Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/Path Pepo

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fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.

Path, päth, n. a way trodden out by the feet: track: road: course of action or conduct:—pl. Paths (päthz).—n. Path′finder, one who explores the route, a pioneer.—adj. Path′less, without a path: untrodden. [A.S. pæth, path; Ger. pfad, Gr. patos, L. pons, pontis, a bridge.]

Pathan, pa-than′, n. an Afghan proper, one of Afghan race settled in India.

Pathetic, -al, pa-thet′ik, -al, adj. showing passion: affecting the tender emotions: causing pity, grief, or sorrow: touching: (anat.) trochlear.—adj. Pathemat′ic, pertaining to emotion.—adv. Pathet′ically.—ns. Pathet′icalness; Path′etism, animal magnetism; Path′etist, one who practises this.—The pathetic, the style or manner fitted to excite emotion. [Gr. pathētikos, subject to suffering.]

Pathic, path′ik, adj. pertaining to disease.—ns. Pathogen′esis, Pathog′eny, mode of production or development of disease.—adjs. Pathogenet′ic, Pathogen′ic, Pathog′enous, producing disease.

Pathognomonic, pā-thog-nō-mon′ik. adj. characteristic of a disease.—n. Pathog′nomy. [Gr. pathos, suffering, gnōmōn, a judge.]

Pathology, pa-thol′o-ji, n. science of the nature, causes, and remedies of diseases: the whole of the morbid conditions in a disease.—adjs. Patholog′ic, -al.—adv. Patholog′ically.—ns. Pathol′ogist, one versed in pathology; Pathophō′bia, morbid dread of disease. [Fr.,—Gr. pathos, suffering, logos, discourse.]

Pathos, pā′thos, n. that in anything (as a word, a look, &c.) which touches the feelings or raises the tender emotions: the expression of deep feeling.—n. Pathom′etry, the distinction of suffering into different kinds. [Gr., from pathein, 2 aorist of paschein, to suffer, feel.]

Pathway, päth′wā, n. a path or way: a footpath: course of action.

Patibulary, pā-tib′ū-la-ri, adj. of or pertaining to a gibbet or gallows. [L. patibulum, a gibbet.]

Patience, pā′shens, n. quality of being patient or able calmly to endure: (Shak.) permission: a card-game, same as Solitaire (q.v.).—adj. Pā′tient, sustaining pain, &c., without repining: not easily provoked: not in a hurry: persevering: expecting with calmness: long-suffering.—n. one who bears or suffers: a person under medical treatment.—adv. Pā′tiently. [Fr.,—L. patentiapatienspati, to bear.]

Patin, Patine, pat′in, n. Same as Paten.

Patina, pat′i-na, n. a bowl, pan, patella: the encrustation which age gives to works of art: the peculiar varnish-like rust which covers ancient bronzes and medals.—adj. Pat′ināted.—n. Patinā′tion. [It.,—L. patina, a dish, a kind of cake.]

Patio, pat′i-ō, n. a courtyard connected with a house. [Sp.,—L. spatium, a space.]

Patly, Patness. See Pat (3).

Patois, pat′waw, n. a vulgar or provincial dialect. [Fr., orig. patrois—L. patriensis, indigenous—patria, one's native country.]

Patonce, pa-tons′, n. (her.) a cross whose four arms expand in curves from the centre, with floriated ends.—adj. Patoncée. [Fr.,—L. patēre, to expand.]

Patres conscripti, pā′tres kon-skrip′tī, conscript fathers: the senators of ancient Rome. [L. patres, pl. of pater, a father, conscripti, pl. of conscriptus,—conscribĕre, to enrol.]

Patrial, pā′tri-al, adj. designating a race or nation.—n. a noun derived from the name of a country.

Patria potestas, pā′tri-ä pō-tes′tas, n. a father's control over his family, in ancient Rome, which was almost unlimited. [L.]

Patriarch, pā′tri-ärk, n. one who governs his family by paternal right: (B.) one of the early heads of families from Adam downwards to Abraham, Jacob, and his sons: in Eastern churches, a dignitary superior to an archbishop.—adjs. Patriarch′al, Patriarch′ic, belonging or subject to a patriarch: like a patriarch: of the nature of a patriarch.—ns. Pā′triarchalism, the condition of tribal government by a patriarch; Pā′triarchate, the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch or church dignitary: the residence of a patriarch; Pā′triarchism, government by a patriarch; Pā′triarchy, a community of related families under the authority of a patriarch. [O. Fr.,—L.,—Gr. patriarchēspatēr, father, archē, beginning.]

Patrician, pa-trish′an, n. a nobleman in ancient Rome, being a descendant of one of the fathers or first Roman senators: a nobleman.—adj. pertaining to the ancient senators of Rome or to their descendants: of noble birth.—n. Patric′iate, the position or duties of a patrician: the patrician order. [L. patriciuspater, patris, a father.]

Patricide, pat′ri-sīd, n. the murder or the murderer of one's own father.—adj. Pat′ricīdal, relating to patricide or the murder of a father. [L. patricidapater, patris, father, cædĕre, to kill.]

Patrico, pat′ri-kō, n. (slang) a gipsy or beggars' hedge-priest.—Also Pat′ercove.

Patrimony, pat′ri-mun-i, n. a right or estate inherited from a father or from one's ancestors: a church estate or revenue.—adj. Patrimō′nial, pertaining to a patrimony: inherited from ancestors.—adv. Patrimō′nially. [Fr. patrimoine—L. patrimonium, a paternal estate—pater, patris, a father.]

Patriot, pā′tri-ot, or pat′-, n. one who truly loves and serves his fatherland.—adj. devoted to one's country.—adj. Pātriot′ic, like a patriot: actuated by a love of one's country: directed to the public welfare.—adv. Pātriot′ically.—n. Pā′triotism, quality of being patriotic: love of one's country. [Fr.,—Low L.,—Gr. patriōtēspatriospatēr, a father.]

Patripassian, pā-tri-pas′i-an, n. a member of one of the earliest classes of anti-Trinitarian sectaries (2d century), who denied the distinction of three persons in one God, maintaining that the sufferings of the Son could be predicated of the Father. [L. pater, father, pati, passus, to suffer.]

Patristic, -al, pa-tris′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to the fathers of the Christian Church.—ns. Pā′trist, one versed in patristics; Patris′ticism, mode of thought, &c., of the fathers.— Patris′tics, the knowledge of the fathers as a subject of study—sometimes Patrol′ogy. [Fr., coined from L. pater, patris, a father.]

Patrol, pa-trōl′, v.i. to go the rounds in a camp or garrison: to watch and protect.—v.t. to pass round as a sentry:—pr.p. patrōl′ling; pa.t. and pa.p. patrōlled′.n. the marching round of a guard in the night: the guard or men who make a patrol: (also Patrōl′man) a policeman who walks about a certain beat for a specified time, such policemen collectively. [O. Fr. patrouille, a patrol, patrouiller, to march in the mud, through a form patouiller, from pate (mod. patte), the paw or foot of a beast, of Teut. origin, cf. Ger. patsche, little hand.]

Patron, pā′trun, n. a protector: one who countenances or encourages: one who has the right to appoint to any office, esp. to a living in the church: a guardian saint:—fem. Pā′troness.—v.t. to treat as a patron.—n. Pā′tronage, the support given by a patron: guardianship of saints: the right of bestowing offices, privileges, or church benefices.—v.t. (Shak.) to support.—adj. Pā′tronal.—n. Pātronisā′tion.—v.t. Pā′tronīse, to act as a patron toward: to give countenance or encouragement to: to assume the air of a patron towards.—n. Pā′tronīser.—adj. Pā′tronīsing.—adv. Pā′tronīsingly.—adj. Pā′tronless. [Fr.,—L. patronuspater, patris, a father.]

Patronymic, -al, pat-rō-nim′ik, -al, adj. derived from the name of a father or an ancestor.—n. Patronym′ic, a name taken from one's father or ancestor. [Gr. patēr, a father, onoma, a name.]

Patroon, pā-trōōn′, n. one who received a grant of land under the old Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey.—n. Patroon′ship. [Dut.; cf. Patron.]

Patte, pat, n. a narrow band keeping a belt or sash in its place. [Fr.]

Patté, Pattée, pa-tā′, adj. (her.) spreading toward the extremity. [O. Fr. patte, a paw.]

Patten, pat′en, n. a wooden sole with an iron ring, worn under the shoe to keep it from the wet: the iron hoop attached to the boot in cases of hip-joint disease: the base of a pillar.—v.i. to go about on pattens.—adj. Patt′ened, provided with pattens. [O. Fr. patin, clog—patte.]

Patter, pat′ėr, v.i. to pat or strike often, as hailstones: to make the sound of short quick steps:—pr.p. patt′ering; pa.t. and pa.p. patt′ered. [A freq. of pat.]

Patter, pat′ėr, v.i. to repeat the Lord's Prayer: to pray: to repeat over and over again indistinctly, to mumble.—v.t. to repeat hurriedly, to mutter.—n. glib talk, chatter: the cant of a class.—ns. Patt′erer, one who sells articles on the street by speechifying; Patt′er-song, a comic song in which a great many words are sung or spoken very rapidly.—Patter flash, to talk the jargon of thieves. [Pater-noster.]

Pattern, pat′ėrn, n. a person or thing to be copied: a model: an example: style of ornamental work: anything to serve as a guide in forming objects: the distribution of shot in a target at which a gun is fired.—ns. Patt′ern-book, a book containing designs of lace, &c., or in which patterns of cloth, &c., are pasted; Patt′ern-box, in weaving, a box at each side of a loom containing the various shuttles that may be used; Patt′ern-card, a piece of cardboard on which specimens of cloth are fixed; Patt′ern-mak′er, one who makes the patterns for moulders in foundry-work; Patt′ern-shop, the place in which patterns for a factory are prepared; Patt′ern-wheel, the count-wheel in a clock movement. [Fr. patron, a protector, pattern.]

