Chaucer's Works (ed. Skeat) Vol. VI/Gamelyn

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Proper names are included in this Index.

A fyve myle, a (space of) five miles, 545.

Abegge, v. pay for, 816. See Aboughte.

Abide, pp. dwelt, remained, 337. The i is short. See Abyde.

Aboughte, pt. s. paid (for it), 76. See Abegge.

Aboute, in. phr. fast aboute, i.e. very eager, busily employed, 240, 785.

Abyde, ger. to await, 24.

Adam, 398, 399, 403, &c.

A-dight, pp. treated, 731; accoutred, 628, 641. From A.S. ā-, intensive prefix; and dihtan, to arrange, borrowed from Lat. dictare.

Adoun, adv. down, 149, 679.

Adrad, pp. afraid, 562.

Afore, prep. before, 656.

Aforn, adv. before, in front, 806.

After, prep. according to, 56; Aftir, 819; After me, according to my counsel, 318; Sente after, sent for, 17.

Agast, pp. afraid (in a good sense), 7; afraid, terrified, 128, 152, 287, 383, 526, 810.

Algate, adv. in any case, by all means, 115, 449.

Aller, of all; Oure aller, of us all, 321. See Alther. A.S. ealra, gen. pl. of eal, all.

Allowe, v. approve, make good, recompense, 578. O. F. allouer, from Lat. allaudare.

Almight, adj. almighty, 631. A.S. ælmiht.

Alonged, pp. filled with longing, 636. From the pp. of A.S. oflangian, to long after.

Al-so, adv. just as, as, 227; as, 379.

Alther, gen. pl. adj. of all; Our alther, of us all, 256 n. A later form of Aller, which see.

Altogidere, adv. wholly, 730.

Amis, adv. amiss, wrongly, 37.

Amonges, prep. amongst, 836.

And, conj. if, 156, 318, 368, 414, 797, 819, 876. Often shortened to an, esp. in later times.

Anon, adv. immediately, at once, 69, 115, 117; Anoon, 219, 849. A.S. on ān, lit. in one (moment).

Anon-right, adv. straightway, 734.

Ar, adv. ere, before this, till now, 96; Ar that, ere that, 605.

Aright, adv. rightly, 1, 29, 642.

Ariseth, imp. pl. arise ye, 643.

Armure, s. armour, 98.

Arst, adv. erst, formerly, before, 538.

Aspyed, pp. espied, 490.

Assise, s. assize, 870, 889.

Assoile, v. absolve, 449; Assoyled, pp. 516.

Atte (for at the), at the, 136, 464; Atte gate, at the gate, 575; Atte laste, at the last, finally, 408; Atte mete, at meat, 629.

A-twinne, adv. asunder, 317.

Auntre, v. adventure myself, 666; Auntre him, adventure himself, 217. Short for aventure, old form of adventure.

Avauncement, s. advancement, promotion, 418.

Aventures, s. pl. adventures, 777.

Avow, s. vow, 378.

Awe, s. awe, fear, 543.

Awreke, pp. avenged, 723, 824.

Ay, s. egg, 610. See the note, A.S. æg. 'It was not worthe an ay'; Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, p. 181, l. 8.

Ayein, adv. again, 771; Ayen, back again, 528.

Ayein, prep. against, 548.


Baillye, s. bailiwick, power of a bailiff, 709. 'Baillie, seigneury, government, authority; ... also a bailiwick, or country [i.e. county] justiceship'; Cotgrave.

Bale, s. mischief, evil, 32, 34, 631.

Barre, s. bar (of justice), 852, 867.

Be, 2 pr. pl. as fut. will be, 652; 2 pr. s. subj. mayest be, 116.

Beheet, pt. s. promised, 789. A.S. behēt, pt. t. of be-hātan, to promise. See Biheet.

Bende, s. bond, captivity, 837; Bendes, pl. bonds, fetters, 457.

Berde, s. beard, 82.

Bet, adv. better, 112.

Beten, pp. beaten, 115; Beteth, imp. pl. beat ye, 111.

Bi-falle, pp. happened, 685.

Biforn, adv. beforehand, 452.

Bigan, pt. s. began (to show it), 6; began, 82.

Biheet, 1 pt. s. promised, 378; pt. s. 418. See Beheet.

Bileved, pp. left, 86, 98.

Bilinne, v. tarry, 557. A.S. blinnan, short for belinnan, to cease.

Biquethe, 1 pr. s. bequeath, 62; Biquath, pt. s. 99, 157, 160.

Bireved, pp. stolen, 85, 97.

Biseke, 1 pr. s. beseech, 35, 63.

Bispak, pt. s. spake, addressed (him), 101.

Bistad, pp. bestead, circumstanced, 676.

Bistrood, pt. s. bestrode, 189.

Bisyde, prep. beside, 181.

Bisyden, adv. close by, 171; Her bisyde, close by here, 178.

Bitaughte, pt. s. commended, 338. See the note.

