Canterbury Tales (ed. Skeat)/Prologue

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Here biginneth the Book of the Tales of Caunterbury.

Whan that Aprille with his shoures sote
The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote,
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour;
Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth        5
Inspired hath in every holt and heeth
The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
Hath in the Ram his halfe cours y-ronne,
And smale fowles maken melodye,
That slepen al the night with open yë,        10
(So priketh hem nature in hir corages):
Than longen folk to goon on pilgrimages
(And palmers for to seken straunge strondes)
To ferne halwes, couthe in sondry londes;
And specially, from every shires ende        15
Of Engelond, to Caunterbury they wende,
The holy blisful martir for to seke,
That hem hath holpen, whan that they were seke.

  Bifel that, in that seson on a day,
In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay        20
Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage
To Caunterbury with ful devout corage,
At night was come in-to that hostelrye
Wel nyne and twenty in a companye,
Of sondry folk, by aventure y-falle        25
In felawshipe, and pilgrims were they alle,
That toward Caunterbury wolden ryde;
The chambres and the stables weren wyde,
And wel we weren esed atte beste.
And shortly, whan the sonne was to reste,        30
So hadde I spoken with hem everichon,
That I was of hir felawshipe anon,
And made forward erly for to ryse,
To take our wey, ther as I yow devyse.

  But natheles, whyl I have tyme and space,        35
Er that I ferther in this tale pace,
Me thinketh it acordaunt to resoun,
To telle yow al the condicioun
Of ech of hem, so as it semed me,
And whiche they weren, and of what degree;        40
And eek in what array that they were inne:
And at a knight than wol I first biginne.

  A Knight ther was, and that a worthy man,        Knight.
That fro the tyme that he first bigan
To ryden out, he loved chivalrye,        45
Trouthe and honour, fredom and curteisye.
Ful worthy was he in his lordes werre,
And therto hadde he riden (no man ferre)
As wel in Cristendom as hethenesse,
And ever honoured for his worthinesse.        50

  At Alisaundre he was, whan it was wonne;
Ful ofte tyme he hadde the bord bigonne
Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce.
In Lettow hadde he reysed and in Ruce,
No Cristen man so ofte of his degree.        55
In Gernade at the sege eek hadde he be
Of Algezir, and riden in Belmarye.
At Lyeys was he, and at Satalye,
Whan they were wonne; and in the Grete See
At many a noble aryve hadde he be.        60
At mortal batailles hadde he been fiftene,
And foughten for our feith at Tramissene
In listes thryes, and ay slayn his foo.
This ilke worthy knight had been also
Somtyme with the lord of Palatye,        65
Ageyn another hethen in Turkye:
And evermore he hadde a sovereyn prys.
And though that he were worthy, he was wys,
And of his port as meke as is a mayde.
He never yet no vileinye ne sayde        70
In al his lyf, un-to no maner wight.
He was a verray parfit gentil knight.
But for to tellen yow of his array,
His hors were gode, but he was nat gay.
Of fustian he wered a gipoun        75
Al bismotered with his habergeoun;
For he was late y-come from his viage,
And wente for to doon his pilgrimage.

  With him ther was his sone, a yong Squyer,        Squyer.
A lovyere, and a lusty bacheler,        80
With lokkes crulle, as they were leyd in presse.
Of twenty yeer of age he was, I gesse.
Of his stature he was of evene lengthe,
And wonderly deliver, and greet of strengthe.
And he had been somtyme in chivachye,        85
In Flaundres, in Artoys, and Picardye,
And born him wel, as of so litel space,
In hope to stonden in his lady grace.
Embrouded was he, as it were a mede
Al ful of fresshe floures, whyte and rede.        90
Singinge he was, or floytinge, al the day;
He was as fresh as is the month of May.
Short was his goune, with sleves longe and wyde.
Wel coude he sitte on hors, and faire ryde.
He coude songes make and wel endyte,        95
Iuste and eek daunce, and wel purtreye and wryte,
So hote he lovede, that by nightertale
He sleep namore than dooth a nightingale.
Curteys he was, lowly, and servisable,
And carf biforn his fader at the table.        100

  A Yeman hadde he, and servaunts namo        Yeman.
At that tyme, for him liste ryde so;
And he was clad in cote and hood of grene;
A sheef of pecok-arwes brighte and kene
Under his belt he bar ful thriftily;        105
(Wel coude he dresse his takel yemanly:
His arwes drouped noght with fetheres lowe),
And in his hand he bar a mighty bowe.
A not-heed hadde he, with a broun visage.
Of wode-craft wel coude he al the usage.        110
Upon his arm he bar a gay bracer,
And by his syde a swerd and a bokeler,
And on that other syde a gay daggere,
Harneised wel, and sharp as point of spere;
A Cristofre on his brest of silver shene.        115
An horn he bar, the bawdrik was of grene;
A forster was he, soothly, as I gesse.

  Ther was also a Nonne, a Prioresse,        Prioresse.
That of hir smyling was ful simple and coy;
Hir gretteste ooth was but by sëynt Loy;        120
And she was cleped madame Eglentyne.
Ful wel she song the service divyne,
Entuned in hir nose ful semely;
And Frensh she spak ful faire and fetisly,
After the scole of Stratford atte Bowe,        125
For Frensh of Paris was to hir unknowe.
At mete wel y-taught was she with-alle;
She leet no morsel from hir lippes falle,
Ne wette hir fingres in hir sauce depe.
Wel coude she carie a morsel, and wel kepe,        130
That no drope ne fille up-on hir brest.
In curteisye was set ful muche hir lest.
Hir over lippe wyped she so clene,
That in hir coppe was no ferthing sene
Of grece, whan she dronken hadde hir draughte.        135
Ful semely after hir mete she raughte,
And sikerly she was of greet disport,
And ful plesaunt, and amiable of port,
And peyned hir to countrefete chere
Of court, and been estatlich of manere,        140
And to ben holden digne of reverence.
But, for to speken of hir conscience,
She was so charitable and so pitous,
She wolde wepe, if that she sawe a mous
Caught in a trappe, if it were deed or bledde.        145
Of smale houndes had she, that she fedde
With rosted flesh, or milk and wastel-breed.
But sore weep she if oon of hem were deed,
Or if men smoot it with a yerde smerte:
And al was conscience and tendre herte.        150
Ful semely hir wimpel pinched was;
Hir nose tretys; hir eyen greye as glas;
Hir mouth ful smal, and ther-to softe and reed;
But sikerly she hadde a fair forheed;
It was almost a spanne brood, I trowe;        155
For, hardily, she was nat undergrowe.
Ful fetis was hir cloke, as I was war.
Of smal coral aboute hir arm she bar
A peire of bedes, gauded al with grene;
And ther-on heng a broche of gold ful shene,        160
On which ther was first write a crowned A,
And after, Amor vincit omnia.