Pattle, pat′l, n. a paddle.

Patty, pat′i, n. a little pie:—pl. Patt′ies.—n. Patt′y-pan, a pan in which to bake these. [Fr. pâté.]

Patulous, pat′ū-lus, adj. spreading.

Paucity, paw′sit-i, n. fewness: smallness of number or quantity. [Fr.,—L. paucitaspaucus, few.]

Paul. Same as Pawl.

Pauldron, pawl′dron, n. a separable shoulder-plate in medieval armour. [O. Fr. espalleronespalle, the shoulder.]

Paulician, paw-lish′an, n. a member of a Dualistic Eastern sect, founded about 660, professing peculiar reverence for Paul and his writings.

Pauline, paw′līn, adj. of or belonging to the Apostle Paul.—ns. Paul′inism, the teaching or theology of Paul; Paul′inist, a follower of Paul.

Paulo-post-future, paw′lō-pōst-fū′tūr, adj. and n. the future perfect tense in grammar.

Paunch, pawnsh, or pänsh, n. the belly: the first and largest stomach of a ruminant.—v.t. to eviscerate.—adj. Paunch′y, big-bellied. [O. Fr. panche (Fr. panse)—L. pantex, panticis.]

Pauper, paw′pėr, n. a very poor or destitute person: one supported by charity or by some public provision:—fem. Pau′peress.—n. Pauperisā′tion.—v.t. Pau′perise, to reduce to pauperism.—n. Pau′perism, state of being a pauper. [L.]

Pause, pawz, n. a ceasing: a temporary stop: cessation caused by doubt: suspense: a mark for suspending the voice: (mus.) a mark showing continuance of a note or rest.—v.i. to make a pause.—adjs. Paus′al; Pause′less.—adv. Pause′lessly.—n. Paus′er, one who pauses or deliberates.—adv. Paus′ingly, with pauses: by breaks: deliberately. [Fr.,—L. pausa—Gr. pausis, from pauein, to cause to cease.]

Pavan, pav′an, n. (Shak.) a slow dance, much practised in Spain: music for this dance.—Also Pav′en, Pav′in. [Fr.,—Sp. pavana, pavon—L. pavo, peacock; or It., for Padovana, pertaining to Padua.]

Pave, pāv, v.t. to lay down stone, &c., to form a level surface for walking on: to prepare, as a way or passage: to make easy and smooth in any way.—ns. Pā′vage, Pā′viage, money paid towards paving streets.—adj. Pāved—also Pā′ven.—ns. Pave′ment, a paved road, floor, or side-walk, or that with which it is paved; Pā′ver, Pā′vier, Pā′vior, Pā′viour, one who lays pavements; Pā′ving, the act of laying pavement: pavement.—adj. employed or spent for paving.—Pave the way, to prepare the way for. [Fr. paver—L. pavīre, to beat hard; cog. with Gr. paiein, to beat.]

Pavid, pav′id, adj. timid. [L. pavidus.]

Pavilion, pa-vil′yun, n. a tent: an ornamental building often turreted or domed: (mil.) a tent raised on posts: a canopy or covering: the outer ear: a flag or ensign carried at the gaff of the mizzenmast.—v.t. to furnish with pavilions: to shelter, as with a tent.—n. Pavil′ion-roof, a roof sloping equally on all sides. [Fr. pavillon—L. papilio, a butterfly, a tent.]

Pavise, pav′is, n. a shield for the whole body. [Fr.,—Low L. pavensis, prob. from Pavia in Italy.]

Pavon, pav′on, n. a small triangular flag attached to a lance. [L. pavo, a peacock.]

Pavonine, pav′o-nīn, adj. pertaining to the peacock: resembling the tail of a peacock or made of its feathers: iridescent—also Pavō′nian.—n. Pavōne′ (Spens.), the peacock. [L. pavoninuspavo, pavonis, a peacock.]

Paw, paw, n. the foot of a beast of prey having claws: the hand, used in contempt.—v.i. to draw the forefoot along the ground like a horse.—v.t. to scrape with the forefoot: to handle with the paws: to handle roughly: to flatter.—adj. Pawed, having paws: broad-footed. [O. Fr. poe, powe, prob. Teut.; cf. Dut. poot, Ger. pfote. Perh. related to O. Fr. pate (cf. Patrol). But perh. Celt., as W. pawen, a paw.]

Pawky, pawk′i, adj. (Scot.) sly, arch, shrewd.

Pawl, pawl, n. a short bar lying against a toothed wheel to prevent a windlass, &c., from running back: a catch or click.—v.t. to stop by means of a pawl. [W. pawl, a stake, conn. with L. palus, a stake.]

Pawn, pawn, n. something given as security for the repayment of money or the performance of a promise: state of being pledged.—v.t. to give in pledge.—ns. Pawn′broker, a broker who lends money on pawns or pledges; Pawn′broking, the business of a pawnbroker; Pawnee′, one who takes anything in pawn; Pawn′er, one who gives a pawn or pledge as security for money borrowed; Pawn′shop, a shop of a pawnbroker; Pawn′ticket, a ticket marked with the name of the article, the amount advanced, &c., delivered to the person who has pawned anything.—At pawn, pledged, laid away. [O. Fr. pan, prob. from L. pannus, a cloth.]

Pawn, pawn, n. a common piece in chess. [O. Fr. paon, a foot-soldier—Low L. pedo, pedonis, a foot-soldier—L. pes, pedis, the foot.]

Pawn, pawn, n. a gallery.

Pawnee, paw′nē, n. one of a tribe of Indians in North America.—adj. belonging to this tribe.

Pax, paks, n. the kiss of peace (Rom. xvi. 16): a plaque or tablet used in giving the kiss of peace when the mass is celebrated by a high dignitary—a crucifix, a tablet with the image of Christ on the cross upon it, or a reliquary.—Pax vobis, Pax vobiscum, peace (be) with you. [L.]

Paxwax, paks′waks, n. the strong tendon in the neck of animals. [Orig. fax-wax—A.S. feax, fex, hair, weaxan, to grow.]

Pay, pā, v.t. to satisfy or set at rest: to discharge, as a debt or a duty: to requite with what is deserved: to reward: to punish: to give, render.—v.i. to recompense: to be worth one's trouble: to be profitable:—pa.t. and pa.p. paid.—n. that which satisfies: money given for service: salary, wages.—adj. Pay′able, that may be paid: that ought to be paid: due.—ns. Pay′-bill, a statement of moneys to be paid, to workmen, soldiers, &c.; Pay′-clerk, a clerk who pays wages; Pay′-day, a regular day for payment, as of wages; Pay′-dirt, -grav′el, gravel or sand containing enough gold to be worth working; Payee′, one to whom money is paid; Pay′er; Pay′-list, -roll, a list of persons entitled to pay, with the amounts due to each; Pay′master, the master who pays: an officer in the army or navy whose duty it is to pay soldiers, &c.; Pay′ment, the act of paying: the discharge of a debt by money or its equivalent in value: that which is paid: recompense: reward: punishment; Pay′-off′ice, the place where payments are made; Full′-pay, the whole amount of wages, &c., without deductions; Half′-pay (see Half).—Pay down, to pay in cash on the spot; Pay for, to make amends for: to bear the expense of; Pay off, to discharge: to take revenge upon: to requite: (naut.) to fall away to leeward; Pay out, to cause to run out, as rope; Pay round, to turn the ship's head; Pay the piper, to have all expenses to pay.—In the pay of, hired by. [Fr. payer—L. pacāre, to appease; cf. pax, peace.]

Pay, pā, v.t. (naut., and in the proverb 'the devil to pay') to smear with tar, pitch, &c. [Perh. through O. Fr. peier (Sp. empegar) from L. picāre, to pitch.]

Payne, pān, v.i. (Spens.) to take pains, exert one's self.

Paynim, Painim, pā′nim, n. a pagan: a heathen. [O. Fr. paienisme, paganism—L. paganismuspaganus, a pagan.]

Paynise, pā′nīz, v.t. to harden and preserve, as wood, by successive injections of solutions of calcium or barium sulphide followed by calcium sulphate. [Payne, inventor of the process.]

Paysage, pā′sāj, n. a landscape.—n. Pay′sāgist, a landscape-painter. [Fr.]

Payse, pāz, v.i. (Spens.) to poise, to balance.

Pea, pē, n. a climbing annual herb of the bean family, whose seeds are nutritious:—pl. Peas, a definite number; Pease, a quantity not numbered.—ns. Pea′-rī′fle, a rifle throwing a very small bullet; Peas′cod, Pease′cod, the pod or pericarp of the pea; Pea′-shoot′er, a small metal tube for blowing peas through; Pea′-stone, pisolite.—Egyptian pea, the chick-pea; French pea, the common garden pea: (pl.) canned peas made up in France; Split peas, peas stripped of their membraneous covering in a mill, used for making pea-soup, or ground into meal; Sweet pea, a climbing annual with large and fragrant flowers. [M. E. pese, pl. pesen and peses—A.S. pisa, pl. pisan—L. pisum, Gr. pison.]

Pea, pē, n. a pea-fowl. See Peacock.