Blyve, adv. quickly, 19, 585. Short for by lyue, i.e. with life, in a lively way.

Bokeler, s. buckler, 136. See the note.

Bon, s. bone, 489. See Boones.

Bond, pt. s. bound, 818.

Bonde-men, pl. husbandmen, labourers, 699. The prefix has no connexion with the verb to bind, but is the same as Icel. búandi, bóndi, a tiller of the soil.

Boone, s. boon, 153; Bone, 149.

Boones, pl. bones, 142. See Bon.

Boote, 34, 631. See Bote.

Bore, pp. born, 201, 252.

Borwe, s. pledge, bail, 795.

Borwe, v. go bail for, 441; pr. pl. subj. 485; pr. s. subj. preserve, save, 204.

Bote, s. remedy, help, good, 32; Boote, 34, 631. A.S. bōt.

Bothen, both, 625.

Boundys, a place-name; perhaps = bounds, marches, border-land; or possibly Bons, near Falaise in Normandy. The Camb. MS. Ii. 3. 26 has Burdeuxs, Bordeaux. See l. 3.

Bour, s. bower, apartment, 405.

Bourde, s. jest, 858. 'Bourde, a jeast, fib, tale of a tub'; Cotgrave.

Broke-bak, broken-backed, 720.

Brother, gen. brother's, 316.

Brouke, 1 pr. s. subj. may have the use of, as (I) hope to continue to use, 273, 334, 407, 489, 567; Browke, 297. See note to l. 334. A.S. brūcan, to use, enjoy.

But, conj. unless, 154.

But-if, conj. unless, 204, 749.

By, prep. during, 65.


Cam, pt. s. came, 282, 285.

Care, s. grief, sorrow, trouble, 200, 275, 615.

Cared, pt. s. was anxious, thought anxiously, 11.

Cark, s. charge, responsibility, 760. Anglo-F. cark, the same word as F. charge, a load, charge.

Cart-staf, cart-staff, 590. (Perhaps a staff to support the shafts of a cart.)

Cast, s. throw, 248.

Caste, pt. s. cast; Caste tornes, tried tricks, 237.

Catour, s. caterer, provider, 321. Short for acatour.

Champioun, s. champion, 203, 218, 219, 223, 227, &c.

Chanoun, s. canon, 509, 781.

Charite, s. charity, love; For seynte charite, for the sake of St. Charity, 513; also used with by, 451. Cf. Chaucer, Kn. Tale, 863. Ophelia also says by St. Charity; Haml. iv. 5. 58. (There was such a saint; see note.)

Cheep, s. market; To good cheep, too cheaply, lit. 'in too good a market,' 278.

Cheere, s. face; Foul cheere, displeased look, 319; Foul chere, 534.

Chese, imp. s. choose, 180.

Cheste, s. quarrelling, dispute, 328. A.S. cēast, strife.

Clepeth, pr. s. calls, 106; Clepide, pt. s. 110.

Clevede, pt. s. cleft, 150. The A.S. clēofan, to cleave, is properly a strong verb, with pt. t. clēaf.

Cold, adj. evil, discouraging, 531, 759.

Colen, ger. to cool, 540.

Come, 2 pt. s. hast come, 222; Com, pt. s. came, 68; Come (for Com), pt. s. 291; Come, 1 pr. s. subj. may come, 795; Comen, pt. pl. came, 23, 386, 388; Comen, pp. 10, 291.

Compas, in, adv. in a circle, 629.

Conne, 2 pr. pl. know, 63.

Contek, s. strife, quarrel, 132. O. F. contek, strife.

Continaunce, s. demeanour, 262.

Cors, s. curse, 779. See Curs.

Counsel, s. counsel, 42.

Couthe, pt. s. knew (how), 164; could, 466; Cowthe, knew, 244; Cowthe, could, 174; Cowde, knew, 4, 48 (see note).

Croune, s. the clerical tonsure, 523.

Cryed, pp. proclaimed, 171, 183, 700.

Curs, s. curse, 8, 100, 886.


Dalte, pt. s. divided, 65; Dalten, pt. pl. 45. See Delen.

Day, s. life-time, 12, 65.

Dede, pt. s. did, 75, 426, 858; Dede feteren, caused to be fettered, 866.

Deed, pp. dead, 69.

Deel, s. share, 635. A.S. dǣl.

Delen, v. divide, 18; ger. 43; Dele, v. 56; ger. 42; Deled, pp. 49; Deleth, imp. pl. 37. See Dalte.

Deliveraunce, s. gaol-delivery, 745.

Deme, ger. to condemn, 863.

Deyde, pt. s. died, 68.

Dight, pp. treated, served, 344, 730; decided, 847; Yvel dight, in bad order, 87; Dighteth, imp. pl. get ready, 793.

Diner, s. dinner, 645.

Dismay you, imp. pl. refl. be dismayed, 31; Dismaye thee, imp. s. refl. be dismayed, 623, 763.