  Another Nonne with hir hadde she,        Nonne.
That was hir chapeleyne, and Preestes three.        3 Preestes.

  A Monk ther was, a fair for the maistrye,        Monk.
An out-rydere, that lovede venerye;        166
A manly man, to been an abbot able.
Ful many a deyntee hors hadde he in stable:
And, whan he rood, men mighte his brydel here
Ginglen in a whistling wind as clere,        170
And eek as loude as dooth the chapel-belle,
Ther as this lord was keper of the celle.
The reule of seint Maure or of seint Beneit,
By-cause that it was old and som-del streit,
This ilke monk leet olde thinges pace,        175
And held after the newe world the space.
He yaf nat of that text a pulled hen,
That seith, that hunters been nat holy men;
Ne that a monk, whan he is cloisterlees,
Is lykned til a fish that is waterlees;        180
This is to seyn, a monk out of his cloistre.
But thilke text held he nat worth an oistre;
And I seyde, his opinioun was good.
What sholde he studie, and make him-selven wood,
Upon a book in cloistre alwey to poure,        185
Or swinken with his handes, and laboure,
As Austin bit? How shal the world be served?
Lat Austin have his swink to him reserved.
Therfore he was a pricasour aright;
Grehoundes he hadde, as swifte as fowel in flight;        190
Of priking and of hunting for the hare
Was al his lust, for no cost wolde he spare.
I seigh his sleves purfiled at the hond
With grys, and that the fyneste of a lond;
And, for to festne his hood under his chin,        195
He hadde of gold y-wroght a curious pin:
A love-knotte in the gretter ende ther was.
His heed was balled, that shoon as any glas,
And eek his face, as he had been anoint.
He was a lord ful fat and in good point;        200
His eyen stepe, and rollinge in his heed,
That stemed as a forneys of a leed;
His botes souple, his hors in greet estat.
Now certeinly he was a fair prelat;
He was nat pale as a for-pyned goost.        205
A fat swan loved he best of any roost.
His palfrey was as broun as is a berye.

  A Frere ther was, a wantown and a merye,        Frere.
A limitour, a ful solempne man.
In alle the ordres foure is noon that can        210
So muche of daliaunce and fair langage.
He hadde maad ful many a mariage
Of yonge wommen, at his owne cost.
Un-to his ordre he was a noble post.
Ful wel biloved and famulier was he        215
With frankeleyns over-al in his contree,
And eek with worthy wommen of the toun:
For he had power of confessioun,
As seyde him-self, more than a curat,
For of his ordre he was licentiat.        220
Ful swetely herde he confessioun,
And plesaunt was his absolucioun;
He was an esy man to yeve penaunce
Ther as he wiste to han a good pitaunce;
For unto a povre ordre for to yive        225
Is signe that a man is wel y-shrive.
For if he yaf, he dorste make avaunt,
He wiste that a man was repentaunt.
For many a man so hard is of his herte,
He may nat wepe al-thogh him sore smerte.        230
Therfore, in stede of weping and preyeres,
Men moot yeve silver to the povre freres.
His tipet was ay farsed ful of knyves
And pinnes, for to yeven faire wyves.
And certeinly he hadde a mery note;        235
Wel coude he singe and pleyen on a rote.
Of yeddinges he bar utterly the prys.
His nekke whyt was as the flour-de-lys;
Ther-to he strong was as a champioun.
He knew the tavernes wel in every toun,        240
And everich hostiler and tappestere
Bet than a lazar or a beggestere;
For un-to swich a worthy man as he
Acorded nat, as by his facultee,
To have with seke lazars aqueyntaunce.        245
It is nat honest, it may nat avaunce
For to delen with no swich poraille,
But al with riche and sellers of vitaille.
And over-al, ther as profit sholde aryse,
Curteys he was, and lowly of servyse.        250
Ther nas no man no-wher so vertuous.
He was the beste beggere in his hous;
[And yaf a certeyn ferme for the graunt;[1]        252 b
Noon of his bretheren cam ther in his haunt;]        252 c
For thogh a widwe hadde noght a sho,
So plesaunt was his "In principio,"
Yet wolde he have a ferthing, er he wente.        255
His purchas was wel bettre than his rente.
And rage he coude, as it were right a whelpe.
In love-dayes ther coude he muchel helpe.        (260)
For there he was nat lyk a cloisterer,
With a thredbar cope, as is a povre scoler,        260
But he was lyk a maister or a pope.
Of double worsted was his semi-cope,
That rounded as a belle out of the presse.
Somwhat he lipsed, for his wantownesse,
To make his English swete up-on his tonge;        265
And in his harping, whan that he had songe,
His eyen twinkled in his heed aright,
As doon the sterres in the frosty night.        (270)
This worthy limitour was cleped Huberd.

  A Marchant was ther with a forked berd,        Marchant.
In mottelee, and hye on horse he sat,        271
Up-on his heed a Flaundrish bever hat;
His botes clasped faire and fetisly.
His resons he spak ful solempnely,
Souninge alway thencrees of his winning.        275
He wolde the see were kept for any thing
Bitwixe Middelburgh and Orewelle.
Wel coude he in eschaunge sheeldes selle.        (280)
This worthy man ful wel his wit bisette;
Ther wiste no wight that he was in dette,        280
So estatly was he of his governaunce,
With his bargaynes, and with his chevisaunce.
For sothe he was a worthy man with-alle,
But sooth to seyn, I noot how men him calle.

