Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary 1908/Tup Tzigany

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fāte, fär; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.


Tup, tup, n. a ram: the striking-face of a steam-hammer, &c.—v.t. and v.i. to cover with (of a ram): to butt. [Conn. with Low Ger. tuppen, toppen, to pull by the hair; Ger. tupfen, to touch.]

Tupaia, tū-pā′ya, n. the genus of squirrel-shrews found in the Malay Peninsula, &c.

Tupelo, tū′pe-lō, n. a genus of trees, natives chiefly of the southern parts of the United States, including the Black Gum Tree, the Ogeechee Lime or Sour Gum Tree, &c.

Tuque, tūk, n. a Canadian cap made by tucking in one tapered end of a long cylindrical bag, closed at both ends. [Fr. toque.]

Turakoo, tōō′ra-kōō, n. one of the plantain-eaters, a large bird found in Africa, light green, with carmine wing-feathers.—n. Tu′racin, the red colouring matter of its feathers. [African.]

Turanian, tū-rā′ni-an, adj. a philological term which came to be used for the non-Aryan languages of the Ural-Altaic or Finno-Tartar group—sometimes extended so as to include the Dravidian tongues of India, also of the agglutinative type, thus erroneously suggesting affinity between non-Aryan and non-Semitic groups of languages which are probably quite unconnected. [From Turan=not-Iran, a term used by the Sassanian kings of Persia for those parts of their empire outside of Iran, and still the name for Turkestan among the Persians.]

Turban, tur′ban, n. a head-covering worn by Eastern nations, consisting of a cap with a sash wound round it: a circular head-dress worn by ladies: the whole whorls of a shell.—n. Tur′band (Shak.), a turban.—adj. Tur′baned, wearing a turban. [Earlier forms turbant, tulipant (Fr. turban, Port. turbante), from Pers. dulband.]

Turbary, tur′ba-ri, n. the right to go upon the soil of another and dig turf, and carry off the same: a place where peat is dug. [L. turba, turf.]

Turbellaria, tur-be-lā′ri-a, n.pl. a class of flat-worms with ciliated skin—the same as Planaria (q.v.).—adjs. Turbellā′rian; Turbellar′iform.

Turbid, tur′bid, adj. disordered: having the sediment disturbed: muddy: thick.—adv. Tur′bidly.—ns. Tur′bidness, Turbid′ity. [L. turbidusturba, tumult.]

Turbillion, tur-bil′yun, n. a whirl, vortex. [Fr. tourbillon—L. turbo, a whirl.]

Turbinaceous, tur-bi-nā′shus, adj. turfy, peaty.

Turbine, tur′bin, n. a horizontal water-wheel with vertical axis, receiving and discharging water in various directions round the circumference—by parallel, outward, or inward flow.—adj. Tur′binal, turbinate.—n. (anat.) a scroll-like bone.—adjs. Tur′binate, -d, shaped like a top or inverted cone: spiral: (anat.) whorled in shape: whirling like a top.—ns. Turbinā′tion; Tur′bine-pump, a pump in which water is raised by the inverted action of a turbine-wheel; Turb′ine-steam′er, a vessel impelled by a steam-turbine.—adjs. Tur′biniform, Tur′binoid, top-shaped. [Fr.,—L. turbo, turbinis, a whirl—turbāre, to disturb—turba, disorder.]

Turbit, tur′bit, n. a domestic pigeon having white body, coloured wings, and short beak.

Turbo, tur′bō, n. the typical genus of the family of scutibranchiate gasteropods, Turbinidæ.—n. Tur′binite, a fossil shell of this family. [L. turbo, a top.]

Turbot, tur′bot, n. a highly esteemed food-fish of the genus Rhombus and family Pleuronectidæ or Flat-fishes, abundant in the North Sea. [O. Fr., turbot, prob. formed from L. turbo, a spinning-top.]

Turbulent, tur′bū-lent, adj. tumultuous, disturbed: in violent commotion: disposed to disorder: restless: producing commotion.—ns. Tur′bulence, Tur′bulency.—adv. Tur′bulently. [Fr.,—L. turbulentusturba, a crowd.]

Turcism, tur′sizm, n. customs of Turks.

Turco, tur′kō, n. a popular name for one of the Tirailleurs Algériens, a body of native Algerian troops recruited for the French service.

Turcoman=Turkoman.

Turcophile, tur′kō-fil, n. one who favours the Ottoman Turks.—n. Tur′cophilism. [Low L. Turcus, Turk, Gr. philein, to love.]

Turcopolier, tur′kō-po-lēr, n. the commander of the light infantry of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem—always an Englishman. [O. Fr.,—Low L. Turcopuli—Late Gr. tyrcopouloi, light-armed soldiers—Tourcos, Turk, poulos, a child.]

Turd, turd, n. a ball of dung. [A.S. tord.]

Turdus, tur′dus, n. a genus of Passerine birds of the Turdidæ family, the thrushes.—adjs. Tur′diform, Tur′dine, Tur′doid, like a thrush.

Tureen, tū-rēn′, tu-rēn′, n. a large dish for holding soup at table. [Fr. terrine—L. terra, earth.]

Turf, turf, n. the surface of land matted with the roots of grass, &c.: a cake of turf cut off: sod: peat: race-ground: horse-racing, the race-course:—pl. Turfs—(obs.) Turves.—v.t. to cover with peat or sod.—adj. Turf′-clad, covered with turf.—n. Turf′-drain, a drain in which turf is used for a covering.—adj. Tur′fen, made or covered with turf.—ns. Turf′-hedge, a combination of turf and hedge-plants, forming a fence; Tur′finess; Tur′fite (slang), one devoted to horse-racing; Turf′-spade, a long narrow spade for digging turf.—adj. Tur′fy, resembling or abounding in turf: pertaining to horse-racing. [A.S. turf; Ice. torf.]

Turgent, tur′jent, adj. swelling: rising into a tumour: inflated: bombastic.—adv. Tur′gently.—ns. Turges′cence, Turges′cency.—adjs. Turges′cent, swelling: growing big; Tur′gid, swollen: extended beyond the natural size: pompous: bombastic.—ns. Turgid′ity, Tur′gidness.—adv. Tur′gidly.—n. Turgor (tur′gor), state of being full, the normal condition of the capillaries. [L. turg-ens, -entis, pr.p. of turgēre, to swell.]

Turion, tū′ri-on, n. a shoot from an underground bud, growing upward into a new stem.—adj. Turionif′erous. [L. turio, a shoot.]

Turk, turk, n. a native of Turkey, an Ottoman—more widely, a member of a race formerly classed among the 'Turanian' peoples, now more usual to say, of the Mongolo-Tartar ethnological group, and speaking languages of the Ural-Altaic family: a savage fellow: a Mohammedan: a Turkish horse: the plum-weevil or curculio.—ns. Turk′ey-car′pet, a soft thick kind of carpet; Turk′ey-hone, -stone, a kind of oilstone brought from Turkey, and used for hones; Turk′ey-mer′chant, one whose trade is with Turkey or the Turkish East; Turk′ey-red, a fine durable red dye, obtained from madder, but now mostly prepared chemically, first produced in Turkey; Turk′ey-stone, the turquoise.—adj. Turk′ish, pertaining to the Turks or to Turkey.—n. the language of the Turks.—ns. Turk′ish-bath, a kind of hot-air bath in which the patient, after being sweated, is rubbed down, and conducted through a series of cooling-chambers until he regains his normal temperature; Turk's′-head, a kind of knot: a long broom with spherical head: a kind of cooking-pan, having a tin core in the centre.—Turn Turk, to become a Mohammedan: to go to the bad: to become hopelessly obstinate.

