūð-rēo(u)w, adj., war-fierce, 58.
gūð-rinc, st. m., warrior, 838, etc.
gūð-rōf, adj., war-famed, 608.
gūð-scear, st. m., [war-share] slaughter in battle, 1213.
gūð-sceaða, w. m., war-scather, battle-foe, 2318.
gūð-searo, st. neut., war-armour, 215, 328.
gūð-sele, st. m., war-hall, 443.
gūð-sweord, st. neut., war-sword, 2154.
gūð-wērig, adj., war-weary, dead, 1586.
gūð-wiga, w. m., warrior, 2111.
gūd-wine, st. m., [war-friend] sword, 1810, 2735.
gyd(d), see gid(d).
gyddian, w. v., recite, chant, 630.
gyf, see gif.
gyfan, see gifan.
gyfen, n., see geofon.
gyfen, pp., see gifan.
gyfeðe, see gifeðe.
gyldan, st. v., pret. geald: yield, pay, repay, 11, 1184, 2636, etc.
ā-gyldan, st. v., offer (oneself, itself); pret. þā mē sǣl āgeald, “when the opportunity offered itself to me,” 1665; so 2690.

an-gyldan, st. v., pay for, 1251.

for-gyldan, st. v., repay, requite, atone for, 114, 956, 1054.
gylden, adj., golden, 47, etc.
gylp, see gilp.
gylpan, see gilpan.
gȳman, w. v., with gen., heed, care, incline to, 1757, 1760, 2451.
for-gȳman, w. v., with acc., neglect, despise, 1751.
gyn(n), adj., wide, spacious; acc. m. sg. gynne, 1551.
gyrdan, w. v., gird, 2078.
gyrede, etc., see gyrwan.
gyrn, st. neut., sorrow, 1775.
gyrn-wracu, st. f., revenge for harm, 1138, 2118.
gyrwan, w. v., pret. gyrede, pp. gegyr(w)ed: gear, prepare, equip, adorn, 994, 1472, 2087, etc.; pp. pl. gegyrede, 1028, etc.
ge-gyrwan, w. v., gear, prepare, 38, 199; pret. pl. ge-giredan, 3137.
gyst, see gist.
gystra, adj., yester, 1334.
gyt, see git.
gȳtsian, w. v., be greedy, covet, 1749.


habban, w. v., pret. hæfde: have, 383, 658, etc.; often as auxiliary, 106, etc. Pres. 1st, hafu, 2523, hafo, 2150, 3000; 2nd, hafast, 953, etc.; 3rd, hafað, 474, etc. Negative form of subj. pres. pl. næbben, 1850.
for-habban, w. v., keep back, retain, refrain, 2609; inf. ne meahte wǣfre mōd forhabban in hreþre, i.e. he was dying, 1151. wið-habban, w. v., withstand, resist, 772.
hād, st, m., [-hood] condition, quality, manner, wise, 1297, 1335, etc.
hador, st. m., retreat?, 414 (see note).
hādor, adj., clear-voiced, sonorous, 497.
hādre, adv., clearly, brightly, 1571.
hæf, st. neut., sea, mere; pl. heafo, 2477.
hæfen, see hebban.
hæft, st. m., captive, 2408.
hæfta, w. m., captive; acc. hæfton, 788.
hæft-mēce, st. m., [haft-sword] hilted sword, 1457.
hæg-steald, st. m., bachelor, liege-man, young warrior, 1889.
hǣl, st. f.:

(1) health, good luck, 653, 1217.

(2) omen, 204.
hæle, st. m., man, hero, warrior, 1646, etc.; acc. pl. 719.
hæleð, st. m., man, hero, warrior, 52, etc.
hǣlo, st. f., health, hail, farewell, 2418.
hærg-træf, st. neut., idol-tent, heathen fane, 175.
hǣst, adj., violent, 1335.
hǣðen, adj., heathen, 179, 852, etc.
hǣðen, st. m., heathen, 986.
hæð-stapa, w. m., heath-stepper, stag, 1368.
hafa, imperat. sg. of habban.
hafela, hafala, heafola, w. m., head, 446, 672, 2679, etc.
hafen, see hebban.
hafenian, w. v., heave, uplift; pret. hafenade, 1574.
hafo, hafu, see habban.
hafoc, st. m., hawk, 2263.
haga, w. m., [haw] hedge, enclosure, entrenchment, 2892, 2960.
hāl, adj., whole, hale, safe and sound, 300, etc. Special passages: wes…hāl, “hail,” 407; with gen. heaðo-lāces hāl, “safe and sound from the strife,” 1974.
halig, adj. holy, 381, etc.
hals, see heals.
hām, st. m., home, 717, 2325, etc.; locative, tō hām, “at home,” 374.
hamer, see homer.
hām-weorðung, st. f., home-adorning, that which graces a home, 2998.
hand, see hond.
hangian, see hongian.
hār, adj., hoar, hoary, gray, 887, etc.; gen. hāres hyrste, “the old man’s (Ongentheow’s) harness,” 2988.
hard-, see heard-,
hāt, adj., hot, 2781, etc.; dat. sg. hāton, 849; nom. wyrm hāt ge-mealt, “the dragon melted in its heat,” 897.
hātost, superl., hottest, 1668.
hāt, st. neut., heat, 2605.
hatan, st. v.:

(1) order, command, bid, 293, 386, etc.; pret. sg. hēht, 1035, etc., hēt, 198, etc.; pp. ðā wæs hāten hreþe Heort innan-weard folmum gefrætwod, “then it was commanded that the inside of Heorot should quickly be adorned by hands,” 991.
(2) name, call, 102, etc.; subj. pres. pl. hātan, 2807.

