Chaucer's Works (ed. Skeat) Vol. I/Fragment A

From Wikisource
Jump to navigation Jump to search



Many men seyn that in sweveninges
Ther nis but fables and lesinges;
But men may somme swevenes seen,
Which hardely ne false been,
But afterward ben apparaunte.       5
This may I drawe to waraunte
An authour, that hight Macrobes,
That halt not dremes false ne lees,
But undoth us the avisioun
That whylom mette king Cipioun.       10
And who-so sayth, or weneth it be
A Iape, or elles [a] nycetee
To wene that dremes after falle,
Let who-so liste a fool me calle.


Maintes gens dient que en songes
N'a se fables non et mençonges;
Mais l'en puet tiex songes songier
Qui ne sunt mie mençongier;
Ains sunt après bien apparant.
Si en puis bien trere à garant
Ung acteur qui ot non Macrobes,
Qui ne tint pas songes à lobes;
Ainçois escrist la vision
Qui avint au roi Cipion.       10
Quiconques cuide ne qui die
Que soit folor ou musardie
De croire que songes aviengne,
Qui ce voldra, pour fol m'en tiengne;

For this trowe I, and say for me,       15 [ 94 ]
That dremes signifiaunce be
Of good and harme to many wightes,
That dremen in her slepe a-nightes
Ful many thinges covertly,
That fallen after al openly.       20
Within my twenty yere of age,       The Dream.
Whan that Love taketh his corage
Of yonge folk, I wente sone
To bedde, as I was wont to done,
And fast I sleep; and in sleping,       25
Me mette swiche a swevening,
That lykede me wonders wel;
But in that sweven is never a del
That it nis afterward befalle,
Right as this dreem wol telle us alle.       30
Now this dreem wol I ryme aright,
To make your hertes gaye and light;
For Love it prayeth, and also
Commaundeth me that it be so
And if ther any aske me,       35
Whether that it be he or she,
How [that] this book [the] which is here
Shal hote, that I rede you here;

Car endroit moi ai-je fiance
Que songe soit senefiance
Des biens as gens et des anuiz,
Car li plusors songent de nuitz
Maintes choses couvertement
Que l'en voit puis apertement.       20
Où vintiesme an de mon aage,
Où point qu'Amors prend le paage
Des jones gens, couchiez estoie
Une nuit, si cum je souloie,
Et me dormoie moult forment,
Si vi ung songe en mon dormant,
Qui moult fut biax, et moult me plot,
Mès onques riens où songe n'ot
Qui avenu trestout ne soit,
Si cum li songes recontoit.       30
Or veil cel songe rimaier,
Por vos cuers plus fere esgaier,
Qu'Amors le me prie et commande;
Et se nus ne nule demande
Comment ge voil que cilz Rommanz
Soit apelez, que ge commanz:

It is the Romance of the Rose,[ 95 ]
In which al the art of love I close.       40
The mater fair is of to make;
God graunte in gree that she it take
For whom that it begonnen is!
And that is she that hath, y-wis,
So mochel prys; and ther-to she       45
So worthy is biloved be,
That she wel oughte of prys and right,
Be cleped Rose of every wight.
That it was May me thoughte tho,
It is fyve yere or more ago;       50
That it was May, thus dremed me,
In tyme of love and Iolitee,
That al thing ginneth waxen gay,
For ther is neither busk nor hay
In May, that it nil shrouded been,       55
And it with newe leves wreen.
These wodes eek recoveren grene,
That drye in winter been to sene;
And the erthe wexeth proud withalle,
For swote dewes that on it falle,       60
And [al] the pore estat forget
In which that winter hadde it set,

Ce est li Rommanz de la Rose,
Où l'art d'Amors est tote enclose.
La matire en est bone et noeve:
Or doint Diez qu'en gré le reçoeve       40
Cele por qui ge l'ai empris.
C'est cele qui tant a de pris,
Et tant est digne d'estre amée,
Qu'el doit estre Rose clamée.
Avis m'iere qu'il estoit mains,
Il a jà bien cincq ans, au mains,
En Mai estoie, ce songoie,
El tems amoreus plain de joie,
El tens où tote riens s'esgaie,
Que l'en ne voit boisson ne haie       50
Qui en Mai parer ne se voille,
Et covrir de novele foille;
Li bois recovrent lor verdure,
Qui sunt sec tant cum yver dure,
La terre méisme s'orgoille
Por la rousée qui la moille,
Et oblie la poverté
Où ele a tot l'yver esté.

And than bicometh the ground so proud[ 96 ]
That it wol have a newe shroud,
And maketh so queynt his robe and fayr       65
That it hath hewes an hundred payr
Of gras and floures, inde and pers,
And many hewes ful dyvers:
That is the robe I mene, y-wis,
Through which the ground to preisen is.       70
The briddes, that han left hir song,
Whyl they han suffred cold so strong
In wedres grille, and derk to sighte,
Ben in May, for the sonne brighte,
So glade, that they shewe in singing,       75
That in hir herte is swich lyking,
That they mote singen and be light.
Than doth the nightingale hir might
To make noyse, and singen blythe.
Than is blisful, many a sythe,       80
The chelaundre and the papingay.
Than yonge folk entenden ay
For to ben gay and amorous,
The tyme is than so savorous.
Hard is his herte that loveth nought       85
In May, whan al this mirth is wrought;

Lors devient la terre si gobe,
Qu'ele volt avoir novele robe;       60
Si scet si cointe robe faire,
Que de colors i a cent paire,
D'erbes, de flors indes et perses,
Et de maintes colors diverses.
C'est la robe que ge devise,
Por quoi la terre miex se prise.
Li oisel, qui se sunt téu
Tant cum il ont le froit éu,
Et le tens divers et frarin,
Sunt en Mai, por le tens serin,       70
Si lié qu'il monstrent en chantant
Qu'en lor cuer a de joie tant,
Qu'il lor estuet chanter par force.
Li rossignos lores s'efforce
De chanter et de faire noise;
Lors s'esvertue, et lors s'envoise
Li papegaus et la kalandre:
Lors estuet jones gens entendre
A estre gais et amoreus
Por le tens bel et doucereus.       80
Moult a dur cuer qui en Mai n'aime,

Whan he may on these braunches here[ 97 ]
The smale briddes singen clere
Hir blisful swete song pitous;
And in this sesoun delytous,       90
Whan love affrayeth alle thing,
Me thoughte a-night, in my sleping,
Right in my bed, ful redily,
That it was by the morowe erly,
And up I roos, and gan me clothe;       95
Anoon I wissh myn hondes bothe;
A sylvre nedle forth I drogh
Out of an aguiler queynt y-nogh,
And gan this nedle threde anon;
For out of toun me list to gon       100
The sowne of briddes for to here,
That on thise busshes singen clere.
And in the swete sesoun that leef is,
With a threde basting my slevis,
Aloon I wente in my playing,       105
The smale foules song harkning;
That peyned hem ful many a payre
To singe on bowes blosmed fayre.
Iolif and gay, ful of gladnesse,

Quant il ot chanter sus la raime
As oisiaus les dous chans piteus.
En iceli tens déliteus,
Que tote riens d'amer s'effroie,
Sonjai une nuit que j'estoie,
Ce m'iert avis en mon dormant,
Qu'il estoit matin durement;
De mon lit tantost me levai,
Chauçai moi et mes mains lavai.       90
Lors trais une aguille d'argent
D'un aguiller mignot et gent,
Si pris l'aguille à enfiler.
Hors de vile oi talent d'aler,
Por oïr des oisiaus les sons
Qui chantoient par ces boissons.
En icele saison novele,
Cousant mes manches à videle,
M'en alai tot seus esbatant,
Et les oiselés escoutant,       100
Qui de chanter moult s'engoissoient
Par ces vergiers qui florissoient.
Jolis, gais et plains de léesce,

Toward a river I gan me dresse,       110 [ 98 ]
That I herde renne faste by;
For fairer playing non saugh I
Than playen me by that riveer,
For from an hille that stood ther neer,
Cam doun the streem ful stif and bold.       115
Cleer was the water, and as cold
As any welle is, sooth to seyne;
And somdel lasse it was than Seine,
But it was straighter wel away.
And never saugh I, er that day,       120
The water that so wel lyked me;
And wonder glad was I to see
That lusty place, and that riveer;
And with that water that ran so cleer
My face I wissh. Tho saugh I wel       125
The botme paved everydel
With gravel, ful of stones shene.
The medewe softe, swote, and grene,
Beet right on the water-syde.
Ful cleer was than the morow-tyde,       130
And ful attempre, out of drede.
Tho gan I walke through the mede,
Dounward ay in my pleying,

Vers une riviere m'adresce.
Que j'oi près d'ilecques bruire;
Car ne me soi aillors déduire
Plus bel que sus cele riviere.
D'ung tertre qui près d'iluec iere
Descendoit l'iaue grant et roide,
Clere, bruiant, et aussi froide       110
Comme puiz, ou comme fontaine,
Et estoit poi mendre de Saine,
Mès qu'ele iere plus espanduë.
Onques mès n'avoie véuë
Cele iaue qui si bien coroit:
Moult m'abelissoit et séoit
A regarder le leu plaisant.
De l'iaue clere et reluisant
Mon vis rafreschi et lavé.
Si vi tot covert et pavé       120
Le fons de l'iaue de gravele;
La praérie grant et bele
Très au pié de l'iaue batoit.
Clere et serie et bele estoit
La matinée et atrempeé;
Lors m'en alai parmi la prée
Contre val l'iaue esbanoiant,

The river-syde costeying.[ 99 ]
And whan I had a whyle goon,       135
I saugh a Gardin right anoon,       The Garden.
Ful long and brood, and everydel
Enclos it was, and walled wel,
With hye walles enbatailled,
Portrayed without, and wel entailled       140
With many riche portraitures;
And bothe images and peyntures
Gan I biholde bisily.
And I wol telle you, redily,
Of thilke images the semblaunce,       145
As fer as I have remembraunce.
A-midde saugh I Hate stonde,       Hate.
That for hir wrathe, ire, and onde,
Semed to been a moveresse,
An angry wight, a chideresse;       150
And ful of gyle, and fel corage,
By semblaunt was that ilke image.
And she was no-thing wel arrayed,
But lyk a wood womman afrayed;
Y-frounced foule was hir visage,       155
And grenning for dispitous rage;
Hir nose snorted up for tene.

Tot le rivage costoiant.
Quant j'oi ung poi avant alé,
Si vi ung vergier grant et lé,       130
Tot clos d'ung haut mur bataillié,
Portrait defors et entaillié
A maintes riches escritures.
Les ymages et les paintures
Ai moult volentiers remiré:
Si vous conteré et diré
De ces ymages la semblance,
Si cum moi vient à remembrance.
Ens où milieu je vi Haïne       Haïne.
Qui de corrous et d'ataïne       140
Sembloit bien estre moverresse,
Et correceuse et tencerresse,
Et plaine de grant cuvertage
Estoit par semblant cele ymage.
Si n'estoit pas bien atornée,
Ains sembloit estre forcenée,
Rechignie avoit et froncié
Le vis, et le nés secorcié.

Ful hidous was she for to sene,[ 100 ]
Ful foul and rusty was she, this.
Hir heed y-writhen was, y-wis,       160
Ful grimly with a greet towayle.
An image of another entayle,       Felonye.
A lift half, was hir faste by;
Hir name above hir heed saugh I,
And she was called Felonye.       165
Another image, that Vilanye       Vilanye.
Y-cleped was, saugh I and fond
Upon the walle on hir right hond.
Vilanye was lyk somdel
That other image; and, trusteth wel,       170
She semed a wikked creature.
By countenaunce, in portrayture,
She semed be ful despitous,
And eek ful proud and outrageous.
Wel coude he peynte, I undertake,       175
That swiche image coude make.
Ful foul and cherlish semed she,
And eek vilaynous for to be,
And litel coude of norture,
To worshipe any creature.       180

Par grant hideur fu soutilliée,
Et si estoit entortillée       150
Hideusement d'une toaille.
Une autre ymage d'autel taille       Felonnie.
A senestre vi delez lui;
Son non desus sa teste lui;
Apellée estoit Felonnie.
Une ymage qui Vilonie       Vilennie.
Avoit non, revi devers destre,
Qui estoit auques d'autel estre
Cum ces deus et d'autel féture;
Bien sembloit male créature,       160
Et despiteuse et orguilleuse,
Et mesdisant et ramponeuse.
Moult sot bien paindre et bien portraire
Cil qui tiex ymages sot faire:
Car bien sembloit chose vilaine,
De dolor et de despit plaine;
Et fame qui petit séust
D'honorer ceus qu'ele déust.

And next was peynted Coveityse,       Coveityse. [ 101 ]
That eggeth folk, in many gyse,
To take and yeve right nought ageyn,
And grete tresours up to leyn.
And that is she that for usure       185
Leneth to many a creature
The lasse for the more winning,
So coveitous is her brenning.
And that is she, for penyes fele,
That techeth for to robbe and stele       190
These theves, and these smale harlotes;
And that is routhe, for by hir throtes
Ful many oon hangeth at the laste.
She maketh folk compasse and caste
To taken other folkes thing,       195
Through robberie, or miscounting.
And that is she that maketh trechoures;
And she [that] maketh false pledoures,
That with hir termes and hir domes
Doon maydens, children, and eek gromes       200
Hir heritage to forgo.
Ful croked were hir hondes two;
For Coveityse is ever wood

Après fu painte Coveitise:       Couvoitise.
C'est cele qui les gens atise       170
De prendre et de noient donner,
Et les grans avoirs aüner.
C'est cele qui fait à usure
Prester mains por la grant ardure
D'avoir conquerre et assembler.
C'est cele qui semont d'embler
Les larrons et les ribaudiaus;
Si est grans pechiés et grans diaus
Qu'en la fin en estuet mains pendre.
C'est cele qui fait l'autrui prendre,       180
Rober, tolir et bareter,
Et bescochier et mesconter;
C'est cele qui les trichéors
Fait tous et les faus pledéors,
Qui maintes fois par lor faveles
Ont as valés et as puceles
Lor droites herites toluës.
Recorbillies et croçües
Avoit les mains icele ymage;
Ce fu drois: car toz jors esrage       190
Coveitise de l'autrui prendre.

To grypen other folkes good.[ 102 ]
Coveityse, for hir winning,       205
Ful leef hath other mennes thing.
Another image set saugh I       Avarice.
Next Coveityse faste by,
And she was cleped Avarice.
Ful foul in peynting was that vice;       210
Ful sad and caytif was she eek,
And al-so grene as any leek.
So yvel hewed was hir colour,
Hir semed have lived in langour.
She was lyk thing for hungre deed,       215
That ladde hir lyf only by breed
Kneden with eisel strong and egre;
And therto she was lene and megre.
And she was clad ful povrely,
Al in an old torn courtepy,       220
As she were al with dogges torn;
And bothe bihinde and eek biforn
Clouted was she beggarly.
A mantel heng hir faste by,
Upon a perche, weyke and smalle;       225
A burnet cote heng therwithalle,
Furred with no menivere,

Coveitise ne set entendre
A riens qu'à l'autrui acrochier;
Coveitise à l'autrui trop chier.
Une autre ymage y ot assise       Avarice.
Coste à coste de Coveitise,
Avarice estoit apelée:
Lede estoit et sale et foulée
Cele ymage, et megre et chetive,
Et aussi vert cum une cive.       200
Tant par estoit descolorée
Qu'el sembloit estre enlangorée;
Chose sembloit morte de fain,
Qui ne vesquit fors que de pain
Petri à lessu fort et aigre;
Et avec ce qu'ele iere maigre,
Iert-ele povrement vestuë,
Cote avoit viés et desrumpuë,
Comme s'el fust as chiens remese;
Povre iert moult la cote et esrese,       210
Et plaine de viés palestiaus.
Delez li pendoit ung mantiaus
A une perche moult greslete,
Et une cote de brunete;
Où mantiau n'ot pas penne vaire,

But with a furre rough of here,[ 103 ]
Of lambe-skinnes hevy and blake;
It was ful old, I undertake.       230
For Avarice to clothe hir wel
Ne hasteth hir, never a del;
For certeynly it were hir loth
To weren ofte that ilke cloth;
And if it were forwered, she       235
Wolde have ful greet necessitee
Of clothing, er she boughte hir newe,
Al were it bad of wolle and hewe.
This Avarice held in hir hande
A purs, that heng [doun] by a bande;       240
And that she hidde and bond so stronge,
Men must abyde wonder longe
Out of that purs er ther come ought,
For that ne cometh not in hir thought;
It was not, certein, hir entente       245
That fro that purs a peny wente.
And by that image, nygh y-nough,       Envye.
Was peynt Envye, that never lough,
Nor never wel in herte ferde
But-if she outher saugh or herde       250

Mes moult viés et de povre afaire,
D'agniaus noirs velus et pesans.
Bien avoit la robe vingt ans;
Mès Avarice du vestir
Se sot moult à tart aatir:       220
Car sachiés que moult li pesast
Se cele robe point usast;
Car s'el fust usée et mauvese,
Avarice éust grant mesese
De noeve robe et grant disete,
Avant qu'ele éust autre fete.
Avarice en sa main tenoit
Une borse qu'el reponnoit,
Et la nooit si durement,
Que demorast moult longuement       230
Ainçois qu'el en péust riens traire,
Mès el n'avoit de ce que faire.
El n'aloit pas à ce béant
Que de la borse ostat néant.
Après refu portrete Envie,       Envie.
Qui ne rist oncques en sa vie,
N'oncques de riens ne s'esjoï,
S'ele ne vit, ou s'el n'oï