Do, v. cause, make, 158; pr. s. subj. may do, 492; Do on, imp. s. put on, 269; Do, pp. done, 144, 798. See Doon.

Dolfully, adv. dolefully, 475.

Domes, pl. judgments, sentences, 847, 870.

Doon, v. do, 207; pp. done, 211.

Dore, s. door, 127.

Doughty, adj. brave, 2.

Doute, s. fear, 630.

Doutiden, pt. pl. feared, 78; Dowt, imp. s. fear, 517.

Dredden, pt. pl. dreaded, 309.

Dressen, v. to order, divide evenly, 18; re-arrange, 848; Dressed, pp. evenly divided, 15; Dresseth, imp. pl. divide evenly, 36.

Drewen hem awey, withdrew themselves, 308. See Drowe.

Dronke, pt. pl. drank, 681; pp. 334.

Drowe, pt. pl. drew backwards, 130. See Drewen.

Drye, v. to dry; With the wynde drye, to be dried by the wind, 880.

Dure, v. last, hold out, 831.

Dwel, imp. s. dally, 579.


Eeke, adv. also, 480.

Eeten, pt. pl. ate, 681.

Eighte, eighth, 331.

Elde, s. age, 649.

Elles, adv. else, 248.

Endited, pp. indicted, 710.

Enquered, pp. enquired, 862.

Eny, any, 318.

Er, adv. ere, 568. See Ar.

Est, s. east, 891.

Everich, each one, 443; each, 608; every one (of them), each, 119; Everichone, every one, 866.

Eye, s. awe, 253 (see the note); 129 (see the note). A.S. ege, cognate with Icel. agi (whence E. awe, a Scand. form).

Eyr, s. heir, 40. O. F. eir.


Fader, s. father, 7; Fadres, gen. 8, 886; Fader, gen. 748.

Fadmen, s. pl. fathoms, 306. The sing. is fadme.

Falle, v. happen, 485.

Fand, 1 pt. s. found, 206. See Fond.

Fare, s. behaviour, 199.

Fare, v. fare, 271; pr. s. subj. may fare, 616. See Ferde.

Fast aboute, very eager, 240, 785.

Fay, s. faith; By her fay, by their faith, 555. Anglo-F. fei.

Fayn, adj. glad, 103; adv. gladly, 15.

Feire, s. fair, i.e. business, 270. See the note.

Fel, s. skin, 76. A.S. fel.

Fel, adj. fell, cruel, 151, 256.

Felaw, s. fellow, 227; (as a term of reproach), 276.

Felde, pt. s. felled, 593.

Fen, s. fen, mud, 588.

Ferd, s. fear, 854. This form occurs in Wyclif, Minot, Hampole's Prick of Conscience, and other poems (chiefly Northern).

Ferde, pt. s. fared, 780. See Fare.

Feteren, ger. to fetter, 384.

Feteres, pl. fetters, 384.

Fetten, v. fetch, 555; Fette, ger. 118; 2 pr. pl. 652; Fetteth, imp. pl. 643.

Fikil, adj. fickle, 151.

Flee, v. escape, 901.

Fley, pt. s. fled, 127. A.S. flēah, pt. t. of flēon.

Floon, pl. arrows, 648. A.S. flā, an arrow, pl. flān.

Flowe, pp. flown, fled, 133. See Fley. A.S. flogen, pp. of flēon.

Fond, pt. s. found, 610, 772, 774. See Fand.

Fonding, s. trial, 147. A.S. fandung, a trial.

Foon, pl. foes, 541, 574.

For-fare, v. go to ruin, 74.

Forgetith, imp. pl. forget, 38.

Forsworen, pp. perjured, 376, 380.

Forward, s. agreement, 411, 747. See Cant. Tales, A 33.

Foryaf, pt. s. forgave, 893.

Foryat, pt. s. forgat, 800.

Foule, adv. evilly, 485.

Foy, faith; par ma foy, by my faith, 367. See Fey.

Frankeleyn, s. franklin, freeholder, 197.

Frere, s. friar, 529.

Fro, prep. from, 144. Icel. frá.

Fyn, s. end (of life), 551. F. fin.

Fyn, adv. finely, well, 681; excellently, 427.


Gadelyng, s. companion, comrade (but used as a term of contempt, like vagabond), 102, 106. A.S. gædeling.

Galys, Galicia, 277; Gales, 764. (In Spain.)

Gamen, s. sport, a game, diversion, 290, 342; Game, amusement, pleasure, 776; sport, 4. A.S. gamen.

Gan, pt. s. did, 475. Lit. 'began,' but often used as a mere auxiliary verb. See Gonne.

Gerte, pt. s. struck (with a yard or stick), 304, 536. From gerden,

girden, verb; which from A.S. gyrd, gierd, a rod. See Girde.

Gestes, pl. guests, 336, 344, 640.

Geten, pp. gotten, 108, 365. A.S. geten, pp. of gitan.

Gilt, s. guilt, 893.