ge-hātan, st. v., usu. with acc., promise, vow, 1392, 2024, etc.; with gen. 2989; pret. gehēt, 175, 2937, etc.
hatian, w. v., with acc., hate, pursue with hatred, 2319, 2466; pres. part. swā þec hetende hwīlum dydon, “as they, hating thee, whilom did,” 1828.
hē, hēo, hit, pers. pron., he, she, it, 7, 1215, 3167, 2377, 1875, etc. Less usual forms are: f. hīo, 2019, etc.; neut. hyt, 2248, etc.; acc. m. hyne, 28, etc.; dat. f. hyre, 2175, etc.; pl. hī, 28, 3163, etc., hig, 1085, etc., hȳ, 307, etc.; gen. pl. hiora, 2599, etc., hyra, 2040; dat. pl. hym, 1918. Used reflexively, 26, 301, 2948, 2949, 2976, etc. Alliterating, hē, 505. Possessive dat. 40, etc.
hēa, see hēah.
hēa-burh, st. f., high burgh, city, 1127.
heafo, see hæf.
hēafod, st. neut., head, 48, etc.; dat. pl. hēafdon, 1242.
hēafod-beorg, st. f., head-protection; acc. sg. 1030 (see wala).
hēafod-mǣg, st. m., head-kinsman, near relative, 588; gen. pl. hēafod-māga, 2151,
hēafod-segn, st. neut., head-sign, 2152 (see note).
hēafod weard, st. f., head-ward, guard over the head, 2909.
heafola, see hafela.
hēah, adj., high, 57, etc.; acc. sg. m. hēanne, 983; gen. dat. hēan, 116, 713; dat. sg. m. hēaum, 2212; pl. hēa, 1926. Denoting position, hēah ofer horde, “high above the hoard,” 2768.
hēah-cyning, st. m., high king, 1039.
hēah-gestrēon, st. neut., high treasure, splendid treasure, 2302.
hēah-lufu, w. f., high love, 1954.
hēah-sele, st. m., high hall, 647.
hēah-setl, st. neut., high settle, high seat, throne, 1087.
hēah-stede, st. m., high stead, high place, 285.
heal(l), st. f., hall, 89, etc.; pl. healle, 1926.
heal-ærn, st. neut., hall-house, 78.
healdan, st. v., with acc., pret. hēold, 2183, etc., hīold, 1954: hold, keep, guard, protect, have, possess, inhabit, 103, 230, 296, 788, 948, 1079, 1227, 1705, 2377 (support), 2389, 2430, 2909, 3043, 3166, etc.; rule, 57, 1852; subj. sg. for pl. 2719 (hold up). Special passages: 1031 (see wala); Gēata lēode hrēa-wīc hēoldon, “the corpses of the Geats covered the field,” 1214; 3084 (see note); sceft nytte hēold, “the shaft did its duty,” 3118.
be-healdan, st. v., with acc., hold, guard, 1498. Special passages: (sundor-)nytte behēold, “minded, attended to, the (special) service,” 494, 667; þrȳð-swȳð behēold mǣg Higelāces, “Hygelac’s kinsman beheld great distress,” or “great distress possessed Hygelac’s kinsman (as to),” 736.

for-healdan, st. v., with acc., rebel against, 2381.

ge-healdan, st. v., with acc., hold, have, keep, guard, rule, 317, 658, 911, 2293, 2856, 3003, etc.; pret. hē gehēold tela, “he ruled [it] well,” 2208.
healf, st. f., half, side, 800, etc.
heal-gamen, st. neut., hall-game, hall-mirth, 1066.
heall, see heal.
heal-reced, st. neut., hall-house, palace, 68, 1981.
heals, st. m., neck, 1872, etc.; dat. sg. halse, 1566.
heals-bēag, -bēah, st. m., neck-ring, carcanet, 1195, 2172.
heals-gebedda, w. m. f., beloved bed-fellow, wife, 63.
healsian, w. v., entreat, 2132.
heal-sittend, st. m. (pres. part.), hall-sitter, 2015, etc.
heal-þegn, st. m., hall-thane, 142, etc.
heal-wudu, st. m., hall-wood, 1317.
hēan, adj., abject, ignominious, despised, 1274, 2183, etc.
hēan, hēanne, see hēah.
hēap, st. m., heap, band, company, 335, 400, etc.
heard, adj., hard, hardy, strong, brave, cruel, severe, 166, 322, 342, 432, 540, 1574, 1807, etc.; dat. pl. heardan, 963; gen. pl. “of the brave,” 988. With gen. “brave in,” 886, 1539, etc. Special passage: þæt hire wið halse heard grāpode, “so that the hard [sword] griped at her neck,” 1566.
heardra, compar., harder, 576, etc. hard-fyrde, adj., hard to carry, heavy, 2245.
hearde, adv., hard, 1438.
heard-ecg, adj., hard-edged, 1288.
heard-hicgende, adj. (pres. part.), [hard-thinking] brave-minded, bold of purpose, 394, etc.
hearm, st. m., harm, insult, 1892.
hearm-scaða, w. m., [harm-acather] harmful foe, 766.
hearpe, w. f., harp, 89, etc.
heaðerian, w. v., restrain, confine; pp. hergum geheaðerod, “confined in idol-fanes (-groves), i.e. accursed,” 3072.
hēaðo-, see hēaðu-.
heaðo-byrne, w. f., battle-byrny, coat of mail, 1552.
heaðo-dēor, adj., battle-brave, bold in fight, 688, etc.
heaðo-fȳr, heaðu-fȳr, st. neut., battle-fire, 2522, 2547.
heaðo-grim, adj., battle-grim, 548,
heaðo-lāc, st. neut., battle-play, 584, etc.
hēaðo-maǣre, adj., battle-great, famous in war, 2802.
heaðo-rǣs, st. m., [battle-RACE] rush of battle, 526, etc.
heaðo-rēaf, st. neut., battle-dress, armour, 401.
heaðo-rinc, st. m., warrior, 370, 2466.
heaðo-rōf, adj., battle-strong, war-renowned, 381, 864.
heaðo-sceard, adj., battle-notched, battle-gashed, 2829.
heaðo-sēoc, adj., battle-sick, wounded in battle, 2754.
heaðo-stēap, adj., [battle-steep] towering or bright in battle, 1245, 2153.
heaðo-swāt, st. m., battle-sweat, blood shed in battle, 1460, etc.
heaðo-torht, adj., battle-bright, clear in battle, 2553.
heaðo-wǣd, st. f., [battle-weeds] battle-dress, armour, 39.
heaðo-weorc, st. neut., battle-work, 2892.
heaðo-wylm, st. m., [battle-welling] flame-surge, surging of fire, 82, 2819.
hēaðu, st. f., sea, ocean, 1862.
hēaðo-līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), ocean-farer, sea-farer, 1798, 2955.
heaðu-sweng, st. m., [battle-swing] battle-stroke, 2581.
hēawan, st. v., hew, 800.
ge-heawan, st. v., hew, cleave, 682.
hebban, st. v., pp. hafen, hæfen:

heave, raise, lift, 656, 1290, 3023.

ā-hebban, st. v., upheave, uplift, 128, etc.
hēdan, w. v., with gen., heed; pret. ne hēdde hē þæs heafolan, “he heeded not the head (of the dragon),” 2697.
ge-hedan, w. v., with gen., obtain, 505.
hefen, see heofon.
-began, w. v.
ge-hegan, w. v., decide, 425.
hēht, see hātan.
hel(l), st. f., hell, 101, 852, etc.
helan, st. v.
be-helan, st. v., hide; pp. be-holen, 414.
hell-bend, st. m. f., hell-bond, 3072.
helm, st. m., [helm]:

(1) helmet, 672, etc.
(2) covert, protection, 1392.