Peace, pēs, n. a state of quiet: freedom from disturbance: freedom from war: friendliness: calm: rest: harmony: silence.—interj. silence: be silent: hist!—adj. Peace′able, disposed to peace: free from war or disturbance: quiet: tranquil.—n. Peace′ableness.—adv. Peace′ably.—n. Peace′-break′er, one who breaks or disturbs the peace of others.—adj. Peace′ful, full of peace: quiet: tranquil: calm: serene.—adv. Peace′fully.—n. Peace′fulness.—adj. Peace′less, without peace.—ns. Peace′lessness; Peace′maker, one who makes or produces peace; one who reconciles enemies; Peace′-off′ering, an offering bringing about peace: among the Jews, an offering to God, either in gratitude for past or petition for future mercies (see Lev. iii.; vii. 11-21): satisfaction to an offended person; Peace′-off′icer, an officer whose duty it is to preserve the peace: a police-officer.—adj. Peace′-part′ed (Shak.), dismissed from the world in peace.—n. Peace′-par′ty, a political party advocating the making or the preservation of peace; Peace′-pipe (see Calumet).—Peace establishment, the reduced military strength maintained in time of peace; Peace of God, the ancient cessation from suits between terms, and on Sundays and holy days.—Breach of the peace (see Breach); Hold one's peace, to be silent; Keep peace, abstain from breaking the peace of others; Kiss of peace (see Kiss); Letters of peace (see Pacify); Make one's peace with, to reconcile or to be reconciled with; Queen's, or King's, peace, the public peace, for the maintenance of which the sovereign as head of the executive is responsible; Swear the peace, to take oath before a magistrate that a certain person ought to be put under bond to keep the peace. [O. Fr. pais (Fr. paix)—L. pax, pacis, peace.]

Peach, pēch, v.i. to betray one's accomplice: to become informer.—n. Peach′er. [A corr. of impeach.]

Peach, pēch, n. a tree with a delicious, juicy fruit: the fruit of this tree.—ns. Peach′-bloss′om, a canary-yellow colour: pink with a yellowish tinge: a collector's name for a moth, the Thyatira batis; Peach′-brand′y, a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the peach.—adj. Peach′-col′oured, of the colour of a peach-blossom: pale red.—ns. Peach′ery, a hothouse in which peaches are grown; Peach′-stone, the hard nut enclosing the seed within the fruit of the peach; Peach′-wa′ter, a flavouring extract used in cookery, prepared from the peach.—adj. Peach′y.—n. Peach′-yell′ows, a disease that attacks peach-trees in the eastern United States. [O. Fr. pesche (Fr. pêche, It. persica, pesca)—L. Persicum (malum), the Persian (apple).]

Peacock, pē′kok, n. a large gallinaceous bird of the pheasant kind, remarkable for the beauty of its plumage, esp. that of its tail:—fem. Pea′hen.—v.t. to cause to strut like a peacock.—v.i. to strut about proudly.—ns. Pea′chick, the young of the pea-fowl; Pea′cock-fish, a variegated labroid fish; Pea′-fowl, the peacock or peahen. [A.S. pawe—L. pavo—Gr. taōs—Pers. tāwus; and cock (q.v.).]

Peacod. Same as Peascod.

Pea-crab, pē′-krab, n. a genus of small crustaceans, which live within the mantle-lobes of mussels, oysters, &c.

Peag, pēg, n. polished shell-beads used as money among the North American Indians.—Also Peak (pēk).

Pea-green, pē′-grēn, adj. a shade of green like the colour of green peas.

Pea-jacket, pē′-jak′et, n. a coarse thick jacket worn esp. by seamen.—Also Pea′-coat. [Dut. pij (pron. pī), a coat of coarse thick cloth; jacket.]

Peak, pēk, n. a point: the pointed end of anything: the top of a mountain: (naut.) the upper outer corner of a sail extended by a gaff or yard, also the extremity of the gaff.—v.i. to rise upward in a peak: to look thin or sickly.—v.t. (naut.) to raise the point (of a gaff) more nearly perpendicular.—adjs. Peaked, pointed: ending in a point: having a thin or sickly look; Peak′ing, sickly, pining, sneaking; Peak′ish, having peaks: thin or sickly looking; Peak′y (Tenn.), having or showing peaks. [M. E. pec—Ir. peac, a sharp thing. Cf. Beak, Pike.]

Peal, pēl, n. a loud sound: a number of loud sounds one after another: a set of bells tuned to each other: a chime or carillon: the changes rung upon a set of bells.—v.i. to resound like a bell: to utter or give forth loud or solemn sounds.—v.t. to cause to sound loudly: to assail with noise: to celebrate. [For appeal; O. Fr. apelapeler—L. appellāre, inten. of appellĕre, ap- (ad), to, pellĕre, to drive.]

Pea-maggot, pē′-mag′ut, n. the caterpillar of a small moth which lays its eggs in pods of peas.

Pean, pēn, n. one of the heraldic furs, differing from ermine only in the tinctures, the ground being sable and the spots of gold. [O. Fr. panne, a fur. Cf. Pane.]

Pean. See Pæan.

Pea-nut, or Ground-nut. See Ground.

Pear, pār, n. a common fruit of a somewhat conical shape, and very juicy to the taste: the tree on which it grows, allied to the apple.—adj. Pear′iform, Pear′-shaped, shaped like a pear—that is, thick and rounded at one end, and tapering to the other.—n. Pear′-tree. [A.S. pera or peru—L. pirum, a pear (whence also Fr. poire).]

Pear, pē′ar, n. (Spens.). Same as Peer.

Pearl, pėrl, n. a well-known shining gem, found in several kinds of shellfish, but most esp. in the mother-of-pearl oyster: anything round and clear: anything very precious: a jewel: a white speck or film on the eye: (print.) a size of type immediately above diamond, equal to 5 points (about 15 lines to the inch).—adj. made of, or belonging to, pearls.—v.t. to set or adorn with pearls: to make into small round grains.—v.i. to take a rounded form: to become like pearls.—adj. Pearlā′ceous, resembling pearls or mother-of-pearl: spotted with white.—ns. Pearl′-ash, a purer carbonate of potash, obtained by calcining potashes, so called from its pearly-white colour; Pearl′-bar′ley, barley after the skin has been ground off (prob. for 'pilled barley,' Fr. orge perlé); Pearl′-butt′on, a button made of mother-of-pearl; Pearl′-div′er, one who dives for pearls.—adj. Pearled, set with pearls: like pearls: having a border trimmed with narrow lace.—ns. Pearl′-edge, a thread edging, a border on some ribbons formed by projecting loops of the threads; Pearl′-eye, cataract.—adj. Pearl′-eyed, having a white speck on the eye.—ns. Pearl′-fish′er, one who fishes for pearls; Pearl′-fish′ery, the occupation of fishing for pearls, or the place where it is carried on; Pearl′-fish′ing; Pearl′-gray, a pale gray colour.—adj. of a pale gray colour, like the pearl.—ns. Pearl′iness, state of being pearly; Pearl′-nau′tilus, the pearly nautilus; Pearl′-oys′ter, the oyster which produces pearls; Pearl′-pow′der, a cosmetic for improving the appearance of the skin; Pearl′-white, a material made from fish-scales, used in making artificial pearls: a kind of cosmetic.—adj. Pearl′y, like a pearl, nacreous: yielding pearls: dotted with pearls: clear, transparent: having a pure sweet tone. [Fr. perle, acc. to Diez, prob. either a corr. of L. pirula, a dim. of pirum, a pear, or of L. pilula, dim. of pila, a ball.]

Pearling, pėrl′ing, n. lace made of silk or other kind of thread.—Also Pearl′in. [Ir. peirlin, fine linen.]

Pearling, pėrl′ing, n. the process of removing the outer coat of grain.

Pearmain, pār′mān, n. a name of several varieties of apple.

Peart, pērt, adj. lively: saucy: in good health and spirits.—adv. Peart′ly. [Pert.]

Peasant, pez′ant, n. a countryman: a rustic: one whose occupation is rural labour.—adj. of or relating to peasants, rustic, rural: rude.—n. Peas′antry, the body of peasants or tillers of the soil: rustics: labourers.—Peasant proprietor, a peasant who owns and works his own farm; Peasants' War, a popular insurrection in Germany, in 1525, stamped out with horrible cruelty. [O. Fr. paisant (Fr. paysan)—pays—L. pagus, a district.]

Pease, pēz, n. (Spens.) a blow.

Pease, pēz, indef. pl. of Pea.—ns. Pease′cod, Peas′cod, the pericarp of the pea: a peacod; Pease′-meal, Pease′-porr′idge, Pease′-soup or Pea′-soup, meal, porridge, soup, made from pease.

Peaseweep, pēz′wēp, n. (prov.) the pewit. [Imit.]

Peat, pēt, n. decayed vegetable matter like turf, cut out of boggy places, and when dried used for fuel.—ns. Peat′-bog, a district covered with peat: a place from which peat is dug—also Peat′-bed, Peat′-moor, Peat′-moss; Peat′-hag, a ditch whence peat has been dug; Peat′-reek, the smoke of peat, supposed to add a delicate flavour to whisky; Peat′-spade, a spade having a side wing at right angles for cutting peat in rectangular blocks.—adj. Peat′y, like peat: abounding in, or composed of, peat. [True form beat—M. E. beten, to mend a fire—A.S. bétan, to make better—bót, advantage.]

Peba, pē′ba, n. a South American armadillo.

Pebble, peb′l, n. a small roundish ball or stone: transparent and colourless rock-crystal used for glass in spectacles, a fine kind of glass: a large size of gunpowder.—v.t. to give (to leather) a rough appearance with small rounded prominences.—adjs. Pebb′led, Pebb′ly, full of pebbles.—ns. Pebb′le-pow′der, gunpowder consisting of large cubical grains, and burning slowly—also Cube-powder and Prismatic-powder; Pebb′le-ware, a kind of fine pottery made of various coloured clays mixed together; Pebb′ling, a way of graining leather with a ribbed or roughened appearance. [A.S. papol-(-stán), a pebble(-stone); akin to L. papula, a pustule.]

Pebrine, peb′rin, n. a destructive disease of silkworms.—adj. Peb′rinous. [Fr.]

Pecan, pē-kan′, n. a North American tree whose wood is chiefly used for fuel, also the nut it yields.

Peccable, pek′a-bl, adj. liable to sin.—ns. Peccabil′ity; Pecc′ancy, sinfulness: transgression.—adj. Pecc′ant, sinning: transgressing: guilty: morbid: offensive: bad.—adv. Pecc′antly. [L. peccabilispeccāre, -ātum, to sin.]

Peccadillo, pek-a-dil′lo, n. a little or trifling sin: a petty fault:—pl. Peccadil′los, Peccadil′loes. [Sp. pecadillo, dim. of pecado—L. peccatum, a sin.]