Turkey, turk′i, n. a large gallinaceous bird, a native of America—not Turkey.—ns. Turk′ey-buzz′ard, a vulture found largely in North and South America; Turk′ey-cock, the male of the turkey: a foolishly proud person.

Turkis, turk′is, n. an older spelling of turquoise.—Also Turk′ois.

Turkoman, tur′kō-man, n. a member of a branch of the Turkish race, found in Central Asia to the north of Persia.

Turlough, tur′loh, n. a shallow pond in Ireland, dry in summer. [Ir. turloch.]

Turm, turm, n. (Milt.) a troop. [L. turma.]

Turmeric, tur′mėr-ik, n. the rhizome or root-stock of Curcuma longa, a handsome herbaceous plant cultivated all over India, its yellowish tubers yielding a deep-yellow powder used as a chemical test for the presence of alkalies. [Cf. Fr. terre-mérite—as if from L. terra, earth, and merita, deserved; both prob. corr. from an Oriental name.]

Turmoil, tur′moil, n. harassing labour: disturbance.—v.t. to harass with commotion: to weary.—v.i. to be disquieted or in commotion. [Perh. L. tremĕre, to shake.]

Turn, turn, v.i. to whirl round: to hinge: to depend: to issue: to take a different direction or tendency: to become by a change, hence to rebel: to return: to be fickle: to result: to be shaped on the lathe: to sour: to become giddy: to be nauseated: to change from ebb to flow or from flow to ebb: to become inclined in the other direction.—v.t. to cause to revolve: to reverse: to pass round: to direct, apply: to send, drive: to fold, remake: to translate: to make sour: to change the position or the direction of: to nauseate, to make giddy: to direct the mind to: to infatuate or make mad: to cause to return with profit: to transfer: to convert: to form in a lathe: to shape: to round: to adapt: to blunt.—n. act of turning: new direction or tendency, disposition: a walk to and fro: chance: a turning-point, crisis: (mus.) a melodic embellishment, consisting of a principal tone with two auxiliary tones lying respectively next above and below it: a spell of work, a job: (coll.) a nervous shock: change: a winding: a bend: form: manner: opportunity, convenience: act of kindness or malice: a type turned upside down, owing to a temporary want of the proper letter.—ns. Turn′about, a merry-go-round; Turn′back, the strap from the hames to the hip-strap; Turn′buckle, a form of coupling so arranged as to regulate the length or tension of the connected parts; Turn′-cap, a chimney-cowl rotating on a vertical axis; Turn′coat, one who turns his coat—that is, abandons his principles or party; Turn′cock, one who turns on the water for the mains, regulates the fire-plugs, &c., of a water company.—adj. Turn′-down, folded down.—ns. Turn′er, one who, or that which, turns: a tumbler, gymnast, esp. a member of the German Turnvereine or gymnastic bodies, instituted by F. L. Jahn in 1811; Turn′ery, art of turning or of shaping by a lathe: things made by a turner, also the place where these are made: ornamentation by means of the lathe; Turn′ing, a winding: deviation from the proper course: turnery, the art of shaping wood, metal, ivory, or other hard substances into forms having a curved (generally circular or oval) transverse section, and also of engraving figures composed of curved lines upon a smooth surface, by means of a turning-lathe: (mil.) a manœuvre for turning an enemy's position: in pottery, the shaping of a vase: (pl.) chips; Turn′ing-lathe, a lathe used by turners; Turn′ing-point, the point on which a question turns, and which decides the case: a grave and critical period; Turn′ing-rest, a support on a lathe serving as a fulcrum for a hand turning-tool; Turn′ing-saw, a thin-bladed saw contrived for cutting curved wood for chair-backs, &c.—also Sweep-saw, Frame-saw, Scroll-saw; Turn′ing-steel, a piece of hard bar-steel for turning the edge of a tool, &c.; Turn′ing-tool, a tool for shaping the cutting edges of the tools used in seal-engraving; Turn′key, one who turns the keys in a prison: a warder; Turn′-out, the act of coming forth: a strike: a striker: a crowd of spectators: a carriage and its horses: quantity of produce yielded.—adj. Turn′over, made to be turned over or reversed.—n. act of turning over, upset, overthrow: a small pie made by turning half of the circular crust over the other which has been covered with fruit, &c.: an apprentice turned over to a new master to complete his apprenticeship: the total amount of the sales in a business for a specified time.—ns. Turn′pike, a gate set across a road to stop those liable to toll: a turnpike-road—originally a frame consisting of two cross-bars armed with pikes, and turning on a post; Turn′pike-man, a man who collects tolls at a tollgate; Turn′pike-road, a road on which turnpikes or tollgates are established; Turn′-screw, a screw-driver; Turn′skin, a werewolf; Turn′spit, one who turns a spit: a person engaged in some menial occupation: a long-bodied, short-legged dog employed to drive a wheel by which roasting-spits were turned—closely allied to the Dachshund (q.v.); Turn′stile, a revolving frame in a footpath which prevents the passage of cattle, but allows the passage of one person at a time; Turn′stile-reg′ister, a device for recording the number of persons passing through a turnstile; Turn′stone, a small grallatorial bird, intermediate between the true plovers and sandpipers, so called from its habit of turning over pebbles on the beach in search of food; Turn′-ta′ble (same as Traverse-table); Turn′-up, a disturbance: something that appears unexpectedly.—Turn about, to move the face or front to another quarter; Turn about, Turn and turn about, alternately; Turn a, or the, corner (see Corner); Turn a deaf ear to, to ignore; Turn adrift, to unmoor and let float away: to cast off; Turn again, to return: to make a stand; Turn against, to use to the injury of: to render hostile: to rebel against; Turn an enemy's flank, line, or position, to manœuvre so as to attack an enemy in the rear: to outwit; Turn a penny (see Penny); Turn around one's finger, to make any one subservient to one's will; Turn aside, to avert; to deviate: to avert the face; Turn away, to dismiss from service, to discharge: to avert, to look in another direction: to deviate, to depart from; Turn back, to cause to retreat: to return; Turn down, to double or fold down: to hide the face of: to lessen or lower; Turn forth, to expel; Turn in, to bend inward: to enter: (coll.) to go to bed; Turn into, to become by a process of change; Turn off, to deviate: to dismiss: to divert: to complete, achieve by labour: to shut off: (slang) to hang; Turn on, to set running (as water): to depend on: to confront in fight; Turn one's hand to, to apply one's self; Turn one's head, or brain, to make one giddy: to fill with pride or conceit; Turn out, to drive out, to expel: to put to pasture (as cattle): to make for market or for use: to project: to prove in the result: to muster: to leave one's work to take part in a strike: (coll.) to get out of bed; Turn over, to roll over: to change sides: to sell goods to the amount of: to examine by turning the leaves; Turn round, to reverse one's position or party; Turn the back, to flee, to retreat; Turn the back upon, to quit with contempt, to forsake; Turn the edge of, to blunt; Turn the scale, to decide, determine; Turn the stomach, to nauseate; Turn to, to have recourse to: to point to: to result in; Turn turtle (see Turtle); Turn up, to point upwards: to appear, happen: place with face up: to bring the point uppermost: to refer to in a book; Turn upon, to cast back upon, retort; Turn upside down, to throw into complete confusion.—Be turned of, to have advanced beyond—of age; By turns, one after another: at intervals; Ill turn, an injurious act: a change for the worse; In turn, in order of succession; Not to turn a hair, to be quite undisturbed or unaffected; On the turn, at the turning-point, changing; Serve a turn, to answer the purpose; Take one's turn, to occupy one's allotted place; Take turns, to take each the other's place alternately; To a turn, exactly, perfectly. [A.S. tyrnan; Ger. turnen; Fr. tourner; all from L. tornāre, to turn in a lathe—tornus, a turner's wheel—Gr. tornos.]