(3) protector, king, 371, etc.; God, 182.
helm-berend, st. m. (pres. part.), [helm-bearing] helmet-wearer, 2517, etc.
helmian, w. v.
ofer-helmian, w. v., with acc., overhang, overshadow, 1364.
help, st. f., help, 551, etc.
helpan, st. v., help, 2340, etc.
helpe, w. f., help, 2448 (see note).
hel-rūna, w. m., sorcerer, 163.
heofon, st. m., heaven, 52, etc.; dat. hefene, 1571.
heolfor, st. neut., gore, 849, etc.
heolster, st. neut., darkness, 755.
heonan, heonon, adv., hence, 252, 1361.
heora, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
-hēoran, w. v.
ā-hēoran ?, w. v., rescue?, 2930.
heorde, see bunden-heorde.
hēore, adj., canny, pleasant, 1372.
heoro, heoru, st. m., sword, 1285.
heoro-blāc, adj., [sword-bleak] sword-pale, 2488.
heoro-drēor, heoru-drēor, st. m., sword-blood, 487, 849.
heoro-drēorig, adj., [sword-dreary] sword-gory, 935, etc.
heoro-gīfre, adj., [sword-greedy] fiercely greedy, 1498.
heoro-grim, heoru-grim, adj., [sword-grim] fiercely grim, 1564, 1847.
heoro-hōcyht, adj., [sword-hooked] savagely barbed, 1438.
heoro-sweng, st. m., [sword-swing] sword-stroke, 1590.
heorot, st. m., hart, 1369.
heoro-wearh, st. w., [sword-wolf] fierce wolf, 1267.
hioro-drync, st. m., sword-drink, 2358.

hioro-sērce, w. f., [sword-sark] shirt of mail; acc. hioro-sērcean, 2539. [Sievers § 159. 1.]

hioro-weallende, adj. (pres. part.), [sword-] fiercely welling; acc. sg. m. -weallende, 2781.
heorr, st. m., hinge, 999.
heorte, w. f., heart, 2270, etc.
heoru, see heoro.
heorð-genēat, st. m., hearth-comrade, 261, etc.
hēoð, st. f., dais, 404.
hēr, adv., here, hither, 244, 397, etc.
here, st. m., army; dat. sg. herge, 2347, 2638; on herge, “in the field,” 1248.
here-brōga, w. m., army-terror, fear of war, 462.
here-byrne, w. f., army-byrny, coat of mail, 1443.
here-grīma, w. m., army-mask, visored helmet, 396, etc.
here-net, st. neut., army-net, coat of ring-mail, 1553.
here-nīð, st. m., army-hate, hostility, 2474.
here-pād, st. f., army-coat, coat of mail, 2258.
here-rinc, st. m., army-man, warrior, 1176.
here-sceaft, st. m., [army-shaft] spear, 335.
here-spēd, st. f., [army-speed] success in war, 64.
here-strǣl, st. m., army-arrow, war-arrow, 1435.
here-syrce, w. f., army-sark, shirt of mail, 1511.
here-wǣd, st. f., [army-weeds] armour, 1897.
here-wǣsma, w. m., army-might, prowess in war; dat. pl. here-wǣsmun, 677.
here-wīsa, w. m., [army-wise] army-leader, 3020.
herg, st. m., idol-grove, idol-fane, 3072 (see heaðerian).
herge, n., see here.
herge, v., see herian.
herian, w. v., with. acc., praise, honour, 182, etc.; pres. subj. herige, herge, 1833, 3175.
hete, st. m., hate, 142, etc.
hete-līc, adj., full of hatred, hate-ful, 1267.
hete-nīð, st. m., hate-enmity, bitter enmity, 152.
hete-sweng, st. m., hate-blow; pl. hete-swengeas, 2224.
hete-þanc, st. m., hate-thought, malice, 475.
hettend, st. m. (pres. part, of hatian), hater, foe, 3004.
hī, pi. of hē (q. v.).
-hicgan, see -hycgan.
hider, adv., hither, 240, etc.
hig, pl. of hē (q. v.).
hige, see hyge.
-hīgian, w. v.
ofer-hīgian, w. v., befool?, make over-arrogant?; inf. sinc ēaðe mæg…gum-cynnes gehwone oferhīgian, 2766.
hild, st. f., battle, war, 452, etc.; prowess in battle, 2952.
hilde-bil(l), st. neut., battle-bill, sword, 557, etc.
hilde-bord, st. neut., [battle-board] shield, 397, etc.
hilde-cyst, st. f., [battle-virtue] bravery in battle, 2598.
hilde-dēor, -dīor, adj., battle-brave, bold in battle, 312, 834, 3111, etc.
hilde-freca, hild-freca, w. m., battle-wolf, 2205, 2366.
hilde-geatwe, st. f. pl., battle-trappings, equipments for war, armour, 674, 2362.
hilde-gicel, st. m., battle-iciecle; dat. pl. ðā þæt sweord ongan æfter heaþo-swāte hilde-gicelum…wanian, “then the sword began to dwindle in icicles of steel in consequence of the blood (of Grendel),” 1606.
hilde-grāp, st. f., battle-grasp, war-clutch, 1446, etc.
hilde-hlemm, -hæemm, st. m., battle-crash, crash of battle, 2201, 2351, 2544.
hilde-lēoma, w. m., battle-ray:

(1) battle-flame (of the dragon), 2583.