Giltif, adj. guilty, 822; Gultif, 824. A false form, the suffix -if being French.

Girde, pr. s. subj. strike, 430. See Gerte.

Gon, v. walk, 312. A.S. gān.

Gonne, pt. pl. (as aux. verb), did, 236. See Gan.

Good, s. property, 330, 704.

Goode, voc. O good, 199.

Goon, v. go, 236; ger. to go away, 126; Goth, pr. s. goes, 99; Goth, imp. pl. go ye, 36, 111, 714.

Gowe, for go we, let us go, 661. So also in P. Plowman, prol. 226.

Graven, pp. buried, 900.

Gray frere, a Gray friar, a Franciscan friar, 529.

Greeve, s. (dat.), grief, trouble, 313.

Greteth, imp. pl. greet ye, 713; Grette, pt. pl. saluted, greeted, 668, 706.

Grucche, pr. s. subj. murmur, 319. E. grudge.

Grucching, s. murmuring, grumbling, 322.

Gyle, s. guile, 369.

Gyled, pt. s. beguiled, 70.


Hadde, 1 pt. s. subj. might have, 666; pt. pl. subj. might have, 16.

Halle-dore, the door of the hall, 496; see note to l. 461.

Halp, 1 pt. s. helped, 60.

Hals, s. neck, 391, 407.

Halvendel, the half part (of), 272; see note. 'Haluendele his godes he gaf to Godes werkes'; Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, p. 24, l. 3.

Halves, pl. sides; By halves, on different sides, 130.

Handlen, ger. to handle, feel, 82.

Heed, s. head, 430, 484, 820; Heedes, pl. 602.

Heelden, pt. pl. accounted (themselves), 553.

Heere, v. hear, 2; 2 pr. s. subj. mayst hear, 229.

Heir, s. heir, 365. See Eyr.

Hele, s. good health, 41.

Helpeth, imp. pl. help ye, 478.

Hem, pron. them, 15, 16, 19. A.S. heom, him, properly the dat. case. Still in use as 'em.

Hende, adj. courteous, 663, 728, 755, 838. A.S. gehende.

Hente, pt. s. seized, took, 590, 591.

Hepe, s. heap; On an hepe, into a huddled crowd, 124.

Herden, pt. pl. heard, 21.

Here, gen. pl. of them, 543; their, 7, 757; Her, their, 43.

Herkne, imp. s. hearken, 364; Herkneth, imp. pl. 858; Herkeneth, 1.

Hete, s. heat of rage, 117.

Hider, adv. hither, 583. A.S. hider.

Highte, pt. s. was named, 727.

Hire, adv. here, 222. (A rare spelling.)

Holde, pp. accounted, 248; Holdeth, imp. pl. hold ye, 169, 341, 769.

Hond-fast, adj. fastened by the hands, 437.

Honge, ger. to hang, i.e. to be hanged, 863; Honged, pt. pl. hung, i.e. were hanged, 879.

Hore, pl. adj. hoary, gray, 817.

Hosen, pl. hose, 269.

Housbond, s. husband, i.e. householder, one who stays at home and keeps house, 13; Housbondes, pl. labourers, men, 713.

Hure, s. hire, pay, 832.

Huyre, ger. to hire, 801; Hyre, 786.

Hye, adv. high, 879.

Hye, v. hasten away, 333; hasten, 19; Hyeden, pt. pl. refl. hied, hurried, 557.


Iame, James, 277, 665, 764.

Ilke, same, 30.

In-feere, adv. together, 517, 625, 667, 775, 866. For in feere, in fere, in companionship.

Iohan, John, 3, 57; saint John, 366.

Iolily, adv. in a jolly manner, merrily, 527.

It ben, i.e. they are, 583.

Iugge-man, s. judge, 843.

Iustise, s. judge, 890.


Kiste, pt. s. kissed, 166, 168.

Knave, s. boy, 70.


Ladde, pt. s. led, 423. See Y-lad.

Lakkest, 2 pr. s. blamest, 276. See the note. Cf. Du. laken, to blame; from lak, blemish, stain, defect.

Large, adj. liberal, 514. (The usual old sense.)

Largely, adv. liberally, 324; fully, completely, 520.

Lat, imp. s. 3 p. let, 112. See Leet.

Lawe, law; Of the beste lawe, in the best possible order, 544.

Laye, adj. fallow, 161. 'Lay, londe not telyd' [tilled]; Prompt. Parv.

Layen, pt. pl. lay, 83.

Leche, s. physician, 614.

Leede, s. people, serfs, 104, 895. A.S. lēod, people. See below.

Leedes, pl. people, serfs; 'the portion of the population which was bought and sold with the land'; Wright. See l. 61; in l. 71, we have leede, i.e. people. This is the right original meaning. But it would seem that leed was afterwards extended to mean tenement or holding. Robert of Brunne seems to use ledes to mean tenements, rents, or fees. The phr. 'londes and ledes' occurs in Will. of Palerne, 4001, and is not uncommon.