Turnagra, tur′nā-gra, n. a New Zealand genus of thrush-like birds.

Turner, tur′nėr, n. a Scotch copper coin worth 2d., issued by James VI. [Prob. turney.]

Turney, tur′ni, n. a copper coin current in Ireland under Edward III.—coined at Tours.

Turney, tur′ni, n. (Milt.)=Tourney.

Turnip, tur′nip, n. a biennial plant, with lyrate hispid leaves, the upper part of the root becoming, esp. in cultivation, swollen and fleshy—cultivated as a culinary esculent, and for feeding cattle and sheep.—n. Tur′nip-fly, a muscid fly whose maggots burrow in turnip-roots. [Perh. orig. turn-nepturn, implying something round, and nep—A.S. nǽp, a turnip.]

Turnsole, turn′sōl, n. a name sometimes given to the Heliotrope and other plants, esp. to the euphorbiaceous Chrozophora tinctoria, from which a deep-purple dye is obtained. [Fr.,—tournersol, for soleil—L. sol, the sun.]

Turnus, tur′nus, n. the tiger-swallowtail, a black-striped United States butterfly.

Turpentine, tur′pen-tīn, n. a semi-solid resinous substance secreted by various coniferous trees (the name turpentine is commonly understood to mean the product of the Scotch pine, the swamp pine of America, and the Pinus maritima of France; Venice turpentine is obtained from the larch, and Chian turpentine from the 'Turpentine-tree'—see Pistachio): the oil or spirit of turpentine.—ns. Tur′pentine-moth, a moth whose larvæ bore into the twigs of pine and fir, causing exudation of resin and destroying the twig; Tur′pentine-tree, the terebinth-tree—Pistachia terebinthus.—adj. Tur′pentin′ic.—n. Turps, oil or spirits of turpentine. [O. Fr. turbentine—L. terebinthina (resina), (the resin) of the terebinth—Gr. terebinthos.]

Turpeth, tur′peth, n. the root of Ipomœa (Convolvulus) Turpethum, a Ceylon plant of cathartic properties.—Turpeth mineral, an old name for the yellow basic mercury sulphate.

Turpitude, tur′pi-tūd, n. baseness: extreme depravity or wickedness: vileness of principles and actions. [L. turpitudoturpis, base.]

Turquet, turk′et, n. (Bacon) a figure of a Turk.

Turquoise, tur-koiz′, or tur-kēz′, n. an opaque greenish-blue mineral from Persia, valued as a gem, essentially a phosphate of alumina, harder than feldspar but softer than quartz, occurring as thin veins in slate rock.—n. Turquoise′-green, a pale colour between green and blue—also adj. [O. Fr.; because first brought through Turkey from Persia.]

Turret, tur′et, n. a small tower on a building and rising above it: a movable building containing soldiers, engines, &c., used in medieval sieges: a tower, often revolving, for offensive purposes, on land and water: the raised portion above an American railroad car, for ventilation, &c.—adj. Turr′eted, furnished with turrets: formed like a tower.—ns. Turr′et-gun, a gun designed for use in a revolving turret; Turr′et-ship, an ironclad ship-of-war, whose guns are placed in one or more revolving turrets placed on deck.—adjs. Turric′ulate, -d, having small turrets. [O. Fr. touret (Fr. tourelle).]

Turribant, tur′i-bant, n. (Spens.) a turban.

Turtle, tur′tl, Turtle-dove, tur′tl-duv, n. a genus of Columbidæ, of graceful build, with small head and slender bill, long wings, and long rounded tail, flying swiftly and noiselessly, noted for their beauty of form and colour, their soft cooing, and their affection towards each other and their young. [A.S. turtle; Ger. turtel, Fr. tourtereau, tourterelle; all from the L. name turtur.]

Turtle, tur′tl, n. any tortoise, but esp. the edible Green Turtle, prized for the soup made from its flesh, chief glory of aldermanic banquets—Calipash is the part of the animal that belongs to the upper shield, a fatty, gelatinous substance of a dull-greenish colour; Calipee, the yellowish meat of the lower shield.—v.t. to pursue turtles.—ns. Tur′tleback, a turtle-shaped projection on the bows or stern of a ship for the purpose of keeping off heavy seas; Tur′tler, a hunter of turtles; Tur′tle-shell, tortoise-shell: a turtle-cowry; Tur′tle-soup, a soup the chief ingredient of which is turtle meat; Turt′ling, the catching of turtles.—Green turtle, a species of turtle which attains great size and is the source of real turtle-soup—its eggs also are much prized; Mock turtle, a soup made of calf's head in lieu of turtle meat; Turn turtle, to capsize, as a boat. [A corr. of tortoise, or of Sp. tortuga, or Port. tartaruga, a tortoise.]

Tuscan, tus′kan, adj. of or belonging to Tuscany in Italy: denoting the simplest of the five classic orders of architecture, being a Roman modification of the Doric style, with unfluted columns, and without triglyphs. [L. Tuscanus.]

Tush, tush, n. (Shak.) a tusk.

Tush, tush, interj. pshaw! be silent! an exclamation of impatience, &c.—v.i. to express contempt, &c.

Tusk, tusk, n. a long, protruding tooth on either side of the mouth of certain animals: a sharp point: the share of a plough.—v.t. to gore with the tusks.—adjs. Tusked, Tusk′y.—n. Tusk′er, an elephant whose tusks are grown. [A.S. tusc, tux; Ice. toskr.]

Tuskar, tus′kar, n. an iron implement with wooden shaft, for cutting peat. [Ice. torfskeritorf, turf, skera, to cut.]

Tusser-silk, tus′ėr-silk, n. a kind of dark fawn-coloured silk, generally made without brocading or patterns. [Hind. tassar—Sans. tassara, shuttle.]

