Boston Cooking-School Cook Book/Chapter 42

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Chapter XLII. FOOD VALUES.

A STUDY of food values is essential for the making of properly balanced menus. A minimum of time devoted to this subject will give one a working knowledge which will prove of inestimable value.

The energy value of foods and the energy requirements of the body are estimated in calories. Requirements of:

  • When sleeping .4 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
  • At slight exercise .6 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: At meals, sewing, reading, writing, etc.
  • At light exercise 1 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Standing and walking.
  • At active muscular exercise 2 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: General housework, carpentering, tennis, etc.
  • At severe muscular exercise 3 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Digging, horseshoeing, football, etc.
  • Children
    Age
    1–2 years 900–1200 calories per day
    2–5 years 1200–1500 calories per day
    6–9 years 1400–2000 calories per day
    10–13 years 1800–2200 calories per day
    14–20 years 2300–5000 calories per day
    Adults
    Age
    60–70 years 10% reduction
    70–80 years 20% reduction
    80–90 years 30% reduction

    How to Determine the Number of Calories Required Daily by an Individual Using the Above Table[edit]

    Woman. Age 35. Weight 125
    Sleeping 8 hours
    Slight exercise: At meals, sewing, reading, etc. 8 hours
    At light exercise: Standing and walking 6 hours
    At active muscular exercise: General housework 2 hours
    8 * .4 calorie = 3.2 calories
    8 * .6 calorie = 4.8 calories
    6 * 1 calorie = 6 calories
    2 * 2 calories = 4 calories
    = 18 calories required per pound of body weight
    125 * 18 calories = 2250 calories for day’s requirement.

    Other calculations show that the needs of a person estimated in calories vary from twenty-two to thirty-five hundred for one day. Of this amount from ten to fifteen per cent (220 to 425 calories) should come from protein foods and .015 iron gram should be furnished.

    It is not necessary to consider the amount of calcium (of which .7 gram is the daily requirement) if one pint of milk is supplied for each person. An adequate milk supply will furnish also one-third the amount of phosphorus required, making this calculation practically unnecessary.

    Foods rich in fats have the highest caloric value, while foods rich in protein, sugar, and starch have greater caloric value than those containing much water.

    The following table will enable one to calculate quickly the number of calories, protein calories, and grams of iron supplied by the more common foods. The figures for the most part are given in hundreds and even numbers to facilitate this calculation. They therefore vary slightly from those found in Bulletin 28, Department of Agriculture, but seem, nevertheless, especially well adapted for everyday use, for investigation shows that even the best authorities differ.

    “The Laboratory Manual of Dietetics” by Professor Mary Swartz Rose and “Science and Nutrition” by Graham Lusk are valuable books to consult for the further consideration of this important subject.

    TABLE OF FOOD VALUES OF THE MORE COMMON FOODS[edit]

    Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
    Almonds 1 cup shelled 4 oz. 700 95 .0021
    Apples 2 qts. 3 lbs. 600 16 .0030
    Apricots, Dried 32/3 cups (56 halves) 1 lb. 1200 84
    Asparagus 1 can 1 lb. net 80 27 .0038
    Fresh 20 large stalks 1 lb. 100 32 .0043
    Bacon, Smoked 1 lb. 2600 172 .0052
    Bananas 3 large 1 lb. 300 14 .0018
    Barley, Pearl 2 cups 1 lb. 1600 154 .0057
    Beans, String 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 110 24 .0040
    1 qt. 12 oz. 130 28 .0059
    Dried 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 408 .0300
    Dried Lima 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 328 .0292
    Beef, Corned 1 lb. 1200 259 .0093
    Dried, Salted, or Smoked 1 lb. 800 544 .0200
    Liver 1 lb. 600 350 .0118
    Porterhouse Steak 1 lb. 1000 346 .0120
    Roast 1 lb. 1550 428 .0155
    Round, Lean 1 lb. 650 353 .0130
    Rump, Lean 1 lb. 800 346 .0120
    Beets 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 23 .0026
    Bread, Bakers’ 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 168 .0033
    Graham 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 160 .0143
    Bread Crumbs 1 cup 23/4 oz. 200 128 .0006
    Butter 1 tbsp 1/2 oz. 100
    2 cups 1 lb. 3400 18
    Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
    Cabbage 1/4 head 1 lb. 120 25 .0042
    Carrot 3 large 1 lb. 150 16 .0024
    Cauliflower 1 very small head 11 oz. 100 23
    Celery 1 bunch 1 lb. 60 16 .0016
    Cheese, American 1 lb. 2000 522
    Neufchatel 1 cheese 21/2 oz. 225 52
    Cherries, Candied 10 medium 1 oz. 100
    Chicken, Broilers 1 lb. 300 232
    Chocolate
    Unsweetened 1 cake 8 oz. 1400 118
    Citron 1 lb. 1400 9
    Clams, Round 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 117
    Cocoa 1 box 1/2 lb. 1100 195
    Cocoanut, Shredded 1 cup 24/5 oz. 500 20
    Corn, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 550 63 .0031
    Corn Meal 3 cups 1 lb. 1600 166 .0048
    Cornstarch 1 cup 41/2 oz. 450 0
    Crackers, Unsweetened 1 lb. 1800 176 .0063
    Cranberries 1 qt. 1 lb. 200 7 .0026
    Cream, Heavy 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 800 19 .0008
    Thin 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 440 23 .0004
    Cucumbers 2 medium 1 lb. 68 12
    Currants, Dried 23/8 cup 1 lb. 1400 43
    Dates, Unstoned 1 package 10 oz. 850 21 .008
    Egg 1 2 oz. 75 25 .0014
    Flour 1 cup 4 oz. 400 50 .0016
    Entire Wheat 1 cup 4 oz. 400 62 .0053
    Graham 1 cup 5 oz. 500 75 .0066
    Fish
    Haddock 1 lb. 160 152 .0016
    Halibut Steak 1 lb. 550 337 .0011
    Lobsters 1 lb. 140 107
    Oysters, Solid 1 cup 200 100
    Salmon, Canned 1 lb. 660 353 .0026
    Fowl 1 lb. 750 248 .0097
    Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
    Grapes 13/4 cup 1 lb. 328 23 .0042
    Ham, Smoked, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1600 248 .0096
    Hominy, Raw 1 cup 6 oz. 600 56
    Lamb, Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 800 288 .0104
    Loin 1 lb. 1200 290 .0120
    Shoulder 1 lb. 1200 261 .0096
    Chops, Broiled 1 lb. 1400 332 .0126
    Leg, Hind Quarter, Medium Fat 1 lb. 850 288 .0110
    Lemons 2 large 111/2 oz. 100 9 .0013
    Lard 1 cup 8 oz. 2000 0
    Lentils, Dried 21/3 cups 1 lb. 1581 466 .0096
    Lettuce 1 head 9 oz. 50 12 .0025
    Macaroni, Uncooked 1 cup 4 oz. 400 60
    Milk, Skim 1 cup 81/2 oz. 80 32 .0050
    Whole 1 cup 81/2 oz. 170 34 .0005
    Molasses, Cane 1 cup 12 oz. 900 33
    Mushrooms 44 1 lb. 200 63
    Oats, Rolled 1 cup 23/4 oz. 300 48 .0027
    Oil, Salad or Cooking 1 tbsp. 2/5 oz. 100 0
    Onions 41/2 large 1 lb. 200 25 .0022
    Orange Juice 1 cup 8 oz. 100 0
    Oranges 1 large 9.5 oz. 100 6 .0006
    Peanuts 1 cup shelled 51/3 oz. 800 156 .0028
    Peas, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 300 78 .0045
    Dried 1 cup 8 oz. 800 222 .0120
    Pecans, Shelled 1 cup 51/3 oz. 1100 58
    Pineapples 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 800 8 .0088
    Pork, Loin Chops, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1200 243 .0084
    Salt Fat 1 lb. 3500 34 .0014
    Potatoes 4 medium 1 lb. 300 32 .0045
    Prunes 46 (22/3 cups) 1 lb. 1200 32 .0108
    Rice 1 cup 8 oz. 800 74 .0024
    Raisins 1 cup 51/3 oz. 500 15 .0050
    Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
    Rye Meal 1 cup 41/8 oz. 400 31
    Sausage, Pork 1 lb. 2000 235 .0080
    Spinach 1 pk. 3 lbs. 300 105 .0399
    Sugar, Confectionery 1 cup 41/2 oz. 500 0
    Brown 1 cup 51/2 oz. 600 0
    Granulated 1 cup 8 oz. 900 0
    Tapioca (Pearl) 1 cup 6 oz. 600 21
    Tomatoes, Fresh 4 medium 1 lb. 100 16 .0017
    Canned 1 qt. can 2 lbs. 1 oz. 200 43
    Tripe 1 lb. 260 212
    Turkey 1 lb. 1000 292 .0110
    Turnip 2 1 lb. 150 16 .0019
    Veal, Breast, Medium Fat 1 lb. 700 280 .0098
    Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 600 280 .0114
    Liver, Medium Fat 1 lb. 550 344 .0126
    Loin, Medium Fat 1 lb. 670 290 .0162
    Walnuts 1 cup 4 oz. 800 83 .0023
    1. As Purchased