Leet, pt. s. let, 74, 416; Leete, 1 pr. s. let, 405; Leet endite, caused to be indicted, 698; Leet fetre, caused to be fettered, 859; Leet sadle, caused to be saddled, 733; Leet unfetere, caused to be unfettered, 837; Leet up, pt. s. let up, i.e. opened, 311; Leete, pt. pl. let, left, 41; Leeten, let, 46.

Lendes, pl. loins, 458. A.S. lendenu, pl. the loins.

Lene, v. lend, 176.

Lenger, adv. longer, 27, 337.

Lepe, v. run, 123.

Lese, imp. s. loose, 401.

Leste, adj. least, 460.

Lesteneth, imp. pl. listen ye, 1, 169, 289, 341, 343, 551, 769.

Lesing, s. lie, 659; Lesinges, pl. leasings, lies; Made lesinges on, told lies about, 385.

Leve, s. leave, 314.

Lever me were, it would be preferable for me, I would rather, 621.

Lewed, adj. ignorant, common, poor, 505.

Lewte, s. loyalty, fidelity, 657. Cf. F. leauté, loyalty, Cotgrave. From O. F. leal, Lat. legalis.

Leyde, pt. s. laid, 125; Leyd, pp. 162.

Lighte, pt. s. alighted, 196, 611.

Litheth, imp. pl. hearken ye, listen ye, 1, 169, 289, 341, 769. Icel. hlýða, to listen, from hljóð, a sound.

Liven, v. live, 12, 27; Livede, pt. s. 9; Liveden, pt. pl. 899.

Liverey, s. allowance, 514. 'Livrée, a delivery of a thing that is given, the thing so given, a livery.' Cotgrave.

Lixt, 2 pr. s. liest, 297. So also in P. Plowman, B. v. 163.

Loft, s. loft, 127.

Loken, ger. to look, discover, 148; Lokede, pt. s. subj. should look, should observe, 642; Loke, imp. s. look, i.e. be ready, 453.

Lokkes, pl. locks of hair, 817.

Lond, s. land, 36, 104; Londes, pl. 18.

Lordinges, pl. sirs, 719.

Lore, pp. lost, 202.

Loth, adj. loath, 146.

Louse, imp. s. loose, 409. See Lose.

Lyen, v. lie, 41; ger. lie, be scattered about, 598 (see the note).

Lytheth, 551. See Litheth.

Lyve, dat.; On lyve, in life, a-live, 20, 58.


Maad, pp. made, 700.

Maister, s. master, 656, 658, 660; Maistres, pl. 314.

Makestow, 2 pr. s. makest thou, 199.

Maner men, manner of men, 312.

Mangerye, s. feast, 345, 434, 464. Also in P. Plowman, C. xiii. 46; and in Wyclif's Works, ed. Arnold, i. 4. Cotgrave gives F. mangerie with the sense of 'gluttony'; from manger, to eat.

Manly, adv. manfully, 832.

Martyn, St. Martin (see the note), 53, 225.

May, 1 p. s. pr. can, 27.

Mayn, s. main, might, 143.

Maynpris, s. bail, security, 744. See the note. Lit. 'a taking by the hand.' See note to P. Plowman, B ii. 196.

Meede, s. reward, 886, 896.

Merthes, pl. diversions, amusements, 783.

Messager, s. messenger, 729.

Messes, pl. messes of meat, 467.

Meste, adj. greatest, 460.

Metten, pt. pl. met, 646.

Meyne, s. household, posse, company, 575. O. F. mesnee.

Middeleste, adj. middlemost, i.e. second, 59.

Mo, adj. more (in number), others, 260, 642, 736.

Moche, adj. great, 6, 230, 275; Mochel, 400; Mochil, much, a great deal, 4.

Molde, s. mould, earth, 900. A.S. molde.

Moone, s. moon, 235.

Moot, s. meeting, assembly, concourse, 373. See the note.

Moot, 1 pr. s. may (I), 577; Moote, 1 pr. pl. ought (to be), must, 794. See Mot.

Moot-halle, hall of meeting, hall of justice, 717, 812. See Moot.

More, adj. comp. greater, 232.

Most, 2 pr. s. must, 156, 242; Moste, pl. s. might, 724. See Moot.

Mot, 1 pr. s. may (I), 227, 379, 413; I must, 141; Mote, 2 pr. s. mayest, 233; Mot, 116; pr. s. may (it), 485; 2 pr. pl. may, 131. See Moot.

Mow, pr. pl. can, 675.

Myle, pl. miles, 545. A.S. mīl, pl. mīla.


Nam, pt. s. took, 733; pt. pl. took, 216. A.S. niman.

Nas, for Ne was, was not, 29.

Nat, not, 37, 38.

Nay, no; It is no nay, there is no denying it, 34; This is no nay, 433; Withoute nay, without denial, 26.

Ne, not, 30, 31; nor, 22, 79.

Nedes, adv. needs, 846. Formed with adv. suffix -es.