  A Clerk ther was of Oxenford also,        Clerk.
That un-to logik hadde longe y-go.        286
As lene was his hors as is a rake,
And he nas nat right fat, I undertake;        (290)
But loked holwe, and ther-to soberly.
Ful thredbar was his overest courtepy;        290
For he had geten him yet no benefyce,
Ne was so worldly for to have offyce.
For him was lever have at his beddes heed
Twenty bokes, clad in blak or reed,
Of Aristotle and his philosophye,        295
Than robes riche, or fithele, or gay sautrye.
But al be that he was a philosophre,
Yet hadde he but litel gold in cofre;        (300)
But al that he mighte of his freendes hente,
On bokes and on lerninge he it spente,        300
And bisily gan for the soules preye
Of hem that yaf him wher-with to scoleye.
Of studie took he most cure and most hede.
Noght o word spak he more than was nede,
And that was seyd in forme and reverence,        305
And short and quik, and ful of hy sentence.
Souninge in moral vertu was his speche,
And gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche.        (310)

  A Sergeant of the Lawe, war and wys,        Man of Lawe.
That often hadde been at the parvys,        310
Ther was also, ful riche of excellence.
Discreet he was, and of greet reverence:
He semed swich, his wordes weren so wyse.
Iustyce he was ful often in assyse,
By patente, and by pleyn commissioun;        315
For his science, and for his heigh renoun
Of fees and robes hadde he many oon.
So greet a purchasour was no-wher noon.        (320)
Al was fee simple to him in effect,
His purchasing mighte nat been infect.        320
No-wher so bisy a man as he ther nas,
And yet he semed bisier than he was.
In termes hadde he caas and domes alle,
That from the tyme of king William were falle.
Therto he coude endyte, and make a thing,        325
Ther coude no wight pinche at his wryting;
And every statut coude he pleyn by rote.
He rood but hoomly in a medlee cote        (330)
Girt with a ceint of silk, with barres smale;
Of his array telle I no lenger tale.

  A Frankeleyn was in his companye;        Frankeleyn.
Whyt was his berd, as is the dayesye.
Of his complexioun he was sangwyn.
Wel loved he by the morwe a sop in wyn.
To liven in delyt was ever his wone,        335
For he was Epicurus owne sone,
That heeld opinioun, that pleyn delyt
Was verraily felicitee parfyt.
An housholdere, and that a greet, was he;        (340)
Seint Iulian he was in his contree.
His breed, his ale, was alwey after oon;
A bettre envyned man was no-wher noon.
With-oute bake mete was never his hous,
Of fish and flesh, and that so plentevous,
It snewed in his hous of mete and drinke,        345
Of alle deyntees that men coude thinke.
After the sondry sesons of the yeer,
So chaunged he his mete and his soper.        (350)
Ful many a fat partrich hadde he in mewe,
And many a breem and many a luce in stewe.        350
Wo was his cook, but-if his sauce were
Poynaunt and sharp, and redy al his gere.
His table dormant in his halle alway
Stood redy covered al the longe day.
At sessiouns ther was he lord and sire;        355
Ful ofte tyme he was knight of the shire.
An anlas and a gipser al of silk
Heng at his girdel, whyt as morne milk.        (360)
A shirreve hadde he been, and a countour;
Was no-wher such a worthy vavasour.        360

  An Haberdassher and a Carpenter,        Habaerdassher.
A Webbe, a Dyere, and a Tapicer,        Carpenter.
Were with us eek, clothed in o liveree,        Webbe. Dyere.
Of a solempne and greet fraternitee.        Tapicer.
Ful fresh and newe hir gere apyked was;        365
Hir knyves were y-chaped noght with bras,
But al with silver, wroght ful clene and weel,
Hir girdles and hir pouches every-deel.        (370)
Wel semed ech of hem a fair burgeys,
To sitten in a yeldhalle on a deys.        370
Everich, for the wisdom that he can,
Was shaply for to been an alderman.
For catel hadde they y-nogh and rente,
And eek hir wyves wolde it wel assente;
And elles certein were they to blame.        375
It is ful fair to been y-clept "ma dame,"
And goon to vigilyës al bifore,
And have a mantel royalliche y-bore.        (380)

  A Cook they hadde with hem for the nones,        Cook.
To boille the chiknes with the mary-bones,        380
And poudre-marchant tart, and galingale.
Wel coude he knowe a draughte of London ale.
He coude roste, and sethe, and broille, and frye,
Maken mortreux, and wel bake a pye.
But greet harm was it, as it thoughte me,        385
That on his shine a mormal hadde he;
For blankmanger, that made he with the beste.        (389)

  A Shipman was ther, woning fer by weste:        Shipman.
For aught I woot, he was of Dertemouthe.
He rood up-on a rouncy, as he couthe,        390
In a gowne of falding to the knee.
A daggere hanging on a laas hadde he
Aboute his nekke under his arm adoun.
The hote somer had maad his hewe al broun;
And, certeinly, he was a good felawe.        395
Ful many a draughte of wyn had he y-drawe
From Burdeux-ward, whyl that the chapman sleep.
Of nyce conscience took he no keep.        (400)
If that he faught, and hadde the hyer hond,
By water he sente hem hoom to every lond.        400
But of his craft to rekene wel his tydes,
His stremes and his daungers him bisydes,
His herberwe and his mone, his lodemenage,
Ther nas noon swich from Hulle to Cartage.
Hardy he was, and wys to undertake;        405
With many a tempest hadde his berd been shake.
He knew wel alle the havenes, as they were,
From Gootlond to the cape of Finistere,        (410)
And every cryke in Britayne and in Spayne;
His barge y-cleped was the Maudelayne.        410

  With us ther was a Doctour of Phisyk,        Doctour.
In al this world ne was ther noon him lyk
To speke of phisik and of surgerye;
For he was grounded in astronomye.
He kepte his pacient a ful greet del        415
In houres, by his magik naturel.
Wel coude he fortunen the ascendent
Of his images for his pacient.        (420)
He knew the cause of everich maladye,
Were it of hoot or cold, or moiste, or drye,        420
And where engendred, and of what humour;
He was a verrey parfit practisour.
The cause y-knowe, and of his harm the rote,
Anon he yaf the seke man his bote.
Ful redy hadde he his apothecaries,        425
To sende him drogges and his letuaries,
For ech of hem made other for to winne;
Hir frendschipe nas nat newe to biginne.        (430)
Wel knew he the olde Esculapius,
And Deiscorides, and eek Rufus,        430
Old Ypocras, Haly, and Galien;
Serapion, Razis, and Avicen;
Averrois, Damascien, and Constantyn;
Bernard, and Gatesden, and Gilbertyn.
Of his diete mesurable was he,        435
For it was of no superfluitee,
But of greet norissing and digestible.
His studie was but litel on the Bible.        (440)
In sangwin and in pers he clad was al,
Lyned with taffata and with sendal;        440
And yet he was but esy of dispence;
He kepte that he wan in pestilence.
For gold in phisik is a cordial,
Therfore he lovede gold in special.