Tussilago, tus-i-lā′gō, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Compositæ, suborder Corymbiferæ—the only British species, Tussilago farfara, sometimes called Colt's-foot. [L.]

Tussis, tus′is, n. a cough.—adj. Tussic′ular. [L.]

Tussle, tus′el, n. a struggle.—v.i. to struggle. [Tousle.]

Tussock, tus′ok, n. a tuft of grass or twigs.—ns. Tuss′ock-grass, a large grass of the same genus with the Cock's-foot Grass of Britain, native to the Falkland Islands, remarkable for forming great tufts—also Tuss′ac-grass; Tuss′ock-moth, a grayish-white moth about an inch long, the caterpillars of which do great mischief in hop-grounds, and are known as Hop-dogs.—adj. Tuss′ocky, abounding in tufts. [Perh. conn. with obs. tusk, a tuft; cf. Dan. dusk.]

Tussore. Same as Tusser-silk.

Tut, tut, interj. an exclamation of rebuke, or impatience, &c.—v.i. to express impatience by such.

Tut, tut, n. (prov.) a hassock—also Tote.—v.i. to project.

Tut, tut, n. a piece of work.—v.i. to work by the piece.—ns. Tut′work; Tut′worker; Tut′workman.

Tutamen, tū-tā′men, n. a defence or protection. [L.]

Tutania, tū-tā′ni-a, n. a kind of Britannia metal. [Tutty.]

Tutelage, tū′te-lāj, n. guardianship: state of being under a guardian.—adjs. Tū′telar, Tū′telary, protecting: having the charge of a person or place. [L. tutelatutāri, to guard—tuēri, to see.]

Tutenag, tū′te-nag, n. the zinc imported into Europe from China and the East Indies during the 18th century. [Fr. tutenague, prob. from Pers. and Ar. tūtiya, an oxide of zinc, and -nāk, a suffix, or perh. Hind. nāga, lead.]

Tutiorism, tū′ti-or-izm, n. in R. C. moral theology, the doctrine that in a case of doubt between right and wrong one should take the safer course, i.e. the one in verbal accordance with the law—the same as Rigorism, and the opposite of Probabilism.—n. Tu′tiorist, a rigorist in foregoing sense. [L. tutior, safer, comp. of tutus, safe.]

Tutor, tū′tor, n. one who looks to or takes care of: one who has charge of the education of another: one who hears the lessons of and examines students: a teacher: (Scots law) a guardian of the person as well as of the estate of a boy under fourteen, or girl under twelve:—fem. Tū′toress.—v.t to instruct: to treat with authority or sternness.—n. Tū′torage, the office or authority of a tutor: education, as by a tutor.—adj. Tutō′rial, belonging to, or exercised by, a tutor.—adv. Tutō′rially.—ns. Tū′toring; Tū′torism, Tū′torship; Tū′trix, a female guardian. [L. tutor, a guardian—tuēri, tuitus, to look to.]

Tutsan, tut′san, n. a species of St John's wort, once regarded as a panacea—also called Park-leaves. [O. Fr. toutesaine, tout—L. totus, all, sain—L. sanus, sound.]

Tutti, tōōt′ti, adj. (mus.) all together, as opposed to solo.—n. a concerted movement, rendered by all the voices or instruments together. [It., pl. of tutto, all—L. totus, all.]

Tutti-frutti, tōōt′ti-frōōt′ti, n. a confection, esp. ice-cream, flavoured with different kinds of fruit. [It.]

Tutty, tut′i, n. impure zinc protoxide. [O. Fr. tutie—Late L. tutia—Ar. tūtiya. Cf. Tutenag.]

Tutu, tōō′tōō, n. a New Zealand shrub whose black fruit makes a light wine resembling claret, while the seeds yield a poison like strychnine, and the bark, tannin—also called Tupa-kihi, Wineberry-shrub, and Toot-plant. [Maori.]

Tutulus, tū′tū-lus, n. a conical Etruscan female headdress:—pl. Tū′tulī. [L.]

Tuum, tū′um, adj. thine.—n. that which is thine. [L.]

Tu-whit, tū-hwit′, Tu-whoo, tū-hwōō′, n. an imitation of the note of the owl.—v.i. Tu-whoo′, to cry tu-whoo.

Tuyère. Same as Twyer (q.v.).

Tuza, tōō′za, n. Same as Tucan (q.v.).

Tuzz, tuz, n. (prov.) a tuft of wool, &c.—n. Tuz′zi-muzzy, a posy: the feather hyacinth.—adj. shaggy.—n. Tuz′zy (dim.), a tuft, cluster. [Tussock.]

Twaddle, twod′l, v.i. to talk in a silly manner.—n. silly talk: a senseless talker.—ns. Twadd′ler; Twadd′ling, twaddle or silly talk.—adj. Twadd′ly, consisting of twaddle. [Earlier form twattle, a variant of tattle.]

Twain, twān, n. two, a couple, pair.—In twain, asunder. [A.S. twégen (masc.), two.]

Twal, twäl, a Scotch form of twelve.

Twa-lofted, twä′-lof′ted, adj. (Scot.) having two lofts or stories.

Twang, twang, n. (prov.) a sharp flavour, an aftertaste. [Tang.]

Twang, twang, n. (Scot.) a twinge.

Twang, twang, n. a sharp, quick sound, as of a tight string when pulled and let go: a nasal tone of voice.—v.i. to sound as a tight string pulled and let go: to sound with a quick, sharp noise: to have a nasal sound.—v.t. to make to sound with a twang.—v.i. Twang′le, to twang frequently.—v.t. to cause to twangle. [Tang.]

Twank, twangk, v.i. to emit a twang.

'Twas, twoz, contraction of it was.

Twat, twot, n. pudendum muliebre.

Twattle, twot′l, v.i. to twaddle.—v.t. to repeat idly.—n. chatter: a dwarf.—ns. Twatt′ler, a chatterer; Twatt′ling, a chattering.—adj. gabbling: trifling. [Prob. related to Ice. thwætta, chatter.]

Tway, twā, adj. and n. (Spens.) twain, two.

Twayblade, twā′blād, n. a European orchid, a plant a foot high bearing a raceme of green flowers and a pair of broad ovate leaves—hence the name.

Tweak, twēk, v.t. to twitch, to pull: to pull with sudden jerks.—n. a sharp pinch or twitch: any perplexity. [A by-form of twitch.]

Tweed, twēd, n. a kind of woollen twilled cloth of various patterns, much used for men's suits.—adj. made of tweed. [From a mistaken reading of 'tweels' upon an invoice; not, as supposed, from the Tweed valley.]

Tweedle, twē′dl, v.t. to handle lightly: (obs.) to wheedle.—v.i. to wriggle.—n. a sound such as is made by a fiddle—hence the humorous formations Tweedledum, Tweedledee, used to indicate distinctions that are the slightest possible. [Perh. a variant of twiddle; also confused with wheedle.]

Tweel, Scotch variant of twill.

'Tween, a contraction of between.—adj. 'Tween′-deck, lodging between decks.—n. and adv. 'Tween′-decks.