Neede, adv. of necessity, 141. Formed with adv. suffix -e.

Neer, adv. nigher, 138, 352. See Ner.

Nekke, s. neck, 194.

Ner, adv. nigher, 109, 135. A.S. nēar, compar. adv. from nēah, nigh. See Ny.

Neyh, adj. nigh, 626. A.S. nēah.

Neyhebours, pl. neighbours, 55.

Niggoun, s. niggard, 323. Spelt nygun in Rob. of Brunne, Handlyng Synne, 5578.

Nom, var. of Nim, v. take, 782 (all the seven MSS. read nom or nome); Nome, pp. taken, 584, 683, 796.

Nones; With the nones = with then ones, with the once, on the condition, 206; For the nones, for the once, for the occasion, 456. (E. nonce.)

Norture, s. good breeding, 4.

Nother, conj. neither, 22.

Nothing, adv. not at all, 699.

Nought, not at all, 31; not, 41.

Nowther, conj. neither, 79. See Nother.

Ny, adj. nigh, 559.


O, adj. one, 371. See Oo, Oon.

Of, off, 196, 208, 484; prep. on, with, 217.

Oken, adj. oaken, 503.

Okes, pl. oaks, 84.

On, one; That on, the one, 39. See Oon.

On lyve, alive, 157. See Lyve.

Ones, adv. once, 234.

Oo, one, 150 n, 499. Short for oon.

Oon, one, 43, 244; At oon, at one, reconciled, 156, 166; That oon, the one of them, one of them, 647; the one (to be beaten), 116; On, one, 242.

Oones, adv. once; At oones, at once, soon, 141.

Or, conj. ere, 394. See Ar.

Ore, s. grace, favour; By Cristes ore, by the grace of Christ, 139, 159, 231, 323. A.S. ār, honour, favour; cf. G. Ehre.

Ote, (a name), 727, 731, &c.

Other, in phr. day and other, one day and a second day, i.e. continually, 785. 'Notheles day and other he purueied priuely'; Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, p. 185, l. 15.

Other, conj. either, 320.

Over-al, adv. everywhere, all round, 121. Cf. G. überall.

Overthrowe, v. fall down, stumble, 512; Ouerthrew, pt. s. fell down, 536.

Ow! interj. alas! 489.


Paire, s. pair; Paire spores, pair of spurs, 188.

Pantrye, pantry, 495.

Paraventure, adv. perhaps, 642.

Parde, i.e. par Dieu, 743.

Parten, pr. pl. subj. (may) part, (may) depart, 317.

Party, s. part; a party, partly, in some measure, 392.

Passe, 2 pr. pl. go away, depart, 596.

Pees, s. peace, 102.

Pestel, s. a pestle (apparently of large size, perhaps used for pounding meat, &c.), 122, 128. 'Pesteil, a pestle, or pestell'; Cotgrave.

Peyned, pl. s. refl. took pains, 261.

Pin, s. bolt, bar, 292.

Place, s. a place for wrestling, place of public exhibition, the 'ring,' 195, 203, 210, 213, 216.

Pleye, ger. play, make play, 130.

Plowes, pl. plough-lands, 57, 59, 358. 'A plough of land was as much as could be ploughed with one plough. It was in the middle ages a common way of estimating landed property'; Wright.

Prest, adj. ready, prepared, 237, 830. 'Prest, prest, ready'; Cotgrave.

Preven, ger. to test, shew, 174. The same as Proven.

Privee, adj. secret, 425.

Proven, v. experience, 242.

Prow, s. profit, 361. O. F. prou, profit.

Prys, s. worth, valour, 772, 804.

Purchas, s. acquisition, 14, 61. See the note. 'Purchas, is to buy lands or tenements with one's money, or otherwise gain them by one's industry, contradistinguished from that which comes to one by descent from his ancestors'; Blount, Law Dictionary. Doubtless the knight had partly won them as a reward for military service. See ll. 58-61.

Purs, s. purse, 321, 885. See the note to the latter line.


Quest, Queste, s. jury, 786, 862, 871, 878; in ll. 840, 842, it may mean the sentence or verdict. 'Queste, a quest, inquirie'; Cotgrave.

Queste, s. bequest, 64.

Quitte, pt. s. repaid, 512, 896. 'Quiter, to quit, forgoe, ... discharge,' &c.; Cotgrave.


Rape, adj. hasty, 101. Not a Latin, but a Scand. word. Icel. hrapa, to hasten; Swed. rapp, Dan. rap, quick.

Rapely, adv. quickly, 219, 424. See above.

Rede, 1 pr. s. advise, 605; 2 pr. s. subj. mayest advise, advisest, 797.

Reed, s. counsel, advice, 429, 432, 819; Reedes, pl. words of advice, 601.

Rees, s. attack, 547; fit of passion, 101. A.S. rǣs (E. race). 'Griffyn, kyng of Wales, eft he mad a res'; Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, p. 62, l. 16.