  A good Wyf was ther of bisyde Bathe,        Wyf of Bathe.
But she was som-del deef, and that was scathe.        446
Of clooth-making she hadde swiche an haunt,
She passed hem of Ypres and of Gaunt.        (450)
In al the parisshe wyf ne was ther noon
That to the offring bifore hir sholde goon;        450
And if ther dide, certeyn, so wrooth was she,
That she was out of alle charitee.
Hir coverchiefs ful fyne were of ground;
I dorste swere they weyeden ten pound
That on a Sonday were upon hir heed.        455
Hir hosen weren of fyn scarlet reed,
Ful streite y-teyd, and shoos ful moiste and newe.
Bold was hir face, and fair, and reed of hewe.        (460)
She was a worthy womman al hir lyve,
Housbondes at chirche-dore she hadde fyve,        460
Withouten other companye in youthe;
But therof nedeth nat to speke as nouthe.
And thryes hadde she been at Ierusalem;
She hadde passed many a straunge streem;
At Rome she hadde been, and at Boloigne,        465
In Galice at seint Iame, and at Coloigne.
She coude muche of wandring by the weye.
Gat-tothed was she, soothly for to seye.        (470)
Up-on an amblere esily she sat,
Y-wimpled wel, and on hir heed an hat        470
As brood as is a bokeler or a targe;
A foot-mantel aboute hir hipes large,
And on hir feet a paire of spores sharpe.
In felawschip wel coude she laughe and carpe.
Of remedyes of love she knew per-chaunce,        475
For she coude of that art the olde daunce.

  A good man was ther of religioun,        Persoun.
And was a povre Persoun of a toun;        (480)
But riche he was of holy thoght and werk.
He was also a lerned man, a clerk,        480
That Cristes gospel trewely wolde preche;
His parisshens devoutly wolde he teche.
Benigne he was, and wonder diligent,
And in adversitee ful pacient;
And swich he was y-preved ofte sythes.        485
Ful looth were him to cursen for his tythes,
But rather wolde he yeven, out of doute,
Un-to his povre parisshens aboute        (490)
Of his offring, and eek of his substaunce.
He coude in litel thing han suffisaunce.        490
Wyd was his parisshe, and houses fer a-sonder,
But he ne lafte nat, for reyn ne thonder,
In siknes nor in meschief, to visyte
The ferreste in his parisshe, muche and lyte,
Up-on his feet, and in his hand a staf.        495
This noble ensample to his sheep he yaf,
That first he wroghte, and afterward he taughte;
Out of the gospel he tho wordes caughte;        (500)
And this figure he added eek ther-to,
That if gold ruste, what shal iren do?        500
For if a preest be foul, on whom we truste,
No wonder is a lewed man to ruste;
And shame it is, if a preest take keep,
A shiten shepherde and a clene sheep.
Wel oghte a preest ensample for to yive,        505
By his clennesse, how that his sheep shold live.
He sette nat his benefice to hyre,
And leet his sheep encombred in the myre,        (510)
And ran to London, un-to sëynt Poules,
To seken him a chaunterie for soules,        510
Or with a bretherhed to been withholde;
But dwelte at hoom, and kepte wel his folde,
So that the wolf ne made it nat miscarie;
He was a shepherde and no mercenarie.
And though he holy were, and vertuous,        515
He was to sinful man nat despitous,
Ne of his speche daungerous ne digne,
But in his teching discreet and benigne.        (520)
To drawen folk to heven by fairnesse
By good ensample, was his bisinesse:        520
But it were any persone obstinat,
What-so he were, of heigh or lowe estat,
Him wolde he snibben sharply for the nones.
A bettre preest, I trowe that nowher noon is.
He wayted after no pompe and reverence,        525
Ne maked him a spyced conscience,
But Cristes lore, and his apostles twelve,
He taughte, and first he folwed it him-selve.        (530)

With him ther was a Plowman, was his brother,        Plowman.
That hadde y-lad of dong ful many a fother,        530
A trewe swinker and a good was he,
Livinge in pees and parfit charitee.
God loved he best with al his hole herte
At alle tymes, thogh him gamed or smerte,
And thanne his neighebour right as him-selve.        535
He wolde thresshe, and ther-to dyke and delve,
For Cristes sake, for every povre wight,
Withouten hyre, if it lay in his might.        (540)
His tythes payed he ful faire and wel,
Bothe of his propre swink and his catel.        540
In a tabard he rood upon a mere.

  Ther was also a Reve and a Millere,
A Somnour and a Pardoner also,
A Maunciple, and my-self; ther were namo.

  The Miller was a stout carl, for the nones,        Miller.
Ful big he was of braun, and eek of bones;        546
That proved wel, for over-al ther he cam,
At wrastling he wolde have alwey the ram.        (550)
He was short-sholdred, brood, a thikke knarre,
Ther nas no dore that he nolde heve of harre,        550
Or breke it, at a renning, with his heed.
His berd as any sowe or fox was reed,
And ther-to brood, as though it were a spade.
Up-on the cop right of his nose he hade
A werte, and ther-on stood a tuft of heres,        555
Reed as the bristles of a sowes eres;
His nose-thirles blake were and wyde.
A swerd and bokeler bar he by his syde;        (560)
His mouth as greet was as a greet forneys.
He was a Ianglere and a goliardeys,        560
And that was most of sinne and harlotryes.
Wel coude he stelen corn, and tollen thryes;
And yet he hadde a thombe of gold, pardee.
A whyt cote and a blew hood wered he.
A baggepype wel coude he blowe and sowne,        565
And ther-with-al he broghte us out of towne.

  A gentil Maunciple was ther of a temple,        Maunciple.
Of which achatours mighte take exemple        (570)
For to be wyse in bying of vitaille.
For whether that he payde, or took by taille,        570
Algate he wayted so in his achat,
That he was ay biforn and in good stat.
Now is nat that of God a ful fair grace,
That swich a lewed mannes wit shal pace
The wisdom of an heep of lerned men?        575
Of maistres hadde he mo than thryes ten,
That were of lawe expert and curious;
Of which ther were a doseyn in that hous,        (580)
Worthy to been stiwardes of rente and lond
Of any lord that is in Engelond,        580
To make him live by his propre good,
In honour dettelees, but he were wood,
Or live as scarsly as him list desire;
And able for to helpen al a shire
In any cas that mighte falle or happe;        585
And yit this maunciple sette hir aller cappe.