Tweezers, twēz′ėrz, n.sing. nippers: small pincers for pulling out hairs, &c.—n. Tweez′er-case, a case for carrying tweezers. [Perh. traceable to A.S. twisel, a fork; some confusion is possible with obs. tweeze, a surgeon's case of instruments.]

Twelfth, twelfth, adj. the last of twelve.—n. one of twelve equal parts: (mus.) a tone twelve diatonic degrees above or below a given tone.—ns. Twelfth′-cake, an ornamental cake partaken of on Twelfth-night; Twelfth′-day, -tide, the twelfth day after Christmas, the Epiphany; Twelfth′-night, the eve of Twelfth-day or evening before Epiphany. [A.S. twelftatwelf.]

Twelve, twelv, adj. ten and two.—n. the number next after eleven: the figures representing twelve: (pl.) same as duodecimo.—ns. Twelve′-mo, same as duodecimo, written 12mo; Twelve′-month, twelve months: a year.—adjs. Twelve′-penn′y, worth a shilling: trifling, insignificant; Twelve′score, twelve times twenty, or two hundred and forty.—n. twelvescore yards, a common range in archery, used also in measurements.—Twelve-day writ, a writ in actions on bills, &c., warning defendant to appear within twelve days, otherwise judgment would go against him; Twelve Tables, the name given to the earliest code of Roman law, civil, criminal, and religious, made by the decemvirs in 451-449 B.C.Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, a work of the 2d century after Christ, in which, on the model of Jacob's blessing of the tribes in Genesis xlix., discourses and prophecies of Christ are put into the mouths of the fathers of Israel; The Twelve, the twelve apostles. [A.S. twelf (Ger. zwölf, and Goth. twa-lif), that is 'two and ten' (for twá-, cf. Two; and for -lif, cf. Eleven).]

Twenty, twen′ti, adj. twice ten: nineteen and one: an indefinite number.—n. the number next after nineteen: the figures representing twenty: an old English division of infantry.—adj. Twen′tieth, next after the nineteenth.—n. one of twenty equal parts of anything.—adv. Twen′tyfold, twenty times as many.—adj. Twen′ty-four, twenty and four.—n. the number made up of four and twenty: (pl., print.) a form of composed type or plates containing twenty-four leaves or forty-eight pages, properly arranged for printing and folding: a book made up of sections of twenty-four pages.—n. Twen′ty-four′-mo, written 24mo, a leaf from a sheet of paper folded for a book in twenty-four equal parts: a book made up of leaves folded in twenty-four equal parts. [A.S. twentig, from twén=twegen, twain, two—tig (Goth. tigjus), ten; Ger. zwanzig.]

'Twere, contraction of it were.

Twibill, twī′bil, n. a double-headed battle-axe. [A.S. twi-, two, bill, a bill.]

Twice, twīs, adv. two times: once and again: doubly.—n. Twī′cer, one who is both compositor and pressman.—adj. Twice′-told, told twice: hackneyed.—At twice, at two distinct times. [A.S. twígestwíwatwá, two.]

Twiddle, twid′l, v.t. to twirl idly, to play with.—v.i. to revolve: to trifle with something.—n. a twirl of the fingers.—ns. Twidd′ler; Twidd′ling-line, formerly a piece of small rope for steadying the steering-wheel: a string attached to a compass-gimbal, by which the compass-card may be started so as to play freely.—Twiddle one's fingers, to be idle. [Ety. dub.]

Twifold, twī′fōld, adj. (Spens.) twofold.

Twig, twig, n. a small shoot or branch of a tree: a divining-rod.—v.i. to be active.—adjs. Twig′gen (Shak.), covered with osier; Twig′gy, abounding in twigs or shoots; Twig′some, full of twigs. [A.S. twígtwí-, double; Ger. zweig.]

Twig, twig, v.t. (slang) to observe narrowly: to understand.—v.i. to understand, see. [Prob. Ir. tuigim, discern; cf. Gael. tuig, understand.]

Twight, twīt, v.t. (Spens.) to twit.

Twilight, twī′līt, n. the faint light after sunset and before sunrise: an uncertain view: partial darkness.—adj. of twilight: faintly illuminated: obscure.—v.t. to illuminate faintly.—Twilight of the gods, the same as Ragnarök (q.v.). [Lit. ''tween light,' A.S. twí-, from twá, two, and light.]

'Twill, contraction of it will.

Twill, twil, or Tweel, twēl, n. a woven fabric, in which the warp is raised one thread, and depressed two or more threads for the passage of the weft—thus giving a curious appearance of diagonal lines: a fabric with a twill.—v.t. to weave with a twill. [Low Ger. twillen, to make double, twill, a forked branch; cf. Sw. tvilling, twin, Ger. zwillich, twill.]

Twilled, twild, adj. (Shak., Tempest, iv. 64) a dubious word, either 'hedged,' from twill, to weave with a twill, or more probably 'covered with reeds or sedges,' from obsolete twill, a reed.

Twilly, twil′i, n. a cotton-cleaning machine: willowing-machine. [Willow.]

Twilt, twilt, n. (Scot.) a quilt.

Twin, twin, v.i. (obs.) to be parted in twain.—v.t. to part in twain: to deprive. [See next word.]

Twin, twin, n. a pair: one of two born at a birth: one very like another: a union of two similar crystals, or of two halves of one crystal holding a reversed position to each other, as if one had been turned half round about an axis (the twinning axis), perpendicular to a plane (the twinning plane), which is not for either a plane of symmetry.—adj. twofold, double: being one of two born at a birth: very like another: consisting of two parts nearly alike.—v.t. to couple, mate.—v.i. to be born at the same birth: to bring forth two at once: to be paired or suited:—pr.p. twin′ning; pa.p. twinned.—adj. Twin′-born, born at the same birth.—ns. Twin′-broth′er, one of two brothers who are twins; Twin′-flower, a slender, creeping evergreen—Linnæa borealis; Twin′ling.—adj. Twinned, produced at one birth: united.—ns. Twin′ning; Twin′-screw, a steam-vessel with two propellers on separate shafts; Twin′ship; Twin′-sis′ter, one of two sisters who are twins.—The Twins, the constellation Gemini. [A.S. getwinn, twinn, double—twí, two.]

Twine, twīn, n. a cord composed of two or more threads twisted together: a twist: an intertwining.—v.t. to wind, as two threads together: to twist together: to wind about: to encircle: to blend, intermingle.—v.i. to unite closely: to bend: to make turns: to ascend spirally round a support.—ns. Twine′-hold′er, a case for holding a ball of twine to be unwinded as required; Twī′ner, one who, or that which, twines.—adj. Twī′ning, twisting, winding.—adv. Twī′ningly. [A.S. twín, double-thread (Dut. twijn)—twí-, double.]

Twine, twīn, a variant of twin, to separate.

Twinge, twinj, v.t. to twitch or pinch: to affect with a sharp, sudden pain.—v.i. to have or suffer a sudden, sharp pain, like a twitch.—n. a twitch, a pinch: a sudden, sharp pain. [M. E. twingen, cog. with Ger. zwingen, to constrain; also with Ger. zwangen, to press.]