Som greet mischaunce, or greet disese.[ 104 ]
No-thing may so moch hir plese
As mischef and misaventure;
Or whan she seeth discomfiture
Upon any worthy man falle,       255
Than lyketh hir [ful] wel withalle.
She is ful glad in hir corage,
If she see any greet linage
Be brought to nought in shamful wyse.
And if a man in honour ryse,       260
Or by his witte, or by prowesse,
Of that hath she gret hevinesse;
For, trusteth wel, she goth nigh wood
Whan any chaunce happeth good.
Envye is of swich crueltee,       265
That feith ne trouthe holdeth she
To freend ne felawe, bad or good.
Ne she hath kin noon of hir blood,
That she nis ful hir enemy;
She nolde, I dar seyn hardely,       270
Hir owne fader ferde wel.
And sore abyeth she everydel
Hir malice, and hir maltalent:

Aucun grant domage retrere.
Nule riens ne li puet tant plere       240
Cum mefet et mesaventure;
Quant el voit grant desconfiture
Sor aucun prodomme chéoir,
Ice li plest moult à véoir.
Ele est trop lie en son corage
Quant el voit aucun grant lignage
Dechéoir et aler à honte;
Et quant aucuns à honor monte
Par son sens ou par sa proéce,
C'est la chose qui plus la bléce.       250
Car sachiés que moult la convient
Estre irée quant biens avient.
Envie est de tel cruauté,
Qu'ele ne porte léauté
A compaignon, ne à compaigne;
N'ele n'a parent, tant li tiengne,
A cui el ne soit anemie:
Car certes el ne vorroit mie
Que biens venist, neis à son pere.
Mès bien sachiés qu'ele compere       260
Sa malice trop ledement:

For she is in so greet turment[ 105 ]
And hath such [wo], whan folk doth good,       275
That nigh she melteth for pure wood;
Hir herte kerveth and to-breketh
That god the peple wel awreketh.
Envye, y-wis, shal never lette
Som blame upon the folk to sette.       280
I trowe that if Envye, y-wis,
Knewe the beste man that is
On this syde or biyond the see,
Yit somwhat lakken him wolde she.
And if he were so hende and wys,       285
That she ne mighte al abate his prys,
Yit wolde she blame his worthinesse,
Or by hir wordes make it lesse.
I saugh Envye, in that peynting,
Hadde a wonderful loking;       290
For she ne loked but awry,
Or overthwart, al baggingly.
And she hadde [eek] a foul usage;
She mighte loke in no visage
Of man or womman forth-right pleyn,       295
But shette oon yë for disdeyn;

Car ele est en si grant torment,
Et a tel duel quant gens bien font,
Par ung petit qu'ele ne font.
Ses felons cuers l'art et detrenche,
Qui de li Diex et la gent venche.
Envie ne fine nule hore
D'aucun blasme as gens metre sore;
Je cuit que s'ele cognoissoit
Tot le plus prodome qui soit       270
Ne deçà mer, ne delà mer,
Si le vorroit-ele blasmer;
Et s'il iere si bien apris
Qu'el ne péust de tot son pris
Rien abatre ne deprisier,
Si vorroit-ele apetisier
Sa proéce au mains, et s'onor
Par parole faire menor.
Lors vi qu'Envie en la painture
Avoit trop lede esgardéure;       280
Ele ne regardast noient
Fors de travers en borgnoiant;
Ele avoit ung mauvès usage,
Qu'ele ne pooit où visage
Regarder reins de plain en plaing,
Ains clooit ung oel par desdaing,

So for envye brenned she[ 106 ]
Whan she mighte any man [y]-see,
That fair, or worthy were, or wys,
Or elles stood in folkes prys.       300
Sorowe was peynted next Envye       Sorowe.
Upon that walle of masonrye.
But wel was seen in hir colour
That she hadde lived in langour;
Hir semed have the Iaunyce.       305
Nought half so pale was Avaryce,
Nor no-thing lyk, [as] of lenesse;
For sorowe, thought, and greet distresse,
That she hadde suffred day and night
Made hir ful yelwe, and no-thing bright,       310
Ful fade, pale, and megre also.
Was never wight yit half so wo
As that hir semed for to be,
Nor so fulfilled of ire as she.
I trowe that no wight mighte hir plese,       315
Nor do that thing that mighte hir ese;
Nor she ne wolde hir sorowe slake,
Nor comfort noon unto hir take;

Qu'ele fondoit d'ire et ardoit,
Quant aucuns qu'ele regardoit,
Estoit ou preus, ou biaus, ou gens,
Ou amés, ou loés de gens.       290
Delez Envie auques près iere       Tristesse.
Tristece painte en la maisiere;
Mès bien paroit à sa color
Qu'ele avoit au cuer grant dolor,
Et sembloit avoir la jaunice.
Si n'i feïst riens Avarice
Ne de paleur, ne de mégrece,
Car li soucis et la destrece,
Et la pesance et les ennuis
Qu'el soffroit de jors et de nuis,       300
L'avoient moult fete jaunir,
Et megre et pale devenir.
Oncques mès nus en tel martire
Ne fu, ne n'ot ausinc grant ire
Cum il sembloit que ele éust:
Je cuit que nus ne li séust
Faire riens qui li péust plaire:
N'el ne se vosist pas retraire,
Ne réconforter à nul fuer
Du duel qu'ele avoit à son cuer.       310

So depe was hir wo bigonnen,[ 107 ]
And eek hir herte in angre ronnen,       320
A sorowful thing wel semed she.
Nor she hadde no-thing slowe be
For to forcracchen al hir face,
And for to rende in many place
Hir clothes, and for to tere hir swire,       325
As she that was fulfilled of ire;
And al to-torn lay eek hir here
Aboute hir shuldres, here and there,
As she that hadde it al to-rent
For angre and for maltalent.       330
And eek I telle you certeynly
How that she weep ful tenderly.
In world nis wight so hard of herte
That hadde seen hir sorowes smerte,
That nolde have had of hir pitee,       335
So wo-bigoon a thing was she.
She al to-dasshte hir-self for wo,
And smoot togider her handes two.
To sorwe was she ful ententyf,
That woful recchelees caityf;       340
Hir roughte litel of pleying,
Or of clipping or [of] kissing;
For who-so sorweful is in herte

Trop avoit son cuer correcié,
Et son duel parfont commencié.
Moult sembloit bien qu'el fust dolente,
Qu'ele n'avoit mie esté lente
D'esgratiner tote sa chiere;
N'ele n'avoit pas sa robe chiere,
Ains l'ot en mains leus descirée
Cum cele qui moult iert irée.
Si cheveul tuit destrecié furent,
Et espandu par son col jurent,       320
Que les avoit trestous desrous
De maltalent et de corrous.
Et sachiés bien veritelment
Qu'ele ploroit profondément:
Nus, tant fust durs, ne la véist,
A cui grant pitié n'en préist,
Qu'el se desrompoit et batoit,
Et ses poins ensemble hurtoit.
Moult iert à duel fere ententive
La dolereuse, la chetive;       330
Il ne li tenoit d'envoisier,
Ne d'acoler, ne de baisier:
Car cil qui a le cuer dolent,

Him liste not to pleye ne sterte,[ 108 ]
Nor for to daunsen, ne to singe,       345
Ne may his herte in temper bringe
To make Ioye on even or morowe;
For Ioye is contraire unto sorowe.
Elde was peynted after this,       Elde.
That shorter was a foot, ywis,       350
Than she was wont in her yonghede.
Unnethe hir-self she mighte fede;
So feble and eek so old was she
That faded was al hir beautee.
Ful salowe was waxen hir colour,       355
Hir heed for-hoor was, whyt as flour.
Y-wis, gret qualm ne were it noon,
Ne sinne, although hir lyf were gon.
Al woxen was hir body unwelde,
And drye, and dwyned al for elde.       360
A foul forwelked thing was she
That whylom round and softe had be.
Hir eres shoken fast withalle,
As from her heed they wolde falle.
Hir face frounced and forpyned,       365
And bothe hir hondes lorn, fordwyned.

Sachiés de voir, il n'a talent
De dancier, ne de karoler,
Ne nus ne se porroit moller
Qui duel éust, à joie faire,
Car duel et joie sont contraire.
Après fu Viellece portraite,       Vieillesse.
Qui estoit bien ung pié retraite       340
De tele cum el soloit estre;
A paine se pooit-el pestre,
Tant estoit vielle et radotée.
Bien estoit si biauté gastée,
Et moult ert lede devenuë.
Toute sa teste estoit chenuë,
Et blanche cum s'el fust florie.
Ce ne fut mie grant morie
S'ele morust, ne grans pechiés,
Car tous ses cors estoit sechiés       350
De viellece et anoiantis:
Moult estoit jà ses vis fletris,
Qui jadis fut soef et plains;
Mès or est tous de fronces plains,
Les oreilles avoit mossues,
Et trestotes les dents perdues,
Si qu'ele n'en avoit neis une.
Tant par estoit de grant viellune,

So old she was that she ne wente[ 109 ]
A foot, but it were by potente.
The Tyme, that passeth night and day,       Time.
And restelees travayleth ay,       370
And steleth from us so prively,
That to us seemeth sikerly
That it in oon point dwelleth ever,
And certes, it ne resteth never,
But goth so faste, and passeth ay,       375
That ther nis man that thinke may
What tyme that now present is:
Asketh at these clerkes this;
For [er] men thinke it redily,
Three tymes been y-passed by.       380
The tyme, that may not soiourne,
But goth, and never may retourne,
As water that doun renneth ay,
But never drope retourne may;
Ther may no-thing as tyme endure,       385
Metal, nor erthely creature;
For alle thing it fret and shal:
The tyme eek, that chaungeth al,
And al doth waxe and fostred be,
And alle thing distroyeth he:       390

Qu'el n'alast mie la montance
De quatre toises sans potance.       360
Li tens qui s'en va nuit et jor,
Sans repos prendre et sans sejor,
Et qui de nous se part et emble
Si celéement, qu'il nous semble
Qu'il s'arreste adés en ung point,
Et il ne s'i arreste point,
Ains ne fine de trepasser,
Que nus ne puet néis penser
Quex tens ce est qui est présens;
Sel' demandés as clers lisans,       370
Ainçois que l'en l'éust pensé,
Seroit-il jà trois tens passé.
Li tens qui ne puet sejourner,
Ains vait tous jors sans retorner,
Cum l'iaue qui s'avale toute,
N'il n'en retorne arriere goute:
Li tens vers qui noient ne dure,
Ne fer ne chose tant soit dure,
Car il gaste tout et menjue;
Li tens qui tote chose mue,       380
Qui tout fait croistre et tout norist,
Et qui tout use et tout porrist;

The tyme, that eldeth our auncessours[ 110 ]
And eldeth kinges and emperours,
And that us alle shal overcomen
Er that deeth us shal have nomen:
The tyme, that hath al in welde       395
To elden folk, had maad hir elde
So inly, that, to my witing,
She mighte helpe hir-self no-thing,
But turned ageyn unto childhede;
She had no-thing hir-self to lede,       400
Ne wit ne pith in[with] hir holde
More than a child of two yeer olde.
But natheles, I trowe that she
Was fair sumtyme, and fresh to see,
Whan she was in hir rightful age:       405
But she was past al that passage
And was a doted thing bicomen.
A furred cope on had she nomen;
Wel had she clad hir-self and warm,
For cold mighte elles doon hir harm.       410
These olde folk have alwey colde,
Hir kinde is swiche, whan they ben olde.
Another thing was doon ther write,       Pope-holy.
That semede lyk an ipocrite,

Li tens qui enviellist nos peres,
Et viellist roys et emperieres,
Et qui tous nous enviellira,
Ou mort nous desavancera;
Li tens qui toute a la baillie
Des gens viellir, l'avoit viellie
Si durement, qu'au mien cuidier
El ne se pooit mès aidier,       390
Ains retornoit jà en enfance,
Car certes el n'avoit poissance,
Ce cuit-je, ne force, ne sens
Ne plus c'un enfés de deus ans.
Ne porquant, au mien escient,
Ele avoit esté sage et gent,
Quant ele iert en son droit aage;
Mais ge cuit qu'el n'iere mès sage,
Ains iert trestote rassotée.
Si ot d'une chape forrée       400
Moult bien, si cum je me recors,
Abrié et vestu son corps:
Bien fu vestue et chaudement,
Car el éust froit autrement.
Les vielles gens ont tost froidure;
Bien savés que c'est lor nature.
Une ymage ot emprès escrite,       Papelardie.
Qui sembloit bien estre ypocrite;

And it was cleped Pope-holy.       415 [ 111 ]
That ilke is she that prively
Ne spareth never a wikked dede,
Whan men of hir taken non hede;
And maketh hir outward precious,
With pale visage and pitous,       420
And semeth a simple creature;
But ther nis no misaventure
That she ne thenketh in hir corage.
Ful lyk to hir was that image,
That maked was lyk hir semblaunce.       425
She was ful simple of countenaunce,
And she was clothed and eek shod,
As she were, for the love of god,
Yolden to religioun,
Swich semed hir devocioun.       430
A sauter held she faste in honde,
And bisily she gan to fonde
To make many a feynt prayere
To god, and to his seyntes dere.
Ne she was gay, fresh, ne Iolyf,       435
But semed be ful ententyf
To gode werkes, and to faire,
And therto she had on an haire.
Ne certes, she was fat no-thing,

Papelardie ert apelée.
C'est cele qui en recelée,       410
Quant nus ne s'en puet prendre garde,
De nul mal faire ne se tarde.
El fait dehors le marmiteus,
Si a le vis simple et piteus,
Et semble sainte créature;
Mais sous ciel n'a male aventure
Qu'ele ne pense en son corage.
Moult la ressembloit bien l'ymage
Qui faite fu à sa semblance,
Qu'el fu de simple contenance;       420
Et si fu chaucie et vestue
Tout ainsinc cum fame rendue.
En sa main ung sautier tenoit,
Et sachiés que moult se penoit
De faire à Dieu prieres faintes,
Et d'appeler et sains et saintes.
El ne fu gaie, ne jolive,
Ains fu par semblant ententive
Du tout à bonnes ovres faire;
Et si avoit vestu la haire.       430
Et sachiés que n'iere pas grasse,

But semed wery for fasting;       440 [ 112 ]
Of colour pale and deed was she.
From hir the gate [shal] werned be
Of paradys, that blisful place;
For swich folk maketh lene hir face,
As Crist seith in his evangyle,       445
To gete hem prys in toun a whyle;
And for a litel glorie veine
They lesen god and eek his reine.
And alderlast of everichoon,       Povert.
Was peynted Povert al aloon,       450
That not a peny hadde in wolde,
Al-though [that] she hir clothes solde,
And though she shulde anhonged be;
For naked as a worm was she.
And if the weder stormy were,       455
For colde she shulde have deyed there.
She nadde on but a streit old sak,
And many a clout on it ther stak;
This was hir cote and hir mantel,
No more was there, never a del,       460
To clothe her with; I undertake,
Gret leyser hadde she to quake.

De jeuner sembloit estre lasse,
S'avoit la color pale et morte.
A li et as siens ert la porte
Dévéée de Paradis;
Car icel gent si font lor vis
Amegrir, ce dit l'Evangile,
Por avoir loz parmi la ville,
Et por un poi de gloire vaine
Qui lor toldra Dieu et son raine.       440
Portraite fu au darrenier       Povreté.
Povreté, qui ung seul denier
N'éust pas, s'el se déust pendre,
Tant séust bien sa robe vendre;
Qu'ele iere nuë comme vers:
Se li tens fust ung poi divers,
Je cuit qu'ele acorast de froit,
Qu'el n'avoit c'ung vié sac estroit
Tout plain de mavès palestiaus;
Ce iert sa robe et ses mantiaus.       450
El n'avoit plus que afubler,
Grant loisir avoit de trembler.

And she was put, that I of talke,[ 113 ]
Fer fro these other, up in an halke;
There lurked and there coured she,       465
For povre thing, wher-so it be,
Is shamfast, and despysed ay.
Acursed may wel be that day,
That povre man conceyved is;
For god wot, al to selde, y-wis,       470
Is any povre man wel fed,
Or wel arayed or y-cled,
Or wel biloved, in swich wyse
In honour that he may aryse.
Alle these thinges, wel avysed,       475
As I have you er this devysed,
With gold and asure over alle
Depeynted were upon the walle.
Squar was the wal, and high somdel;
Enclosed, and y-barred wel,       480
In stede of hegge, was that gardin;
Com never shepherde therin.
Into that gardyn, wel [y-]wrought,
Who-so that me coude have brought,
By laddre, or elles by degree,       485
It wolde wel have lyked me.