  The Reve was a sclendre colerik man,        Reve.
His berd was shave as ny as ever he can.        (590)
His heer was by his eres round y-shorn.
His top was dokked lyk a preest biforn.        590
Ful longe were his legges, and ful lene,
Y-lyk a staf, ther was no calf y-sene.
Wel coude he kepe a gerner and a binne;
Ther was noon auditour coude on him winne.
Wel wiste he, by the droghte, and by the reyn,        595
The yelding of his seed, and of his greyn.
His lordes sheep, his neet, his dayerye,
His swyn, his hors, his stoor, and his pultrye,        (600)
Was hoolly in this reves governing,
And by his covenaunt yaf the rekening,        600
Sin that his lord was twenty yeer of age;
Ther coude no man bringe him in arrerage.
Ther nas baillif, ne herde, ne other hyne,
That he ne knew his sleighte and his covyne;
They were adrad of him, as of the deeth.        605
His woning was ful fair up-on an heeth,
With grene treës shadwed was his place.
He coude bettre than his lord purchace.        (610)
Ful riche he was astored prively,
His lord wel coude he plesen subtilly,        610
To yeve and lene him of his owne good,
And have a thank, and yet a cote and hood.
In youthe he lerned hadde a good mister;
He was a wel good wrighte, a carpenter.
This reve sat up-on a ful good stot,        615
That was al pomely grey, and highte Scot.
A long surcote of pers up-on he hade,
And by his syde he bar a rusty blade.        (620)
Of Northfolk was this reve, of which I telle,
Bisyde a toun men clepen Baldeswelle.        620
Tukked he was, as is a frere, aboute,
And ever he rood the hindreste of our route.

  A Somnour was ther with us in that place,        Somnour.
That hadde a fyr-reed cherubinnes face,
For sawcefleem he was, with eyen narwe.        625
As hoot he was, and lecherous, as a sparwe;
With scalled browes blake, and piled berd;
Of his visage children were aferd.        (630)
Ther nas quik-silver, litarge, ne brimstoon,
Boras, ceruce, ne oille of tartre noon,        630
Ne oynement that wolde dense and byte,
That him mighte helpen of his whelkes whyte,
Nor of the knobbes sittinge on his chekes.
Wel loved he garleek, oynons, and eek lekes,
And for to drinken strong wyn, reed as blood.        635
Thanne wolde he speke, and crye as he were wood.
And whan that he wel dronken hadde the wyn,
Than wolde he speke no word but Latyn.        (640)
A fewe termes hadde he, two or three,
That he had lerned out of som decree;        640
No wonder is, he herde it al the day;
And eek ye knowen wel, how that a Iay
Can clepen 'Watte,' as well as can the pope.
But who-so coude in other thing him grope,
Thanne hadde he spent al his philosophye;        645
Ay Questio quid iuris wolde he crye.
He was a gentil harlot and a kinde;
A bettre felawe sholde men noght finde.        (650)
He wolde suffre, for a quart of wyn,
A good felawe to have his concubyn        650
A twelf-month, and excuse him atte fulle:
Ful prively a finch eek coude he pulle.
And if he fond o-wher a good felawe,
He wolde techen him to have non awe,
In swich cas, of the erchedeknes curs,        655
But-if a mannes soule were in his purs;
For in his purs he sholde y-punisshed be.
'Purs is the erchedeknes helle,' seyde he.        (660)
But wel I woot he lyed right in dede;
Of cursing oghte ech gilty man him drede—        660
For curs wol slee, right as assoilling saveth—
And also war him of a significavit.
In daunger hadde he at his owne gyse
The yonge girles of the diocyse,
And knew hir counseil, and was al hir reed.        665
A gerland hadde he set up-on his heed,
As greet as it were for an ale-stake;
A bokeler hadde he maad him of a cake.        (670)

  With him ther rood a gentil Pardoner        Pardoner.
Of Rouncival, his freend and his compeer,        670
That streight was comen fro the court of Rome.
Ful loude he song, 'Com hider, love, to me.'
This somnour bar to him a stif burdoun,
Was never trompe of half so greet a soun.
This pardoner hadde heer as yelow as wex,        675
But smothe it heng, as dooth a strike of flex;
By ounces henge his lokkes that he hadde,
And ther-with he his shuldres overspradde;        (680)
But thinne it lay, by colpons oon and oon;
But hood, for Iolitee, ne wered he noon,        680
For it was trussed up in his walet.
Him thoughte, he rood al of the newe Iet;
Dischevele, save his cappe, he rood al bare.
Swiche glaringe eyen hadde he as an hare.
A vernicle hadde he sowed on his cappe.        685
His walet lay biforn him in his lappe,
Bret-ful of pardoun come from Rome al hoot.
A voys he hadde as smal as hath a goot.        (690)
No berd hadde he, ne never sholde have,
As smothe it was as it were late y-shave;        690
I trowe he were a gelding or a mare.
But of his craft, fro Berwik into Ware,
Ne was ther swich another pardoner.
For in his male he hadde a pilwe-beer,
Which that, he seyde, was our lady veyl:        695
He seyde, he hadde a gobet of the seyl
That sëynt Peter hadde, whan that he wente
Up-on the see, til Iesu Crist him hente.        (700)
He hadde a croys of latoun, ful of stones,
And in a glas he hadde pigges bones.        700
But with thise relikes, whan that he fond
A povre person dwelling up-on lond,
Up-on a day he gat him more moneye
Than that the person gat in monthes tweye.
And thus, with feyned flaterye and Iapes,        705
He made the person and the peple his apes.
But trewely to tellen, atte laste,
He was in chirche a noble ecclesiaste.        (710)
Wel coude he rede a lessoun or a storie,
But alderbest he song an offertorie;        710
For wel he wiste, whan that song was songe,
He moste preche, and wel affyle his tonge,
To winne silver, as he ful wel coude;
Therefore he song so meriely and loude.