Rekke, pr. s. subj. may reck, may care, 881. See the note.

Reveth, imp. pl. reave ye, take away from, 111; Reved, pp. stolen away, 704.

Rewe, s. (dat.) row, 867.

Rewthe, s. pity, 508; Reuthe, 30. E. ruth. See Routhe.

Reysed, pp. raised, built, 162.

Richer, Richard, 137, 175, 357, 619. Rob. of Brunne frequently writes Richere for Richard.

Rigge, s. back, 712. (E. ridge.)

Rigge-boon, s. backbone, 614; Rigge-bon, 537.

Roode, s. (dat.), cross, 639, 707.

Roos, pt. s. arose, 849.

Route, s. company, 600; Rowte, 285.

Routhe, s. pity, 677. See Rewthe.

Ryve, pl. adj. rife, abundant, 783.


Sadeled, pp. saddled, 187.

Saten, pt. pl. sat, 476.

Saugh, pt. s. saw, 134, 628. See Say.

Saughte, v. be reconciled, come to terms, 150. From A.S. saht, reconciliation.

Say, pt. s. saw, 126, 494. See Saugh.

Schal, 1 pr. s. must, 115; pr. s. shall go, 326. See Schulle.

Schawes, s. pl. thickets, 788. A.S. scaga.

Scheete, ger. to shoot, 674.

Schent, pp. put to shame, disgraced, 704. A.S. scendan.

Scherreve, s. sheriff, 545, 602, 610, 611.

Schilde, pr. s. imp. may (He) shield, 767.

Schitte, v. shut, 286; pt. s. Schette, 127. A.S. scyttan.

Scholde, pt. pl. should, 12. See Schulle.

Schon, pt. s. shone, 235.

Schoon, pl. shoes, 208, 212, 269.

Schrewe, s. mischievous fellow, 230; wicked man, 6, 868.

Schulden, pt. pl. ought to, must, 19.

Schulle, 1 pr. pl. are to, 156; Schul, must, are to, 158; Schulle, 2 pr. pl. shall, 2.

Score, s. twenty, 628.

Seen, ger. to see, 146.

Seet, pt. s. subj. should sit, 790. A.S. sǣte, pt. s. subj. of sittan, pt. t. sǣt.

Seet, s. seat, 855.

Seih, pt. s. saw, 285; Seigh, 120. See Seyh, Say.

Selde, adv. seldom, 40.

Seller, s. cellar, 316.

Serk, s. shirt, 259. Icel. serkr.

Sete, pt. pl. sat, 681. A.S. sǣton, pt. pl. of sittan.

Seththen, adv. afterwards, 76. See Siththen.

Sette, pt. pl. set (themselves on knees, i.e. knelt), 705.

Seyh, pt. s. saw, 299; Sey, 330. See Saugh, Say.

Sire, s. master, 716.

Sisours, pl. jurymen, 871, 881. See note.

Sith, conj. since, 257. See below.

Siththen, adv. afterwards, 524, 898; Sithen, 900.

Siththen, conj. since that, 356.

Sitte, pr. s. subj. sits, 761, 766, 794. Cf. be in l. 761.

Skape, v. escape, 576, 825.

Skathe, s. harm, pity, 488.

Skeet, adj. swift; hence as adv. swiftly, quickly, 187. (Hence Skeat as a surname = swift.) Icel. skjótr, swift.

Slee, v. slay, 822.

Smertely, adv. quickly, 187, 243.

Solas, s. merriment, 328.

Soleer, s. upper room, 351.

Sonde, s. sending; hence, providence, grace, 419. A.S. sand, a sending, mission; cf. mod. E. godsend.

Sone, adv. soon, 67.

Sone, s. son, 38; Sones, pl. sons, 5.

Soneday, s. Sunday, 434.

Sope, s. sup, small quantity of drink, 318.

Soper, s. supper, 425.

Sore, adv. sorely, 10, 11.

Sory, adj. grievous, 547.

Sothe, dat. truth; For sothe, of a truth, 222.

Sowe, pp. sown, 161.

Spake, 2 pt. s. spakest, 94.

Spence, s. provision-room, larder, 424. 'Despence, a larder, store-house, gardemanger'; Cotgrave.

Spended, pp. spent, 362. 'Despendre, to dispend, spend'; Cotgrave.

Spense, s. expenditure, expense, 320. 'Despense, charge, cost, expence'; Cotgrave.

Spenser, s. spencer, officer who had charge of the provisions, 398, 399, 403; Spencer, 493. 'Despensier, a spender ... also a cater, or clarke of a Kitchin'; Cotgrave.

Spet, pr. s. (short for Spedeth), speeds, succeeds, goes on, 806.

Spire, s. a shoot, blade of grass; hence, a sapling, 503. A.S. spīr.

Spore, s. spur, 177; Spores, pl. 188. A.S. spura.

Sprengeth, pr. s. sprinkles, 503.

Staf, staff, 499; Staves, staves, 496.