Twink, twingk, n. (Shak.) a twinkle, a wink.

Twink, twingk, v.t. to twitter, chirp.

Twinkle, twing′kl, v.i. to blink: to shine with a trembling, sparkling light: to sparkle: to open and shut the eyes rapidly: to quiver.—ns. Twink′le, Twink′ling, a quick motion of the eye: the time occupied by a wink: an instant: the scintillation of the fixed stars; Twink′ler. [A.S. twinclian.]

Twinter, twin′tėr, n. (Scot.) a beast two years old.

Twire, twīr, v.i. (obs.) to glance obliquely: (Shak.) to twinkle, to gleam—also Tweer.—n. a shy look. [Cf. Bavarian zwiren, to spy, glance. Cf. Queer and Thwart.]

Twire, twīr, v.t. (obs.) to twist, twirl. [Perh. conn. with A.S. thweran, to stir, churn; cf. Old High Ger. dweran, to stir.]

Twirk, twirk, n. (Scot.) a twitch.

Twirl, twėrl, v.t. to turn round rapidly, esp. with the fingers.—v.i. to turn round rapidly: to be whirled round.—n. a whirl: a rapid circular motion.—n. Twirl′er.—Twirl one's thumbs, to do nothing, be idle. [A.S. thwirel, a whisk for whipping milk—thweran, to churn, stir; Ger. quirl, querl, a stirring-spoon; cf. Ice. thvara, a stick for stirring, Gr. toryne, L. trua.]

Twissel, twis′l, adj. (obs.) double.—n. anything double.—adj. Twiss′el-tongued, double-tongued.

Twist, twist, v.t. to twine: to unite or form by winding together: to form from several threads: to encircle with something: to wreathe: to wind spirally: to turn from the true form or meaning: to fabricate, compose: to cause to move spirally, to bend: to wrest, wrench: to insinuate.—v.i. to be united by winding: to be bent, to move spirally: to revolve: to writhe.—n. that which is twisted: a cord: a single thread: manner of twisting: a contortion: a small roll of tobacco: a strong silk thread: (obs.) coarse cloth: a wrench, strain: a peculiar bent, perversion: (slang) a mixed drink, also an appetite for food.—adjs. Twist′able; Twist′ed.—n. Twīst′er, one who, or that which, twists: a whirling wind, a tornado: the inner part, of the thigh of a rider on horseback: a ball, as in cricket, billiards, &c., sent with a twist.—v.t. Twist′le (Scot.), to twist.—n. a wrench.—Twist of the wrist, the turning movement of the wrist in any work requiring dexterity, any quick action. [A.S. twist, a rope—twí-, two; Ger. zwist, discord.]

Twit, twit, v.t. to remind of some fault, &c.:—pr.p. twit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. twit′ted.n. a reproach.—n. Twit′ter.—adj. Twit′ting.—adv. Twit′tingly, in a twitting manner. [A.S. æt-witan, to reproach—æt, against, witan (Scot. wyte, Ger. ver-weisen), to blame.]

Twitch, twich, v.t. to pull with a sudden jerk: to pluck: to snatch.—v.i. to be suddenly jerked: to move spasmodically: to carp, sneer.—n. a sudden, quick pull: a spasmodic contraction of the muscles: a loop fixed to a stick for fixing on the upper lip of a refractory horse during shoeing, &c.: the sudden narrowing almost to nothing of a vein of ore.—ns. Twitch′er; Twitch′ing. [A.S. twiccian, to pluck; Ger. zwicken.]

Twitch-grass=Couch-grass.

Twitter, twit′ėr, n. a chirp, as of a bird: a tremulous broken sound: a slight trembling of the nerves.—v.i. to make a succession of small tremulous noises: to feel a slight trembling of the nerves, to palpitate.—v.t. to chirp out.—ns. Twitterā′tion, a flutter; Twitt′ering, act of twittering: the sound of twittering: nervous excitement.—adv. Twitt′eringly. [A freq. of twit, allied to titter, &c.; cf. Ger. zwitschern, Sw. qvittra.]

Twitter-bone, twit′ėr-bōn, n. an excrescence on a horse's hoof.—adj. Twitt′er-boned, shaky.

Twit-twat, twit′-twot, n. the house sparrow.

'Twixt. Abbreviation for betwixt.

Twizzle, twiz′l, v.i. (prov.) to roll and twist.

Two, tōō, adj. one and one.—n. the sum of one and one: a figure representing two: a pair.—n. Two′-deck′er, a vessel of war carrying guns on two decks.—adjs. Two′-edged, having two edges; Two′-faced, having two faces, hence double-dealing, false; Two′fold, folded twice: multiplied by two: double.—adv. doubly.—adjs. Two′-forked, Twī′-forked, double-pronged, bifurcate; Two′-front′ed, having fronts on opposite sides; Two′-hand′ed, having, or used with, two hands: ambidexterous, handy: to be used by two persons; Two′-head′ed, having two heads: directed by two authorities; Two′-leaved, having two distinct leaves; Two′-legged, furnished with two legs; Two′-line (print.), having a depth of body equal to double that of the size specified, as two-line nonpareil or pica; Two′-lipped, having two lips: divided so as to resemble two lips; Two′-mast′ed, having two masts; Two′-nee′dle, perforated with two needles.—n. Two′ness, the state of being two, doubleness.—adj. Two′-part′ed, bipartite, divided into two nearly to the base.—n. Twopence (tup′ens, or tōō′pens), the sum of two pennies: (Shak.) a gilt coin worth two pence.—adj. Twopenny (tup′en-i, or tōō′pen-i), of the value of twopence: cheap, worthless.—n. ale sold at twopence a quart.—adjs. Two′-ply, consisting of two thicknesses: woven double; Two′-ranked, alternately arranged in two exactly opposite rows, distichous, bifarious; Two′-sid′ed, having two surfaces, or two aspects or phases: facing two ways, turned in two directions, often with implied sense of double-dealing or deceit; Two′some, two, twofold; Two′-tongued, double-tongued, deceitful; Two′-way, arranged so as to permit a fluid to be turned into either of two channels: (math.) having a double mode of variation; Twī′-nā′tured, Twy′-nā′tured, double natured—human and animal in one.—Be two, to be at variance; In two, asunder. [A.S. twá (fem.), twégen (masc.), twa, (neut.); Ger. zwei, Goth. twai; also Gr. dyo, L. duo, Sans. dva, Gael. da, do.]

Twyer, twī′ėr, n. a tube through which the blast of air enters a blast-furnace.—Also Tuy′ere, Tweer, Tuy′er, Twi′er. [Fr. tuyère, a nozzle.]

Tyburn, tī′burn, n. the historic place of execution in London.—ns. Ty′burn-tick′et, a certificate of exemption from certain parochial offices formerly granted to the prosecutor of a felon to conviction; Ty′burn-tipp′et, a halter; Ty′burn-tree, the gallows.

Tyche, tī′kē, n. (Gr. myth.) the goddess of fortune.

Tychonic, tī-kon′ik, adj. pertaining to the Danish astronomer, Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), or his system.