  Now have I told you shortly, in a clause,        715
Thestat, tharray, the nombre, and eek the cause
Why that assembled was this companye
In Southwerk, at this gentil hostelrye,        (720)
That highte the Tabard, faste by the Belle.
But now is tyme to yow for to telle        720
How that we baren us that ilke night,
Whan we were in that hostelrye alight.
And after wol I telle of our viage,
And al the remenaunt of our pilgrimage.
But first I pray yow, of your curteisye,        725
That ye narette it nat my vileinye,
Thogh that I pleynly speke in this matere,
To telle yow hir wordes and hir chere;        (730)
Ne thogh I speke hir wordes properly.
For this ye knowen al-so wel as I,        730
Who-so shal telle a tale after a man,
He moot reherce, as ny as ever he can,
Everich a word, if it be in his charge,
Al speke he never so rudeliche and large;
Or elles he moot telle his tale untrewe,        735
Or feyne thing, or finde wordes newe.
He may nat spare, al-thogh he were his brother;
He moot as wel seye o word as another.        (740)
Crist spak him-self ful brode in holy writ,
And wel ye woot, no vileinye is it.        740
Eek Plato seith, who-so that can him rede,
The wordes mote be cosin to the dede.
Also I prey yow to foryeve it me,
Al have I nat set folk in hir degree
Here in this tale, as that they sholde stonde;        745
My wit is short, ye may wel understonde.

  Greet chere made our hoste us everichon,
And to the soper sette he us anon;        (750)
And served us with vitaille at the beste.
Strong was the wyn, and wel to drinke us leste.        750
A semely man our hoste was with-alle
For to han been a marshal in an halle;
A large man he was with eyen stepe,
A fairer burgeys is ther noon in Chepe:
Bold of his speche, and wys, and wel y-taught,        755
And of manhod him lakkede right naught.
Eek therto he was right a mery man,
And after soper pleyen he bigan,        (760)
And spak of mirthe amonges othere thinges,
Whan that we hadde maad our rekeninges;        760
And seyde thus: 'Now, lordinges, trewely,
Ye been to me right welcome hertely:
For by my trouthe, if that I shal nat lye,
I ne saugh this yeer so mery a companye
At ones in this herberwe as is now.        765
Fayn wolde I doon yow mirthe, wiste I how.
And of a mirthe I am right now bithoght,
To doon yow ese, and it shal coste noght.        (770)

  Ye goon to Caunterbury; God yow spede,
The blisful martir quyte yow your mede.        770
And wel I woot, as ye goon by the weye,
Ye shapen yow to talen and to pleye;
For trewely, confort ne mirthe is noon
To ryde by the weye doumb as a stoon;
And therfore wol I maken yow disport,        775
As I seyde erst, and doon yow som confort.
And if yow lyketh alle, by oon assent,
Now for to stonden at my Iugement,        (780)
And for to werken as I shal yow seye,
To-morwe, whan ye ryden by the weye,        780
Now, by my fader soule, that is deed,
But ye be merye, I wol yeve yow myn heed.
Hold up your hond, withouten more speche.'

  Our counseil was nat longe for to seche;
Us thoughte it was noght worth to make it wys,        785
And graunted him withouten more avys,
And bad him seye his verdit, as him leste.

  'Lordinges,' quod he, 'now herkneth for the beste;        (790)
But tak it not, I prey yow, in desdeyn;
This is the poynt, to speken short and pleyn,        790
That ech of yow, to shorte with your weye,
In this viage, shal telle tales tweye,
To Caunterbury-ward, I mene it so,
And hom-ward he shal tellen othere two,
Of aventures that whylom han bifalle.        795
And which of yow that bereth him best of alle,
That is to seyn, that telleth in this cas
Tales of best sentence and most solas,        (800)
Shal have a soper at our aller cost
Here in this place, sitting by this post,        800
Whan that we come agayn fro Caunterbury.
And for to make yow the more mery,
I wol my-selven gladly with yow ryde,
Right at myn owne cost, and be your gyde.
And who-so wol my Iugement withseye        805
Shal paye al that we spenden by the weye.
And if ye vouche-sauf that it be so,
Tel me anon, with-outen wordes mo,        (810)
And I wol erly shape me therfore.'

  This thing was graunted, and our othes swore        810
With ful glad herte, and preyden him also
That he wold vouche-sauf for to do so,
And that he wolde been our governour,
And of our tales Iuge and reportour,
And sette a soper at a certeyn prys;        815
And we wold reuled been at his devys,
In heigh and lowe; and thus, by oon assent,
We been acorded to his Iugement.        (820)
And ther-up-on the wyn was fet anon;
We dronken, and to reste wente echon,        820
With-outen any lenger taryinge.

  A-morwe, whan that day bigan to springe,
Up roos our host, and was our aller cok,
And gadrede us togidre, alle in a flok,
And forth we riden, a litel more than pas,        825
Un-to the watering of seint Thomas.
And there our host bigan his hors areste,
And seyde; 'Lordinges, herkneth, if yow leste.        (830)
Ye woot your forward, and I it yow recorde.
If even-song and morwe-song acorde,        830
Lat se now who shal telle the firste tale.
As ever mote I drinke wyn or ale,
Who-so be rebel to my Iugement
Shal paye for al that by the weye is spent.
Now draweth cut, er that we ferrer twinne;        835
He which that hath the shortest shal biginne.
Sire knight,' quod he, 'my maister and my lord,
Now draweth cut, for that is myn acord.        (840)
Cometh neer,' quod he, 'my lady prioresse;
And ye, sir clerk, lat be your shamfastnesse,        840
Ne studieth noght; ley hond to, every man.'

  Anon to drawen every wight bigan,
And shortly for to tellen, as it was,
Were it by aventure, or sort, or cas,
The sothe is this, the cut fil to the knight,        845
Of which ful blythe and glad was every wight;
And telle he moste his tale, as was resoun,
By forward and by composicioun,        (850)
As ye han herd; what nedeth wordes mo?
And whan this gode man saugh it was so,        850
As he that wys was and obedient
To kepe his forward by his free assent,
He seyde: 'Sin I shal biginne the game,
What, welcome be the cut, a Goddes name!
Now lat us ryde, and herkneth what I seye.'        855

  And with that word we riden forth our weye;
And he bigan with right a mery chere
His tale anon, and seyde in this manere.        (860)

Here endeth the prolog of this book; and here biginneth the first tale, which is the Knightes Tale.

Variae Lectiones, etc.