Des autres fu un poi loignet;
Cum chien honteus en ung coignet
Se cropoit et s'atapissoit,
Car povre chose, où qu'ele soit,
Est adès boutée et despite.
L'eure soit ore la maudite,
Que povres homs fu concéus!
Qu'il ne sera jà bien péus,       460
Ne bien vestus, ne bien chauciés,
Néis amés, ne essauciés.
Ces ymages bien avisé,
Qui, si comme j'ai devisé,
Furent à or et à asur
De toutes pars paintes où mur.
Haut fu li mur et tous quarrés,
Si en fu bien clos et barrés,
En leu de haies, uns vergiers,
Où onc n'avoit entré bergiers.       470
Cis vergiers en trop bel leu sist:
Qui dedens mener me vousist
Ou par échiele ou par degré,
Je l'en séusse moult bon gré;

For swich solace, swich Ioye, and play,[ 114 ]
I trowe that never man ne say,
As in that place delitous.
The gardin was not daungerous       490
To herberwe briddes many oon.
So riche a yerd was never noon
Of briddes songe, and braunches grene.
Therin were briddes mo, I wene,
Than been in alle the rewme of Fraunce.       495
Ful blisful was the accordaunce
Of swete and pitous songe they made,
For al this world it oughte glade.
And I my-self so mery ferde,
Whan I hir blisful songes herde,       500
That for an hundred pound nolde I,—
If that the passage openly
Hadde been unto me free—
That I nolde entren for to see
Thassemblee, god [it kepe and were!]—       505
Of briddes, whiche therinne were,
That songen, through hir mery throtes,
Daunces of love, and mery notes.
Whan I thus herde foules singe,
I fel faste in a weymentinge,       510

Car tel joie ne tel déduit
Ne vit nus hons, si cum ge cuit,
Cum il avoit en ce vergier:
Car li leus d'oisiaus herbergier
N'estoit ne dangereux ne chiches.
Onc mès ne fu nus leus si riches       480
D'arbres, ne d'oisillons chantans:
Qu'il i avoit d'oisiaus trois tans
Qu'en tout le remanant de France.
Moult estoit bele l'acordance
De lor piteus chant à oïr:
Tous li mons s'en dust esjoïr.
Je endroit moi m'en esjoï
Si durement, quant les oï,
Que n'en préisse pas cent livres,
Se li passages fust delivres,       490
Que ge n'entrasse ens et véisse
L'assemblée (que Diex garisse!)
Des oisiaus qui léens estoient,
Qui envoisiement chantoient
Les dances d'amors et les notes
Plesans, cortoises et mignotes.
Quant j'oï les oisiaus chanter,
Forment me pris à dementer

By which art, or by what engyn[ 115 ]
I mighte come in that gardyn;
But way I couthe finde noon
Into that gardin for to goon.
Ne nought wiste I if that ther were       515
Eyther hole or place [o]-where,
By which I mighte have entree;
Ne ther was noon to teche me;
For I was al aloon, y-wis,
Ful wo and anguissous of this.       520
Til atte laste bithoughte I me,
That by no weye ne mighte it be;
That ther nas laddre or wey to passe,
Or hole, into so fair a place.
Tho gan I go a ful gret pas       525
Envyroning even in compas
The closing of the square wal,
Til that I fond a wiket smal
So shet, that I ne mighte in goon,
And other entree was ther noon.       530
Upon this dore I gan to smyte,       The Door.
That was [so] fetys and so lyte;
For other wey coude I not seke.
Ful long I shoof, and knokked eke,

Par quel art ne par quel engin
Je porroie entrer où jardin;       500
Mès ge ne poi onques trouver
Leu par où g'i péusse entrer.
Et sachiés que ge ne savoie
S'il i avoït partuis ne voie,
Ne leu par où l'en i entrast,
Ne hons nés qui le me monstrast
N'iert illec, que g'iere tot seus,
Moult destroit et moult angoisseus;
Tant qu'au darrenier me sovint
C'oncques à nul jor ce n'avint       510
Qu'en si biau vergier n'éust huis,
Ou eschiele ou aucun partuis.
Lors m'en alai grant aléure
Açaignant la compasséure
Et la cloison du mur quarré,
Tant que ung guichet bien barré
Trovai petitet et estroit;
Par autre leu l'en n'i entroit.
A l'uis commençai à ferir,
Autre entrée n'i soi querir.       520
Assez i feri et boutai,
Et par maintes fois escoutai

And stood ful long and of[t] herkning       535 [ 116 ]
If that I herde a wight coming;
Til that the dore of thilke entree
A mayden curteys opened me.       Ydelnesse.
Hir heer was as yelowe of hewe
As any basin scoured newe.       540
Hir flesh [as] tendre as is a chike,
With bente browes, smothe and slike;
And by mesure large were
The opening of hir yën clere.
Hir nose of good proporcioun,       545
Hir yën greye as a faucoun,
With swete breeth and wel savoured.
Hir face whyt and wel coloured,
With litel mouth, and round to see;
A clove chin eek hadde she.       550
Hir nekke was of good fasoun
In lengthe and gretnesse, by resoun,
Withoute bleyne, scabbe, or royne.
Fro Ierusalem unto Burgoyne
Ther nis a fairer nekke, y-wis,       555
To fele how smothe and softe it is.
Hir throte, al-so whyt of hewe
As snow on braunche snowed newe.

Se j'orroie venir nulle arme.
Le guichet, qui estoit de charme,
M'ovrit une noble pucele
Qui moult estoit et gente et bele.
Cheveus ot blons cum uns bacins,
La char plus tendre qu'uns pocins,
Front reluisant, sorcis votis.
Son entr'oil ne fu pas petis,       530
Ains iert assez grans par mesure;
Le nés ot bien fait à droiture,
Les yex ot plus vairs c'uns faucons,
Por faire envie à ces bricons.
Douce alene ot et savorée,
La face blanche et colorée,
La bouche petite et grocete,
S'ot où menton une fossete.
Le col fu de bonne moison,
Gros assez et lons par raison,       540
Si n'i ot bube ne malen.
N'avoit jusqu'en Jherusalen
Fame qui plus biau col portast,
Polis iert et soef au tast.
La gorgete ot autresi blanche
Cum est la noif desus la branche

Of body ful wel wrought was she[ 117 ]
Men neded not, in no cuntree,       560
A fairer body for to seke.
And of fyn orfrays had she eke
A chapelet: so semly oon
Ne wered never mayde upon;....
And faire above that chapelet       565
A rose gerland had she set.
She hadde [in honde] a gay mirour,
And with a riche gold tressour
Hir heed was tressed queyntely;
Hir sleves sewed fetisly.       570
And for to kepe hir hondes faire
Of gloves whyte she hadde a paire.
And she hadde on a cote of grene
Of cloth of Gaunt; withouten wene,
Wel semed by hir apparayle       575
She was not wont to greet travayle.
For whan she kempt was fetisly,
And wel arayed and richely,
Thanne had she doon al hir Iournee;
For mery and wel bigoon was she.       580

Quant il a freschement negié.
Le cors ot bien fait et dougié,
L'en ne séust en nule terre
Nul plus bel cors de fame querre.       550
D'orfrois ot un chapel mignot;
Onques nule pucele n'ot
Plus cointe ne plus desguisié,
Ne l'aroie adroit devisié
En trestous les jors de ma vie.
Robe avoit moult bien entaillie;
Ung chapel de roses tout frais
Ot dessus le chapel d'orfrais:
En sa main tint ung miroër,
Si ot d'ung riche treçoër       560
Son chief trecié moult richement,
Bien et bel et estroitement
Ot ambdeus cousues ses manches;
Et por garder que ses mains blanches
Ne halaissent, ot uns blans gans.
Cote ot d'ung riche vert de gans,
Cousue à lignel tout entour.
Il paroit bien à son atour
Qu'ele iere poi embesoignie.
Quant ele s'iere bien pignie,       570
Et bien parée et atornée,
Ele avoit faite sa jornée.

She ladde a lusty lyf in May,[ 118 ]
She hadde no thought, by night ne day,
Of no-thing, but it were oonly
To graythe hit wel and uncouthly.
Whan that this dore hadde opened me       585
This mayden, semely for to see,
I thanked hir as I best mighte,
And axede hir how that she highte,
And what she was, I axede eke.
And she to me was nought unmeke,       590
Ne of hir answer daungerous,
But faire answerde, and seide thus:—
Lo, sir, my name is Ydelnesse;
So clepe men me, more and lesse.
Ful mighty and ful riche am I,       595
And that of oon thing, namely;
For I entende to no-thing
But to my Ioye, and my pleying,
And for to kembe and tresse me.
Aqueynted am I, and privee       600
With Mirthe, lord of this gardyn,
That fro the lande of Alexandryn
Made the trees be hider fet,
That in this gardin been y-set.

Moult avoit bon tems et bon May,
Qu'el n'avoït soussi ne esmay
De nule riens, fors solement
De soi atorner noblement.
Quant ainsinc m'ot l'uis deffermé
La pucele au cors acesmé,
Je l'en merciai doucement,
Et si li demandai comment       580
Ele avoit non, et qui ele iere.
Ele ne fu pas envers moi fiere,
Ne de respondre desdaigneuse:
Je me fais apeler Oiseuse,'
Dist-ele, 'à tous mes congnoissans;
Si sui riche fame et poissans.
S'ai d'une chose moult bon tens,
Car à nule riens je ne pens
Qu'à moi joer et solacier,
Et mon chief pignier et trecier:       590
Quant sui pignée et atornée,
Adonc est fete ma jornée.
Privée sui moult et acointe
De Déduit le mignot, le cointe;
C'est cil cui est cest biax jardins,
Qui de la terre as Sarradins
Fist çà ces arbres aporter,
Qu'il fist par ce vergier planter.

And whan the trees were woxen on highte,       605 [ 119 ]
This wal, that slant here in thy sighte,
Dide Mirthe enclosen al aboute;
And these images, al withoute,
He dide hem bothe entaile and peynte,
That neither ben Iolyf ne queynte,       610
But they ben ful of sorowe and wo,
As thou hast seen a whyle ago.
'And ofte tyme, him to solace,
Sir Mirthe cometh into this place,
And eek with him cometh his meynee,       615
That liven in lust and Iolitee.
And now is Mirthe therin, to here
The briddes, how they singen clere,
The mavis and the nightingale,
And other Ioly briddes smale.       620
And thus he walketh to solace
Him and his folk; for swetter place
To pleyen in he may not finde,
Although he soughte oon in-til Inde.
The alther-fairest folk to see       625
That in this world may founde be
Hath Mirthe with him in his route,
That folowen him alwayes aboute.'

Quant li arbres furent créu,
Le mur que vous avez véu,       600
Fist lors Deduit tout entor faire,
Et si fist au dehors portraire
Les ymages qui i sunt paintes,
Que ne sunt mignotes ne cointes;
Ains sunt dolereuses et tristes,
Si cum vous orendroit véistes.
Maintes fois por esbanoier
Se vient en cest leu umbroier
Déduit et les gens qui le sivent,
Qui en joie et en solas vivent.       610
Encores est léens, sans doute,
Déduit orendroit qui escoute
A chanter gais rossignolés,
Mauvis et autres oiselés.
Il s'esbat iluec et solace
O ses gens, car plus bele place
Ne plus biau leu por soi joer
Ne porroit-il mie trover;
Les plus beles gens, ce sachiés,
Que vous jamès nul leu truissiés,       620
Si sunt li compaignon Déduit
Qu'il maine avec li et conduit.'

When Ydelnesse had told al this,[ 120 ]
And I hadde herkned wel, y-wis,       630
Than seide I to dame Ydelnesse,
Now al-so wisly god me blesse,
Sith Mirthe, that is so fair and free,
Is in this yerde with his meynee,
Fro thilke assemblee, if I may,       635
Shal no man werne me to-day,
That I this night ne mote it see.
For, wel wene I, ther with him be
A fair and Ioly companye
Fulfilled of alle curtesye.'       640
And forth, withoute wordes mo,
In at the wiket wente I tho,
That Ydelnesse hadde opened me,
Into that gardin fair to see.
And whan I was [ther]in, y-wis,       645
Myn herte was ful glad of this.       The Garden.
For wel wende I ful sikerly
Have been in paradys erth[e]ly;
So fair it was, that, trusteth wel,
It semed a place espirituel.       650
For certes, as at my devys,
Ther is no place in paradys
So good in for to dwelle or be
As in that Gardin, thoughte me;

Quant Oiseuse m'ot ce conté,
Et j'oi moult bien tout escouté,
Je li dis lores: 'Dame Oiseuse,
Jà de ce ne soyés douteuse,
Puis que Déduit li biaus, li gens
Est orendroit avec ses gens
En cest vergier, ceste assemblée
Ne m'iert pas, se je puis, emblée,       630
Que ne la voie encore ennuit;
Véoir la m'estuet, car ge cuit
Que bele est cele compaignie,
Et cortoise et bien enseignie.'
Lors m'en entrai, ne dis puis mot,
Par l'uis que Oiseuse overt m'ot,
Où vergier; et quant je fui ens
Je fui liés et baus et joiens.
Et sachiés que je cuidai estre
Por voir en Paradis terrestre,       640
Tant estoit li leu delitables,
Qu'il sembloit estre esperitables:
Car si cum il m'iert lors avis,
Ne féist en nul Paradis
Si bon estre, cum il faisoit
Où vergier qui tant me plaisoit.

For there was many a brid singing,       655 [ 121 ]
Throughout the yerde al thringing.
In many places were nightingales,
Alpes, finches, and wodewales,
That in her swete song delyten
In thilke place as they habyten.       660
Ther mighte men see many flokkes
Of turtles and [of] laverokkes.
Chalaundres fele saw I there,
That wery, nigh forsongen were.
And thrustles, terins, and mavys,       665
That songen for to winne hem prys,
And eek to sormounte in hir song
These other briddes hem among.
By note made fair servyse
These briddes, that I you devyse;       670
They songe hir song as faire and wel
As angels doon espirituel.
And, trusteth wel, whan I hem herde,
Full lustily and wel I ferde;
For never yit swich melodye       675
Was herd of man that mighte dye.

D'oisiaus chantans avoit assés
Par tout le vergier amassés;
En ung leu avoit rossigniaus,
En l'autre gais et estorniaus;       650
Si r'avoit aillors grans escoles
De roietiaus et torteroles,
De chardonnereaus, d'arondeles,
D'aloes et de lardereles;
Calendres i ot amassées
En ung autre leu, qui lassées
De chanter furent à envis:
Melles y avoit et mauvis
Qui baoient à sormonter
Ces autres oisiaus par chanter.       660
Il r'avoit aillors papegaus,
Et mains oisiaus qui par ces gaus
Et par ces bois où il habitent,
En lor biau chanter se délitent.
Trop parfesoient bel servise
Cil oisel que je vous devise;
Il chantoient ung chant itel
Cum s'il fussent esperitel.
De voir sachiés, quant les oï,
Moult durement m'en esjoï:       670
Que mès si douce mélodie
Ne fu d'omme mortel oïe.

Swich swete song was hem among,[ 122 ]
That me thoughte it no briddes song,
But it was wonder lyk to be
Song of mermaydens of the see;       680
That, for her singing is so clere,
Though we mermaydens clepe hem here
In English, as in our usaunce,
Men clepen hem sereyns in Fraunce.
Ententif weren for to singe       685
These briddes, that nought unkunninge
Were of hir craft, and apprentys,
But of [hir] song sotyl and wys.
And certes, whan I herde hir song,
And saw the grene place among,       690
In herte I wex so wonder gay,
That I was never erst, er that day,
So Iolyf, nor so wel bigo,
Ne mery in herte, as I was tho.
And than wiste I, and saw ful wel,       695
That Ydelnesse me served wel,
That me putte in swich Iolitee.
Hir freend wel oughte I for to be,
Sith she the dore of that gardyn
Hadde opened, and me leten in.       700

Tant estoit cil chans dous et biaus,
Qu'il ne sombloit pas chans d'oisiaus,
Ains le péust l'en aesmer
A chant de seraines de mer,
Qui par lor vois, qu'eles ont saines
Et series, ont non seraines.
A chanter furent ententis
Li oisillon qui aprenti       680
Ne furent pas ne non sachant;
Et sachiés quant j'oï lor chant,
Et je vi le leu verdaier,
Je me pris moult à esgaier;
Que n'avoie encor esté onques
Si jolif cum je fui adonques;
Por la grant délitableté
Fui plains de grant jolieté.
Et lores soi-je bien et vi
Que Oiseuse m'ot bien servi,       690
Qui m'avoit en tel déduit mis:
Bien déusse estre ses amis,
Quant ele m'avoit deffermé
Le guichet du vergier ramé.