(2) flashing sword, 1143.
hilde-mēce, st. m., battle-sword; pl. hilde-mēceas, 2202.
hilde-mecg, st. m., battle-man, warrior, 799.
hilde-rǣs, st. m., [battle-race] rush of battle, 300.
hilde-rand, st. m., battle-shield, 1242.
hilde-rinc, st. m., battle-man, warrior, 986, etc.
hilde-sæd, adj., battle-sated, 2723.
hilde-sceorp, st. neut., battle-dress, armour, 2155.
hilde-setl, [battle-settle] battle-seat, saddle, 1039.
hilde-strengo, st. f., battle-stregnth, 2113.
hilde-swāt, st. m., [battle-sweat] war-breath (of the dragon), 2558.
hilde-tux, st. m., battle-tusk, 1511.
hilde-wǣpen, st. m., battle-weapon, 39.
hilde-wīsa, w. m., [battle-wise] battle-leader (Hnæf), 1064.
hild-freca, see hilde-freca.
hild-fruma, st. m., battle-chief, 1678, etc.
hild-lata, w. m., [battle-late] laggard in battle, 2846.
hilt, st. m. neut., hilt, sword-hilt, 1574, etc.; pl. (of a single weapon; cf. “Julius Caesar” v. 3. 43) 1574, 1614.
hilte-cumbor, st. neut., [hilt-banner] staff-banner, 1022.
hilted, adj., hilted, 2987.
hindema, superl. adj., hindmost, last, 2049, etc.
hin-fūs, adj., [hence-ready] eager to be gone, 755.
hīo = hēo, fem. of hē (q. v.).
hīofan, w. v., lament; pres. part. 3142.
hīold, see healdan.
hiora, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hiore-, see heoro-.
hladan, st. v., lade, load, lay, 1897, 2126, etc.; inf. hladon, 2775.
ge-hladan, st. v., lade, load; pret. gehlēod, 895.
hlæst, st. neut., [last] load, freight, 52.
hlǣw, hlāw, st. m., [low, in place-names] mound, burial-mound, cavern, 1120, 2411, 3157, etc.
hlāford, st. m., lord, 267, etc,
hlāford-lēas, adj., lord-less, 2935.
hlāw, see hlǣw.
hlealitor, st. m., laughter, 611, etc.
hlēapan, st. v., leap, gallop, 864.
ā-hlēapan, st. v., leap up, 1397.
hlēo, st. m., [lee] refuge, protection, protector (used of a chieftain or king), 429, 791, etc.
hlēo-burh, st. f., protecting burgh or city, 912, etc.
-hlēod, see -hladan.
hleonian, w. v., lean, slope, 1415.
hlēor-berge, w. f., cheek-guard, 304.
hlēor-bolster, st. m., [cheek-] bolster, 688.
hlēotan, st. v., with acc., get by lot, 2385.
hlēoðor-cwyde, st. m., [sound-speech] courtly speech, ceremonious speech, 1979.
hīldan, st. v.
tō-hīldan, st. v., spring apart; pp. pl. tōhlidene, 999.
hliehhan, st. v.
ā-hliehhan, st. v., laugh aloud; pret. sg. āhlōg, 730.
hlīfian, w. v., tower, 2805; pret. hlīfade, 81, etc., hlīuade, 1799. [“Beiträge” x. 502.]
hlim-bed, st. neut., leaning bed, (last) resting-place, 3034 (see note).
hlið, st. neut., cliff, slope, 1892, 3157.
hlūd, adj., loud, 89.
hlyn, st. m., din, noise, 611.
hlynnan, hlynian, w. v., resound, roar, crackle, 2553; pret. hlynode, 1120.
hlynsian, w. v., resound, 770.
hlytm, st. m., lot, 3126.
hnǣgan, w. v.
ge-hnǣgan, w. v., with acc., fell, vanquish, 1274, 2916.
hnāh, adj., mean, base, illiberal, 1929.
hnāgra, hnāhra, compar., lower, inferior, 677, 952.
hnītan, st. v., encounter, clash, 1327; pret. pl. hnitan, 2544.
hof, st. neut., court, dwelling, lodge, residence, manor, mansion, 312, 1236, 2313, etc.
hōfian, w. v.
be-hōfian, w. v., with gen., [behove] need, 2647.
hogode, see hycgan.
-hōhsnian, w. v.
on-hohsnian, w. v., check, 1944.
hold, adj., friendly, gracious, 290, 376, etc.; faithful, loyal, 290, 1229, etc.
hōlinga, adv., without reason, 1076.
holm, st. m., ocean, sea, mere, 48, etc.
holm-clif, st. neut., sea-cliff, 230, etc.
holm-wylm, st. m., [sea-welling] sea-surge, 2411.
holt, st. neut., holt, wood, 2598, etc.
holt-wudu, st. m., holt-wood; wood, forest, 1369; wood (material), 2340.
homer, hamer, st. m., hammer, 1285; gen. pl. homera lāfe, “leavings of hammers, i.e. swords,” 2829.
hōn, st. v.
be-hōn, st. v., trans., hang with; pp. behongen, 3139.
hond, hand, st. f., hand, 558, 656, etc.
hand-bona, -bana, w. m., [hand-bane] hand-slayer, 460, 1330.

hand-gemǣne, adj., [hand-common] hand to hand; nom. neut. þǣr unc hwīle wæs hand-gemǣne, “there we two engaged a while hand to hand,” 2137. [Ger. hand-gemein.]

hand-gewriðen, adj. (pp.), hand-wreathed, hand-twisted; pl. 1937.

hand-sporu, st. f., hand-spur, claw, 986.
hond-gemōt, st. neut., hand-meet-ing, hand to hand fight, 1526, 2355.
hond-gesella, w. m., hand-comrade, 1481.
hond-gestealla, hand-gestealla, w. m., hand-comrade, 2169, 2596.
hond-geweorc, st. neut., hand-work, 2835.
hond-lēan, hand-lēan, st. m., hand-requital, hand-reward, 1541, 2094.
hond-locen, adj. (pp.), hand-locked, 322, 551.
hond-rǣs, st. m., [hand-race] hand to hand fight, 3072.
hond-scolu, hand-scolu, st. f., [hand-shoal] hand-troop, followers, 1317 (see note), 1963.
hond-wundor, st. neut., [hand-wonder] wonderful handiwork, 2768.
-hongen, see -hōn.
hongian, hangian, w. v., hang, 1363, 1662, etc.
hord, st. m. neut., hoard, treasure, 887, 912, etc.
hord-ærn, st. neut., hoard-hall, treasure-cave, 2279, etc.
hord-burh, st. f., hoard-burgh, wealthy city, 467.
hord-gestrēon, st. neut., hoard-treasure, 1899, etc.
hord-mādm ( = -māðum), st. m., hoard-treasure, hoard-jewel; dat. pl. nǣnigne ic under swegle sēlran hȳrde hord-mādmum hæleþa, “I heard of none better under the sky among the hoard-jewels of heroes,” 1198.
hord-weard, st. m., [hoard-ward] guardian of a hoard or treasure, 1047 (of the king), 2293 (of the dragon), etc.
hord-wela, w. m., hoard-weal, wealth of treasure, 2344.
hord-weorðung, st. f., [hoard-honouring] honouring by gifts, valuable reward, 952.
hord-wynn, st. f., hoard-joy, joy-giving hoard, 2270.
horn, st. m., horn, 1369, etc.
horn-boga, w. m., horn-bow, 2437.
horn-gēap, adj., with wide intervals between (the horns on) the gables, 82.
horn-reced, st. neut., [horn-house,