Peccary, pek′ar-i, n. a hog-like quadruped of South America.

Peccavi, pe-kā′vī, I have sinned. [L. 1st pers. sing. perf. indic. act. of peccāre, I sin.]

Pech, Pegh, peh, v.i. (Scot.) to pant, to breathe hard. [Imit.]

Pecht, peht, n. a corruption of Pict.

Peck, pek, n. a measure of capacity for dry goods=2 gallons, or one-fourth of a bushel: a great amount. [M. E. pekke, prob. from peck, 'to pick up.']

Peck, pek, v.t. to strike with the beak: to pick up with the beak: to eat: to strike with anything pointed: to strike with repeated blows.—ns. Peck′er, that which pecks: a woodpecker: (slang) spirit, as in 'to keep one's pecker up'=to keep up one's spirits; Peck′ing, the sport of throwing pebbles at birds.—adj. Peck′ish, somewhat hungry. [Pick.]

Pecksniff, pek′snif, n. one who talks large about virtue and benevolence, while at heart a selfish and unprincipled hypocrite.—adj. Peck′sniffian.—n. Peck′sniffianism. [From Mr Pecksniff in Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit.]

Pecten, pek′ten, n. a genus of molluscs, one species of which is the scallop—so called from the valves having ribs radiating from the umbo to the margin like a comb: a membrane on the eyes of birds.—adjs. Pectinā′ceous, like the scallops; Pec′tinal, of a comb: comb-like: having bones like the teeth of a comb; Pec′tināte, -d, having teeth like a comb: resembling the teeth of a comb.—adv. Pec′tinātely.—n. Pectinā′tion, the state of being pectinated—adjs. Pectinē′al, having a comb-like crest; Pec′tinibranchiate, having comb-like gills; Pec′tiniform, comb-like. [L. pecten, a comb.]

Pectic, pek′tik, adj. congealing, curdling.—ns. Pec′tin, Pec′tine, a soluble gelatinising substance obtained from pectose; Pec′tōse, a substance yielding pectin, contained in the fleshy pulp of unripe fruit. [Gr. pēktikos, congealing—pēgnynai, to make solid.]

Pectoral, pek′tō-ral, adj. relating to the breast or chest.—n. armour for the breast: an ornament worn on the breast, esp. the breastplate worn by the ancient Jewish high-priest, and the square of gold, embroidery, &c. formerly worn on the breast over the chasuble by bishops during mass: a pectoral cross: a pectoral fin: a medicine for the chest.—adv. Pec′torally.—n. Pectoril′oquy, the sound of the patient's voice heard through the stethoscope when applied to the chest in certain morbid conditions of the lungs.—Pectoral fins, the anterior paired fins of fishes; Pectoral theology, a name sometimes applied to the theology of those Christians who make much of experience and emotion, as themselves guides to a knowledge of divine truth—in Neander's phrase, 'Pectus est quod facit theologum.' [Fr.,—L. pectoralispectus, pectoris, the breast.]

Peculate, pek′ū-lāt, v.t. to take for one's own use money or property entrusted to one's care: to embezzle: to steal.—ns. Peculā′tion; Pec′ulātor. [L. peculāri, -ātuspecūlium, private property, akin to pecunia, money.]

Peculiar, pē-kūl′yar, adj. one's own: belonging to no other: appropriate: particular: odd, uncommon, strange.—n. (obs.) private property: a parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the ordinary or bishop in whose diocese it is placed.—v.t. Pecul′iarise, to set apart.—n. Peculiar′ity, quality of being peculiar or singular: that which is found in one and in no other: that which marks a person off from others: individuality.—adv. Pecul′iarly.—n. Pecū′lium, private property, esp. that given by a father to a son, &c.—Peculiar people, the people of Israel: a sect of faith-healers, founded in London in 1838, who reject medical aid in cases of disease, and rely on anointing with oil by the elders, and on prayer, with patient nursing. [Fr.,—L. peculiarispeculium, private property.]

Pecuniary, pē-kū′ni-ar-i, adj. relating to money: consisting of money.—adv. Pecū′niarily.—adj. Pecū′nious, rich. [Fr.,—L. pecuniariuspecunia, money—pecu-, which appears in L. pecudes (pl.), cattle.]

Ped, ped, n. (Spens.) a basket, a hamper. [Pad.]

Pedagogue, ped′a-gog, n. a teacher: a pedant.—v.t. to teach.—adjs. Pedagog′ic, -al, relating to teaching: belonging to, or possessed by, a teacher of children.—ns. Pedagog′ics, Ped′agogism, Ped′agogy, the science of teaching: instruction: discipline. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paidagōgospais, paidos, a boy, agōgos, a leader—agein, to lead.]

Pedal, ped′al, adj. pertaining to a foot.—n. any part of a machine transmitting power from the foot: in musical instruments, a lever moved by the foot.—v.i. to work a pedal.—n. Pēdā′le, a foot-cloth in front of an altar: a collection of canons of general councils in the Greek Church.—adjs. Pēdā′lian, relating to the foot, or to a metrical foot; Ped′āte, divided like a foot: (bot.) having the side lobes of a divided leaf also divided into smaller parts, the midribs of which do not run to a common centre as in the palmate leaf.—adv. Ped′ātely.—adj. Pedat′ifid, divided in a pedate manner, but having the divisions connected at the base.—Combination pedal, a metal pedal in organs controlling several stops at once. [L. pedalispes, pedis, the foot.]

Pedant, ped′ant, n. one who makes a vain display of learning: a pretender to knowledge which he does not possess: (Shak.) a pedagogue.—adjs. Pedant′ic, -al, displaying knowledge for the sake of showing.—adv. Pedant′ically, in a pedantic manner.—ns. Pedant′icism, Ped′antism.—v.i. Ped′antise, to play the pedant.—ns. Pedantoc′racy, government by pedants; Ped′antry, acts, manners, or character of a pedant: vain display of learning: (Swift) the overrating of any kind of knowledge we pretend to. [Fr.,—It. pedante—L. pædagogans, -antis, teaching—pædagogus, a pedagogue.]

Peddle, ped′l, v.i. to travel about with a basket or bundle of goods, esp. of smallwares, for sale: to trifle.—v.t. to retail in small quantities.—ns. Pedd′ler, Ped′lar, Ped′ler, a hawker or travelling merchant; Pedd′lery, Ped′lary, the trade or tricks of a peddler: wares sold by a peddler.—adj. Pedd′ling, unimportant.—n. the trade or tricks of a peddler. [Peddar, pedder, one who carries wares in a ped or basket.]

Pederasty, ped′e-rast-i, n. unnatural commerce of males with males, esp. boys.—n. Ped′erast, one addicted to this vice.—adj. Pederast′ic. [Gr., pais, paidos, a boy, erastēseraein, to love.]

Pederero, ped-e-rē′rō, n. an old gun for discharging stones, pieces of iron, &c., also for firing salutes.

Pedesis, ped-ē′sis, n. the rapid oscillation of small particles in a liquid.

Pedestal, ped′es-tal, n. anything that serves as a foot or a support: the foot or base of a pillar, &c.: the fixed casting which holds the brasses, in which a shaft turns, called also Axle-guard or Pillow-block.—v.t. to place on a pedestal. [Sp.,—It. piedestallo—L. pes, pedis, the foot, It. stallo, a place.]

Pedestrian, pē-des′tri-an, adj. going on foot: performed on foot: pertaining to common people: vulgar.—n. one journeying on foot: an expert walker, one who practises feats of walking or running.—adj. Pēdes′trial, of or pertaining to the foot: pedestrian.—adv. Pēdes′trially.—v.t. Pēdes′trianise, to traverse on foot.—n. Pēdes′trianism, a going on foot: walking: the practice of a pedestrian. [L. pedestrispes, pedis.]

Pedetentous, ped-ē-ten′tus, adj. proceeding slowly.

Pediatrics, ped-i-at′riks, that branch of medical science which relates to children and their special diseases.—Also Ped′iatry. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, iatrikos, relating to a physician.]

Pedicel, ped′i-sel, n. the little footstalk by which a single leaf or flower is fixed on the twig or on the cluster of which it forms a part—also Ped′icle.—n. Pedicellā′ria, a minute structure on the skin of sea-urchins and star-fish, like a stalk with a three or two bladed snapping forceps at the summit.—adjs. Ped′icellate, Pedic′ūlate, provided with a pedicel.—n. Ped′icle, a fetter for the foot. [Fr. pédicelle—L. pediculus, dim. of pes, pedis, the foot.]

Pediculus, pē-dik′ū-lus, n. a genus of lice, or an individual of it.—adjs. Pēdic′ular, Pēdic′ulous, lousy.—ns. Pēdiculā′tion, Pēdiculō′sis, lousiness.

Pedicure, ped′i-kūr, n. the treatment of corns, bunions, or the like: one who treats the feet.

Pediferous, pē-dif′e-rus, adj. footed—also Pēdig′erous.—adj. Ped′iform, foot-shaped.

Pedigree, ped′i-grē, n. a line of ancestors: a list, in order, of the ancestors from whom one has descended: lineage: genealogy.—adj. Ped′igreed, having a pedigree. [Skeat suggests Fr. pied de grue, crane's-foot, from its use in the drawing out of pedigrees.]

Pedimanous, pē-dim′a-nus, adj. having all four feet like hands—of the opossums and lemurs.—n. Ped′imane.

Chambers 1908 Pediment.png

Pediment, ped′i-ment, n. (archit.) a triangular or circular ornament which crowns the fronts of buildings, and serves as a finish to the tops of doors, windows, porticoes, &c.—adjs. Pediment′al; Ped′imented, furnished with a pediment: like a pediment. [L. pedamentumpes, pedis, the foot.]

Pedipalp, ped′i-palp, n. a maxillipalp or maxillary palpus.—adj. pertaining to the same.— Pedipal′pi, an order of Arachnida.—adj. Pedipal′pous.