From hennesforth how that I wroughte,[ 123 ]
I shal you tellen, as me thoughte.
First, whereof Mirthe served there,
And eek what folk ther with him were,
Withoute fable I wol descryve.       705
And of that gardin eek as blyve
I wol you tellen after this.
The faire fasoun al, y-wis,
That wel [y-]wrought was for the nones,
I may not telle you al at ones:       710
But as I may and can, I shal
By ordre tellen you it al.
Ful fair servyse and eek ful swete
These briddes maden as they sete.
Layes of love, ful wel sowning       715
They songen in hir Iargoning;
Summe highe and summe eek lowe songe
Upon the braunches grene y-spronge.
The sweetnesse of hir melodye
Made al myn herte in reverdye.       720
And whan that I hadde herd, I trowe,
These briddes singing on a rowe,
Than mighte I not withholde me
That I ne wente in for to see

Dès ore si cum je sauré,
Vous conterai comment j'ovré.
Primes de quoi Déduit servoit,
Et quel compaignie il avoit
Sans longue fable vous veil dire,
Et du vergier tretout à tire       700
La façon vous redirai puis.
Tout ensemble dire ne puis,
Mès tout vous conteré par ordre,
Que l'en n'i sache que remordre.
Grant servise et dous et plaisant
Aloient cil oisel faisant;
Lais d'amors et sonnés cortois
Chantoit chascun en son patois,
Li uns en haut, li autre en bas;
De lor chant n'estoit mie gas.       710
La douçor et la mélodie
Me mist où cuer grant reverdie;
Mès quant j'oi escouté ung poi
Les oisiaus, tenir ne me poi
Que dant Déduit véoir n'alasse;
Car à savoir moult desirasse

Sir Mirthe; for my desiring       725 [ 124 ]
Was him to seen, over alle thing,
His countenaunce and his manere:
That sighte was to me ful dere.
Tho wente I forth on my right hond
Doun by a litel path I fond       730
Of mentes ful, and fenel grene;
And faste by, withoute wene,
Sir Mirthe I fond; and right anoon       Sir Mirthe.
Unto sir Mirthe gan I goon,
Ther-as he was, him to solace.       735
And with him, in that lusty place,
So fair folk and so fresh hadde he,
That whan I saw, I wondred me
Fro whennes swich folk mighte come,
So faire they weren, alle and some;       740
For they were lyk, as to my sighte,
To angels, that ben fethered brighte.
This folk, of which I telle you so,
Upon a carole wenten tho.
A lady caroled hem, that highte       745
Gladnes, [the] blisful and the lighte;       Gladnesse.
Wel coude she singe and lustily,
Non half so wel and semely,
And make in song swich refreininge,
It sat hir wonder wel to singe.       750

Son contenement et son estre.
Lors m'en alai tout droit à destre,
Par une petitete sente
Plaine de fenoil et de mente;       720
Mès auques près trové Déduit,
Car maintenant en ung réduit
M'en entré où Déduit estoit.
Déduit ilueques s'esbatoit;
S'avoit si bele gent o soi,
Que quant je les vi, je ne soi
Dont si tres beles gens pooient
Estre venu; car il sembloient
Tout por voir anges empennés,
Si beles gens ne vit homs nés.       730
Ceste gent dont je vous parole,
S'estoient pris à la carole,
Et une dame lor chantoit,
Qui Léesce apelée estoit:
Bien sot chanter et plesamment,
Ne nule plus avenaument,
Ne plus bel ses refrains ne fist,
A chanter merveilles li sist;

Hir vois ful cleer was and ful swete.[ 125 ]
She was nought rude ne unmete,
But couthe y-now of swich doing
As longeth unto caroling:
For she was wont in every place       755
To singen first, folk to solace;
For singing most she gaf hir to;
No craft had she so leef to do.
Tho mightest thou caroles seen,
And folk [ther] daunce and mery been,       760
And make many a fair tourning
Upon the grene gras springing.
Ther mightest thou see these floutours,
Minstrales, and eek Iogelours,
That wel to singe dide hir peyne.       765
Somme songe songes of Loreyne;
For in Loreyne hir notes be
Ful swetter than in this contree.
Ther was many a timbestere,
And saylours, that I dar wel swere       770
Couthe hir craft ful parfitly.
The timbres up ful sotilly
They caste, and henten [hem] ful ofte
Upon a finger faire and softe,

Qu'ele avoit la vois clere et saine;
Et si n'estoit mie vilaine;       740
Ains se savoit bien desbrisier,
Ferir du pié et renvoisier.
Ele estoit adès coustumiere
De chanter en tous leus premiere:
Car chanter estoit li mestiers
Qu'ele faisoit plus volentiers.
Lors véissiés carole aler,
Et gens mignotement baler,
Et faire mainte bele tresche,
Et maint biau tor sor l'erbe fresche.       750
Là véissiés fléutéors,
Menesterez et jougléors;
Si chantent li uns rotruenges,
Li autres notes Loherenges,
Por ce qu'en set en Loheregne
Plus cointes notes qu'en nul regne.
Assez i ot tableterresses
Ilec entor, et tymberresses
Qui moult savoient bien joer,
Et ne finoient de ruer       760
Le tymbre en haut, si recuilloient
Sor ung doi, c'onques n'i failloient.

That they [ne] fayled never-mo.       775 [ 126 ]
Ful fetis damiselles two,
Right yonge, and fulle of semlihede,
In kirtles, and non other wede,
And faire tressed every tresse,
Hadde Mirthe doon, for his noblesse,       780
Amidde the carole for to daunce;
But her-of lyth no remembraunce,
How that they daunced queyntely.
That oon wolde come al prively
Agayn that other: and whan they were       785
Togidre almost, they threwe y-fere
Hir mouthes so, that through hir play
It semed as they kiste alway;
To dauncen wel coude they the gyse;
What shulde I more to you devyse?       790
Ne bede I never thennes go,
Whyles that I saw hem daunce so.
Upon the carole wonder faste,
I gan biholde; til atte laste
A lady gan me for to espye,       795
And she was cleped Curtesye,       Curtesye.
The worshipful, the debonaire;
I pray god ever falle hir faire!

Deus damoiseles moult mignotes,
Qui estoient en pures cotes,
Et trecies à une tresce,
Faisoient Déduit par noblesce
Enmi la karole baler;
Mès de ce ne fait à parler
Comme el baloient cointement.
L'une venoit tout belement       770
Contre l'autre; et quant el estoient
Près à près, si s'entregetoient
Les bouches, qu'il vous fust avis
Que s'entrebaisassent où vis:
Bien se savoient desbrisier.
Ne vous en sai que devisier;
Mès à nul jor ne me quéisse
Remuer, tant que ge véisse
Ceste gent ainsine efforcier
De caroler et de dancier.       780
La karole tout en estant
Regardai iluec jusqu'à tant
C'une dame bien enseignie
Me tresvit: ce fu Cortoisie
La vaillant et la debonnaire,
Que Diex deffende de contraire.

Ful curteisly she called me,[ 127 ]
'What do ye there, beau sire?' quod she,       800
Come [neer], and if it lyke yow
To dauncen, daunceth with us now.'
And I, withoute tarying,
Wente into the caroling.
I was abasshed never a del,       805
But it me lykede right wel,
That Curtesye me cleped so,
And bad me on the daunce go.
For if I hadde durst, certeyn
I wolde have caroled right fayn,       810
As man that was to daunce blythe.
Than gan I loken ofte sythe
The shap, the bodies, and the cheres,
The countenaunce and the maneres
Of alle the folk that daunced there,       815
And I shal telle what they were.
Ful fair was Mirthe, ful long and high;       Mirthe.
A fairer man I never sigh.
As round as appel was his face,
Ful rody and whyt in every place.       820
Fetys he was and wel beseye,
With metely mouth and yën greye;

Cortoisie lors m'apela:
Biaus amis, que faites-vous là?'
Fait Cortoisie, 'ça venez,
Et avecque nous vous prenez       790
A la karole, s'il vous plest.'
Sans demorance et sans arrest
A la karole me sui pris,
Si n'en fui pas trop entrepris,
Et sachiés que moult m'agréa
Quant Cortoisie m'en pria,
Et me dist que je karolasse;
Car de karoler, se j'osasse,
Estoie envieus et sorpris.
A regarder lores me pris       800
Les cors, les façons et les chieres,
Les semblances et les manieres
Des gens qui ilec karoloient:
Si vous dirai quex il estoient.
Déduit fu biaus et lons et drois,
Jamés en terre ne venrois
Où vous truissiés nul plus bel homme:
La face avoit cum une pomme,
Vermoille et blanche tout entour,
Cointes fu et de bel atour.       810

His nose by mesure wrought ful right;[ 128 ]
Crisp was his heer, and eek ful bright.
His shuldres of a large brede,       825
And smalish in the girdilstede.
He semed lyk a portreiture,
So noble he was of his stature,
So fair, so Ioly, and so fetys,
With limes wrought at poynt devys,       830
Deliver, smert, and of gret might;
Ne sawe thou never man so light.
Of berde unnethe hadde he no-thing,
For it was in the firste spring.
Ful yong he was, and mery of thought,       835
And in samyt, with briddes wrought,
And with gold beten fetisly,
His body was clad ful richely.
Wrought was his robe in straunge gyse,
And al to-slitered for queyntyse       840
In many a place, lowe and hye.
And shod he was with greet maistrye,
With shoon decoped, and with laas.
By druerye, and by solas,
His leef a rosen chapelet       845
Had maad, and on his heed it set.

Les yex ot vairs, la bouche gente,
Et le nez fait par grant entente;
Cheveus ot blons, recercelés,
Par espaules fu auques lés,
Et gresles parmi la ceinture:
Il resembloit une painture,
Tant ere biaus et acesmés,
Et de tous membres bien formés.
Remuans fu, et preus, et vistes,
Plus legier homme ne véistes;       820
Si n'avoit barbe, ne grenon,
Se petiz peus folages non,
Car il ert jones damoisiaus.
D'un samit portret à oysiaus,
Qui ere tout à or batus,
Fu ses cors richement vestus.
Moult iert sa robe desguisée,
Et fu moult riche et encisée,
Et décopée par cointise;
Chauciés refu par grant mestrise       830
D'uns solers décopés à las;
Par druerie et par solas
Li ot s'amie fet chapel
De roses qui moult li sist bel.

And wite ye who was his leef?[ 129 ]
Dame Gladnes ther was him so leef,       Gladnesse.
That singeth so wel with glad corage,
That from she was twelve yeer of age,       850
She of hir love graunt him made.
Sir Mirthe hir by the finger hadde
[In] daunsing, and she him also;
Gret love was atwixe hem two.
Bothe were they faire and brighte of hewe;       855
She semede lyk a rose newe
Of colour, and hir flesh so tendre,
That with a brere smale and slendre
Men mighte it cleve, I dar wel sayn.
Hir forheed, frounceles al playn.       860
Bente were hir browes two,
Hir yën greye, and gladde also,
That laughede ay in hir semblaunt,
First or the mouth, by covenaunt.
I not what of hir nose descryve;       865
So fair hath no womman alyve....
Hir heer was yelowe, and cleer shyning,
I wot no lady so lyking.

Savés-vous qui estoit s'amie?
Léesce qui nel' haoit mie,
L'envoisie, la bien chantans,
Qui dès lors qu'el n'ot que sept ans
De s'amor li donna l'otroi;
Déduit la tint parmi le doi       840
A la karole, et ele lui,
Bien s'entr'amoient ambedui:
Car il iert biaus, et ele bele,
Bien resembloit rose novele
De sa color. S'ot la char tendre,
Qu'en la li péust toute fendre
A une petitete ronce.
Le front ot blanc, poli, sans fronce,
Les sorcis bruns et enarchiés,
Les yex gros et si envoisiés,       850
Qu'il rioient tousjors avant
Que la bouchete par convant.
Je ne vous sai du nés que dire,
L'en nel' féist pas miex de cire.
Ele ot la bouche petitete,
Et por baisier son ami, preste;
Le chief ot blons et reluisant.
Que vous iroie-je disant?
Bele fu et bien atornée;
D'ung fil d'or ere galonnée,       860
S'ot ung chapel d'orfrois tout nuef;
Je qu'en oi véu vint et nuef,

Of orfrays fresh was hir gerland;[ 130 ]
I, whiche seen have a thousand,       870
Saugh never, y-wis, no gerlond yit,
So wel [y]-wrought of silk as it.
And in an over-gilt samyt
Clad she was, by gret delyt,
Of which hir leef a robe werde,       875
The myrier she in herte ferde.
And next hir wente, on hir other syde,       Cupide.
The god of Love, that can devyde
Love, as him lyketh it [to] be.
But he can cherles daunten, he,       880
And maken folkes pryde fallen.
And he can wel these lordes thrallen,
And ladies putte at lowe degree,
Whan he may hem to proude see.
This God of Love of his fasoun       885
Was lyk no knave, ne quistroun;
His beautee gretly was to pryse.
But of his robe to devyse
I drede encombred for to be.
For nought y-clad in silk was he,       890
But al in floures and flourettes,
Y-painted al with amorettes;

A nul jor mès véu n'avoie
Chapel si bien ouvré de soie.
D'un samit qui ert tous dorés
Fu ses cors richement parés,
De quoi son ami avoit robe,
Si en estoit assés plus gobe.
A li se tint de l'autre part
Li Diex d'Amors, cil qui départ       870
Amoretes à sa devise.
C'est cil qui les amans justise,
Et qui abat l'orguel des gens,
Et si fait des seignors sergens,
Et des dames refait bajesses,
Quant il les trove trop engresses.
Li Diex d'Amors, de la façon,
Ne resembloit mie garçon:
De beaulté fist moult à prisier,
Mes de sa robe devisier       880
Criens durement qu'encombré soie.
Il n'avoit pas robe de soie,
Ains avoit robe de floretes,
Fete par fines amoretes

And with losenges and scochouns,[ 131 ]
With briddes, libardes, and lyouns,
And other beestes wrought ful wel.       895
His garnement was everydel
Y-portreyd and y-wrought with floures,
By dyvers medling of coloures.
Floures ther were of many gyse
Y-set by compas in assyse;       900
Ther lakked no flour, to my dome,
Ne nought so muche as flour of brome,
Ne violete, ne eck pervenke,
Ne flour non, that man can on thenke,
And many a rose-leef ful long       905
Was entermedled ther-among:
And also on his heed was set
Of roses rede a chapelet.
But nightingales, a ful gret route,
That flyen over his heed aboute,       910
The leves felden as they flyen;
And he was al with briddes wryen,
With popiniay, with nightingale,
With chalaundre, and with wodewale,
With finch, with lark, and with archaungel.       915
He semede as he were an aungel

A losenges, à escuciaus,
A oiselés, à lionciaus,
Et à bestes et à liépars;
Fu la robe de toutes pars
Portraite, et ovrée de flors
Par diverseté de colors.       890
Flors i avoit de maintes guises
Qui furent par grant sens assises;
Nulle flor en esté ne nest
Qui n'i soit, neis flor de genest,
Ne violete, ne parvanche,
Ne fleur inde, jaune ne blanche;
Si ot par leus entremeslées
Foilles de roses grans et lées.
Il ot où chief ung chapelet
De roses; mès rossignolet       900
Qui entor son chief voletoient,
Les foilles jus en abatoient:
Car il iert tout covers d'oisiaus,
De papegaus, de rossignaus,
De calandres et de mesanges;
Il sembloit que ce fust uns anges

That doun were comen fro hevene clere.[ 132 ]
Love hadde with him a bachelere,
That he made alweyes with him be;
Swete-Loking cleped was he.       920
This bachelere stood biholding       Swete-Loking.
The daunce, and in his honde holding
Turke bowes two hadde he.
That oon of hem was of a tree
That bereth a fruyt of savour wikke;       925
Ful croked was that foule stikke,
And knotty here and there also,
And blak as bery, or any slo.
That other bowe was of a plante
Withoute wem, I dar warante,       930
Ful even, and by proporcioun
Tretys and long, of good fasoun.
And it was peynted wel and thwiten,
And over-al diapred and writen
With ladies and with bacheleres,       935
Ful lightsom and [ful] glad of cheres.
These bowes two held Swete-Loking,
That semed lyk no gadeling.
And ten brode arowes held he there,
Of which five in his right hond were.       940

Qui fust tantost venus du ciau.
Amors avoit ung jovenciau
Qu'il faisoit estre iluec delés;
Douz-Regard estoit apelés.       910
Ici bachelers regardoit
Les caroles, et si gardoit
Au Diex d'Amors deux ars turquois.
Li uns des ars si fu d'un bois
Dont li fruit iert mal savorés;
Tous plains de nouz et bocerés
Fu li ars dessous et dessore,
Et si estoit plus noirs que mores.
Li autres ars fu d'un plançon
Longuet et de gente façon;       920
Si fu bien fait et bien dolés,
Et si fu moult bien pipelés.
Dames i ot de tous sens pointes,
Et valés envoisiés et cointes.
Ices deux ars tint Dous-Regars
Qui ne sembloit mie estre gars,
Avec dix des floiches son mestre.
Il en tint cinq en sa main destre;

But they were shaven wel and dight,[ 133 ]
Nokked and fethered a-right;
And al they were with gold bigoon,
And stronge poynted everichoon,
And sharpe for to kerven weel.       945
But iren was ther noon ne steel;
For al was gold, men mighte it see,
Out-take the fetheres and the tree.
The swiftest of these arowes fyve
Out of a bowe for to dryve,       950
And best [y]-fethered for to flee,
And fairest eek, was cleped Beautee.       Beautee.
That other arowe, that hurteth lesse,
Was cleped, as I trowe, Simplesse.       Simplesse.
The thridde cleped was Fraunchyse,       955
That fethered was, in noble wyse,       Fraunchyse.
With valour and with curtesye.
The fourthe was cleped Companye       Companye.
That hevy for to sheten is;
But who-so sheteth right, y-wis,       960
May therwith doon gret harm and wo.
The fifte of these, and laste also,

Mès moult orent ices cinq floiches
Les penons bien fais, et les coiches:       930
Si furent toutes à or pointes,
Fors et tranchans orent les pointes,
Et aguës por bien percier,
Et si n'i ot fer ne acier;
Onc n'i ot riens qui d'or ne fust,
Fors que les penons et le fust:
Car el furent encarrelées
De sajetes d'or barbelées.
La meillore et la plus isnele
De ces floiches, et la plus bele,       940
Et cele où li meillor penon
Furent entés, Biautes ot non.
Une d'eles qui le mains blece,
Ot non, ce m'est avis, Simplece.
Une autre en i ot apelée
Franchise; cele iert empenée
De Valor et de Cortoisie.
La quarte avoit non Compaignie:
En cele ot moult pesant sajete.
Ele n'iert pas d'aler loing preste;       950
Mès qui de près en vosist traire,
Il en péust assez mal faire.