i.e.] a house with horns on the gables, or a house with gables,

hors, st. neut., horse, 1399.
hōs, st. f., bevy, 924.
hoðma, w. m., grave, 2458.
hrā, st. neut., corpse, 1588.
hrædlīce, adv., hastily, quickly, 356, etc.
hrægl, st. neut., [rail] dress, armour, 1195, etc.
hrā-fyl, st. m., fall of corpses, slaughter, havoc, 277.
hraðe, hræðe, adv., [“rathe”] quickly, hastily, 224, 740, 1437, etc.; hreðe, 991 ; raðe, 724.
hraðor, compar., [rather] more quickly, 543.
hrēam, st. m., noise, clamour, 1302.
hrēa-wīc, st. neut., [corpse-wick] abode of corpses, 1214 (see healdan).
hrefn, st. m., raven, 1801, etc.
hrēmig, adj., exultant, 124, etc.; pl. hrēmge, 2363.
hrēoh, adj., rough, fierce, cruel, sad, 1564, 2180; dat. sg. m. hrēom, 1307, hrēoum, 2581; pl. hrēo, 548.
hrēoh-mōd, adj., of fierce mood, of sad mood, 2132, 2296.
hrēosan, st. v., fall, 1074, 1430, etc.
be-hrēosan, st. v., deprive; pp. pl. behrorene, 2762.
hrēoðan, st. v., cover, clothe, adorn; pp. hroden, gehroden, 304, 495, etc.
hrēow, st. f., distress, grief, 2129, 2328.
hrēran, w. v.
on-hrēran, w. v., rouse, arouse, stir up, 549, 2554. See hrōr.
hrēð, st. m. neut., glory, renown; acc. 2575.
hreðe, see hraðe.
hreðer, st. m., breast, heart, 1446, 1745, 2113, 2442, etc.
hreðer-bealo, st. neut., heart-bale; nom. þæs þe þincean mæg þegne monegum…hreþer-bealo hearde, “as it may seem heavy heart-woe to many a thane,” 1343.
hrēð-sigor, st. m., triumphant victory, 2583.
hrīmig, adj., rimy, covered with hoar-frost; pl. hrīmge, 1363 (see note).
hrīnan, st. v., usu. w. dat., touch, lay hold of, 988, 2270, etc.; subj. pret. sg. þēah ðe him wund hrine, “though the wound touched him close,” 2976.
hring, st. m., ring, ring-mail, 1202, 1503, etc.; nom. byrnan hring, “ring-mail of the byrny, ringed byrny,” 2260.
hringan, w. v., ring, rattle, 327.
hring-boga, w. m., [ring-bow] one that bends himself in the shape of a ring (the dragon), 2561.
hringed, adj. (pp.), ringed, 1245; inflected 2615.
hringed-stefna, w. m., ring-stemmed ship (with rings on its prow), 32, 240, etc.
hring-īren, st. neut., ring-iron; nom. hring-īren scīr song in searwum, “the bright iron rings rang in the armour,” 322.
hring-mǣl, st. neut., ring-sword, 1521, 1564.
hring-mǣl, adj., ring-adorned, 2037.
hring-naca, w. m., [ring-bark] ship with a ringed prow, 1862.
hring-net, st. neut., [ring-net] shirt of mail made of rings, 1889, etc.
hring-sele, st. m., ring-hall, 2010, 3035, etc.
hring-weorðung, st. f., ring-adornment, 3017.
hroden, see hrēoðan.
hrōf, st. m., roof, 926, 983, etc.
hrōf-sele, st. m., roofed hall, 1515.
hron-fix, st. m., whale-fisH, whale, 540.
hron-rād, st. f., whale-road, sea, 10.
hrōr, adj., stirring, valorous, strong, 1629.
hrōðor, st. m., benefit, kindness, comfort, joy, 2171, 2448.
hrūse, w. f., earth, 2247, etc.
hrycg, st. m., ridge, back, 471.
hryre, st. m., fall, destruction, 1680, etc.
hrysian, w. v., rattle, 226.
hū, adv., how, 3, etc.
hund, st. m., hound, 1368.
hund, num., with gen., hundred, 2278, etc.
hūru, adv., indeed, especially, at least, 182, 369, 862 (however), etc.; now, 3120.
hūs, st. neut., house, 116, etc.
hūð, st. f., booty, plunder, 124.
hwā, m. and f., hwæt, neut., interr. and indef. pron., who, what, any (one), somewhat, 52, 3126, etc. With gen. hwæt…hȳnðo, “what humiliation,” 474; swulces hwæt, “somewhat of such (matter),” 880; ānes hwæt, “somewhat only, a part only,” 3010. Special passages: nāh hwā sweord wege, “I have no one who may wear sword,” 2252; dat. hwām, “for whom,” 1696; instr. tō hwan syððan wearð hond-rǣs hæleða, “to what issue the hand-fight of heroes afterwards came,” 2071.
hwæder, see hwyder.
hwǣr, adv., where, anywhere, 2029. Special passages: wundur hwār þonne, “it is a wonder (mystery) anywhere when,” 3062; with swā following, “whereso-ever,” 762 (see note, and cf. 797); elles hwǣr, “elsewhere,” 138.
hwæt, adj., active, keen, bold; weak hwata, 3028; dat. hwatum, 2161; pl. hwate, 1601, etc.
hwæt, pron., see hwā.
hwæt, interj., what!, lo!, 1, 530, etc.
hwæðer, adj.-pron., whether, which of two; nom. gebīde gē…hwæðer sēl mæge…uncer twēga, “await ye whether of us twain may the better,” 2530; acc. f. on swā hwæðere hond…swā him gemet þince,” “on whichsoever hand it may seem to him meet,” 686.
hwæðer, hwæðre, conj., whether, 1314, 1356, etc.
hwæð(e)re, adv., however, yet, 555, 578, etc.; anyway, however that may be, 574; with swā þēah, 2442.
hwan, see hwā.
hwanan, hwanon, adv., whence, 257, 333, etc.
hwār, see hwǣr.
hwata, hwate, hwatmn, see hwæt, adj.
hwealf, st. f., vault, 576, etc.
hwēne, adv., a little, a trifle, 2699.
hweorfan, st. v., turn, wander, die, 264, 1980, 2832 (whirl), 2888 (roam), etc.; inf. hworfan, 1728.
æt-hweorfan, st. v., return, 2299.

ge-hweorfan, st. v., turn, go, 1210, 1679, 1684, 2208.

geond-hweorfan, st. v., traverse, 2017.

ond-hweorfan, st. v., turn against; pret. norðan wind…ond-hwearf, “a wind from the north turned against [us],” 548.

