# Boston Cooking-School Cook Book/Chapter 42

145066Boston Cooking-School Cook Book — Chapter 42Fannie Farmer

Chapter XLII. FOOD VALUES.

A STUDY of food values is essential for the making of properly balanced menus. A minimum of time devoted to this subject will give one a working knowledge which will prove of inestimable value.

The energy value of foods and the energy requirements of the body are estimated in calories. Requirements of:

• When sleeping .4 calorie per pound of body weight per hour.
• At slight exercise .6 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: At meals, sewing, reading, writing, etc.
• At light exercise 1 calorie per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Standing and walking.
• At active muscular exercise 2 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: General housework, carpentering, tennis, etc.
• At severe muscular exercise 3 calories per pound of body weight per hour. Examples: Digging, horseshoeing, football, etc.

Children
Age
1–2 years 900–1200 calories per day
2–5 years 1200–1500 calories per day
6–9 years 1400–2000 calories per day
10–13 years 1800–2200 calories per day
14–20 years 2300–5000 calories per day
Age
60–70 years 10% reduction
70–80 years 20% reduction
80–90 years 30% reduction

## How to Determine the Number of Calories Required Daily by an Individual Using the Above Table

Woman. Age 35. Weight 125
Sleeping 8 hours
Slight exercise: At meals, sewing, reading, etc. 8 hours
At light exercise: Standing and walking 6 hours
At active muscular exercise: General housework 2 hours
 8 * .4 calorie = 3.2 calories 8 * .6 calorie = 4.8 calories 6 * 1 calorie = 6 calories 2 * 2 calories = 4 calories = 18 calories required per pound of body weight 125 * 18 calories = 2250 calories for day's requirement.

Other calculations show that the needs of a person estimated in calories vary from twenty-two to thirty-five hundred for one day. Of this amount from ten to fifteen per cent (220 to 425 calories) should come from protein foods and .015 iron gram should be furnished.

It is not necessary to consider the amount of calcium (of which .7 gram is the daily requirement) if one pint of milk is supplied for each person. An adequate milk supply will furnish also one-third the amount of phosphorus required, making this calculation practically unnecessary.

Foods rich in fats have the highest caloric value, while foods rich in protein, sugar, and starch have greater caloric value than those containing much water.

The following table will enable one to calculate quickly the number of calories, protein calories, and grams of iron supplied by the more common foods. The figures for the most part are given in hundreds and even numbers to facilitate this calculation. They therefore vary slightly from those found in Bulletin 28, Department of Agriculture, but seem, nevertheless, especially well adapted for everyday use, for investigation shows that even the best authorities differ.

"The Laboratory Manual of Dietetics" by Professor Mary Swartz Rose and ";Science and Nutrition" by Graham Lusk are valuable books to consult for the further consideration of this important subject.