Pedlar. See Peddle.

Pedobaptism, pē-dō-bap′tizm, n. infant baptism.—n. Pedobap′tist, one who believes in infant baptism. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, baptism.]

Pedometer, pē-dom′et-ėr, n. an instrument, somewhat like a watch, by which the number of the steps of a pedestrian are registered, from which the distance he has walked is measured.—adj. Pedomet′ric. [L. pes, pedis, a foot, Gr. metron, a measure.]

Pedomotor, ped-ō-mō′tor, n. a means for applying the foot as a driving power.—adj. Pedomō′tive.

Pedotrophy, pē-dot′rō-fi, n. the rearing of children.—adj. Pedotroph′ic.—n. Pedot′rophist. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, trephein, to nourish.]

Pedum, pē′dum, n. a shepherd's crook. [L.]

Peduncle, pē-dung′kl, n. the stalk by which a cluster of flowers or leaves is joined to a twig or branch—sometimes same as pedicel—also Pedun′culus.—adjs. Pedun′cular, Pedun′culate, -d. [Fr. pedoncule—Low L. pedunculus—L. pes, pedis, the foot.]

Peece, pēs, n. (Shak.) a fabric, a fortified place.

Peeced, pēsd, adj. (Spens.) imperfect.

Peek, pēk, v.i. to peep.—n. Peek′aboo, a children's game, from the cry made when hiding one's eyes.

Peel, pēl, v.t. to strip off the skin or bark: to bare.—v.i. to come off as the skin: to lose the skin: (slang) to undress.—n. the skin, rind, or bark: (print.) a wooden pole with short cross-piece for carrying printed sheets to the poles on which they are to be dried: the wash or blade of an oar—not the loom: a mark (Chambers 1908 Peel.png) for cattle, for persons who cannot write, &c.—adj. Peeled, stripped of skin, rind, or bark: plundered.—ns. Peel′er, one who peels, a plunderer; Peel′ing, the act of stripping: that which is stripped off: (print.) the removing of the layers of a paper overlay, to get a lighter impression. [O. Fr. peler, to unskin—L. pilāre, to deprive of hair—pilus, a hair; or pellis, a skin.]

Peel, pēl, n. a small Border fortress.—Also Peel′-tow′er. [Pile.]

Peel, pēl, n. a baker's wooden shovel: a fire-shovel. [O. Fr. pele—L. pāla, a spade.]

Peel, pēl, v.t. to plunder: to pillage. [Pill (v.).]

Peeler, pēl′ėr, n. a policeman, from Sir R. Peel, who established the Irish police (1812-18) and improved those in Britain (1828-30).—n. Peel′ite, a follower of Peel in the reform of the Corn-laws in 1846.

Peen, pēn, n. the end of a hammer-head, usually shaped for indenting.—v.t. to strike with such. [Ger. pinne.]

Peenge, pēnj, v.i. (Scot.) to complain childishly.

Peep, pēp, v.i. to chirp, or cry as a chicken.—n. the cry of a young chicken. [Fr. piper—L. pipāre.]

Peep, pēp, v.i. to look through a narrow opening: to look out from concealment: to look slyly or cautiously: to begin to appear.—n. a sly look: a beginning to appear, a glimpse: a narrow view, a slit.—ns. Peep′er, one that peeps: a prying person: a chicken just breaking the shell: (slang) the eye; Peep′-hole, a hole through which one may look without being seen; Peep′-o'-day, the first appearance of light in the morning; Peep′-show, a small show viewed through a small hole, usually fitted with a magnifying-glass; Peep′-sight, a plate on the breach with a small hole through which a gunner takes his sight.—Peeping Tom, a prying fellow, esp. one who peeps in at windows; Peep-o'-day boys, a band of Protestants in the north of Ireland, in the end of the 18th century—opposed to the Catholic Defenders. [Same as above, Fr. piper, to chirp like a bird, then to beguile, whence peep=to look out slyly.]

Peer, pēr, n. an equal in rank, ability, character, &c.: an associate: a nobleman: a member of the House of Lords:—fem. Peer′ess.—n. Peer′age, the rank or dignity of a peer: the body of peers: a book containing a description of the history, connections, &c. of the different peers.—adj. Peer′less, having no peer or equal: matchless.—adv. Peer′lessly.—n. Peer′lessness.—House of Peers, the House of Lords; Spiritual peer, one of the bishops or archbishops qualified to sit as members of the House of Lords; Temporal peer, one of the members of the House of Lords, other than the bishops. [O. Fr. (Fr. pair),—L. par, paris, equal.]

Peer, pēr, v.i. to look narrowly or closely: to peep: to appear:—pa.t. and pa.p. peered.—adj. Peer′y, prying, sly. [M. E. piren—Low Ger. piren, orig. pliren, to draw the eyelids together.]

Peerie, Peery, pēr′i, n. a top spun with a string.

Peevers, pēv′ers, n. (Scot.) the game of hop-scotch.

Peevish, pēv′ish, adj. habitually fretful: easily annoyed: hard to please: showing ill-nature: childish.—adv. Peev′ishly.—n. Peev′ishness. [Prob. imit. of the puling of fretful infants.]

Peewit. Same as Pewit.

Peg, peg, n. a wooden pin for fastening boards, or the soles of shoes: one of the pins on which the strings of a musical instrument are stretched: a reason or excuse for action: a drink of soda-water with brandy, &c.: a degree or step.—v.t. to fasten with a peg: to keep up the market price by buying or selling at a fixed price: to make points during the game of cribbage before the show of hands.—v.i. to work with unremitting effort:—pr.p. peg′ging; pa.t. and pa.p. pegged.—ns. Peg′-fiched, an English game played with pegs or pointed sticks; Peg′-float, a machine for rasping away the ends of pegs inside shoes.—adj. Pegged, fashioned of, or furnished with, pegs.—ns. Peg′ging, the act of fastening with a peg: pegs collectively: a thrashing: determined perseverance in work; Peg′-leg, a wooden leg of the simplest form, or one who walks on such; Peg′-strip, a ribbon of wood cut to the width, &c., of a shoe-peg; Peg′-tank′ard, a drinking-vessel having each one's share marked off by a knob; Peg′-top, a child's plaything made to spin round by winding a string round it and then rapidly pulling it off: (pl.) a kind of trousers, wide at the top and narrow at the ankles.—adj. shaped like a top.—Peg away, to keep continually working.—Take down a peg, to take down, to humble. [Scand.; as in Dan. pig, a spike.]

Pegasus, peg′a-sus, n. a winged horse which arose from the blood of the Gorgon Medusa, when she was slain by Perseus: a genus of small fishes with large, wing-like, pectoral fins: one of the constellations in the northern sky.—adj. Pegasē′an.

Peggy, peg′i, n. one of several small warblers, the whitethroat, &c. [Peggy, from Peg=MegMargaret.]

Pegmatite, peg′ma-tīt, n. coarsely crystallised granite.—adj. Pegmatit′ic.

Pehlevi, pā′le-vē, n. an ancient West Iranian idiom during the period of the Sassanides, largely mixed with Semitic words, and poorer in inflections and terminations than Zend (235-640 A.D.): the characters used in writing this language.—adj. of or pertaining to, or written in, Pehlevi. [Pers.]

Peignoir, pēn-wär′, n. a loose wrapper worn by women during their toilet. [Fr.]

Peinct, pāngkt, v.t. (Spens.) to paint.

Peine, pān, n. a form of punishment by pressing to death—usually Peine forte et dure. [Fr.]

Peirastic, pī-ras′tik, adj. tentative.—n. Peiram′eter, an instrument for measuring the resistances of road-surface to traction. [Gr. peira, a trial.]

Peise, pāz, v.t. (Spens., Shak.) to poise, to weigh.—n. a weight. [Poise.]

Pejoration, pē-jō-rā′shun, n. a becoming worse: deterioration.—v.i. Pē′jorāte.—adj. and n. Pē′jorātive.—n. Pējor′ity. [L. pejor, worse, comp. of malus, bad.]

Pekan, pek′an, n. an American species of Marten—called also Wood-shock, Fisher, and Black-fox.

Pekoe, pē′kō, n. a scented black tea. [Chinese.]

Pelage, pel′āj, n. the hair or wool of a mammal. [Fr.]

Pelagian, pē-lā′ji-an, n. one who holds the views of Pelagius, a British monk of the 4th century, who denied original sin.—adj. pertaining to Pelagius.—n. Pelā′gianism, the doctrines of Pelagius.

Pelagic, pē-laj′ik, adj. inhabiting the deep sea, marine, oceanic. [Gr. pelagos, the sea.]

Pelargonium, pel-ar-gō′ni-um, n. a vast genus of beautiful flowering plants of order Geraniaceæ.—adj. Pēlar′gic, stork-like. [Gr. pelargos, stork, the beaked capsules resembling a stork's beak.]

Pelasgic, pē-las′jik, adj. pertaining to the Pelasgians or Pelasgi, a race spread over Greece in prehistoric times, to whom are ascribed many enormous remains built of unhewn stones, without cement—the so-called Pelasgic architecture. Also Pelas′gian.

Pêle-mêle. See Pell-mell, adv.

Pelerine, pel′ėr-in, n. a woman's tippet or cape with long ends coming down in front. [Fr., a tippet—pèlerin, a pilgrim—L. peregrinus, foreign.]

Pelf, pelf, n. riches (in a bad sense): money. [O. Fr. pelfre, booty; allied to pilfer.]

Pelican, pel′i-kan, n. a large water-fowl, having an enormous distensible gular pouch: an alembic with tubulated head from which two opposite and crooked beaks extend and enter again the body of the vessel—used for continuous distillation: a dentist's instrument: (her.) a pelican above her nest, with wings indorsed, wounding her breast with her beak in order to feed her young with her blood. [Low L. pelicanus—Gr. pelikanpelekus, an axe.]

Pelike, pel′i-kē, n. a large vase like the hydria, double-handled. [Gr.]