ymbe-hweorfan, st. v., with acc., turn about, go round, 2296.
hwergen, adv., in elles hwergen, “elsewhere,” 2590.
hwettan, w. v., whet, urge, encourage, 204, 490. From hwæt.
hwīl, st. f., while, space of time, 146, 1495, etc.; dat. pi. used adverbially, hwīlum, “at whiles, sometimes, whilom,” 175, 864, 867, etc.; “at one time…at another,” 2107-8-9-11.
hwīt, adj., white, flashing, 1448.
hwōpan, st. v., cry out, mourn; pret. hwēop, 2268.
hworfan, see hweorfan.
hwyder, hwæder, adv., whither, 163, 1331.
hwylc, adj.-pron., which, what, any, 274 (see witan), 1986, 2002; with gen. 1104, 2433.
swā hwylc swā, see swā.
hwyrfan, w. v., move, 98.
hwyrft, st. m., going, turn; dat. pl. “in their goings, or to and fro,” 163.
hycgan, w. v., think, resolve (upon); pret. hogode, 632.
for-hicgan, w. v., forgo, reject, despise, 435.

ge-hycgan, w. v., think, 1988.

ofer-hyegan, w. v., scorn, 2345.
hȳdan, w. v., hide, 1372, 2766; bury, 446.
ge-hydan, w. v., hide, 2235, 3059.
hyge, hige, st. m., mind, heart, soul, 267, 755, 3148, etc.
hige-mǣð, st. f., mind-honour, heart-reverence, 2909.

hige-mēðe, adj., wearying the soul or mind, 2442.

hige-þihtig, adj., great-hearted, 746.

hige-þrymm, st. m., [mind-strength] magnanimity, 339.
hyge-bend, st. m. f., mind-bond; dat. pl., hyge-bendum fæst…dyrne langað, “a secret longing fast in the bonds of his mind,” 1878.
hyge-gīomor, adj., sad at heart, 2408.
hyge-rōf, hige-rōf, adj., strong of mind or heart, valiant, 204, 403.
hyge-sorg, st. f., sorrow of mind or heart, 2328.
hyht, st. m., hope, 179.
hyldan, w. v., heel over, incline (oneself), lie down; pret. 688.
hyldo, st. f., favour, friendliness. 670, 2293, etc.; acc. hyldo ne telge…Denum unfǣcne, “I reckon not their faithfulness for the Danes sincere,” 2067. Cf. hold.
hym, dat. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hȳnan, w. v., humiliate, harm, 2319. From hēan.
hyne, acc. sg. m. of hē (q. v.).
hȳnðo, hȳnðu, st. f., humiliation, 166, 277, 475, 593.
hyra, gen. pl. of hē (q. v.).
hȳran, w. v., hear, learn, 38, 62, 273, 1197, etc.; with dat. pers., obey, 10, etc.
ge-hȳran, w. v., hear, learn, 255, 290, 785, etc.
hyrdan, w. v.
ā-hyrdan, w. v., harden, 1460.
hyrde, st. m., [herd] keeper, guardian, etc., 610, 2505, etc.; nom. wuldres Hyrde, “the King of glory,” 931.
hyre, gen. and dat. sg. f. of hē (q. v.).
hyrst, st. f., harness, accoutrement, adornment, 2988, 3164.
hyrstan, w. v., adorn; pp. “dight, jewelled,” 672, 2255.
hyrtan, w. v., hearten, embolden; with refl. pron., 2593.
hyse, st. m., youth, 1217.
hyt, st. f. ?, heat, 2649.
hyt, neut. of hē (q. v.).
hȳð, st. f., hythe, haven, 32.
hyðo, see note on l. 3155.
hȳð-weard, st. m., [hythe-ward] guard of the haven, 1915.


ic, pers. pron., I, 247, etc.; acc. mec, mē; gen. mīn; dat. mē; dual nom. wit; acc. uncit, unc; gen. uncer; dat. unc; pl. nom. wē; acc. ūsic; gen. ūre, ūser; dat. ūs, ūrum.
icge, adj., golden?, costly?, massive?, 1107.
īdel, adj., [idle] deprived; nom. lond-rihtes…īdel, “deprived of land-right,” 2888.
īdel-hende, adj., idle-handed, empty-handed, 2081.
ides, st. f., woman, lady, 620, 1259, etc.
iernan, st. v.
be-iernan, st. v., run, occur; pret. him on mōd bearn, “it occurred to him,” 67. on-iernan, st. v., spring open; pret. onarn, 721.
in, prep., in, with dat. (of rest) and acc. (of motion):

(1) with dat., in, on, 13, 25, 87, 89, 324, 443, 1029, 1952, 2505, 2599, 2635, 2786, 3097, etc.; after its case, 19; of time, 1.
(2) with acc., into, 60, 185, 1210, 2935.

in innan, see innan.
in, adv., in, 386, 1037, 1644, etc.; once inn, 3090.
in, st. neut., inn, dwelling, 1300.
inc, pers. pron. (dat. dual of þū), to you two, 510.
incer, pers. pron. (gen. dual of þū), of you two, 584.
incge, adj., weighty?, 2577 (see note).
in-frōd, adj., very old, 1874, 2449.
in-gang, st. m., entrance, 1549.
in-genga, w. m., in-goer, invader, 1776.
in-gesteald, st. m., house-property, 1155.
inn, see in, adv.
innan, adv., within, inside, 774, etc.
in innan, within; with preceding dat. 1968, 2452.

on innan, within, 2715; with preceding dat. 1740.

þǣr on innan, therein, there-within, in there, 71, 2089, etc.
innan-weard, adj., inward, inside, interior, 991, 1976.
inne, adv., inside, within, 390, 642,

1866, etc.; therein, 1141.

þǣr inne, therein, 118, etc.
inne-weard, adj., inward, interior, 998.
inwid-sorg, see inwit-sorh.
inwit-feng, st. m., hostile grasp, 1447.
inwit-gæst, st. m., hostile guest, foe, 2670.
inwit-hrōf, st. m., hostile roof, 3123.
inwit-net, st. neut., hostile net, cunning snare, 2167.
inwit-nīð, st. neut., hostile hate, malicious enmity, 1858, 1947.
inwit-scear, st. m., hostile attack, inroad, 2478.
inwit-searo, st. neut., hostile cunning, 1101.
inwit-sorh, inwid-sorg, st. f., [hostile sorrow] sorrow caused by a foe, 831, 1736.
inwit-ðanc, st. m., hostile or malicious thought, 749 (see onfōn).
-īode, see -gān.
iogoð, see geogoð.
īo-mēowle, see gēo-mēowle.
īren, st. neut., iron, sword, 892, etc.; gen. pl., īrena, īrenna, 673, 802, etc.
īren, adj., of iron, 1459, 2778.
īren-bend, st. m. f., iron-band, 774, 998.
īren-byrne, w. f., iron-byrny, coat of iron mail, 2986.
īren-heard, adj., iron-hard, 1112.
īren-þrēat, st. m., iron-band, troop of armed men, 330.
īs, st. neut., ice, 1608.
īsern-byrne, w. f., byrny of iron, coat of iron mail, 671.
īsern-scūr, st. f., iron-shower, 3116.
īs-gebind, st. neut., ice-bond, 1133.
īsig, adj., icy, 33.
īu, see gēo.
īu-monn, st. m., former man, man of olden times, 3052.