Tycoon, tī-kōōn′, n. the title by which the Shoguns of Japan were known to foreigners from 1854 to 1868.—n. Tycoon′āte, the shogunate. [Jap. taikun, great prince—Chin. ta, great, kiun, prince.]

Tye, tī, v.t. to wash ore in a tye.—n. a narrow buddle or inclined hutch for washing ore. [Prob. A.S. thweán, to wash.]

Tye, tī, n. an old form of tie: a runner of thick rope or chain, which forms part of the purchase used for hoisting the topsail and top-gallant yards.—ns. Tye′-block, the block on the yard through which the tye is rove, and passes on to be secured at the masthead; Ty′ing, the act of fastening, a fastening.

Tyke. See Tike.

Tylarus, til′a-rus, n. one of the fleshy pads of the toe:—pl. Tyl′arī. [Gr. tylos, a knot.]

Tyle-berry, tīl′-ber′i, n. the coral-plant.

Tyler=Tiler (q.v.).

Tylopod, tī′lō-pod, adj. having padded digits, as the camel.—n. one of the Tylopoda. [Gr. tylos, a knot, pous, podos, a foot.]

Tylosis, tī-lō′sis, n. (bot.) a growth formed in the cavity of a duct by intrusion from a contiguous growing cell: an inflammation of the eyelids: callosity:—pl. Tylō′ses.—adj. Tylot′ic. [Gr.]

Tylote, tī′lōt, n. a cylindrical spicule, knobbed at both ends.—adj. Ty′lōtāte. [Gr. tylōtostylos, a knot.]

Tymbal=Timbal (q.v.).

Tymp, timp, n. the crown of the opening in front of the hearth in a blast-furnace.

Tympan, tim′pan, n. an ancient Irish musical instrument: a frame covered with parchment or cloth, on which the blank sheets are placed to be impressed. [Fr.,—L. tympanum, a drum.]

Tympanum, tim′pan-um, n. (anat.) the membrane which separates the external from the internal ear, often called the drum of the ear: in certain birds, the labyrinth at the bottom of the windpipe: (archit.) the triangular space between sloping and horizontal cornices, or in the corners or sides of an arch: the panel of a door: a water-raising current wheel, originally drum-shaped.—adjs. Tym′panal, Tympan′ic, like a drum: pertaining to the tympanum.—n. a bone of the ear, supporting the drum-membrane.—adj. Tym′paniform, like a tympanum.—ns. Tym′panist, one who plays a drum; Tympanī′tēs, flatulent distension of the belly.—adj. Tympanit′ic.—ns. Tympanī′tis, inflammation of the membrane of the ear; Tym′pany, any swelling, turgidity: tympanites.—Tympanic membrane, the drum-membrane of the ear; Tympanic resonance, the peculiar high-pitched quality of sound produced by percussion over the intestines, &c., when they contain air; Tympanic ring, an annular tympanic bone, to which the tympanic membrane is attached. [L.,—Gr. tympanon, typanon, a kettledrum—typtein, to strike.]

Tynde, tīnd, pa.t. and pa.p. (Spens.) kindled.

Tyne, tīn, v.i. (Spens.) to become lost, to perish.

Tyne, tīn, n. (Spens.) anxiety.

Tynewald, Tinewald, tin′wold, n. the parliament of the Isle of Man. [Cf. Shetland tingwall—Ice. thing-völlrting, a parliament, völlr, a wood.]

Type, tīp, n. a mark or figure struck or stamped upon something: an emblem or figure of something to come, esp. the foreshadowing in the Old Testament of something realised in the New (the antitype): an exemplar, pattern: a representative style, model: the principal device on a coin or medal: a model in nature made the subject of a copy: (nat. hist.) that which combines best the characteristics of a group: the order in which the symptoms of a disease exhibit themselves: a chemical compound which represents the composition and structure of many more complex compounds, esp. Gerhardt's four types—hydrochloric acid, water, ammonia, and marsh-gas: a piece of metal, wood, or other material, on one end of which is cast or engraved a character, sign, &c. used in printing (the sizes are designated by different names in respect of their body—i.e. the depths of the face which comes in contact with the ink plus the bevel and beard.Chambers 1908 Type Styles.png Again, differences in width render the type fat or lean, or, if strongly marked, extended or condensed; differences in style or face are endless—Roman and Italic compose the text of all books in English; Antique (1), Gothic (2), Clarendon (3), and Black-letter (4) are approved styles for display. In America types are designated according to the number of 'points' of which the body consists. The point is 112 of a Pica; Nonpareil would accordingly be called six points. On the Continent the point is 112 of a Cicero, a body between Pica and English): the whole types used in printing.—v.t. to constitute a type of: to reproduce in type: to typify.—adj. Ty′pal.—ns. Type′-bar, a line of type cast in one piece, as in a linotype or typograph; Type′-block, a body of metal or wood on which a type is cut or cast; Type′-cast′ing, the act of founding type in moulds; Type′-cut′ter, one who engraves dies for printing-types; Type′-cyl′inder, the cylinder of a rotary printing-machine on which types or plates are fastened for printing; Type′-found′er, one who founds or casts printers' type; Type′-found′ing; Type′-found′ry, a place where type is founded or manufactured; Type′-gauge, a type-measure: a gauge for estimating the size of type.—adj. Type′-high, of the standard height of type—of a woodcut, &c.—ns. Type′-hold′er, a bookbinder's pallet or holder for use in hand-stamping; Typem′bryo, an embryo at the stage when it first exhibits the type of structure of the phylum or sub-kingdom to which it belongs; Type′-met′al, metal used for making types, a compound of tin, antimony, copper, and lead; Type′-scale, a measuring-rod for type; Type′-set′ter, a compositor: a machine which combines types in proper order for printing; Type′-set′ting.—v.t. and v.i. Type′write, to produce by means of a typewriter: to practise typewriting.—ns. Type′writer, a machine for producing legible characters on paper by mechanical means without the use of a pen: an operator on a typewriting machine; Type′writing.—adjs. Typ′ic, -al, pertaining to, or constituting, a type: emblematic: figurative: (nat. hist.) combining the characteristics of a group: connotative, indicative.—n. Typical′ity.—adv. Typ′ically.—ns. Typ′icalness; Typificā′tion; Typifī′er.—v.t. Typ′ify, to make a type of: to represent by an image or resemblance: to prefigure:—pa.p. and pa.t. typ′ifīed.ns. Ty′pist, one who uses a typewriter; Typo (tī′pō), a compositor; Ty′pocosmy (Bacon), universal terminology; Ty′pograph, a machine for making and setting type; Typog′rapher, a printer; Typograph′ia (pl.), miscellany relating to printers and printing: (sing.) a book of instruction in printing.—adjs. Typograph′ic, -al, pertaining to typography or printing.—adv. Typograph′ically.—ns. Typog′raphist, a student of typography; Typog′raphy, the art of printing: (orig.) the art of representing by types or symbols: the general appearance of printed matter.—adj. Typolog′ical, pertaining to typology.—ns. Typol′ogy, the doctrine of Scripture types or figures; Typomā′nia, a craze for printing one's lucubrations.—Type genus (biol.), a generic type; Type species (biol.), a specific type.—Unity of type, the fundamental agreement in structure seen in organic beings of the same class or order. [Fr. type—L. typus—Gr. typostyptein, to strike.]