Heading. From E.—1. E. hise; rest his.—8. Hl. halfe; rest half.—9. Hl. fowles; Pt. Ln. foules; E. Hn. foweles.—10. Hl. yhe; Hn. Iye; E. eye.—12. Pt. Ln. Than; E. Thanne.—E. pilgrimage (by mistake).—13. Pt. Hl. palmers; E. Palmeres.—16. Hn. Caunter-; E. Cauntur-.—18. E. seeke.—19. Hn. Bifel; E. Bifil.—23. E. were; rest was.—24. E. Hn. compaignye.—26, 32. E. felaweshipe.—Hl. pilgryms; E. pilgrimes.—34. E. oure.—35. E. Hn. nathelees.—40. Hl. weren; rest were, weere.—49. Hn. Hl. as; rest as in.—53. E. nacions.—56. E. seege.—60. Hl. ariue; Cm. aryue; E. Hn. armee; Cp. Ln. arme.—62. E. oure.—64. Pt. had; rest hadde.—67. E. -moore.   68. E. Hn. Cm. were; rest was.—74. E. Pt. weren; Hl. Ln. was; rest were.—Hl. Hn. he ne was.—83. Ln. euen; rest euene.—84. Hl. Ln. delyuer; rest delyuere.—E. Hn. of greet; Cm. of gret; rest gret of.—85. Ln. had.—87. E. weel.—89, 90. E. meede, reede.—92. E. fressh. E. in; rest is.—E. Hn. Monthe; Cp. month; Hl. Pt. Ln. moneth; Cm. monyth.—96. E. weel.—98. Hl. Cp. sleep; rest slepte.—E. -moore.   99. Hl. Cp. Ln. lowly; E. Hn. Pt. lowely.—101. E. seruantz.—102. E. soo.—104. Hl. Cp. Pt. Ln. pocok.—Cm. bryghte; rest bright.—107. E. Hise.—108, 111. E. baar.—113. E. oother.—115. Hn. Cristofre; E. Cristophere.—E. sheene.—122. E. soong.—123. E. semeely.—131. Cm. brest; E. Hn. brist.—132. Cp. moche; Cm. meche; E. Hn. muchel.—Hl. lest; E. Hn. Cm. list.—134. Hl. was; rest ther was.—137. E. Hn. desport; rest disport.—140. E. to been; Hl. Hn. omit to.—144. Hl. Hn. Cp. Ln. sawe; E. saugh; Cm. seye.—146. Pt. Ln. had; rest hadde.—148. Ln. wepped; rest wepte; read weep; cf. l. 2878.—E. any; rest oon, on, one.—151. E. semyly. E. wympul; Hn. wympel.—160. E. Hn. brooch; rest broche.—170. Hl. Cp. whistlyng; E. whistlynge.—E. Cm. als; Ln. al-so; Hl. so; rest as.—176. E. Hn. heeld; Cm. held.—178. Hn. Hl. been; E. beth.—179. Hl. cloysterles; E. Hn. recchelees; Cp. Pt. Ln. recheles; Cm. rekeles (Ten Brink proposes recetlees).—182. E. Hn. heeld; Cm. held.—188. E. his owene; rest om. owene.—190. Hl. swifte; rest swift.—193. Hl. Hn. purfiled; Cm. purfilid; E. ypurfiled.—196. Hl. a; rest a ful.—196, 218. Ln. had; rest hadde.—199. E. it; rest he.—203, 4. E. estaat, prelaat.—208. E. wantowne.—211. Hn. muche; E. muchel.—213. Hl. owne; E. owene.—215. E. And; rest Ful.—217. Hl. Hn. eek; rest omit.—224. Hl. Cm. han; E. haue.—229. E. harde.—231. E. wepynge.—232. E. Hn. moote; see note.—234. E. yonge; rest faire.—235. Hl. mery; E. murye.—237. E. baar.—Pt. vttirly; Hl. vtturly; E. Hn. outrely.—240. E. al the; rest euery.—245. E. Hn. Cm. sike; Pt. Ln. seke; see l. 18.—246. Cm. honest; E. honeste.—248. E. selleres.—250. E. lowely. After l. 252, Hn. alone inserts ll. 252 b and 252 c.—259. Hl. Cm. cloysterer; E. Hn. Cloystrer.—260. So all the MSS. (but with -bare); cf. l. 290.—262. All worstede (badly).—266. Pt. Ln. had; rest hadde.—271. Ln. motteley; Hl. motteleye; E. Hn. motlee.—272. E. beuere.—273. Cp. Pt. clapsed; Hl. clapsud.—274. E. Hise.—281. Cp. statly.—287. E. And; Hl. Al so; rest As.—289. E. Hn. sobrely; rest soburly.—290. All -bare. Hl. ouerest; E. Hn. Cm. ouereste.—291. Cp. Ln. had; rest hadde.—293. Cp. Ln. Hl. leuer; rest leuere.—300. E. Hl. his; rest on.—324. E. yfalle; rest falle.—326. E. Hn. pynchen; rest pynche, pinche.—332. E. heed; rest berd, berde.—E. a; rest the.—335. ever] Hl. al.—336. E. Hn. Cm. owene; rest owne.—338. Hl. verraily; rest verray, verrey, uery.—340. E. was he; rest he was.—341. Cm. Ln. alwey; Hl. alway; E. Hn. Cp. alweys.—342. Hl. Pt. nowher; Cm. nower: rest neuere; cf. l. 360.—349, 350. E. Hn. muwe, stuwe.—357. E. Hn. anlaas; Hl. Cm. anlas.—358. E. Hn. heeng.—359. E. Hn. Cm. om. a.—363. So Hl.; rest And they were clothed alle.—364. All but Hl. and a.—366. Hl. I-chapud; Cm. chapid; rest chaped.—370. E. yeldehalle.—376. E. Hn. ycleped; Hl. clept; rest cleped, clepid.—380. Hl. om. 1st the.—383. E. Hl. boille; Cm. boyle; rest broille, broile.—388. E. wonynge; Hn. wonyng.—396. Cm. I-drawe; rest drawe.—407. Hl. ins. wel; rest om.—415. Hl. wondurly wel; rest a ful greet deel (del).—416. E. Hn. natureel.—418. E. Hn. hise; Cm. hese.—421. E. Cm. Hl. where they; Hn. where it.—424. Cm. Ln. seke; rest sike.—425. E. hise.—426. E. Hn. Cm. drogges; Cp. Pt. Ln. drugges; Hl. dragges.