Fair-Semblaunt men that arowe calle,       Fair- [ 134 ]
The leeste grevous of hem alle;       Semblaunt.
Yit can it make a ful gret wounde,       965
But he may hope his sores sounde,
That hurt is with that arowe, y-wis;
His wo the bet bistowed is.
For he may soner have gladnesse,
His langour oughte be the lesse.       970
Fyve arowes were of other gyse,
That been ful foule to devyse;
For shaft and ende, sooth to telle,
Were al-so blak as feend in helle.
The first of hem is called Pryde;       Pryde. 975
That other arowe next him bisyde,
It was [y]-cleped Vilanye;       Vilanye.
That arowe was as with felonye
Envenimed, and with spitous blame.
The thridde of hem was cleped Shame.       Shame. 980
The fourthe, Wanhope cleped is,       Wanhope.
The fifte, the Newe-Thought, y-wis.       Newe-
These arowes that I speke of here,       Thought.
Were alle fyve of oon manere,
And alle were they resemblable.       985
To hem was wel sitting and able

La quinte avoit non Biau-Semblant,
Ce fut toute la mains grévant.
Ne porquant el fait moult grant plaie;
Mès cis atent bonne menaie,
Qui de cele floiche est plaiés,
Ses maus en est mielx emplaiés;
Car il puet tost santé atendre,
S'en doit estre sa dolor mendre.       960
Cinq floiches i ot d'autre guise,
Qui furent lédes à devise:
Li fust estoient et li fer
Plus noirs que déables d'enfer.
La premiere avoit non Orguex,
L'autre qui ne valoit pas miex,
Fu apelée Vilenie;
Icele fu de felonie
Toute tainte et envenimée.
La tierce fu Honte clamée,       970
Et la quarte Desesperance:
Novel-Penser fu sans doutance
Apelée la darreniere.
Ces cinq floiches d'une maniere
Furent, et moult bien resemblables;
Moult par lor estoit convenables

The foule croked bowe hidous,[ 135 ]
That knotty was, and al roynous.
That bowe semede wel to shete
These arowes fyve, that been unmete,       990
Contrarie to that other fyve.
But though I telle not as blyve
Of hir power, ne of hir might,
Her-after shal I tellen right
The sothe, and eek signifiaunce,       995
As fer as I have remembraunce:
Al shall be seid, I undertake,
Er of this boke an ende I make.
Now come I to my tale ageyn.
But alderfirst, I wol you seyn       1000
The fasoun and the countenaunces
Of al the folk that on the daunce is.
The God of Love, Iolyf and light,
Ladde on his honde a lady bright,
Of high prys, and of greet degree.       1005
This lady called was Beautee,       Beautee.
[As was] an arowe, of which I tolde.
Ful wel [y]-thewed was she holde;
Ne she was derk ne broun, but bright,
And cleer as [is] the mone-light,       1010

Li uns des arcs qui fu hideus,
Et plains de neus, et eschardeus;
Il devoit bien tiex floiches traire,
Car el erent force et contraire       980
As autres cinq floiches sans doute.
Mès ne diré pas ore toute
Lor forces, ne lor poestés.
Bien vous sera la verités
Contée, et la sénefiance
Nel'metré mie en obliance;
Ains vous dirai que tout ce monte,
Ainçois que je fine mon conte.
Or revendrai à ma parole:
Des nobles gens de la karole       990
M'estuet dire les contenances,
Et les façons et les semblances.
Li Diex d'Amors se fu bien pris
A une dame de haut pris,
Et delez lui iert ajoustés:
Icele dame ot non Biautés,
Ainsinc cum une des cinq fleches.
En li ot maintes bonnes teches:
El ne fu oscure, ne brune,
Ains fu clere comme la lune,       1000

Ageyn whom alle the sterres semen[ 136 ]
But smale candels, as we demen.
Hir flesh was tendre as dewe of flour,
Hir chere was simple as byrde in bour;
As whyt as lilie or rose in rys,       1015
Hir face gentil and tretys.
Fetys she was, and smal to see;
No windred browes hadde she,
Ne popped hir, for it neded nought
To windre hir, or to peynte hir ought.       1020
Hir tresses yelowe, and longe straughten,
Unto hir heles doun they raughten:
Hir nose, hir mouth, and eye and cheke
Wel wrought, and al the remenaunt eke.
A ful gret savour and a swote       1025
Me thinketh in myn herte rote,
As helpe me god, whan I remembre
Of the fasoun of every membre!
In world is noon so fair a wight;
For yong she was, and hewed bright,       1030
[Wys], plesaunt, and fetys withalle,
Gente, and in hir middel smalle.
Bisyde Beaute yede Richesse,       Richesse.
An high lady of greet noblesse,

Envers qui les autres estoiles
Resemblent petites chandoiles.
Tendre ot la char comme rousée,
Simple fu cum une espousée,
Et blanche comme flor de lis;
Si ot le vis cler et alis,
Et fu greslete et alignie;
Ne fu fardée ne guignie:
Car el n'avoit mie mestier
De soi tifer ne d'afetier.       1010
Les cheveus ot blons et si lons
Qu'il li batoient as talons;
Nez ot bien fait, et yelx et bouche.
Moult grant douçor au cuer me touche,
Si m'aïst Diex, quant il me membre
De la façon de chascun membre
Qu'il n'ot si bele fame où monde.
Briément el fu jonete et blonde,
Sade, plaisant, aperte et cointe,
Grassete et grele, gente et jointe.       1020
Près de Biauté se tint Richece,
Une dame de grant hautece,

And greet of prys in every place.       1035 [ 137 ]
But who-so durste to hir trespace,
Or til hir folk, in worde or dede,
He were ful hardy, out of drede;
For bothe she helpe and hindre may:
And that is nought of yisterday       1040
That riche folk have ful gret might
To helpe, and eek to greve a wight.
The beste and grettest of valour
Diden Richesse ful gret honour,
And besy weren hir to serve;       1045
For that they wolde hir love deserve,
They cleped hir 'Lady,' grete and smalle;
This wyde world hir dredeth alle;
This world is al in hir daungere.
Hir court hath many a losengere,       1050
And many a traytour envious,
That been ful besy and curious
For to dispreisen, and to blame
That best deserven love and name.
Bifore the folk, hem to bigylen,       1055
These losengeres hem preyse, and smylen,
And thus the world with word anoynten;
But afterward they [prikke] and poynten

De grant pris et de grant affaire.
Qui à li ne as siens meffaire
Osast riens par fais, ou par dis,
Il fust moult fiers et moult hardis;
Qu'ele puet moult nuire et aidier.
Ce n'est mie ne d'ui ne d'ier
Que riches gens out grant poissance
De faire ou aïde, ou grévance.       1030
Tuit li greignor et li menor
Portoient à Richece honor:
Tuit baoient à li servir,
Por l'amor de li deservir;
Chascuns sa dame la clamoit,
Car tous li mondes la cremoit;
Tous li mons iert en son dangier.
En sa cort ot maint losengier,
Maint traïtor, maint envieus:
Ce sunt cil qui sunt curieus       1040
De desprisier et de blasmer
Tous ceus qui font miex à amer.
Par devant, por eus losengier,
Loent les gens li losengier;
Tout le monde par parole oignent,
Mès lor losenges les gens poignent

The folk right to the bare boon,[ 138 ]
Bihinde her bak whan they ben goon,       1060
And foule abate the folkes prys.
Ful many a worthy man and wys,
An hundred, have [they] don to dye,
These losengeres, through flaterye;
And maketh folk ful straunge be,       1065
Ther-as hem oughte be prive.
Wel yvel mote they thryve and thee,
And yvel aryved mote they be,
These losengeres, ful of envye!
No good man loveth hir companye.       1070
Richesse a robe of purpre on hadde,
Ne trowe not that I lye or madde;
For in this world is noon it liche,
Ne by a thousand deel so riche,
Ne noon so fair; for it ful wel       1075
With orfrays leyd was everydel,
And portrayed in the ribaninges
Of dukes stories, and of kinges.
And with a bend of gold tasseled,
And knoppes fyne of gold ameled.       1080
Aboute hir nekke of gentil entaile
Was shet the riche chevesaile,

Par derriere dusques as os,
Qu'il abaissent des bons les los,
Et desloent les aloés,
Et si loent les desloés.       1050
Maint prodommes ont encusés,
Et de lor honnor reculés
Li losengier par lor losenges;
Car il font ceus des cors estranges
Qui déussent estre privés:
Mal puissent-il estre arivés
Icil losengier plain d'envie!
Car nus prodons n'aime lor vie.
Richece ot une porpre robe,
Ice ne tenés mie à lobe,       1060
Que je vous di bien et afiche
Qu'il n'ot si bele, ne si riche
Où monde, ne si envoisie.
La porpre fu toute orfroisie;
Si ot portraites à orfrois
Estoires de dus et de rois.
Si estoit au col bien orlée
D'une bende d'or néélée
Moult richement, sachiés sans faille.
Si i avoit tretout à taille       1070

In which ther was ful gret plentee[ 139 ]
Of stones clere and bright to see.
Rychesse a girdel hadde upon,       1085
The bokel of it was of a stoon
Of vertu greet, and mochel of might;
For who-so bar the stoon so bright,
Of venim [thurte] him no-thing doute,
While he the stoon hadde him aboute.       1090
That stoon was greetly for to love,
And til a riche mannes bihove
Worth al the gold in Rome and Fryse.
The mourdaunt, wrought in noble wyse,
Was of a stoon ful precious,       1095
That was so fyn and vertuous,
That hool a man it coude make
Of palasye, and of tooth-ake.
And yit the stoon hadde suche a grace,
That he was siker in every place,       1100
Al thilke day, not blind to been,
That fasting mighte that stoon seen.
The barres were of gold ful fyne,
Upon a tissu of satyne,
Ful hevy, greet, and no-thing light,       1105
In everich was a besaunt-wight.
Upon the tresses of Richesse
Was set a cercle, for noblesse,

De riches pierres grant plenté
Qui moult rendoient grant clarté.
Richece ot ung moult riche ceint
Par desus cele porpre ceint;
La boucle d'une pierre fu
Qui ot grant force et grant vertu:
Car cis qui sor soi la portoit,
Nes uns venins ne redotoit:
Nus nel pooit envenimer,
Moult faisoit la pierre à aimer.       1080
Ele vausist à ung prodomme
Miex que trestous li ors de Romme.
D'une pierre fu li mordens,
Qui garissoit du mal des dens;
Et si avoit ung tel éur,
Que cis pooit estre asséur
Tretous les jors de sa véue,
Qui à géun l'avoit véue.
Li clou furent d'or esmeré,
Qui erent el tissu doré;       1090
Si estoient gros et pesant,
En chascun ot bien ung besant.
Richece ot sus ses treces sores
Ung cercle d'or; onques encores

Of brend gold, that ful lighte shoon;[ 140 ]
So fair, trowe I, was never noon.       1110
But he were cunning, for the nones,
That coude devysen alle the stones
That in that cercle shewen clere;
It is a wonder thing to here.
For no man coude preyse or gesse       1115
Of hem the valewe or richesse.
Rubyes there were, saphyres, iagounces,
And emeraudes, more than two ounces.
But al bifore, ful sotilly,
A fyn carboucle set saugh I.       1120
The stoon so cleer was and so bright,
That, al-so sone as it was night,
Men mighte seen to go, for nede,
A myle or two, in lengthe and brede.
Swich light [tho] sprang out of the stoon,       1125
That Richesse wonder brighte shoon,
Bothe hir heed, and al hir face,
And eke aboute hir al the place.
Dame Richesse on hir hond gan lede
A yong man ful of semelihede,       1130
That she best loved of any thing;
His lust was muche in housholding.

Ne fu si biaus véus, ce cuit,
Car il fu tout d'or fin recuit;
Mès cis seroit bons devisierres
Qui vous sauroit toutes les pierres,
Qui i estoient, devisier,
Car l'en ne porroit pas prisier       1100
L'avoir que les pierres valoient,
Qui en l'or assises estoient.
Rubis i ot, saphirs, jagonces,
Esmeraudes plus de dix onces.
Mais devant ot, par grant mestrise,
Une escharboucle où cercle assise,
Et la pierre si clere estoit,
Que maintenant qu'il anuitoit,
L'en s'en véist bien au besoing
Conduire d'une liue loing.       1110
Tel clarté de la pierre yssoit,
Que Richece en resplendissoit
Durement le vis et la face,
Et entor li toute la place.
Richece tint parmi la main
Ung valet de grant biauté plain,
Qui fu ses amis veritiez.
C'est uns hons qui en biaus ostiez

In clothing was he ful fetys,[ 141 ]
And lovede wel have hors of prys.
He wende to have reproved be       1135
Of thefte or mordre, if that he
Hadde in his stable an hakeney.
And therfore he desyred ay
To been aqueynted with Richesse;
For al his purpos, as I gesse,       1140
Was for to make greet dispense,
Withoute werning or defence.
And Richesse mighte it wel sustene,
And hir dispenses wel mayntene,
And him alwey swich plentee sende       1145
Of gold and silver for to spende
Withoute lakking or daungere,
As it were poured in a garnere.
And after on the daunce wente       Largesse.
Largesse, that sette al hir entente       1150
For to be honourable and free;
Of Alexandres kin was she;
Hir moste Ioye was, y-wis,
Whan that she yaf, and seide, 'have this.'
Not Avarice, the foule caytyf,       1155
Was half to grype so ententyf,

Maintenir moult se délitoit.
Cis se chauçoit bien et vestoit,       1120
Si avoit les chevaus de pris;
Cis cuidast bien estre repris
Ou de murtre, ou de larrecin,
S'en s'estable éust ung roucin.
Por ce amoit-il moult l'acointance
De Richece et la bien-voillance,
Qu'il avoit tous jors en porpens
De demener les grans despens,
Et el les pooit bien soffrir,
Et tous ses despens maintenir;       1130
El li donnoit autant deniers
Cum s'el les puisast en greniers.
Après refu Largece assise,
Qui fu bien duite et bien aprise
De faire honor, et de despendre:
El fu du linage Alexandre;
Si n'avoit-el joie de rien
Cum quant el pooit dire, 'tien.'
Neis Avarice la chétive
N'ert pas si à prendre ententive       1140

As Largesse is to yeve and spende.[ 142 ]
And god y-nough alwey hir sende,
So that the more she yaf awey,
The more, y-wis, she hadde alwey.       1160
Gret loos hath Largesse, and gret prys;
For bothe wys folk and unwys
Were hoolly to hir baundon brought,
So wel with yiftes hath she wrought.
And if she hadde an enemy,       1165
I trowe, that she coude craftily
Make him ful sone hir freend to be,
So large of yift and free was she;
Therfore she stood in love and grace
Of riche and povre in every place.       1170
A ful gret fool is he, y-wis,
That bothe riche and nigard is.
A lord may have no maner vice
That greveth more than avarice.
For nigard never with strengthe of hond       1175
May winne him greet lordship or lond.
For freendes al to fewe hath he
To doon his wil perfourmed be.
And who-so wol have freendes here,
He may not holde his tresour dere.       1180
For by ensample I telle this,
Right as an adamaunt, y-wis,

Cum Largece ere de donner;
Et Diex li fesoit foisonner
Ses biens si qu'ele ne savoit
Tant donner, cum el plus avoit.
Moult a Largece pris et los;
Ele a les sages et les fos
Outréement à son bandon,
Car ele savoit fere biau don;
S'ainsinc fust qu'aucuns la haïst,
Si cuit-ge que de ceus féist       1150
Ses amis par son biau servise;
Et por ce ot-ele à devise
L'amor des povres et des riches.
Moult est fos haus homs qui est chiches!
Haus homs ne puet avoir nul vice,
Qui tant li griet cum avarice:
Car hons avers ne puet conquerre
Ne seignorie ne grant terre;
Car il n'a pas d'amis plenté,
Dont il face sa volenté.       1160
Mès qui amis vodra avoir
Si n'ait mie chier son avoir,
Ains par biaus dons amis acquiere:
Car tout en autretel maniere

Can drawen to him sotilly[ 143 ]
The yren, that is leyd therby,
So draweth folkes hertes, y-wis,       1185
Silver and gold that yeven is.
Largesse hadde on a robe fresshe
Of riche purpur Sarsinesshe.
Wel fourmed was hir face and clere,
And opened had she hir colere;       1190
For she right there hadde in present
Unto a lady maad present
Of a gold broche, ful wel wrought.
And certes, it missat hir nought;
For through hir smokke, wrought with silk,       1195
The flesh was seen, as whyt as milk.
Largesse, that worthy was and wys,
Held by the honde a knight of prys,
Was sib to Arthour of Bretaigne.
And that was he that bar the enseigne       1200
Of worship, and the gonfanoun.
And yit he is of swich renoun,
That men of him seye faire thinges
Bifore barouns, erles, and kinges.
This knight was comen al newely       1205
Fro tourneyinge faste by;

Cum la pierre de l'aïment
Trait à soi le fer soutilment,
Ainsinc atrait les cuers des gens
Li ors qu'en donne et li argens.
Largece ot robe toute fresche
D'une porpre Sarrazinesche;       1170
S'ot le vis bel et bien formé;
Mès el ot son col deffermé,
Qu'el avoit iluec en présent
A une dame fet présent,
N'avoit gueres, de son fermal,
Et ce ne li séoit pas mal,
Que sa cheveçaille iert overte,
Et sa gorge si descoverte,
Que parmi outre la chemise
Li blanchoioit sa char alise.       1180
Largece la vaillant, la sage,
Tint ung chevalier du linage
Au bon roy Artus de Bretaigne;
Ce fu cil qui porta l'enseigne
De Valor et le gonfanon.
Encor est-il de tel renom,
Que l'en conte de li les contes
Et devant rois et devant contes.
Cil chevalier novelement
Fu venus d'ung tornoiement,       1190

Ther hadde he doon gret chivalrye[ 144 ]
Through his vertu and his maistrye;
And for the love of his lemman
[Had] cast doun many a doughty man.       1210
And next him daunced dame Fraunchyse,
Arrayed in ful noble gyse.       Fraunchyse.
She was not broun ne dun of hewe,
But whyt as snowe y-fallen newe.
Hir nose was wrought at poynt devys,       1215
For it was gentil and tretys;
With eyen gladde, and browes bente;
Hir heer doun to hir heles wente.
And she was simple as dowve on tree,
Ful debonaire of herte was she.       1220
She durste never seyn ne do
But that [thing] that hir longed to.
And if a man were in distresse,
And for hir love in hevinesse,
Hir herte wolde have ful greet pitee,       1225
She was so amiable and free.
For were a man for hir bistad,
She wolde ben right sore adrad
That she dide over greet outrage,
But she him holpe his harm to aswage;       1230