Chambers 1908 Type Sizes.png
The above specimen lines show the usual bodies used in the texts of books and newspapers; (1) being set in Great Primer, (2) in English, (3) in Pica, (4) in Small Pica, (5) in Long Primer, (6) in Bourgeois, (7) in Brevier, (8) in Minion, (9) in Nonpareil, (10) in Pearl, and (11) in Diamond.
The black squares represent the square of the body of the type, one of the units of measurement, and is called an em, the letter M being exactly square.
The following is a list of the number of lines to the foot of the respective bodies as made in actual metal types:
Great Primer 51¼ Brevier 111
English 64 Minion 122
Pica 72 Nonpareil 144
Small Pica 83 Pearl 179
Long Primer 89 Diamond 204
Bourgeois 102
A 'font' of type is an indefinite quantity having all the proper proportions of 'sorts,' including capitals and small capitals, lower-case, spaces, points and references, figures, accents, hyphens, ligatures (Chambers 1908 Type Ligatures.png), &c. The proportion of letters ranges from 200 z's to 12,000 e's. The smaller letters are called lower-case, from the case in which the compositor has them arranged; the capitals and small capitals being in a different or upper case.

Typha, tī′fa, n. one of two distinct reed-like plants called Bulrush. [Gr. typhē, cat-tail.]

Typhlitis, tif-lī′tis, n. inflammation of the cæcum and vermiform appendix—also Typhloënterī′tis.—adj. Typhlit′ic. [Gr. typhlos, blind.]

Typhoëan, tī-fō′ē-an, adj. pertaining to Typhoëus, a monster of Greek mythology, buried under Etna.

Typhoid, tī′foid, adj. pertaining to a widely-spread form of enteric or intestinal fever, long confounded with typhus, on account of the characteristic rash of rose-coloured spots—now proved to depend on defective hygienic conditions, and particularly on imperfect disposal of excreta—also Typhoid Fever.—adjs. Ty′phoidal; Typhomalā′rial, having both typhoid and malarial characteristics.—n. Typhomā′nia, a form of sleepless stupor and delirium in some cases of typhus fever—also Typhō′nia. [Gr. typhōdēstyphos, smoke, eidos, likeness. Cf. Typhus.]

Typhoon, tī-fōōn′, n. a violent hurricane which occurs in the Chinese seas.—adj. Typhon′ic. [Port. tufão—Ar., Pers., Hind. tūfān, a hurricane, perh. traceable to Gr. typhōn, whence obs. Eng. typhon, a whirlwind. The Chinese t'ai fung, a great wind, pao fung, fierce wind, are prob. independent.]

Typhus, tī′fus, n. an extremely contagious and very fatal kind of continued fever, specially associated with filth and overcrowding, often occurring as an epidemic—Jail-fever, Camp-fever, &c.—adj. Ty′phous, relating to typhus. [Through Late L. from Gr. typhos, smoke, hence stupor arising from fever—typhein, to smoke.]

Typolite, tip′ō-līt, n. a stone or fossil imprinted with the impression of a plant or animal. [Gr. typos, impression, lithos, stone.]

Typonym, tī′pō-nim, n. a name based upon a type, as a specimen or species.—adjs. Typon′ymal, Typonym′ic. [Gr. typos, type, onyma, name.]

Typorama, tip-ō-rä′ma, n. a model or representation in fac-simile. [Gr. typos, type, horama, view.]

Typtology, tip-tol′ō-ji, n. the so-called science or theory of spirit-rapping.—adj. Typtolog′ical.—n. Typtol′ogist, one by whose means spirit-rappings are alleged to be induced: one who professes to believe in the genuineness of these. [Gr. typtein, to strike, logialegein, to say.]

Tyr, tir, n. the name of a war-god in the old Norse mythology, a son of Odin. [Ice. Týr.]

Tyrant, tī′rant, n. one who uses his power arbitrarily and oppressively: (orig.) an absolute monarch or irresponsible magistrate with unlimited powers or an overruling influence.—v.t. to tyrannise over.—n. Ty′ran (Spens.), a tyrant.—v.t. to play the tyrant over.—n. Tyr′anness (Spens.), a female tyrant.—adjs. Tyran′nic, -al, Tyr′annous, pertaining to or suiting a tyrant: unjustly severe: imperious: despotic.—advs. Tyran′nically, Tyr′annously.—n. Tyran′nicalness.—adj. Tyran′nicidal.—n. Tyran′nicide, the act of killing a tyrant: one who kills a tyrant.—n.pl. Tyran′nidæ, a family of Passerine birds, the typical genus Tyran′nus, the tyrant-birds or tyrant-flycatchers.—v.i. Tyr′annise, to act as a tyrant: to rule with oppressive severity.—v.t. to act the tyrant to.—adj. Tyr′annish.—n. Tyr′anny, the government or authority of a tyrant: absolute monarchy cruelly administered: oppression: cruelty: harshness. [O. Fr. tirant (Fr. tyran)—L. tyrannns—Gr. tyrannos (Doric koiranos).]

Tyre. See Tire.

Tyre, tīr, n. (Spens.) attire, dress.—v.t. to adorn.

Tyrian, tir′i-an, adj. pertaining to Tyre: deep-purple, like the dye formerly prepared at Tyre.—n. a native of Tyre.—Tyrian cynosure, the constellation Ursa Minor, a familiar guide to Tyrian mariners.

Tyriasis, ti-rī′a-sis, n. elephantiasis Arabum: the falling out of the hair.—Also Tyrō′ma. [Gr. tyros, cheese.]

Tyro, Tiro, tī′rō, n. one learning any art: one not yet well acquainted with a subject:—pl. Ty′ros.—ns. Tyroc′iny, pupilage (see Tirocinium); Ty′ronism, state of being a tyro. [L. tiro, a young recruit.]

Tyrolese, tir-ol-ēz′, adj. relating to Tyrol, or to its people.—n. a native of Tyrol.—n. Tyrolienne′, a Tyrolese peasants' dance, or its music.

Tyrotoxicon, tī-rō-tok′si-kon, n. a ptomaine in milk or cheese. [Gr. tyros, cheese, toxicon, poison.]

Tyrrhenian, ti-rē′ni-an, adj. Etruscan—also Tyrrhēne′.—n. an Etruscan.—Tyrrhenian Sea, that part of the Mediterranean between Tuscany and Sardinia and Corsica. [Gr. Tyrrhēnia, Etruria.]

Tyrtæan, tir-tē′an, adj. of or pertaining to Tyrtæus, a Greek martial poet of the 7th century B.C.

Tythe, tīth, n. a form of tithe.

Tzar, Tzarina=Czar, Czarina.

Tzigany, tsig′a-ni, n. a Hungarian gipsy.—adj. [Hung. Cigany, Gipsy; cf. It. Zingano, Zingaro, Ger. Zigeuner.]