Pelisse, pe-lēs′, n. a cloak of silk or other cloth, with sleeves, worn by ladies: a garment lined with fur, a dragoon's jacket with shaggy lining. [Fr.,—Low L. pellicea (vestis)—L. pellis, a skin.]

Pell, pel, n. a skin or hide: a roll of parchment. [O. Fr. pel (Fr. peau)—L. pellis, a skin or hide.]

Pellagra, pe-lā′gra, n. a loathsome skin disease supposed to be common in the rice-producing part of the north of Italy.—n. Pellā′grin, one afflicted with pellagra.—adj. Pellā′grous, like or afflicted with pellagra. [Gr. pella, skin, agra, seizure.]

Pellet, pel′et, n. a little ball, as of lint or wax: a small rounded boss: a small pill: a ball of shot.—adj. Pell′eted, consisting of pellets: pelted, as with bullets. [O. Fr. pelote—L. pila, a ball.]

Pellicle, pel′i-kl, n. a thin skin or film: the film or scum which gathers on liquors.—adj. Pellic′ular.

Pellitory, pel′i-tor-i, n. a genus of plants found most commonly on old walls and heaps of rubbish: the feverfew.—n. Pell′itory-of-Spain, a plant which grows in Algeria, the root of which causes in the hands first a sensation of extreme cold, then one of a burning heat. [L. parietaria, the wall-plant—parietariusparies, parietis, a wall.]

Pell-mell, pel-mel′, adv. in great confusion: promiscuously: in a disorderly manner—also written Pêle-mêle.—n. Pell-mell′ (same as Pall-mall). [O. Fr. pesle-mesle (Fr. pêle-mêle), -mesle being from O. Fr. mesler (Fr. mêler), to mix—Low L. misculāre—L. miscēre; and pesle, a rhyming addition, perh. influenced by Fr. pelle, shovel.]

Pellucid, pe-lū′sid, adj. perfectly clear: letting light through: transparent.—ns. Pellūcid′ity, Pellū′cidness.—adv. Pellū′cidly. [Fr.,—L. pellucidusper, perfectly, lucidus, clear—lucēre, to shine.]

Pelma, pel′ma, n. the sole of the foot.—n. Pelmat′ogram, the impression of the foot. [Gr.]

Pelopid, pel′ō-pid, adj. pertaining to Pelops.—n. one of his descendants.

Peloponnesian, pel-ō-po-nē′zi-an, adj. of or pertaining to the Peloponnesus or southern part of Greece.—n. an inhabitant or a native of the Peloponnesus.—Peloponnesian war, a war between Athens and Sparta (431-404 B.C.). [Gr. Pelops, an ancient Greek hero, nēsos, an island.]

Peloria, pē-lō′ri-a, n. the appearance of regularity in flowers normally irregular—also Pel′orism.—adjs. Pēlor′iate, Pēlor′ic. [Gr. pelōr, a monster.]

Pelt, pelt, n. a raw hide: the quarry or prey of a hawk all torn.—ns. Pelt′monger, a dealer in skins; Pelt′ry, the skins of animals with the fur on them: furs. [M. E. pelt, peltry—O. Fr. pelleteriepelletier, a skinner—L. pellis, a skin.]

Pelt, pelt, v.t. to strike with something thrown: to cast.—v.i. to fall heavily, as rain.—n. a blow from something thrown.—ns. Pel′ter, a shower of missiles, a sharp storm of rain, &c.: a storm of anger; Pel′ting, an assault with a pellet, or with anything thrown. [Cf. Pellet.]

Pelta, pel′ta, n. a light buckler.—n. Pel′tast, a soldier armed with this.—adjs. Pel′tāte, -d, shield-shaped; Peltat′ifid, Pel′tiform. [L.,—Gr. peltē.]

Pelting, pel′ting, adj. (Shak.) paltry, contemptible.—adv. Pelt′ingly. [Paltry.]

Pelvis, pel′vis, n. the bony cavity at the lower end of the trunk, forming the lower part of the abdomen.—adjs. Pel′vic, of or pertaining to the pelvis; Pel′viform, openly cup-shaped.—ns. Pelvim′eter, an instrument for measuring the diameters of the pelvis; Pelvim′etry. [L. pelvis, a basin.]

Pemmican, Pemican, pem′i-kan, n. a North American Indian preparation, consisting of lean venison, dried, pounded, and pressed into cakes, now made of beef and used in Arctic expeditions, &c.

Pemphigus, pem′fi-gus, n. an affection of the skin with pustules.—adj. Pem′phigoid. [Gr.]

Pen, pen, v.t. to shut up: to confine in a small enclosure:—pr.p. pen′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. penned or pent.—n. a small enclosure: a fold for animals: a coop. [A.S. pennan, to shut up, in comp. on pennan, to unpen. Prop. to fasten with a pin.]

Pen, pen, n. one of the large feathers of the wing of a bird: an instrument used for writing, formerly made of the feather of a bird, but now of steel, &c.: style of writing: a female swan—opp. to Cob.—v.t. to write, to commit to paper:—pr.p. pen′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. penned.—adj. Pen′-and-ink′, written, literary: executed with pen and ink, as a drawing.—ns. Pen′-case, a holder for a pen or pens; Pen′craft, skill in penmanship: the art of composition; Pen′-driv′er, a clerk; Pen′ful, what one can write with one dip of ink; Pen′-hold′er, a holder for pens or nibs; Pen′-wī′per, a piece of cloth, leather, &c. for wiping pens after use; Pen′-wom′an, a female writer. [O. Fr. penne—L. penna, a feather.]

Penal, pē′nal, adj. pertaining to, incurring, or constituting punishment: used for punishment.—v.t. Pē′nalise, to lay under penalty.—adv. Pē′nally.—Penal laws, laws prohibiting certain actions under penalties; Penal servitude, hard labour in a prison as a punishment for crime—introduced in England in 1853 instead of transportation; Penal statute, a statute imposing a penalty or punishment for crime. [Fr.,—L. pœnalispœna, Gr. poinē, punishment.]

Penalty, pen′al-ti, n. punishment: suffering in person or property for wrong-doing or for breach of a law: a fine or loss which a person agrees to pay or bear in case of his non-fulfilment of some undertaking: a fine.—Under penalty of, so as to suffer, or (after a negative) without suffering the punishment of.

Penance, pen′ans, n. repentance: external acts performed to manifest sorrow for sin, to seek to atone for the sin and to avert the punishment which, even after the guilt has been remitted, may still remain due to the offence—also the sacrament by which absolution is conveyed (involving contrition, confession, and satisfaction): any instrument of self-punishment.—v.t. to impose penance on: to punish. [O. Fr.; cf. Penitence.]

Penang-lawyer, pe-nang′-law′yėr, n. a walking-stick made from the stem of a Penang palm. [Prob. a corr. of Penang liyar, the wild areca.]

Penannular, pē-nan′ū-lar, adj. shaped almost like a ring. [L. pæna, almost, annularis, annular.]

Penates, pē-nā′tēs, the household gods of ancient Rome who presided over and were worshipped by each family. [L., from root pen- in L. penitus, within, penetralia, the inner part of anything.]

Pence, pens, n. plural of penny (q.v.).

Penchant, päng′shäng, n. inclination: decided taste: bias. [Fr., pr.p. of pencher, to incline, through a form pendicāre, from L. pendēre, to hang.]

Pencil, pen′sil, n. a small hair brush for laying on colours: any pointed instrument for writing or drawing without ink: a collection of rays of light converging to a point: the art of painting or drawing.—v.t. to write, sketch, or mark with a pencil: to paint or draw:—pr.p. pen′cilling; pa.t. and pa.p. pen′cilled.ns. Pen′cil-case, a holder for a pencil; Pen′cil-com′pass, a compass having a pencil on one of its legs for use in drawing.—adjs. Pen′cilled, written or marked with a pencil: having pencils of rays: radiated: (bot.) marked with fine lines, as with a pencil; Pen′cilliform, having the form of a pencil, as of rays.—ns. Pen′cilling, the art of writing, sketching, or marking with a pencil: marks made with a pencil: fine lines on flowers or the feathers of birds: a sketch; Pen′cil-sketch, a sketch made with a pencil. [O. Fr. pincel (Fr. pinceau)—L. penicillum, a painter's brush, dim. of penis, a tail.]

Pend, pend, n. (obs.) an enclosure: (Scot.) a narrow close leading off a main street.

Pend, pend, v.i. to hang, as in a balance, to impend.—adj. Pend′ing, hanging: remaining undecided: not terminated.—prep. during.

Pendant, pen′dant, n. anything hanging, esp. for ornament: an earring: a lamp hanging from the roof: an ornament of wood or of stone hanging downwards from a roof: a long narrow flag, at the head of the principal mast in a royal ship: something attached to another thing of the same kind, an appendix, a companion picture, poem, &c.—ns. Pen′dence, Pen′dency, a hanging in suspense: state of being undecided.—adj. Pen′dent, hanging: projecting: supported above the ground or base: (bot.) hanging downwards, as a flower or a leaf.—n. Penden′tive (archit.), the triangular portion of a dome cut off between two supporting arches at right angles to each other.—adv. Pen′dently.—ns. Pen′dicle, an appendage: something attached to another, as a privilege, a small piece of ground for cultivation; Pen′dūlet, a pendant. [Fr. pendant, pr.p. of pendre, to hang—L. pendens, -entispr.p. of pendēre, to hang.]

Pendragon, pen-drag′on, n. a chief leader: an ancient British chief.—n. Pendrag′onship. [W. pen, head, dragon, a chief.]