Où il ot faite por s'amie
Mainte jouste et mainte envaïe,
Et percié maint escu bouclé,
Maint hiaume i avoit desserclé,
Et maint chevalier abatu,
Et pris par force et par vertu.
Après tous ceus se tint Franchise,
Qui ne fu ne brune ne bise,
Ains ere blanche comme nois;
Et si n'ot pas nés d'Orlenois,       1200
Ainçois l'avoit lonc et traitis,
Iex vairs rians, sorcis votis:
S'ot les chevous et blons, et lons,
Et fu simple comme uns coulons.
Le cuer ot dous et debonnaire:
Ele n'osast dire ne faire
A nuli riens qu'el ne déust;
Et s'ele ung homme cognéust
Qui fust destrois por s'amitié,
Tantost éust de li pitié,       1210
Qu'ele ot le cuer si pitéable,
Et si dous et si amiable,
Que se nus por li mal traisist,
S'el ne li aidast, el crainsist
Qu'el féïst trop grant vilonnie.
Vestue ot une sorquanie,

Hir thoughte it elles a vilanye.[ 145 ]
And she hadde on a sukkenye,
That not of hempen herdes was;
So fair was noon in alle Arras.
Lord, it was rideled fetysly!       1235
Ther nas nat oo poynt, trewely,
That it nas in his right assyse.
Ful wel y-clothed was Fraunchyse;
For ther is no cloth sitteth bet
On damiselle, than doth roket.       1240
A womman wel more fetys is
In roket than in cote, y-wis.
The whyte roket, rideled faire,
Bitokened, that ful debonaire
And swete was she that it bere.       1245
By hir daunced a bachelere;
I can not telle you what he highte,
But fair he was, and of good highte,
Al hadde he be, I sey no more,
The lordes sone of Windesore.       1250
And next that daunced Curtesye,       Curtesye.
That preised was of lowe and hye,
For neither proud ne fool was she.
She for to daunce called me,

Qui ne fu mie de borras:
N'ot si bele jusqu'à Arras;
Car el fu si coillie et jointe,
Qu'il n'i ot une seule pointe       1220
Qui à son droit ne fust assise.
Moult fu bien vestue Franchise;
Car nule robe n'est si bele
Que sorquanie à damoisele.
Fame est plus cointe et plus mignote
En sorquanie que en cote:
La sorquanie qui fu blanche,
Senefioit que douce et franche
Estoit cele qui la vestoit.
Uns bachelers jones s'estoit       1230
Pris à Franchise lez à lez,
Ne soi comment ert apelé,
Mès biaus estoit, se il fust ores
Fiex au seignor de Gundesores.
Après se tenoit Courtoisie,
Qui moult estoit de tous prisie,
Si n'ere orguilleuse ne fole.
C'est cele qui à la karole

(I pray god yeve hir right good grace!)       1255 [ 146 ]
Whan I com first into the place.
She was not nyce, ne outrageous,
But wys and war, and vertuous,
Of faire speche, and faire answere;
Was never wight misseid of here;       1260
She bar no rancour to no wight.
Cleer broun she was, and therto bright
Of face, of body avenaunt;
I wot no lady so plesaunt.
She were worthy for to bene       1265
An emperesse or crouned quene.
And by hir wente a knight dauncing
That worthy was and wel speking,
And ful wel coude he doon honour.
The knight was fair and stif in stour,       1270
And in armure a semely man,
And wel biloved of his lemman.
Fair Ydelnesse than saugh I,       Ydelnesse.
That alwey was me faste by.
Of hir have I, withouten fayle,       1275
Told yow the shap and apparayle
For (as I seide) lo, that was she
That dide me so greet bountee,

La soe merci m'apela
Ains que nule, quant je vins là.       1240
El ne fu ne nice, n'umbrage,
Mès sages auques sans outrage,
De biaus respons et de biaus dis,
Onc nus ne fu par li laidis,
Ne ne porta nului rancune.
El fu clere comme la lune
Est avers les autres estoiles
Qui ne resemblent que chandoiles.
Faitisse estoit et avenant,
Je ne sai fame plus plaisant.       1250
Ele ere entoutes cors bien digne
D'estre emperieris, ou roïne.
A li se tint uns chevaliers
Acointables et biaus parliers,
Qui sot bien faire honor as gens.
Li chevaliers fu biaus et gens,
Et as armes bien acesmés,
Et de s'amie bien amés.
La bele Oiseuse vint après,
Qui se tint de moi assés près.       1260
De cele vous ai dit sans faille
Toute la façon et la taille;
Jà plus ne vous en iert conté,
Car c'est cele qui la bonté

That she the gate of the gardin[ 147 ]
Undide, and leet me passen in.       1280
And after daunced, as I gesse,       Youthe.
[Youthe], fulfild of lustinesse,
That nas not yit twelve yeer of age,
With herte wilde, and thought volage;
Nyce she was, but she ne mente       1285
Noon harm ne slight in hir entente,
But only lust and Iolitee.
For yonge folk, wel witen ye,
Have litel thought but on hir play.
Hir lemman was bisyde alway,       1290
In swich a gyse, that he hir kiste
At alle tymes that him liste,
That al the daunce mighte it see;
They make no force of privetee;
For who spak of hem yvel or wel,       1295
They were ashamed never-a-del,
But men mighte seen hem kisse there,
As it two yonge douves were.
For yong was thilke bachelere,
Of beaute wot I noon his pere;       1300
And he was right of swich an age
As Youthe his leef, and swich corage.
The lusty folk thus daunced there,
And also other that with hem were,

Me fist si grant qu'ele m'ovri
Le guichet del vergier flori.
Après se tint mien esciant,
Jonesce, au vis cler et luisant,
Qui n'avoit encores passés,
Si cum je cuit, douze ans d'assés.       1270
Nicete fu, si ne pensoit
Nul mal, ne nul engin qui soit;
Mès moult iert envoisie et gaie,
Car jone chose ne s'esmaie
Fors de joer, bien le savés.
Ses amis iert de li privés
En tel guise, qu'il la besoit
Toutes les fois que li plesoit,
Voians tous ceus de la karole:
Car qui d'aus deus tenist parole,       1280
Il n'en fussent jà vergondeus,
Ains les véissiés entre aus deus
Baisier comme deus columbiaus.
Le valés fu jones et biaus,
Si estoit bien d'autel aage
Cum s'amie, et d'autel corage.
Ainsi karoloient ilecques,
Ceste gens, et autres avecques,

That weren alle of hir meynee;       1305 [ 148 ]
Ful hende folk, and wys, and free,
And folk of fair port, trewely,
Ther weren alle comunly.
Whan I hadde seen the countenaunces
Of hem that ladden thus these daunces,       1310
Than hadde I wil to goon and see
The gardin that so lyked me,
And loken on these faire loreres,
On pyn-trees, cedres, and oliveres.
The daunces than y-ended were;       1315
For many of hem that daunced there
Were with hir loves went awey
Under the trees to have hir pley.
A, lord! they lived lustily!
A gret fool were he, sikerly,       1320
That nolde, his thankes, swich lyf lede!
For this dar I seyn, out of drede,
That who-so mighte so wel fare,
For better lyf [thurte] him not care;
For ther nis so good paradys       1325
As have a love at his devys.
Out of that place wente I tho,
And in that gardin gan I go,

Qui estoient de lor mesnies,
Franches gens et bien enseignies,       1290
Et gens de bel afetement
Estoient tuit communément.
Quant j'oi véues les semblances
De ceus qui menoient les dances,
J'oi lors talent que le vergier
Alasse véoir et cerchier,
Et remirer ces biaus moriers,
Ces pins, ces codres, ces loriers.
Les karoles jà remanoient,
Car tuit li plusors s'en aloient       1300
O lor amies umbroier
Sous ces arbres por dosnoier.
Diex, cum menoient bonne vie!
Fox est qui n'a de tel envie;
Qui autel vie avoir porroit,
De mieudre bien se sofferroit,
Qu'il n'est nul greignor paradis
Qu'avoir amie à son devis.
D'ilecques me parti atant,
Si m'en alai seus esbatant       1310

Pleying along ful merily.[ 149 ]
The God of Love ful hastely       1330
Unto him Swete-Loking clepte,
No lenger wolde he that he kepte
His bowe of golde, that shoon so bright.
He [bad] him [bende it] anon-right;
And he ful sone [it] sette on ende,       1335
And at a braid he gan it bende,
And took him of his arowes fyve,
Ful sharpe and redy for to dryve.
Now god that sit in magestee
Fro deedly woundes kepe me,       1340
If so be that he [wol] me shete;
For if I with his arowe mete,
It [wol me greven] sore, y-wis!
But I, that no-thing wiste of this,
Wente up and doun ful many a wey,       1345
And he me folwed faste alwey;
But no-wher wolde I reste me,
Til I hadde al the [yerde in] be.
The gardin was, by mesuring,
Right even and squar in compassing;       1350
It was as long as it was large.
Of fruyt hadde every tree his charge,       The Trees.

Par le vergier de çà en là;
Et li Diex d'Amors apela
Tretout maintenant Dous-Regart:
N'a or plus cure qu'il li gart
Son arc: donques sans plus atendre
L'arc li a commandé à tendre,
Et cis gaires n'i atendi,
Tout maintenant l'arc li tendi,
Si li bailla et cinq sajetes
Fors et poissans, d'aler loing prestes.       1320
Li Diex d'Amors tantost de loing
Me prist à suivir, l'arc où poing.
Or me gart Diex de mortel plaie!
Se il fait tant que à moi traie,
Il me grevera moult forment.
Je qui de ce ne soi noient,
Vois par la vergier à délivre,
Et cil pensa bien de moi sivre;
Mès en nul leu ne m'arresté,
Devant que j'oi par tout esté.       1330
Li vergiers par compasséure
Si fu de droite quarréure,
S'ot de lonc autant cum de large;
Nus arbres qui soit qui fruit charge,

But it were any hidous tree[ 150 ]
Of which ther were two or three.
Ther were, and that wot I ful wel,       1355
Of pomgarnettes a ful gret del;
That is a fruyt ful wel to lyke,
Namely to folk whan they ben syke.
And trees ther were, greet foisoun,
That baren notes in hir sesoun,       1360
Such as men notemigges calle,
That swote of savour been withalle.
And alemandres greet plentee,
Figes, and many a date-tree
Ther weren, if men hadde nede,       1365
Through the gardin in length and brede.
Ther was eek wexing many a spyce,
As clow-gelofre, and licoryce,
Gingere, and greyn de paradys,
Canelle, and setewale of prys,       1370
And many a spyce delitable,
To eten whan men ryse fro table.
And many hoomly trees ther were,
That peches, coynes, and apples bere,
Medlers, ploumes, peres, chesteynes,       1375
Cheryse, of whiche many on fayn is,

Se n'est aucuns arbres hideus,
Dont il n'i ait ou ung, ou deus
Où vergier, ou plus, s'il avient.
Pomiers i ot, bien m'en sovient,
Qui chargoient pomes grenades,
C'est uns fruis moult bons à malades;       1340
De noiers i ot grant foison,
Qui chargoient en la saison
Itel fruit cum sunt nois mugades,
Qui ne sunt ameres, ne fades;
Alemandiers y ot planté,
Et si ot où vergier planté
Maint figuier, et maint biau datier;
Si trovast qu'en éust mestier,
Où vergier mainte bone espice,
Cloz de girofle et requelice,       1350
Graine de paradis novele,
Citoal, anis, et canele,
Et mainte espice délitable,
Que bon mengier fait après table.
Où vergier ot arbres domesches,
Qui chargoient et coins et pesches,
Chataignes, nois, pommes et poires,
Nefles, prunes blanches et noires,

Notes, aleys, and bolas,[ 151 ]
That for to seen it was solas;
With many high lorer and pyn
Was renged clene al that gardyn;       1380
With cipres, and with oliveres,
Of which that nigh no plente here is.
Ther were elmes grete and stronge,
Maples, asshe, ook, asp, planes longe,
Fyn ew, popler, and lindes faire,       1385
And othere trees ful many a payre.
What sholde I telle you more of it?
Ther were so many treës yit,
That I sholde al encombred be
Er I had rekened every tree.       1390
These trees were set, that I devyse,
Oon from another, in assyse,
Five fadome or sixe, I trowe so,
But they were hye and grete also:
And for to kepe out wel the sonne,       1395
The croppes were so thikke y-ronne,
And every braunch in other knet,
And ful of grene leves set,
That sonne mighte noon descende,
Lest [it] the tendre grasses shende.       1400

Cerises fresches vermeilletes,
Cormes, alies et noisetes;       1360
De haus loriers et de haus pins
Refu tous pueplés li jardin,
Et d'oliviers et de ciprés,
Dont il n'a gaires ici prés;
Ormes y ot branchus et gros,
Et avec ce charmes et fos,
Codres droites, trembles et chesnes,
Erables haus, sapins et fresnes.
Que vous iroie-je notant?
De divers arbres i ot tant,       1370
Que moult en seroie encombrés,
Ains que les éusse nombrés.
Sachiés por voir, li arbres furent
Si loing à loing cum estre durent.
Li ung fu loing de l'autre assis
Plus de cinq toises, ou de sis:
Mès li rain furent lonc et haut,
Et por le leu garder de chaut,
Furent si espés par deseure,
Que li solaus en nesune eure       1380
Ne pooit à terre descendre,
Ne faire mal à l'erbe tendre.

Ther mighte men does and roes y-see,[ 152 ]
And of squirels ful greet plentee,
From bough to bough alwey leping.
Conies ther were also playing,
That comen out of hir claperes       1405
Of sondry colours and maneres,
And maden many a turneying
Upon the fresshe gras springing.
In places saw I WELLES there,       The Welles.
In whiche ther no frogges were,       1410
And fair in shadwe was every welle;
But I ne can the nombre telle
Of stremes smale, that by devys
Mirthe had don come through condys,
Of which the water, in renning,       1415
Gan make a noyse ful lyking.
About the brinkes of thise welles,
And by the stremes over-al elles
Sprang up the gras, as thikke y-set
And softe as any veluët,       1420
On which men mighte his lemman leye,
As on a fetherbed, to pleye,
For therthe was ful softe and swete.
Through moisture of the welle wete

Où vergier ot daims et chevrions,
Et moult grant plenté d'escoirions,
Qui par ces arbres gravissoient;
Connins i avoit qui issoient
Toute jor hors de lor tesnieres,
Et en plus de trente manieres
Aloient entr'eus tornoiant
Sor l'erbe fresche verdoiant.       1390
Il ot par leus cleres fontaines,
Sans barbelotes et sans raines,
Cui li arbres fesoient umbre;
Mès n'en sai pas dire le numbre.
Par petis tuiaus que Déduis
Y ot fet fere, et par conduis
S'en aloit l'iaue aval, fesant
Une noise douce et plesant.
Entor les ruissiaus et les rives
Des fontaines cleres et vives,       1400
Poignoit l'erbe freschete et drue;
Ausinc y poïst-l'en sa drue
Couchier comme sur une coite,
Car la terre estoit douce et moite
Por la fontaine, et i venoit
Tant d'erbe cum il convenoit.

Sprang up the sote grene gras,       1425 [ 153 ]
As fair, as thikke, as mister was.
But muche amended it the place,
That therthe was of swich a grace
That it of floures had plente,
That both in somer and winter be.       1430
Ther sprang the violete al newe,
And fresshe pervinke, riche of hewe,
And floures yelowe, whyte, and rede;
Swich plentee grew ther never in mede.
Ful gay was al the ground, and queynt,       1435
And poudred, as men had it peynt,
With many a fresh and sondry flour,
That casten up ful good savour.
I wol not longe holde you in fable
Of al this gardin delitable.       1440
I moot my tonge stinten nede,
For I ne may, withouten drede,
Naught tellen you the beautee al,
Ne half the bountee therewithal.
I wente on right honde and on left       1445
Aboute the place; it was not left,
Til I hadde al the [yerde in] been,
In the estres that men mighte seen.

Mès moult embelissoit l'afaire
Li leus qui ere de tel aire,
Qu'il i avoit tous jours plenté
De flors et yver et esté.       1410
Violete y avoit trop bele,
Et parvenche fresche et novele;
Flors y ot blanches et vermeilles,
De jaunes en i ot merveilles.
Trop par estoit la terre cointe,
Qu'ele ere piolée et pointe
De flors de diverses colors,
Dont moult sunt bonnes les odors.
Ne vous tenrai jà longue fable
Du leu plesant et délitable;       1420
Orendroit m'en convenra taire,
Que ge ne porroie retraire
Du vergier toute la biauté,
Ne la grant délitableté.
Tant fui à destre et à senestre,
Que j'oi tout l'afere et tout l'estre
Du vergier cerchié et véu;
Et li Diex d'Amors m'a séu

And thus whyle I wente in my pley,[ 154 ]
The God of Love me folowed ay,       1450
Right as an hunter can abyde
The beste, til he seeth his tyde
To shete, at good mes, to the dere,
Whan that him nedeth go no nere.
And so befil, I rested me       1455
Besyde a welle, under a tree,
Which tree in Fraunce men calle a pyn.
But, sith the tyme of king Pepyn,
Ne grew ther tree in mannes sighte
So fair, ne so wel woxe in highte;       1460
In al that yerde so high was noon.
And springing in a marble-stoon
Had nature set, the sothe to telle,
Under that pyn-tree a welle.
And on the border, al withoute,       1465
Was writen, in the stone aboute,
Lettres smale, that seyden thus,
Here starf the faire Narcisus.'
Narcisus was a bachelere,       Narcisus.
That Love had caught in his daungere,       1470
And in his net gan him so streyne,
And dide him so to wepe and pleyne,
That nede him muste his lyf forgo.
For a fair lady, hight Echo,

Endementiers en agaitant,
Cum li venieres qui atant       1430
Que la beste en bel leu se mete
Por lessier aler la sajete.
En ung trop biau leu arrivé,
Au darrenier, où je trouvé
Une fontaine sous ung pin;
Mais puis Karles le fils Pepin,
Ne fu ausinc biau pin véus,
Et si estoit si haut créus,
Qu'où vergier n'ot nul si bel arbre.
Dedens une pierre de marbre       1440
Ot nature par grant mestrise
Sous le pin la fontaine assise:
Si ot dedens la pierre escrites
Où bort amont letres petites
Qui disoient: 'ici desus
Se mori li biaus Narcisus.'
Narcisus fu uns damoisiaus
Que Amors tint en ses roisiaus,
Et tant le sot Amors destraindre,
Et tant le fist plorer et plaindre,       1450
Que li estuet à rendre l'ame:
Car Equo, une haute dame,

Him loved over any creature,       1475 [ 155 ]
And gan for him swich peyne endure,
That on a tyme she him tolde,
That, if he hir loven nolde,
That hir behoved nedes dye,
Ther lay non other remedye.       1480
But natheles, for his beautee,
So fiers and daungerous was he,
That he nolde graunten hir asking,
For weping, ne for fair praying.
And whan she herde him werne hir so,       1485
She hadde in herte so gret wo,
And took it in so gret dispyt,
That she, withoute more respyt,
Was deed anoon. But, er she deyde,
Ful pitously to god she preyde,       1490
That proude-herted Narcisus,
That was in love so daungerous,
Mighte on a day ben hampred so
For love, and been so hoot for wo,
That never he mighte Ioye atteyne;       1495
Than shulde he fele in every veyne
What sorowe trewe lovers maken,
That been so vilaynsly forsaken.