kyning, 620, 3171, 665, see cyning.


lā, interj., lo, 1700, etc.
lāc, st. neut., gift, offering, booty prey, 43, 1584, etc.
lācan, st. v., play, fight, fly, 2832 2848.
lād, st. f., [lode] way, faring, journey, 569, 1987.
lǣdan, w. v., lead, 239, etc.; pp. gelǣded, 37.
for-lǣdan, w. v., w. acc., mislead; pret. pl., forlǣddan, 2039.
lǣfan, w. v., leave, 1178, 2315 etc.
lǣn, st. neut., loan, 1810.
lǣn-dagas, st. m., loan-days, fleeting days, 2341, etc.
lǣne, adj., fleeting, transitory 3177, etc.
lǣran, w. v., teach, 1722.
ge-lǣran, w. v., teach, persuade, give (advice), 278, 415, etc.
lǣs, compar. adv., less, 1946, 487 (see sē).
þȳ lǣs, conj., lest, 1918.
lǣssa, compar. adj., less, lesser, fewer, 1282, 2571; dat. pl. lǣssan, 43. Absolutely, for lǣssan, “for less,” 951.
lǣsest, superl. adj., least, 2354.
lǣstan, w. w.:
(1) with dat., last, hold out, 812.
(2) with acc., do, perform, 2663.
ful-lǣstan, w. v., with dat., help; pres. sg. 1st ful-lǣstu, 2668.

ge-lǣstan, w. v.:
(1) with acc. or dat., serve, 24, 2500.
(2) usu. with acc., do, perform, fulfil, etc., 1706, 2990, etc.

ge-lǣsted, pp. of lǣstan or geleestan, “performed,” 829.

læt, adj., [late] slow; with gen. 1529.
lǣtan, st. v., let, allow, 48, etc.
ā-lǣtan, st. v., let, 2665; let go, leave, 2591, etc.

for-lǣtan, st. v., let, 970, etc.; let go, 792; leave (behind), 2787.

of-lǣtan, st. v., leave, 1183, etc.

on-lǣtan, st. v., loosen, 1609.

lāf, st. f., leaving, heirloom, bequest (often a sword), 454, 795, 1032, 2036, 2829, 2936, 3160, etc.
lafian, w. v.
ge-lafian, w. v., refresh, 2722.
lagu, st. m., lake, 1630.
lagu-cræftig, adj., [sea-crafty] skilful as a sailor, 209.
lagu-strǣt, st. f., [sea-street] way over the sea, 239.
lagu-strēam, st. m., sea-stream, current, tide, 297.
lāh, see lēon.
land, see lond.
lang, see long.
langað, st. f., longing, 1879.
lange, see longe.
lār, st. f., lore, instruction, guidance, 1950; gen. pl. lāra, 1220, lārena, 269.
lāst, st. m., track, trace, 132, etc.
on lāst, with preceding dat., in the tracks of, behind, 2945.
lāð, adj., [loth] loathly, loath-some, loathed, hateful, hated, hostile, 134, 511, 2315, 2467, etc.; dat. pl. lāðan, 1505. Often used absolutely, foe, loathed foe, 550, 841, 1061; gen. pl. 242; weak, se lāða, 2305; lāð wið lāþum, “foe with foe,” 440; æfter lāðum, “after the loathed foe,” 1257; neut. fela ic lāðes gebād, “much hostility or evil I endured,” 929.
lāðra, compar., more loathly, more hateful, 2432.
lāð-bite, st. m., foe-bite, wound, 1122.
lāð-getēona, w. m., evil-doer, monster, 559, 974.
lāð-līc, adj., loathly, 1584.
lēaf, st. neut., leaf, 97.
lēafnes-word, st. neut., leave-word, permission, pass-word?, 245.
-lēah, see -lēogan.
lēan, st. neut., reward, 114, 951, 1021, 2145, etc.
lēan, st. v., w. acc., blame; pres. sg. 3rd lȳhð, 1048; pret. lōg, 203, etc.
be-lēan, st. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., dissuade from, prohibit, 511.
lēanian, w. v., with acc. rei and dat. pers., pay for, repay, reward for, 1380, 2102.
lēas, adj., [-less]:

(1) with gen., lacking, deprived of, 850, 1664.

(2) false, 253.
lecgan, w. v.
ā-lecgan, w. v., lay, lay down, lay aside, 34, 3020, etc.
lēg, see līg.
leger, st. neut., [lair] lying, 3043.
-lēh, see lēogan.
lemian, w. v., lame, trouble; pret. sg. with pl. nom., lemede, 905.
leng, see longe.
lenge, adj., long, 83.
lengest, see longe.
lengra, see long.
lēod, st. m., prince, chief, 341, etc.
lēod, st. f., people, nation, 596, 599, etc.; pl. lēoda, 3001. See lēode.
lēod-bealo, st. neut., [nation-bale] national evil, 1722; gen. pl. -bealewa, 1946.
lēod-burg, st. f., [nation-burgh] chief city; acc. pl. -byrig, 2471.
lēod-cyning, st. m., nation-king, king of a people, 54.
lēode, st. m. pl., people, 24, 362, etc. See lēod, st. f.
lēod-fruma, w. m., nation-chief, prince of a people, 2130.
lēod-gebyrgea, w. m., protector of a people, 269.
lēod-hryre, st. m., fall of a prince or people, 2030, 2391.
lēod-sceaða, w. m., scather of a people, national foe,, 2093.
lēod-scipe, st. m., [people-ship] nation, 2197, 2751.
lēof, adj., lief, dear, 31, etc.
leofað, see libban.
lēof-līc, adj., dear, beloved, precious, 2603, 1809.
lēogan, st. v., lie, belie, 250, 3029.
ā-lēogan, st. v., with acc. rei, bclie, falsify; pret. ālēh, 80. ge-lēogan, st. v., with dat. pers., deceive ; pret. gelēah, 2323.
lēoht, st. neut., light, brilliance, 569, 727, etc.
lēoht, adj., light, bright, flashing, 2492.
lēoma, w. m., gleam, ray, 311, 1570, etc.
leomum, see līm.
lēon, st. v., lend; pret. lāh, 1456.
on-lēon, st. v., with gen. rei and dat. pers., lend; pret. onlāh, 1467.
leornian, w. v., learn, devise, 2336.
lēosan, st. v., lose.
be-lēosan, st. v., deprive; pp. beloren, 1073. for-lēosan, st. v., with dat., lose, 1470, etc.
lēoð, st. neut., lay, 1159.
leoðo-cræft, st. m., [limb-craft] hand-craft; dat. pl. segn…gelocen leoðo-cræftum, “a banner woven by skill of hand,” 2769.
leoðo-syrce, limb-sark, shirt of mail, 1505, etc.
lettan, w. v., with acc. pers. and gen. rei, let, hinder, 569.
libban, w. v., pres. sg. lifað, lyfað, leofað; subj. lifige; pret. lifde, lyfde; pres. part. lifigende: live, 57, etc.
līc, st. n., [lych] body, corpse, 967.
licg(e)an, st. v., lie, lie down, lie low, lie dead, 40, 1343, 2051, 2388, etc.; fail, 1041.
ā-licg(e)an, st. v., fail, cease, 1528, 2886. ge-licg(e)an, st. v., be still, be lulled, 3146.
līc-homa, līc-hama, w. m., [lych-covering] body, 812, 1007, etc.
līcian, w. v., with dat., [like] please, 639, etc.
līc-sār, st. neut., body-sore, wound in the body, 815.
līc-syrce, w. f., body-sark, shirt of mail, 550.
lid-mann, st. m., sea-man, seafarer, 1623.
līf, st. neut., life, 97, etc.
lifað, etc., see libban.
līf-bysig, adj., [life-busy] in the throes of death, 966.
līf-dagas, st. m. pl., life-days, 793, etc.
Līf-frēa, w. m., Life-lord, Lord of life, 16.
līf-gedāl, st. neut., life-parting, death, 811.
līf-gesceaft, st. f., [life-shaping] destiny, 1953, etc.
līf-wraðu, st. f., life-protection, 971, 2877.
līf-wynn, st. f., life-joy, 2097.
līg, lēg, st. m., flame, 83, 2549, etc.; dat. ligge, 727.
līg-draca, lēg-draca, w. m., flame-drake, flaming dragon, 2333, 3040.
līg-egesa, w. m., flame-terror, 2780.
līge-torn, st. m., [lying-anger] pretended insult, 1943.
ligge, see līg.
līg-ȳð, st. f., flame-wave, 2672.
lim, st. neut., limb, branch; dat. pl. leomum, 97.
limpan, st. v., happen, befall; pret. lomp, 1987.
ā-limpan, st. v., befall, occur, 622, 733.