Pendulum, pen′dū-lum, n. any weight so hung from a fixed point as to swing freely: the swinging weight which regulates the movement of a clock: a lamp, &c., pendent from a ceiling: a guard-ring of a watch by which it is attached to a chain.—adj. Pen′dular, relating to a pendulum.—v.i. Pen′dulate, to swing, vibrate.—adjs. Pen′dulent, pendulous; Pen′duline, building a pendulous nest; Pen′dulous, hanging loosely: swinging freely, as the pensile nests of birds: (bot.) hanging downwards, as a flower on a curved stalk.—adv. Pen′dulously.—ns. Pen′dulousness, Pen′dulosity.—Pendulum wire, a kind of flat steel wire for clock pendulums.—Compensation pendulum, a pendulum so constructed that its rod is not altered in length by changes of temperature; Compound pendulum, every ordinary pendulum is compound, as differing from a Simple pendulum, which is a material point suspended by an ideal line; Invariable pendulum, a pendulum for carrying from station to station to be oscillated at each so as to fix the relative acceleration of gravity; Long and short pendulum, a pendulum for determining the absolute force of gravity by means of a bob suspended by a wire of varying length. [L., neut. of pendulus, hanging—pendēre, to hang.]

Peneian, pē-nē′yan, adj. relating to the river Peneus in the famous Vale of Tempe in Thessaly.

Penelopise, pē-nel′o-pīz, v.i. to act like Penelope, the wife of Ulysses, who undid at night the work she did by day, to gain time from her suitors.

Penetrate, pen′ē-trāt, v.t. to thrust into the inside: to pierce into: to affect the mind or feelings: to enter and to fill: to understand: to find out.—v.i. to make way: to pass inwards.—ns. Penetrabil′ity, Pen′etrableness.—adj. Pen′etrable, that may be penetrated or pierced by another body: capable of having impressions made upon the mind.—adv. Pen′etrably, so as to be penetrated— Penetrā′lia, the inmost parts of a building: secrets: mysteries.—ns. Pen′etrance, Pen′etrancy, the quality of being penetrant.—adjs. Pen′etrant, subtle, penetrating; Pen′etrating, piercing or entering: sharp: subtle: acute: discerning.—adv. Pen′etratingly.—n. Penetrā′tion, the act or power of penetrating or entering: acuteness: discernment: the space-penetrating power of a telescope.—adj. Pen′etrative, tending to penetrate: piercing: sagacious: affecting the mind.—adv. Pen′etratively, in a penetrative manner.—n. Pen′etrativeness, the quality of being penetrative: penetrative power. [L. penetrāre, -ātumpenes, within.]

Pen-fish, pen′-fish, n. a sparoid fish of genus Calamus.

Penfold. Same as Pinfold.

Penguin, pen′gwin, n. an aquatic bird in the southern hemisphere, unable to fly, but very expert in diving—also Pin′guin.—n. Pen′guinery, a breeding-place of penguins. [Ety. dub.; a corr. of pen-wing, or from W. pen, head, gwen, white.]

Pen-gun, pen′-gun, n. a pop-gun.

Penicil, pen′i-sil, n. a brush of hairs: a pledget for wounds, &c.—adjs. Pen′icillate, Penicil′liform.—n. Penicil′lium, one of the blue-moulds.

Peninsula, pē-nin′sū-la, n. land so surrounded by water as to be almost an island.—adj. Penin′sular, pertaining to a peninsula: in the form of a peninsula: inhabiting a peninsula.—n. Peninsular′ity, state of being, or of inhabiting, a peninsula: narrow provincialism.—v.t. Penin′sulate, to form into a peninsula: to surround almost entirely with water.—Peninsular war, the war in Spain and Portugal, carried on by Great Britain against Napoleon's marshals (1804-1814).—The Peninsula, Spain and Portugal. [L.,—pæne, almost, insula, an island.]

Penis, pē′nis, n. the characteristic external male organ.—adj. Pē′nial. [L., a tail.]

Penistone, pen′i-stōn, n. a coarse frieze.—Penistone flags, a kind of sandstone for paving and building, brought from Penistone in Yorkshire.

Penitent, pen′i-tent, adj. suffering pain or sorrow for sin: contrite: repentant.—n. one who is sorry for sin: one who has confessed sin, and is undergoing penance.—ns. Pen′itence, Pen′itency, state of being penitent: sorrow for sin.—adj. Peniten′tial, pertaining to, or expressive of, penitence.—n. a book of rules relating to penance.—adv. Peniten′tially.—adj. Peniten′tiary, relating to penance: penitential.—n. a penitent: an office at the court of Rome for examining and issuing secret bulls, dispensations, &c.: a book for guidance in imposing penances: a place for the performance of penance: a house of correction and punishment for offenders.—adv. Pen′itently.—Penitential garment, a rough garment worn for penance; Penitential psalms, certain psalms suitable for being sung by penitents, as the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d. [Fr.,—L. pœnitens, -entispœnitēre, to cause to repent.]

Penknife, pen′nīf, n. a small knife, originally for making and mending quill pens.

Penman, pen′man, n. a man skilled in the use of the pen: an author:—pl. Pen′men.—n. Pen′manship, the use of the pen: art or manner of writing.

Penna, pen′a, n. a feather, esp. one of the large feathers of the wings or tail.—adj. Pennā′ceous. [L.]

Pennal, pen′al, n. a freshman at a German university—so called from their pennales or pen-cases.—n. Penn′alism, a system of fagging once in vogue at German universities.

Pen-name, pen′-nām, n. a name, other than his real one, by which an author is known to the public: a nom de plume.

Pennant, pen′ant, n. a flag many times as long as it is wide: a streamer: a long narrow piece of bunting at the mast-heads of war-ships.—Also Penn′on. [Pennant is formed from pennon, with excrescent t; pennon is Fr. pennon—L. penna, a wing.]

Pennate, -d, pen′āt, -ed, adj. winged: (bot.) same as Pinnate.—adj. Pennatif′id (see Pinnatifid).—n. Penne (Spens.), a feather.—adj. Penned, having wings: winged: written with a pen.—n. Pen′ner, a case for holding pens: (her.) a representation of such carried at the girdle.—adjs. Pennif′erous, Pennig′erous, feathered; Pen′niform, like a feather in form. [L. pennatuspenna, wing.]

Pennill, pen′il, n. a kind of Welsh verse, in which the singer has to change words and measure according to the variations of his accompanist on the harp. [W. 'a verse,' pl. pennillion.]

Pennon, pen′on, n. a flag, a medieval knight-bachelor's ensign: a long narrow flag: a pinion or wing.—ns. Penn′oncelle, a small flag like a pennon; Penn′oncier, a knight-bachelor.—adj. Penn′oned, bearing a pennon. [Cf. Pennant.]

Penny, pen′i, n. a copper coin (bronze since 1860), originally silver=112 of a shilling, or four farthings: a small sum: money in general: (N.T.) a silver coin=7½d.: pound, in fourpenny, sixpenny, tenpenny nails=four, six, ten pound weight to the thousand:—pl. Pennies (pen′iz), denoting the number of coins; Pence (pens), the amount of pennies in value.—adjs. Penn′ied, possessed of a penny; Penn′iless, without a penny: without money: poor.—ns. Penn′ilessness; Penn′y-a-lin′er, one who writes for a public journal at so much a line: a writer for pay; Penn′y-a-lin′erism, hack-writing; Penn′y-dog, the tope or miller's dog, a kind of shark; Penn′y-post, a means of carrying a letter for a penny; Penn′y-rent, income; Penn′yweight, twenty-four grains of troy weight (the weight of a silver penny); Penn′y-wis′dom, prudence in petty matters.—adj. Penn′y-wise, saving small sums at the risk of larger: niggardly on improper occasions.—ns. Penn′y-worth, a penny's worth of anything: the amount that can be given for a penny: a good bargain—also Penn′'orth (coll.); Pē′ter's-pence, the name given to an old tribute offered to the Roman Pontiff, now a voluntary contribution.—Penny fee (Scot.), a small wage; Penny gaff (slang), a low-class theatre; Penny mail (Scot.), rent in money, not in kind: a small sum paid to the superior of land; Penny wedding, a wedding ceremonial in Scotland, at which the invited guests made contributions in money to pay the general expenses.—A pretty penny, a considerable sum of money; Turn an honest penny, to earn money honestly. [A.S. penig, oldest form pending, where pend=Eng. pawn, Ger. pfand, Dut. pand, a pledge, all which are from L. pannus, a rag, a piece of cloth.]

Pennyroyal, pen′i-roi-al, n. a species of mint, much in use in domestic medicine, in the form of a warm infusion, to promote perspiration and as an emmenagogue. [Corr. from old form pulial, which is traced through O. Fr. to L. puleium regium, the plant pennyroyal—pulex, a flea.]

Penology, Pænology, pē-nol′ō-ji, n. the study of punishment in its relation to crime: the management of prisons.—n. Penol′ogist. [Gr. poinē, punishment, logia, description.]

Pensée, pang-sā′, n. a thought. [Fr.]

Penseroso, pen-se-rō′so, adj. melancholy: thoughtful:—fem. Penserō′sa. [It.]

Pensile, pen′sīl, adj. hanging: suspended.—ns. Pen′sileness, Pensil′ity. [Fr.,—L.,—pendēre, hang.]

Pension, pen′shun, n. a stated allowance to a person for past services performed by himself or by some relative: a payment made to a person retired from service on account of age or weakness: a boarding-school or boarding-house on the Continent (pron. pong-siong′): a sum paid to a clergyman in place of tithes.—v.t. to grant a pension to.—adjs. Pen′sionable, entitled, or entitling, to a pension; Pen′sionary, receiving a pension: consisting of a pension.—n. one who receives a pension: the syndic or legal adviser of a Dutch town.—ns. Pen′sioner, one who receives a pension: a dependent: one who pays out of his own income for his commons, chambers, &c. at Cambridge University=an Oxford commoner; Pen′sionnaire.—Grand pensionary, the president of the States-general of Holland. [Fr.,—L. pension-empendĕre, pensum, to weigh, pay.]

Pensive, pen′siv, adj. thoughtful: reflecting: expressing thoughtfulness with sadness.—adj. Pen′sived (Shak.), thought over.—adv. Pen′sively.—n. Pen′siveness, state of being pensive: gloomy thoughtfulness: melancholy. [Fr. pensif—L. pensāre, to weigh—pendĕre, to weigh.]