—430. Pt. Rufus; Cm. Rufijs; Hn. Cp. Ln. Hl. Rusus; E. Risus.—431. Hl. Pt. Old; rest Olde.—452. Hl. was thanne out.—453, 455. E. weren.—457. Cp. Hl. schoos; E. Pt. Ln. shoes.—458. E. Hn. Boold.—463. Ln. had.—467. Ln. muche; Hl. Pt. Cp. moche; E. Hn. muchel.—474. E. Hn. felaweschip.—476. Hl. For of that art sche knew.—485. Hl. I-proued; E. Cp. Pt. preued.—486. E. hise.—490. Hl. Cm. Pt. han; E. Hn. Cp. Ln. haue.—493. E. siknesse.—497. E. firste.—E. ins. that (by mistake) before he.—503. Hl. alone ins. that after if.—505. Hl. ȝiue; E. yeue.—509. Hl. Cp. seynte.—510. Cp. Pt. Ln. Hl. chaunterie; E. Hn. chauntrie.—512. E. dwelleth; rest dwelte.—E. keepeth; Ln. keped; rest kepte.—514. Hl. no; rest not a.—516. Hl. to senful man nought; rest nat to sinful man.—520. All but Hl. this was.—522. Hn. lowe; E. lough.—523. E. nonys.—525. E. waiteth; rest waited.—527. E. hise.—528. Hl. and; rest but.—534. E. Pt. Ln. he; rest him.—537. for] Hn. Hl. with.—539. Cp. Pt. payed; Cm. Hl. payede; E. Hn. payde.—540. propre] Hl. owne.—550. Cp. Hl. nolde; Hn. noolde; E. ne wolde.—555. E. toft; Ln. tofte: rest tuft. E. herys.—556. Hn. bristles; E. brustles; Pt. brysteles; Hl. Cp. berstles.—E. erys.—558. All but Cp. and a.—559. Hl. wyde; rest greet, gret.—565. Hl. om. wel.—570. E. Hn. wheither.—571. E. Achaat.—572. E. staat.—577. E. weren.—578. E. whiche. Cm. doseyn; E. duszeyne.—581. E. maken.—582. Cm. but; Cp. Pt. but if that; rest but if.—585. E. Hn. caas.—589. All but Hl. Ln. ins. ful after eres.—590. E. doked.—594. E. of; rest on.—603. ne (2)] E. Hn. Cp. Pt. nor.—604. Hl. they (for he). E. Cm. om. ne.—606. Hl. fair; E. faire.—607. E. Hn. shadwed; Hl. I-schadewed; Cm. I-schadewid; Cp. Pt. shadewed; Ln. schadowed.—611. Hl. owne; E. owene.—612. E. om. and. E. gowne; rest cote.—613. So Hn. Hl.; E. and rest hadde lerned.—Cp. Hl. mester.—618. E. baar.—623. Cm. Pt. Somnour; Hl. sompnour; E. Hn. Somonour.—627. E. Hn. Cm. scaled.—629. Cp. Pt. Hl. bremston.—632. E. the; rest his.—652. E. Ln. Hl. And; rest Ful.—655. Cm. Cp. erche-; E. erce-; Hl. arche-.—660. Cp. Ln. him; Hl. Pt. to; rest om.—661. Hl. Pt. saueth; E. sauith.—663. Hl. owne; E. owene.—668. E. bokeleer.—669. E. was; rest rood, rode.—670. E. Cm. Pt. Rounciuale.—672. E. soong.—676. E. heeng.—677, 678. E. hise.—680. But] Cm. Hl. And. Hl. ne; rest omit.—683. E. Discheuelee.—685. Hl. Cp. on; rest vp on.—686. Hl. lay; which the rest omit.—687. Hl. Cm. come; rest comen.—688. Hl. eny (for hath a).—690. Hn. yshaue; E. shaue.—695. All oure.—713. Hl. right (for ful).—714. Cp. Pt. Ln. so meriely; E. Hn. Cm. the murierly.—715. E. Hl. shortly; rest soothly.—716. Hl. Thestat; Hn. Thestaat; E. The staat; Cm. Cp. The estat.—718. E. as; rest at.—724. E. oure (but our in l. 723).—725. E. youre; Hl. ȝour.—726. E. Hn. Cm. narette; Cp. Pt. Hl. ne rette.—734. E. or; Hl. ne; rest and.—741. All but Hl. om. that.—747. E. chiere. E. hoost (see l. 751).—752. Hl. han; rest om.—754. E. Hn. was.—755. E. Hn. Boold.—756. Cm. Cp. lakkede; E. lakked.—761. now] Hl. lo.—764. Hl. ne saugh; rest saugh nat (seigh not, &c.).—Hl. Cm. mery; E. myrie.—774. a] E. the; Hn. om.—778. All but Hl. om. Now.—782. E. But if; rest But.—E. myrie. Hl. merye smyteth of.—785. Hl. nas.—787. Cp. verdit; Pt. veredit; Hl. Ln. verdite; Cm. verdoit; E. Hn. voirdit.—789. E. taak; Ln. tak; Cp. Pt. take; Hl. Hn. taketh.—791. Cp. Hl. your; rest our; cf. l. 803.—795. Hl. ther (for whylom).—797, 798. E. caas, solaas.—802. E. Hn. Cp. mury.—803. Hl. my seluen gladly; E. my self goodly.—805. E. wole (but wol in l. 809).—812. E. would.—816. Hl. wolde; Pt. wold; rest wol, wolen, wiln, wil.—817. Hl. lowe; E. lough.—822. E. Hn. that; Hl. that the; rest the.—E. gan for; Hn. Cp. Hl. bigan.—823. E. Hn. aller; Hl. althur; Cp. alther; Pt. Ln. alder.—825. E. paas.—829. E. foreward (badly).—E. Hn. om. I.—831. Hl. ferst a tale.—835. Cp. Pt. Ln. ferther; Hl. forther.—836. E. Hn. shorteste.—840. E. shamefastnesse.—848, 852. E. foreward (badly).—850. All insert that after saugh (needlessly).—854. Hl. thou (for the).—857. Cm. mery; E. myrie.—858. So E. Hl.; rest as ye may here.—Colophon: from MS. Sloane 1685, which has Heere endith, heere, knyghte (sic).

  1. Lines 252 b and 252 c and the subsequent bracketed line numbers apply to the 'Hengwrt' MS (Hn.) only.