be-limpan, st. v., befall, 2468.

ge-limpan, st. v., befall, happen, 76, 626 (be fulfilled), 929 (be given), etc.

ge-lumpen, pp. of limpan or gelimpan, “fulfilled,” 824.
lind, st. f., linden, shield (made of linden), 2341, etc.
lind-gestealla, w. m., shield-comrade, comrade in arms, 1973.
lind-habbend, st. m. (pres. part.), [linden-having] shield-warrior, 245, etc.
lind-plega, w. m., linden-play, battle, 1073, etc.
lind-wiga, w. m., linden-warrior, shield-warrior, 2605.
linnan, st. v., with gen. or dat., cease, depart, be deprived, 1478, 2443.
liss, st. f., favour, 2150.
list, st. f., cunning; dat. pl. adverbially, 781.
līðan, st. v., go; pp. liden, “traversed,” 233 (see eolet).
līðe, adj., gentle, mild, 1220.
līðost, superl., gentlest, mildest, 3182.
līðend, st. m. (pres. part.), [going] sailor, 221.
līð-wǣge, st. neut., stoup of drink (ale or cider?), 1982.
locen, see lūcan.
lōcian, w. v., look, 1654.
lof, st. m., praise, 1536.
lof-dǣd, st. f., praise-deed, deed worthy of praise, 24.
lof-georn, adj., yearning for praise,
lof-geornost, superl., most eager for praise, 3182.
lōg, see lēan.
lomp, see limpan.
lond, land, st. neut., land, 221, 2197, etc.
land-fruma, w. m., land-chief, ruler of a land, 31.

land-gemyrcu, st. neut. pl., land-marks, boundaries, 209.

land-geweorc, st. neut., land-work, stronghold, 938.

land-waru, st. f., land-people; pl. land-wara, “people of the land,” 2321.

land-weard, st. m., [land-ward] guardian of a country, 1890.
lond-buend, land-būend, st. m. (pres. part.), land-dweller, 95, 1345.
lond-rīht, st. neut., land-right, right of a citizen or freeholder, 2886.
long, lang, adj., long, 16, 2093, 3043, etc,
lengra, compar., longer, 134.
longe, lange, adv., long, 31, 1061, etc.
leng, compar., longer, 451, 974, etc. lengest, superl., longest, 2008, 2238.
long-gestrēon, st. neut., [long-possession] treasure of long ago, 2240.
long-sum, adj., [long-some] lasting long, 134, etc.
losian, w. v., escape, 1392, etc.
lūcan, st. v., lock, interlock, weave; pp. locen, gelocen, “locked, of interlocked rings,” 1505, 1890, 2769, 2995.
be-lūcan, st. v., lock, secure; pret. belēac, 1132, 1770.

on-lūcan, st. v., unlock; pret. onlēac, 259.

to-lūcan, st. v., destroy, 781.
lufen, st. f., hope, 2886.
lufian, w. v., love, 1982.
luf-tācen, st. neut., love-token, 1863.
lufu, w. f., love, 1728.
lungre, adv.:

(1) quickly, hastily, 929, 1630, etc.

(2) quite, 2164.
lust, st. m., [lust] pleasure, joy; acc. on lust, dat. pl. lustum, “with joy, with pleasure,” 618, 1653.
lȳfan, w. v.
ā-lȳfan, w. v., entrust, permit, 655, 3089. ge-lȳfan, w. v., believe in, trust for, rely on; with dat. pers. 909; with dat. rei, 440; with acc. rei, 608; þæt hēo on ǣnigne eorl gelȳfde fyrena frōfre (acc.), “that she believed in any earl for comfort from crime,” 627; him tō Anwaldan āre (acc.) gelȳfde, “believed in favour from the Almighty for himself,” 1272.
lyfatð, lyfde, see libban.
lyft, st. m. f. neut., [lift] air, 1375, etc.
lyft-floga, w. m., [lift-flier] flier in the air, 2315.
lyft-geswenced, adj. (pp.), wind-urged, driven by the wind, 1913.
lyft-wynn, st. f., [lift-joy] joy in the air, 3043.
lȳsan, w. v.
ā-lȳsan, w. v., loose, loosen, 1630.
lystan, w. v., impers., with acc. pers., list; pret. 1793.
lȳt, neut. adj. or n., indecl., few, 2365; with gen. 1927, 2150, 2882, 2832 (dat.).
lȳt, adv., little, 2897, 3129.
lȳtel, adj., little, 1748, 2097, etc.; acc. f. lȳtle hwīle, “but a little while,” 2030.
lȳt-hwōn, adv., little, 204.