Penstock, pen′stok, n. a trough conveying water to a water-wheel.

Pensum, pen′sum, n. an extra task given a scholar in punishment.

Pent, pa.t. and pa.p. of pen, to shut up.

Pentacapsular, pen-ta-kap′sū-lar, adj. having five capsules.

Pentachord, pen′ta-kord, n. a musical instrument with five strings: a diatonic series of five tones.

Pentacle, pent′a-kl, n. a figure formed by two equilateral triangles intersecting regularly so as to form a six-pointed star: properly a five-pointed object, the same as Pentagram (q.v.), a defence against demons.—adj. Pentac′ular. [O. Fr., but prob. not from Gr. pente, five, but O. Fr. pente, pendre, to hang. As applied to a magical figure prob. a corr. of pentangle, perh. pentacolpendre, to hang, a, on, col, the neck.]

Pentacoccous, pen-ta-kok′us, adj. (bot.) having five grains or seeds.

Pentacrostic, pen-ta-kros′tik, adj. containing five acrostics of the same name.—n. a set of such verses.

Pentact, pen′takt, adj. five-rayed.—Also Pentac′tinal.

Pentad, pen′tad, n. the number five, a group of five things: a mean of temperature, &c., taken every five days.

Pentadactylous, pen-ta-dak′ti-lus, adj. having five digits—also Pentadac′tyl.—n. Pentadac′tylism.

Pentadelphous, pen-ta-del′fus, adj. (bot.) grouped together in five sets.

Pentaglot, pen′ta-glot, adj. of five tongues.—n. a work in five languages.

Chambers 1908 Pentagon.png

Pentagon, pen′ta-gon, n. (geom.) a plane figure having five angles and five sides: a fort with five bastions.—adj. Pentag′onal.—adv. Pentag′onally. [Gr. pentagōnonpente, five, gōnia, angle.]

Chambers 1908 Pentagram.png

Pentagram, pen′ta-gram, n. a five-pointed star: a magic figure so called.—This is the proper pentacle.—adj. Pentagrammat′ic. [Gr. pente, five, gramma, a letter.]


Pentagynia, pent-a-jin′i-a, n. (bot.) a Linnæan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five pistils.—n. Pent′agyn (bot.), a plant having five styles.—adjs. Pentagyn′ian, Pentag′ynous. [Gr. pente, five, gynē, a female.]

Pentahedron, pen-ta-hē′dron, n. (geom.) a solid figure bounded by five plane faces.—adj. Pentahē′dral. [Gr. pente, five, hedra, base.]

Pentalpha, pen-tal′fa, n. a five-pointed star: a pentacle. [Gr. pente, five, alpha.]

Pentameron, pen-tam′e-ron, n. a famous collection of fifty folk-tales (Naples 1637) written in the Neapolitan dialect by Giambattista Basile, supposed to be told during five days by ten old women, for the entertainment of a Moorish slave who has usurped the place of the rightful princess. [It. pentamerone.]

Pentamerous, pen-tam′ėr-us, adj. (bot.) consisting of or divided into five parts.—Pentamerus beds (geol.), a name applied to the upper and lower Llandovery rocks, full of the brachiopods called Pentamerus. [Gr. pente, five, meros, part.]

Pentameter, pen-tam′e-tėr, n. a verse of five measures or feet.—adj. having five feet.—Elegiac pentameter, a verse of six dactylic feet, the third and sixth with the first member only; Iambic pentameter, in English, heroic couplets and blank verse. [Gr. pentametrospente, five, metron, a measure.]

Pentandria, pen-tan′dri-a, n. (bot.) a Linnæan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five stamens.—n. Pentan′der, a plant of the class Pentandria.—adjs. Pentan′drian, Pentan′drous. [Gr. pente, five, anēr, andros, a man, a male.]

Pentangular, pen-tang′gū-lar, adj. having five angles.

Pentapetalous, pen-ta-pet′a-lus, adj. having five petals.

Pentaphyllous, pen-ta-fil′us, adj. having five leaves. [Gr. pente, five, phyllon, a leaf.]

Pentapody, pen-tap′o-di, n. a measure of five feet.

Pentapolis, pen-tap′o-lis, n. a group of five cities.—adj. Pentapol′itan, esp. of the ancient Pentapolis of Cyrenaica in northern Africa. [Gr. pente, five, polis, a city.]

Pentarchy, pen′tär-ki, n. government by five persons. [Gr. pente, five, archē, rule.]

Pentasepalous, pen-ta-sep′a-lus, adj. having five sepals.

Pentaspermous, pent-a-spėr′mus, adj. (bot.) containing five seeds. [Gr. pente, five, sperma, seed.]

Pentastich, pen′ta-stik, n. a composition of five verses.—adj. Pentas′tichous, five-ranked.

Pentastyle, pen′ta-stīl, adj. having five columns in front.—n. (archit.) a building with a portico of five columns. [Gr. pente, five, stylos, a pillar.]

Pentasyllabic, pen-ta-si-lab′ik, adj. having five syllables.

Pentateuch, pen′ta-tūk, n. a name used to denote the Jewish Thorah, the first five books of the Old Testament.—adj. Pen′tateuchal. [Gr. pente, five, teuchos, a book—teuchein, to prepare.]

Pentathlon, pen-tath′lon, n. a contest consisting of five exercises—wrestling, throwing the discus, spear-throwing, leaping, and running—also Pentath′lum.—n. Pentath′lēte, one who contests in the pentathlon. [Gr. pente, five, athlon, a contest.]

Pentatonic, pen-ta-ton′ik, adj. consisting of five tones.

Penteconter, pen′tē-kon-tėr, n. an ancient Greek ship having fifty oars.

Pentecost, pen′tē-kost, n. a Jewish festival held on the fiftieth day after the Passover, in commemoration of the giving of the law: the festival of Whitsuntide, held in remembrance of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the assembled disciples at the feast of Pentecost.—adj. Pentecost′al.— offerings formerly made to the parish priest at Whitsuntide. [Gr. pentēkostē (hēmera), the fiftieth (day).]


Pentelic, -an, pen-tel′ik, -an, adj. describing a kind of marble found at Mount Pentelicus near Athens.

Penteteric, pen-te-ter′ik, adj. occurring every five years. [Gr., pente, five, etos, a year.]

Penthemimeral, pen-thē-mim′e-ral, adj. belonging to a metrical group of 2½ feet. [Gr. pente, five, hēmi, half, meros, a part.]

Penthouse, pent′hows, n. a shed projecting from or adjoining a main building: a protection from the weather over a door or a window: anything resembling a penthouse.—v.t. to provide with a penthouse, shelter by means of a shed sloping from a wall, or anything similar. [A corr. of pentice, which is from Fr. appentis—L. appendicium, an appendage.]

Pentice, pen′tis, n. See Penthouse.


Pentroof, pent′rōōf, n. a roof with a slope on one side only. [A hybrid word, from Fr. pente, a slope—pendre, to hang, and Eng. roof.]

Pentstemon, pent-stē′mon, n. a genus of perennial herbs of the order Scrophularineæ, common in California. [Gr. pente, five, stēmōn, warp, stamen.]

Pentzia, pent′si-a, n. a genus of South African shrubs, having yellow flowers in small heads, usually in corymbs.—The chief species is Pentzia virgata or the 'sheep-fodder bush.' [Named after C. J. Pentz, a student under Thunberg.]

Penult, pē-nult′, or pē′nult, Penult′ima, n. the syllable last but one.—adj. Penult′imāte, last but one.—n. the penult: the last member but one of any series. [L. penultimapæne, almost, ultimus, last.]

Penumbra, pē-num′bra, n. a partial or lighter shadow round the perfect or darker shadow of an eclipse: the part of a picture where the light and shade blend into each other.—adjs. Penum′bral, Penum′brous. [L. pæne, almost, umbra, shade.]

Penury, pen′ū-ri, n. want: absence of means or resources: great poverty.—adj. Penū′rious, showing penury: not bountiful: too saving: sordid: miserly.—adv. Penū′riously.—n. Penū′riousness. [Fr.,—L. penuria; Gr. peina, hunger, penēs, poor.]

Peon, pē′on, n. a day-labourer, esp. in South America, one working off a debt by bondage: in India, a foot-soldier, a messenger, a native policeman.—ns. Pē′onage, Pē′onism, this kind of agricultural servitude. [Sp.,—Low L. pedo—L. pes, pedis, a foot.]

Peony, pē′o-ni, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Ranunculaceæ, with large showy flowers, carmine, in some white. [O. Fr. pione (Fr. pivoine)—L. pæonia, healing—Gr. Paiōn.]

People, pē′pl, n. persons generally: the men, women, and children of a country or a nation: the mass of persons as distinguished from the rulers, &c.: an indefinite number: inhabitants: the vulgar: the populace:—pl. Peoples (pē′plz), races, tribes.—v.t. to stock with people or inhabitants.—People's palace, an institution for the amusement, recreation, and association of the working-classes, as that in the East End of London, inaugurated in 1887.—Chosen people, the Israelites; Good people, or folk, a popular euphemistic name for the fairies; Peculiar people (see Peculiar); The people, the populace, the mass. [Fr. peuple—L. populus, prob. reduplicated from root of plebs, people.]

Peotomy, pē-ot′ō-mi, n. the amputation of the penis. [Gr. peos, the penis, temnein, to cut.]

Peperin, pep′e-rin, n. a volcanic tufa found in the Alban Hills near Rome. [It. peperinopepe, pepper—L. piper, pepper.]

Pepita, pe-pē′ta, n. a nugget of gold. [Sp.]

Peplum, pep′lum, n. an upper robe worn by women in ancient Greece.—Also Pep′lus. [L.,—Gr. peplos.]

Pepo, pē′pō, n. a fruit like that of the gourd. [Gr.]