L'avoit amé plus que riens née.
El fu par lui si mal menée
Qu'ele li dist qu'il li donroit
S'amor, ou ele se morroit.
Mès cis fu por sa grant biauté
Plains de desdaing et de fierté,
Si ne la li volt otroier,
Ne por chuer, ne por proier.       1460
Quant ele s'oï escondire,
Si en ot tel duel et tel ire,
Et le tint en si grant despit,
Que morte en fu sans lonc respit;
Mès ainçois qu'ele se morist,
Ele pria Diex et requist
Que Narcisus au cuer ferasche,
Qu'ele ot trové d'amors si flasche,
Fust asproiés encore ung jor,
Et eschaufés d'autel amor       1470
Dont il ne péust joie atendre;
Si porroit savoir et entendre
Quel duel ont li loial amant
Que l'en refuse si vilment.

This prayer was but resonable,[ 156 ]
Therefor god held it ferme and stable:       1500
For Narcisus, shortly to telle,
By aventure com to that welle
To reste him in that shadowing
A day, whan he com fro hunting.
This Narcisus had suffred paynes       1505
For renning alday in the playnes,
And was for thurst in greet distresse
Of hete, and of his werinesse
That hadde his breeth almost binomen.
Whan he was to that welle y-comen,       1510
That shadwed was with braunches grene,
He thoughte of thilke water shene
To drinke and fresshe him wel withalle;
And doun on knees he gan to falle,
And forth his heed and nekke out-straughte       1515
To drinken of that welle a draughte
And in the water anoon was sene
His nose, his mouth, his yën shene,
And he ther-of was al abasshed;
His owne shadowe had him bitrasshed.       1520
For wel wende he the forme see
Of a child of greet beautee.

Cele proiere fu resnable,
Et por ce la fist Diex estable,
Que Narcisus, par aventure,
A la fontaine clere et pure
Se vint sous le pin umbroier,
Ung jour qu'il venoit d'archoier,       1480
Et avoit soffert grant travail
De corre et amont et aval,
Tant qu'il ot soif por l'aspreté
Du chault, et por la lasseté
Qui li ot tolue l'alaine.
Et quant il vint à la fontaine
Que li pins de ses rains covroit,
Il se pensa que il bevroit:
Sus la fontaine, tout adens
Se mist lors por boivre dedans.       1490
Si vit en l'iaue clere et nete
Son vis, son nés et sa bouchete,
Et cis maintenant s'esbahi;
Car ses umbres l'ot si trahi,
Que cuida véoir la figure
D'ung enfant bel à desmesure.

Wel couthe Love him wreke tho[ 157 ]
Of daunger and of pryde also,
That Narcisus somtyme him bere.       1525
He quitte him wel his guerdon there;
For he so musede in the welle,
That, shortly al the sothe to telle,
He lovede his owne shadowe so,
That atte laste he starf for wo.       1530
For whan he saugh that he his wille
Mighte in no maner wey fulfille,
And that he was so faste caught
That he him couthe comfort naught,
He loste his wit right in that place,       1535
And deyde within a litel space.
And thus his warisoun he took
For the lady that he forsook.
Ladyes, I preye ensample taketh,
Ye that ayeins your love mistaketh:       1540
For if hir deeth be yow to wyte,
God can ful wel your whyle quyte.
Whan that this lettre, of whiche I telle,
Had taught me that it was the welle
Of Narcisus in his beautee,       1545
I gan anoon withdrawe me,

Lors se sot bien Amors vengier
Du grant orguel et du dangier
Que Narcisus li ot mené.
Lors li fu bien guerredoné,       1500
Qu'il musa tant à la fontaine,
Qu'il ama son umbre demaine,
Si en fu mors à la parclose.
Ce est la somme de la chose:
Car quant il vit qu'il ne porroit
Acomplir ce qu'il desirroit,
Et qu'il i fu si pris par sort,
Qu'il n'en pooit avoir confort
En nule guise, n'en nul sens,
Il perdi d'ire tout le sens,       1510
Et fu mors en poi de termine.
Ainsinc si ot de la meschine
Qu'il avoit d'amors escondite,
Son guerredon et sa merite.
Dames, cest exemple aprenés,
Qui vers vos amis mesprenés;
Car se vous les lessiés morir,
Diex le vous sara bien merir.
Quant li escris m'ot fait savoir
Que ce estoit tretout por voir       1520
La fontaine au biau Narcisus,
Je m'en trais lors ung poi en sus,

Whan it fel in my remembraunce,[ 158 ]
That him bitidde swich mischaunce.
But at the laste than thoughte I,
That scatheles, ful sikerly,       1550
I mighte unto The Welle go.       The Welle.
Wherof shulde I abasshen so?
Unto the welle than wente I me,
And doun I louted for to see
The clere water in the stoon,       1555
And eek the gravel, which that shoon
Down in the botme, as silver fyn;
For of the welle, this is the fyn,
In world is noon so cleer of hewe.
The water is ever fresh and newe       1560
That welmeth up with wawes brighte
The mountance of two finger highte.
Abouten it is gras springing,
For moiste so thikke and wel lyking,
That it ne may in winter dye,       1565
No more than may the see be drye.
Down at the botme set saw I
Two cristal stones craftely
In thilke fresshe and faire welle.
But o thing soothly dar I telle,       1570

Que dedens n'osai regarder,
Ains commençai à coarder,
Quant de Narcisus me sovint,
Cui malement en mesavint;
Mès ge me pensai qu'asséur,
Sans paor de mavés éur,
A la fontaine aler pooie,
Por folie m'en esmaioie.       1530
De la fontaine m'apressai,
Quant ge fui près, si m'abessai
Por véoir l'iaue qui coroit,
Et la gravele qui paroit
Au fons plus clere qu'argens fins,
De la fontaine c'est la fins.
En tout le monde n'ot si bele,
L'iaue est tousdis fresche et novele,
Qui nuit et jor sourt à grans ondes
Par deux doiz creuses et parfondes.       1540
Tout entour point l'erbe menue,
Qui vient por l'iaue espesse et drue,
Et en iver ne puet morir
Ne que l'iaue ne puet tarir.
Où fons de la fontaine aval
Avoit deux pierres de cristal
Qu'à grande entente remirai,
Et une chose vous dirai,

That ye wol holde a greet mervayle[ 159 ]
Whan it is told, withouten fayle.
For whan the sonne, cleer in sighte,
Cast in that welle his bemes brighte,
And that the heet descended is,       1575
Than taketh the cristal stoon, y-wis,
Agayn the sonne an hundred hewes,
Blewe, yelowe, and rede, that fresh and newe is.
Yit hath the merveilous cristal
Swich strengthe, that the place overal,       1580
Bothe fowl and tree, and leves grene,
And al the yerd in it is sene.
And for to doon you understonde,
To make ensample wol I fonde;
Right as a mirour openly       1585
Sheweth al thing that stant therby,
As wel the colour as the figure,
Withouten any coverture;
Right so the cristal stoon, shyning,
Withouten any disceyving,       1590
The estres of the yerde accuseth
To him that in the water museth;
For ever, in which half that he be,
He may wel half the gardin see;

Qu'à merveilles, ce cuit, tenrés
Tout maintenant que vous l'orrés.       1550
Quant li solaus qui tout aguete,
Ses rais en la fontaine giete,
Et la clartés aval descent,
Lors perent colors plus de cent
Où cristal, qui por le soleil
Devient ynde, jaune et vermeil:
Si ot le cristal merveilleus
Itel force que tous li leus,
Arbres et flors et quanqu'aorne
Li vergiers, i pert tout aorne;       1560
Et por faire la chose entendre,
Un essample vous veil aprendre.
Ainsinc cum li miréors montre
Les choses qui li sunt encontre,
Et y voit-l'en sans coverture
Et lor color, et lor figure;
Tretout ausinc vous dis por voir,
Que li cristal, sans décevoir,
Tout l'estre du vergier accusent
A ceus qui dedens l'iaue musent:       1570
Car tous jours quelque part qu'il soient,
L'une moitié du vergier voient;

And if he turne, he may right wel       1595 [ 160 ]
Seen the remenaunt everydel.
For ther is noon so litel thing
So hid, ne closed with shitting,
That it ne is sene, as though it were
Peynted in the cristal there.       1600
This is the mirour perilous,
In which the proude Narcisus
Saw al his face fair and bright,
That made him sith to lye upright.
For who-so loke in that mirour,       1605
Ther may no-thing ben his socour
That he ne shal ther seen som thing
That shal him lede into [loving].
Ful many a worthy man hath it
Y-blent; for folk of grettest wit       1610
Ben sone caught here and awayted;
Withouten respyt been they bayted.
Heer comth to folk of-newe rage,
Heer chaungeth many wight corage;
Heer lyth no reed ne wit therto;       1615
For Venus sone, daun Cupido,
Hath sowen there of love the seed,
That help ne lyth ther noon, ne reed,

Et s'il se tornent maintenant,
Pueent véoir le remenant.
Si n'i a si petite chose,
Tant reposte, ne tant enclose,
Dont démonstrance n'i soit faite,
Cum s'ele iert es cristaus portraite.
C'est li miréoirs périlleus,
Où Narcisus li orguilleus       1580
Mira sa face et ses yex vers,
Dont il jut puis mors tout envers.
Qui en cel miréor se mire,
Ne puet avoir garant de mire,
Que tel chose à ses yex ne voie,
Qui d'amer l'a tost mis en voie.
Maint vaillant homme a mis à glaive
Cis miréors, car li plus saive,
Li plus preus, li miex afetié
I sunt tost pris et aguetié.       1590
Ci sourt as gens novele rage,
Ici se changent li corage;
Ci n'a mestier sens, ne mesure,
Ci est d'amer volenté pure;
Ci ne se set conseiller nus;
Car Cupido, li fils Venus,

So cercleth it the welle aboute.[ 161 ]
His ginnes hath he set withoute       1620
Right for to cacche in his panteres
These damoysels and bacheleres.
Love wil noon other bridde cacche,
Though he sette either net or lacche.
And for the seed that heer was sowen,       1625
This welle is cleped, as wel is knowen,
The Welle of Love, of verray right,
Of which ther hath ful many a wight
Spoke in bokes dyversely.
But they shulle never so verily       1630
Descripcioun of the welle here,
Ne eek the sothe of this matere,
As ye shulle, whan I have undo
The craft that hir bilongeth to.
Alway me lyked for to dwelle,       1635
To seen the cristal in the welle,
That shewed me ful openly
A thousand thinges faste by.
But I may saye, in sory houre
Stood I to loken or to poure;       1640
For sithen [have] I sore syked,
That mirour hath me now entryked.

Sema ici d'Amors la graine
Qui toute a çainte la fontaine;
Et fist ses las environ tendre,
Et ses engins i mist por prendre       1600
Damoiseles et Damoisiaus;
Qu'Amors ne velt autres oisiaus.
Por la graine qui fu semée,
Fu cele fontaine clamée
La Fontaine d'Amors par droit,
Dont plusors ont en maint endroit
Parlé, en romans et en livre;
Mais jamès n'orrez miex descrivre
La verité de la matere,
Cum ge la vous vodré retrere.       1610
Adès me plot à demorer
A la fontaine, et remirer
Les deus cristaus qui me monstroient
Mil choses qui ilec estoient.
Mès de fort hore m'i miré:
Las! tant en ai puis souspiré!
Cis miréors m'a decéu;
Se j'éusse avant cognéu

But hadde I first knowen in my wit[ 162 ]
The vertue and [the] strengthe of it,
I nolde not have mused there;       1645
Me hadde bet ben elles-where;
For in the snare I fel anoon,
That hath bitraisshed many oon.
In thilke mirour saw I tho,
Among a thousand thinges mo,       1650
A ROSER charged ful of roses,       The Roser.
That with an hegge aboute enclos is.
Tho had I swich lust and envye,
That, for Parys ne for Pavye,
Nolde I have left to goon and see       1655
Ther grettest hepe of roses be.
Whan I was with this rage hent,
That caught hath many a man and shent,
Toward the roser gan I go.
And whan I was not fer therfro,       1660
The savour of the roses swote
Me smoot right to the herte rote,
As I hadde al embawmed [be.]
And if I ne hadde endouted me
To have ben hated or assailed,       1665
My thankes, wolde I not have failed

Quex sa force ert et sa vertu,
Ne m'i fusse jà embatu:       1620
Car meintenant où las chaï
Qui meint homme ont pris et traï.
Où miroer entre mil choses,
Choisi rosiers chargiés de roses,
Qui estoient en ung détor
D'une haie clos tout entor:
Adont m'en prist si grant envie,
Que ne laissasse por Pavie,
Ne por Paris, que ge n'alasse
Là où ge vi la greignor masse.       1630
Quant cele rage m'ot si pris,
Dont maint ont esté entrepris,
Vers les rosiers tantost me très;
Et sachiés que quant g'en fui près,
L'oudor des roses savorées
M'entra ens jusques es corées,
Que por noient fusse embasmés:
Se assailli ou mesamés

To pulle a rose of al that route[ 163 ]
To beren in myn honde aboute,
And smellen to it wher I wente;
But ever I dredde me to repente,       1670
And lest it greved or for-thoughte
The lord that thilke gardyn wroughte.
Of roses were ther gret woon,
So faire wexe never in roon.
Of knoppes clos, some saw I there,       1675
And some wel beter woxen were;
And some ther been of other moysoun,
That drowe nigh to hir sesoun,
And spedde hem faste for to sprede;
I love wel swiche roses rede;       1680
For brode roses, and open also,
Ben passed in a day or two;
But knoppes wilen fresshe be
Two dayes atte leest, or three.
The knoppes gretly lyked me,       1685
For fairer may ther no man see.
Who-so mighte haven oon of alle,
It oughte him been ful leef withalle.
Mighte I [a] gerlond of hem geten,
For no richesse I wolde it leten.       1690

Ne cremisse estre, g'en cuillisse,
Au mains une que ge tenisse       1640
En ma main, por l'odor sentir;
Mès paor oi du repentir:
Car il en péust de legier
Peser au seignor du vergier.
Des roses i ot grans monciaus,
Si beles ne vit homs sous ciaus;
Boutons i ot petit et clos,
Et tiex qui sunt ung poi plus gros.
Si en i ot d'autre moison
Qui se traient à lor soison,       1650
Et s'aprestoient d'espanir,
Et cil ne font pas à haïr.
Les roses overtes et lées
Sunt en ung jor toutes alées;
Mès li bouton durent trois frois
A tout le mains deux jors ou trois.
Icil bouton forment me plurent,
Oncques plus bel nul leu ne crurent.
Qui en porroit ung acroichier,
Il le devroit avoir moult chier;       1660
S'ung chapel en péusse avoir,
Je n'en préisse nul avoir.

Among THE KNOPPES I chees oon       The Knoppe. [ 164 ]
So fair, that of the remenaunt noon
Ne preyse I half so wel as it,
Whan I avyse it in my wit.
For it so wel was enlumyned       1695
With colour reed, as wel [y]-fyned
As nature couthe it make faire.
And it had leves wel foure paire,
That Kinde had set through his knowing
Aboute the rede rose springing.       1700
The stalke was as risshe right,
And theron stood the knoppe upright,
That it ne bowed upon no syde.
The swote smelle sprong so wyde
That it dide al the place aboute—       1705

Entre ces boutons en eslui
Ung si très-bel, qu'envers celui
Nus des autres riens ne prisié,
Puis que ge l'oi bien avisié:
Car une color l'enlumine,
Qui est si vermeille et si fine,
Com Nature la pot plus faire.
Des foilles i ot quatre paire       1670
Que Nature par grant mestire
I ot assises tire à tire.
La coe ot droite comme jons,
Et par dessus siet li boutons,
Si qu'il ne cline, ne ne pent.
L'odor de lui entor s'espent;
La soatime qui en ist
Toute la place replenist.       1678

G. = Glasgow MS.; Th. = Thynne's ed. (1532).

1-44. Lost in G.; from Th. 3. Th. some sweuen; but the pl. is required. 4. Th. that false ne bene. 5. Th. apparaunt. 6. Th. warraunt. 12. Th. els; om. a. 13, 14. Th. fal, cal; fole.

23. Th. folke; went. 25. Th. slepte. 26. Th. suche. 27. Th. lyked; wele. 28. Th. dele. 29. Th. afterwarde befal. 30. Th. dreme; tel; al. 31. Th. Nowe; dreme. 35. Th. there. 37. Th. Howe; om. that and the. 38. Th. hatte; read hote.