## TABLE OF FOOD VALUES OF THE MORE COMMON FOODS

 Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams Almonds 1 cup shelled 4 oz. 700 95 .0021 Apples 2 qts. 3 lbs. 600 16 .0030 Apricots, Dried 32/3 cups (56 halves) 1 lb. 1200 84 Asparagus 1 can 1 lb. net 80 27 .0038 Fresh 20 large stalks 1 lb. 100 32 .0043 Bacon, Smoked 1 lb. 2600 172 .0052 Bananas 3 large 1 lb. 300 14 .0018 Barley, Pearl 2 cups 1 lb. 1600 154 .0057 Beans, String 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 110 24 .0040 1 qt. 12 oz. 130 28 .0059 Dried 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 408 .0300 Dried Lima 2 cups 1 lb. 1500 328 .0292 Beef, Corned 1 lb. 1200 259 .0093 Dried, Salted, or Smoked 1 lb. 800 544 .0200 Liver 1 lb. 600 350 .0118 Porterhouse Steak 1 lb. 1000 346 .0120 Roast 1 lb. 1550 428 .0155 Round, Lean 1 lb. 650 353 .0130 Rump, Lean 1 lb. 800 346 .0120 Beets 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 23 .0026 Bread, Bakers' 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 168 .0033 Graham 1 loaf 1 lb. 1100 160 .0143 Bread Crumbs 1 cup 23/4 oz. 200 128 .0006 Butter 1 tbsp 1/2 oz. 100 2 cups 1 lb. 3400 18 Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams Cabbage 1/4 head 1 lb. 120 25 .0042 Carrot 3 large 1 lb. 150 16 .0024 Cauliflower 1 very small head 11 oz. 100 23 Celery 1 bunch 1 lb. 60 16 .0016 Cheese, American 1 lb. 2000 522 Neufchatel 1 cheese 21/2 oz. 225 52 Cherries, Candied 10 medium 1 oz. 100 Chicken, Broilers 1 lb. 300 232 Chocolate Unsweetened 1 cake 8 oz. 1400 118 Citron 1 lb. 1400 9 Clams, Round 1 pt. 1 lb. 200 117 Cocoa 1 box 1/2 lb. 1100 195 Cocoanut, Shredded 1 cup 24/5 oz. 500 20 Corn, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 550 63 .0031 Corn Meal 3 cups 1 lb. 1600 166 .0048 Cornstarch 1 cup 41/2 oz. 450 0 Crackers, Unsweetened 1 lb. 1800 176 .0063 Cranberries 1 qt. 1 lb. 200 7 .0026 Cream, Heavy 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 800 19 .0008 Thin 1/2 pt. 8 oz. 440 23 .0004 Cucumbers 2 medium 1 lb. 68 12 Currants, Dried 23/8 cup 1 lb. 1400 43 Dates, Unstoned 1 package 10 oz. 850 21 .008 Egg 1 2 oz. 75 25 .0014 Flour 1 cup 4 oz. 400 50 .0016 Entire Wheat 1 cup 4 oz. 400 62 .0053 Graham 1 cup 5 oz. 500 75 .0066 Fish Haddock 1 lb. 160 152 .0016 Halibut Steak 1 lb. 550 337 .0011 Lobsters 1 lb. 140 107 Oysters, Solid 1 cup 200 100 Salmon, Canned 1 lb. 660 353 .0026 Fowl 1 lb. 750 248 .0097 Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams Grapes 13/4 cup 1 lb. 328 23 .0042 Ham, Smoked, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1600 248 .0096 Hominy, Raw 1 cup 6 oz. 600 56 Lamb, Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 800 288 .0104 Loin 1 lb. 1200 290 .0120 Shoulder 1 lb. 1200 261 .0096 Chops, Broiled 1 lb. 1400 332 .0126 Leg, Hind Quarter, Medium Fat 1 lb. 850 288 .0110 Lemons 2 large 111/2 oz. 100 9 .0013 Lard 1 cup 8 oz. 2000 0 Lentils, Dried 21/3 cups 1 lb. 1581 466 .0096 Lettuce 1 head 9 oz. 50 12 .0025 Macaroni, Uncooked 1 cup 4 oz. 400 60 Milk, Skim 1 cup 81/2 oz. 80 32 .0050 Whole 1 cup 81/2 oz. 170 34 .0005 Molasses, Cane 1 cup 12 oz. 900 33 Mushrooms 44 1 lb. 200 63 Oats, Rolled 1 cup 23/4 oz. 300 48 .0027 Oil, Salad or Cooking 1 tbsp. 2/5 oz. 100 0 Onions 41/2 large 1 lb. 200 25 .0022 Orange Juice 1 cup 8 oz. 100 0 Oranges 1 large 9.5 oz. 100 6 .0006 Peanuts 1 cup shelled 51/3 oz. 800 156 .0028 Peas, Canned 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 300 78 .0045 Dried 1 cup 8 oz. 800 222 .0120 Pecans, Shelled 1 cup 51/3 oz. 1100 58 Pineapples 1 can 1 lb. 4 oz. 800 8 .0088 Pork, Loin Chops, Medium Fat 1 lb. 1200 243 .0084 Salt Fat 1 lb. 3500 34 .0014 Potatoes 4 medium 1 lb. 300 32 .0045 Prunes 46 (22/3 cups) 1 lb. 1200 32 .0108 Rice 1 cup 8 oz. 800 74 .0024 Raisins 1 cup 51/3 oz. 500 15 .0050 Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams Rye Meal 1 cup 41/8 oz. 400 31 Sausage, Pork 1 lb. 2000 235 .0080 Spinach 1 pk. 3 lbs. 300 105 .0399 Sugar, Confectionery 1 cup 41/2 oz. 500 0 Brown 1 cup 51/2 oz. 600 0 Granulated 1 cup 8 oz. 900 0 Tapioca (Pearl) 1 cup 6 oz. 600 21 Tomatoes, Fresh 4 medium 1 lb. 100 16 .0017 Canned 1 qt. can 2 lbs. 1 oz. 200 43 Tripe 1 lb. 260 212 Turkey 1 lb. 1000 292 .0110 Turnip 2 1 lb. 150 16 .0019 Veal, Breast, Medium Fat 1 lb. 700 280 .0098 Leg, Medium Fat 1 lb. 600 280 .0114 Liver, Medium Fat 1 lb. 550 344 .0126 Loin, Medium Fat 1 lb. 670 290 .0162 Walnuts 1 cup 4 oz. 800 83 .0023 1. As Purchased