    Cards may be used keep records of the food values of recipes or meals, ruled and made out as follows:

    Recipe or Meal MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A RECIPE[edit]

    Illustration. Baking Powder Biscuits[edit]

    First enter the list of ingredients with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories, and enter in their respective columns.

    Recipe or Meal: Baking Powder Biscuit

    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

    Flour2 cups800100.0030 Lard1 tbsp.125 Butter1 tbsp.100 Milk1/2 cup8517.00025 Totals1110117.00325

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A MEAL[edit]

    Illustration. Breakfast for Four[edit]

    First enter the list of food to be served with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories and enter in their respective columns.

    Recipe or Meal: Breakfast for Four

    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

    Oranges4 (large)38 oz.40028.0024 Hominy3/4 cup41/2 oz.45042 Baking Powder Biscuitssee recipe card1110125.00325 Sugar1/4 cup2 oz.225 Whole Milk2 cups34968.0010 Butter2 tbsps.1 oz.200 Totals2725263.00665

    HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A DAYS RATIONS[edit]

    Calculate lunch and dinner same as breakfast, entering on cards as follows:

    Recipe or Meal: Lunch or Supper

    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams </THEAD>

    Macaroni1/4 lb.40060 Cheese2 oz.15065 Thin White Sauce2 cupsp. 26681577.0013 Golden Corn Cake Recipep. 751470162.0057 Butter2 oz.400 Lettuce1/2 head256.00125 Oil2 tbsps.200 Bananas31 lb.30014.0018 Cream1/4 pt.22011.0002 Totals3980395.00965

    Recipe or Meal: Dinner

    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams Beef Rump, Lean1 lb.800346.0120 Potatoes41 lb.30032.0045 Spinach1/2 pk.15052.0199 Norwegian Prune Puddingp. 416165016.0054 Cream1/4 pt.22011.0002 Bread1/2 loaf1/2 lb.55084.00165 Butter1 oz.200 Totals3870541.04365

    Enter meals as follows:

    Recipe or Menu: Day&#146;s Ration for Four

    MaterialMeasureWeightTotal CaloriesProtein CaloriesIron Grams

    Breakfast2725263.00665 Lunch or Supper3980395.00965 Dinner3870541.04365 Totals10,5751199.05995 Required10,0001,000.06 toto 12,0005,000