39. Ed. 1550, Romaunte. 40. Th. arte. 42. Th. graunt me in; omit me. 45. Here begins G. 46. Th. to be; G. torn. 47. Th. G. ought. 49. G. Th. thought. 55. G. Th. bene. 56. G. Th. wrene. 59. G. erth. G. Th. proude. 61. G. Th. forgette. 62. G. Th. had; sette.

66. G. Th. had. 69-72. Imperfect in G. 72. G. so; Th. ful. 73. Th. grylle; G. gryl. 73, 74. G. Th. sight, bright. 76. Th. herte; G. hertis. G. sich. 80. G. om. a. 81. G. om. the. 82. Th. yonge; G. yong. 84. Th. sauorous; G. sauerous. 85. Th. his herte; G. the hert.

89. G. blesful; Th. blysful. 91. G. affraieth; Th. affirmeth. G. Th. al. 96. G. wisshe; hondis. 97. Th. nedyl. G. droughe; Th. drowe. 98. Th. aguyler; G. Aguler. G. ynoughe; Th. ynowe. 101. Th. sowne; G. song. 102. Th. on; G. in. Both buskes. 103. G. om. the. G. swete; Th. lefe. 107. Th. That; G. They. G. om. a. 109. Th. Iolyfe; G. Ioly.

110. Both gan I. 111. G. herd; fast. 113. Both ryuere. 114. Both nere. 117-120. Imperfect in G. 121. Perhaps om. that. 123, 4. G. Th. ryuere, clere. 126. Th. botome ypaued. 132. G. walk thorough.

138. G. Th. Enclosed was; see l. 1652. 139. Th. hye; G. high. 142. G. the ymages and the peyntures; Th. the ymages and peyntures. 146. G. haue in; Th. om. in. 147. Th. Amydde; G. Amyd. 149. Both mynoresse; French, moverresse. 154. Both wode. 155. G. om. Y-.

160. Th. ywrithen; G. writhen. 163. G. om. faste. 165, 6. Both Felony, Vil(l)any. 167. Th. Ycleped; G. Clepid. Both fonde. 168. G. wal; Th. wall. Both honde. 174. Both outragious. 176. Th. suche an ymage.

184. G. gret tresouris; Th. gret treasours. G. leyne; Th. layne. 185. G. om. she. 188. Th. couetous; G. coueitise. 189. G. om. she. Th. for; G. that. 196. Both myscoueiting. 198. Both om. that. 203. Both wode.

204. Both gode. 208. Both fast. 212. Th. any; G. ony. 214. Both semed to haue. 219. G. porely; Th. poorely. 220. Both courtpy. 224. Th. mantel; G. mantyl. Both fast.

234. Th. ilke; G. ilk. 239. Th. helde; G. hilde. 240. Both om. doun. 241, 2. Th. stronge, longe; G. strong, long. 245, 6. Both entent, went. 248. Both peynted. 249, 250. Both in hir herte. G. farede, herede; Th. ferde, herde.

255. Perhaps read On ... to falle. 256. Both om. ful. 259. Th. shamful; G. shynful. 261. Both or by his prowesse. 264. Th. chaunce; G. chaunge. 266. G. trouth. 271. G. farede; Th. fared. 273. Both male talent; see 330.

275. G. hath; Th. hate. I supply wo. 276. Read melt'th or melt. 277. Both so (for to-). 278. Th. people; G. puple. 282. Both best. 291. G. Th. awrie. 292. G. -thart; Th. -twharte, misprint for -thwart. 293. I supply eek. G. om. a foul. 296. G. hir eien; Th. her one eye.

298. Both se. 299. So Th.; G. fairer or worthier. 303. G. seyn; Th. sene. 305. Both to haue; read hav-ë. Th. iaundice. 307. I supply as. 310. Th. yelowe; G. yolare.

324. Both rent. 333-380. Lost in G; from Th. 334. Th. had sene. 340. Th. rechelesse. 341. Th. rought. 342. I supply of.

344. Th. luste; play. 349. Th. contrarie. 352. Th. might. 356. Th. for hore.

367, 368. Th. went, potent. 370. Th. restlesse. 379. Supply er (Kaluza). 381. G. begins again. 382. Both may neuer. 387. Both frette. Th. shal; G. shalle. 388. Th. al; G. alle. 389. Th. al; G. alle. 390. Both al.

398. Both myght. 401. Both witte; pithe; in. 404. Both faire. 408. Th. cappe.

421. Th. symple; G. semely. 435. G. ne fresh; Th. om. ne. 436. Both to be.

442. Both ay (giving no sense); read shal. 444. Both grace (for face). 446. G. om. hem. 448. G. om. eek. 452. I supply that. 455. G. wedir; Th. wether. 456. G. deyd; Th. dyed. 462. Both had.

466. G. pouer. 467. G. shamefast; dispised. 471. G. ony pouere; fedde. Th. yfedde. 472. G. cledde; Th. ycledde. 478. Th. were; G. newe. 479. Both Square. 480. Th. ybarred; G. barred. 483. Both wrought. 485. G. laddris; Th. ladders; read laddre; see 523.

489. Both As was in. 492. G. yeer; Th. yere; read yerd; see 656. 494. Th. Therin; G. Therynne. 498. Both ought. 501. Th. hundred; G. hundreth. Both wolde (by confusion). 503. Both be. 505. Both kepe it fro care; a false rime. 506. Both ware; a false spelling. 510. Both weymentyng.

512. Both into. 516. Both where; read o-where. 517. Both myght. 520. Both For; read Ful. G. angwishis; see F. text. 532. I supply 1st so.

535. G. and of herknyng; Th. al herkenyng. 536. G. ony; Th. any; read a. 537. G. om. the. 540. G. ony; Th. any. 541. I supply 1st as. 542. Both bent. 546. Both as is a; omit is or a. 558. G. snawe; Th. snowe. G. snawed; Th. snowed.

560. G. neded; Th. neden. 564. Some lines lost? 567. I supply in honde. 568. Th. tressour; G. tresour; (cf. Gawain, 1739). 569. Both queyntly; see l. 783. 570. Both fetously; see l. 577.

583. Both but if; om. if. 586. Both may; see l. 538. 587, 588. Both myght, hyght. 592. G. answeride; Th. answerde. 603. G. hidre be; Th. hyther be. Both fette. 604. G. sette; Th. ysette.

605. Both hight. 606. Both sight. 617. Th. therin; G. therynne. 623. Th. playen in; G. pleyn ynne.

631. Th. Than; G. Thanne. 645, 653. Th. in; G. Inne. 654. Both thought.

655. Th. byrde; G. bridde; read brid. 660. Both places (badly). 661. Both might. 668. Both That (for These). 673. Th. whan; G. that. Th. herde; G. herd. 676. Both myght.

684. Both clepe. 688. Th. But; G. For. Both om. hir. 699. Th. gardyn; G. gardyne. 700. G. inne; Th. in.

701. G. hens-; wrought. 702. Both thought. 709. Both wrought. 716. Th. her; G. their. Th. iargonyng; G. yarkonyng. 718. Th. ispronge; G. spronge. 720. Th. reuelrye; G. reuerye; see French. 724. Th. in; G. inne.

728. Both sight (wrongly). 732. Th. faste; G. fast. Both without. 739. Th. whence; G. whenne. Both might. 741, 2. Both sight, bright. 743. Th. These; G. This. 745. Both hyght. 746. Both blisfull. Th. and lyght; G. and the light; see 797. 749. Both add couthe before make.

760. I supply ther. 761. Both made (for make). 770. Th. saylours; G. saillouris. 773. Both, hente; I supply hem.

776. G. damysels; Th. damosels. 782. Both lieth. 783. Both queyntly; see l. 569. 791. Both bode; read bede; see note. 798. Both pray to God.

801. I supply neer. 806. Both it to me liked. 811. Both right blythe; om. right. 812. Th. Than; G. Thanne. 819. Th. appel; G. appille.

834. Both first. 836. Both samette. 837. Both beten ful; om. ful. 844. Both drury. 845. Th. rosen; G. rosyn.

848. Both gladnesse. 859. G. seye; Th. sey (for sayn). 860. G. pleye; Th. pley (for pleyn). 861. Both Bent. 863. Both laugheden. 865. Both I wot not what of hir nose I shal descryve (eleven syllables). 866. Two lines lost.

869. Th. orfrayes. 870. Th. whiche; G. which. Th. sene; G. seyen. 873. Th. samyte; G. samet. 875, 6. Th. werde, ferde; G. werede, ferede. Both ins. hir bef. herte. 877. Th. on; G. in. 879. Both Love, and as hym likith it be. 887. Th. prise; G. preyse. 890. Th. ycladde; G. clad. 891. G. and in; Th. om. in. 892. From Th.; G. om.

893. Th. losenges; G. losynges. 897. Th. Ypurtrayed; G. Portreied. Th. ywrought; G. wrought. 900. Th. Yset; G. Sett. 902. Th. moche; G. mych. 903, 4. Both peruynke, thynke. 906. G. -melled; Th. -medled; see l. 898.

923. Both Turke bowes two, full wel deuysed had he (too long). 928. Th. any; G. ony. 929, 930. Th. plante, warante; G. plant, warant. Both Without. 932. G. Treitys; Th. Trectes. Both ins. ful after of. 933. G. twythen; Th. thwitten (printed twhitten). 936. I supply ful. 939. Th. helde; G. hilde.

942. Th. aryght; G. right. 944. G. peynted (!). 945. Th. sharpe; G. sharp. Th. wele; G. welle. 946. Th. stele; G. steelle. 948. Th. Out take; G. Outake. 953. G. lasse; Th. lesse. 958. Th. companye; G. compaigny. 959. Both shoten; see l. 989. 960. For right read nigh (K.).

964. Both leest. 969. Th. soner; G. sonner. 970. Th. Hys; G. Hir. Th. ought be; G. ought to be. 973. Both for to telle. 984. Both on; read of (K.).

991. Both And contrarye. 998. Th. booke; G. book. 1007. G. Th. And; read As was; F. Ainsinc cum. 1010. I supply is.

1015. For As read And (K.). 1017. Both smale. 1018. Both wyntred; see l. 1020. 1026. Both thought; read thinketh (K.). 1031. Both Sore (!); read Wys (?). 1034. Both And hight (!).

1037. Both in werk (!). 1043. G. and the; Th. om. the. 1045. Th. weren; G. were. 1058. Th. But; G. And. Th. prill; G. prile; prob. error for prike, or prikke.

1062. Th. and wyse; G. ywys. 1063. G. haue do; Th. and ydon. 1065. Th. And maketh; G. Haue maad. 1066. G. om. as. Both ought. 1068. Th. aryued; G. achyued. 1071. G. purpur; Th. purple. 1073. Th. it; G. hir. 1080. Th. amyled; Speght, ameled; G. enameled. 1082. G. shete; Th. shette.

1089. Both durst (!); read thurte or thurfte. 1092. Th. mannes; G. man. 1098. G. om. of. Both tothe. 1101. Th. thylke; G. thilk. 1102. Both myght.

1109. Both light. 1111. Th. he; G. she. 1112. Both deuyse. 1116. Th. the; G. that. 1117. Both ragounces (!). 1125. Morris supplies tho. 1132. G. mych.

1134. Th. loued wel to haue; G. loued to haue well. 1137. Th. an; G. ony. 1139. Th. ben; G. be. 1141. Th. Was; G. And. 1142. Th. or defence; G. of diffense. 1144. Th. dispences; G. dispence. 1146. Th. for to spende; G. for to dispende; see 1157. 1147. Th. lackynge; G. lakke. 1150. Th. sette; G. settith.

1162. G. om. wys. 1166. Th. craftely; G. tristely. 1172. Th. nygarde; G. nygart. 1176. G. om. him. 1178. Th. wyl; G. wille. 1182. Th. adamant; G. adamaund.

1187. Th. fresshe; G. fresh. 1188. G. sarlynysh; Th. Sarlynyssche. 1199. Both sibbe. Th. Arthour; G. Artour. Th. Breteigne; G. Britaigne. 1200. Th. enseigne; G, ensaigne. 1201. Both gousfaucoun. 1205. Both newly. 1206. Th. tourneyeng; G. tourneryng.

1207. Th. There; G. The. 1210. Both He caste. 1214. Th. yfallen; G. falle. 1219. Th. on; G. of. 1221. Both durst. 1227, 8. Both bistadde, adradde. 1230. Th. taswage.

1233. Th. hempe; G. hempe ne (for hempene). 1235. G. ridled; Th. ryddeled. 1236. G. om. nat. Both a; read oo. 1238. Th. yclothed; G. clothed. 1243; see 1235. 1244. Both Bitokeneth. 1247, 8. Both hight.

1255. Th. om. right. 1259. G. and of; Th. om. of. 1261. G. om. 1st no. 1263. G. wenaunt (!). 1265. G. om. were. 1274. Both fast. 1275. Both without.

1282. Both And she; read Youthe; see 1302. 1288. Th. yonge; G. yong. Th. wel; G. wole. 1303. Both that; read thus; see 1310.

1307. Both faire; truly (truely). 1308. Both were. 1313. G. loreyes; Th. Laurelles. 1315. Th. ended; G. eended (=y-ended?). 1323. Both myght. 1324. Both durst (for thurte). 1326. Both As to haue.

1332. Both she (for 2nd he). 1334. Both hadde (for bad); bent; om. it. 1335. I supply it. Both an (for on). 1339. Both sittith. 1340. Both he kepe me; (om. he). 1341. G. hadde me shette; Th. had me shete. 1342. G. mette; Th. mete. 1343. Both had me greued. 1348. Both hadde in all the gardyn be.

1359. G. of gret; Th. om. of. 1360. Th. nuttes. 1363. Both almandres. 1365. Th. weren; G. wexen. 1366. Read Throughout the yerd? 1369. Th. Gyngere; G. Gyngevre. Both Parys (!). 1375. Th. plommes. Th. chesteynis; G. chesteyns. 1376. G. Cherys; Th. Cheryse. G. which.

1379. Th. laurer; G. lorey (!). 1381. G. olyuers; Th. olyueris. 1384. Both oke. 1386-1482. Lost in G. 1397, 8. Th. knytte, sytte; see Parl. Fo. 628. 1399. Th. myght there noon. 1400. I supply it.

1403. Th. bowe; Speght, bough (twice). 1404. Th. Connes. 1405, 6. Th. clapers, maners. 1411, 2. Th. wel, tel. 1413, 4. Th. deuyse, condyse 1423. Th. the erthe; see 1428. 1424. Th. wel.

1425. Th. Spronge; see l. 1419. 1428. Th. suche. 1429. Th. hath. 1431. Th. vyolet. 1440. Th. dilectable. 1445, 6. Th. lefte. 1447. Th. garden; read yerde in (K.); cf. 1366 (note). 1448. Th. efters (!).

1452. Th. beest. 1453. Th. shoten; read shete. 1453. Th. goodmesse; see 3462. 1456. Th. Besydes. 1474. Th. that hight; (om. that).

1482. Th. feirs. 1483. G. begins again. 1485. G. om. hir. 1486. Th. hert. 1488. Th. without. 1489. Th. deyde; G. dide. 1495. Both might to; I omit to. 1496. Th. Than; G. And that. Th. shulde he; G. he shulde. 1498. G. velaynesly; Th. vilaynously.

1500. Th. ferme; G. forme. 1503. G. resten; Th. rest. G. that; Th. the. 1508. G. heet; Th. herte (for heete). 1510. Both wel. Th. y-comen; G. comen. 1515. G. he straught; Th. out-straught. 1516. Both draught. 1517, 8. G. seen, sheen; Th. sene, shene. 1520. Th. had; G. was.

1527. Both musede so. 1528. Th. om. al. 1534: Both comforte.

1550. G. scathles; Th. scathlesse. 1552. Th. abasshen; G. abaisshen. 1553. From Th.; not in G. 1561, 2. Both bright, hight. 1563. Both Aboute.

1573, 4. Both sight, bright. 1581. Both foule. 1583. Both you to; I omit to. 1585. Both mirrour. 1586. G. stondith; Th. stondeth. 1591. Both entrees. 1593, 4. Both ye (for he).

1601, 1605. Both mirrour. 1604. So Th.; G. swithe to ligge. 1605. Th. loke; G. loketh. 1608. Both laughyng (!); read loving. 1609. G. om. a. 1610. Th. Y-blent; G. Blent. 1617. Th. sowen; G. sowne.

1621, 2. Both panters, bachelers. 1638. G. fast; Th. faste. 1641. I supply have. Both sighed (for syked). 1642, 9. Both mirrour.

1644. Th. vertue; G. vertues. I supply the. Both strengthes; read strengthe. 1646. Both had. 1648. G. bitrisshed; Th. bytresshed. 1649. Th. thylke; G. thilk. 1652. Th. enclos; G. enclosid. 1655. G. att (for and). 1663. Th. G. me; read be (F. fusse). 1666. So Th.; G. Me thankis. G. wole; Th. wol; read wolde.

1668. Both bere. 1671, 2. Both -thought, wrought. 1673. Both ther were; both wone. 1674. Th. ware; G. waxe; both Rone. 1679. Th. faste; G. fast. 1683. G. wille; Th. wyl. Th. fresshe; G. fresh. 1687. Both myght haue. 1688. G. lief; Th. lefe. 1689. I supply a.

1694. G. it in; Th. om. it. 1695. G. enlomyned. 1698. Both hath; om. wel? 1700. Both roses. 1701. Th. rysshe; G. rish. 1705. Th. dyed (for dide; wrongly). 1705, 6. A false rime; l. 1705 is incomplete in sense, as the sentence has no verb. Here the genuine portion ends. L. 1706 is by another hand.