Cards may be used keep records of the food values of recipes or meals, ruled and made out as follows:

Recipe or Meal
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams

## Illustration. Baking Powder Biscuits

First enter the list of ingredients with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories, and enter in their respective columns.

Recipe or Meal: Baking Powder Biscuit
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Flour 2 cups   800 100 .0030
Lard 1 tbsp 125
Butter 1 tbsp   100
Milk ½ cup 85 17 .00025
Totals   1110 117 .00325

## Illustration. Breakfast for Four

First enter the list of food to be served with the amount of each required. Consult Table of Food Values for the protein, iron grams, and total calories and enter in their respective columns.

Recipe or Meal: Breakfast for Four
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Oranges 4 (large) 38 oz 400 28 .0024
Hominy ¾ cup 4½ oz 450 42
Baking Powder Biscuits see recipe card   1110 125 .00325
Sugar ¼ cup 2 oz 225
Whole Milk 2 cups 349 68 .0010
Butter 2 tbsps. 1 oz. 200
Totals 2725 263 .00665

## HOW TO ESTIMATE THE FOOD VALUE OF A DAYS RATIONS

Calculate lunch and dinner same as breakfast, entering on cards as follows:

Recipe or Meal: Lunch or Supper
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories

Iron Grams

Macaroni   ¼ lb. 400 60
Cheese   2 oz. 150 65
Thin White Sauce 2 cups p. 266 815 77 .0013
Golden Corn Cake Recipe   p. 75 1470 162 .0057
Butter   2 oz. 400
Lettuce ½ head   25 6 .00125
Oil 2 tbsps   200
Bananas 31 lb. 300 14 .0018
Cream ¼ pt. 220 11 .0002
Totals   3980 395 .00965
Recipe or Meal: Dinner
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories

Iron Grams

Beef Rump, Lean   1 lb 800 346 .0120
Potatoes   1 lb 300 32 .0045
Spinach ½ pk   150 52 .0199
Norwegian Prune Pudding p. 416   1650 16 .0054
Cream ¼ pt   220 11 .0002
Bread ½ loaf ½ lb 550 84 .00165
Butter   1 oz 200
Totals     3870 541 .04365

Enter meals as follows:

Recipe or Menu: Day's Ration for Four
Material Measure Weight Total Calories Protein Calories Iron Grams
Breakfast     2725 263. 00665
Lunch or Supper     3980 395 .00965
Dinner     3870 541. 04365
Totals     10,575 1199 .05995
Required     10,000 1,000 .06
to to
12,000 5,000