Stalkede, pt. s. marched, 617.

Stalworthe, adj. pl. stalwart, lusty, 202.

Standeth, imp. pl. stand ye, 55; Stant (for Standeth), pr. s. stands, 812.

Stede, s. stead, place, 425, 857.

Stere, imp. s. refl. stir thyself, 519.

Sterte, pt. s. started, 219, 288; Sterten, pt. pl. 645.

Stoon-stille, adj. still as a stone, 67. See the note.

Stoor, s. store, 354.

Stounde, s. time, while, 349; In this stounde, at the present hour, 27.

Strengest, adj. strongest, 78.

Stronge, adv. strongly, 397.

Stroye, ger. to destroy, waste, 354. Short for destroye.

Styrop, s. stirrup, 189.

Swaynes, pl. servants, 527. Icel. sveinn.

Sweere, s. neck, 273. A.S. sweora.

Swithe, adv. very, 152; As swithe, as soon, 541.

Swore, pp. sworn, 302. See the note.

Syk, adj. sick, ill, 11, 21, 25.


Take, 1 pr. s. deliver, 747.

Talking, s. talk, tale, 2, 170.

Teene, s. vexation, anger, rage, 303. A.S. tēona, injury.

Telle, v. count, 520.

Thanne, adv. then, 652.

That, rel. that which, 324.

That on, the one; That other, the other, 39.

Thee, v. thrive, prosper, 131, 234, 250, 363, 379, 413, 448, 577, 720, 833. A.S. þēon, cognate with G. gedeihen.

Thenke, 2 pr. s. subj. thinkest, intendest, 368. A.S. þencan.

Thennes, adv. thence, 545.

Ther, adv. where, 11, 25, 33, 50, 195, 471, 799; Ther ... inne, wherein, 558.

Therfor, for it, i.e. as a prize for it, 184.

They, conj. though, 652.

Thider, adv. thither, 123, 310, 527.

Thinketh me, pr. s. impers. it seems to me, 95, 632.

Tho, then, 17, 41, 110; when, 21, 120, 372.

Tho, pron. those, 279.

Thought, pt. s. it seemed (to him), 626. See Thinketh.

Thridde, adj. third, 687.

Thrinne, (for Therinne), therein, in it, 318.

Thryve, v. thrive, 227.

Thurgh, prep. through, by, 28.

To, adv. too, 278.

To-barst, pt. s. burst in twain, was broken in half, 537. (It merely means that the skin above the backbone was broken; formerly, a 'broken head' meant only that the skin was cut through, not that the skull was fractured.) A.S. tōbærst, pt. t. of tō-berstan.

To-brak, pt. s. brake in twain, 304, 852. A.S. tōbræc, pt. t. of tō-brecan, to break in twain. See below.

Tobrak, pt. pl. brake in twain, 245. (Should be the pl. tobreke. Grammar would be better satisfied if we could take it to mean 'that he brake in twain three of his ribs.' Read ribbes he to-brak.)

To-broken, pp. broken into, 97. A.S. tōbrocen, pp. of tō-brecan. See To-brak.

Tonge, s. tongue, 169, 341.

Tonne, as pl. tuns, 316.

Toret, s. turret, 329.

To-rightes, adv. aright, rightly, 18. We still say 'to set to-rights.' The suffix -es is adverbial.

Tornes, pl. turns, tricks, wiles, 237, 241, 244.

Tweyne, two, 734; Tweye, two, 202. A.S. twegen, masc.; twā, fem. and neuter.

Twinke, 1 pr. s. wink, 453. 'Twynkyn wythe the eye, or wynkyn, twynkelyn, conniveo, nicito, nicto'; Prompt. Parv.


Unfetered, pt. s. released from his fetters, 613.

Ungert, pp. ungirt, 215.

Unhiled, pp. unroofed, uncovered, 87. Icel. hylja, to cover.

Unloke, pp. unlocked, 438. See the note.

Unsawe, pp. unsown, 83.

Up, prep. upon, 411.


Verrey, adj. very, real, actual, 14. See note.

Vilonye, s. disgrace, 721.


Wan, pt. s. won, begot, 5.

War, adj. aware, 122, 497.

Wardeynes, pl. wardens, umpires, 279.

Ware, s. merchandise, 272, 276.

Wasschen, pp. washen, 439.

Wayloway, interj. wellaway! 197.

Waynes, pl. wains, 528.

Wede, s. raiment, 103.

Wende, v. go, 756; ger. to go, 173, 340; imp. s. 213; Went, pp. turned, 703.

Wene, 1 pr. s. suppose, think, 202.

Werche, v. work, 518.

Were, pt. s. subj. would be, 146.

Werne, v. refuse, 662; pr. pl. refuse, deny, 457. A.S. wyrnan, to refuse. Allied to E. warn.

Weyven, ger. to dangle, to swing about, 880. Icel. veifa, to vibrate, Norweg. veiva, to swing about.

What, adv. partly, 543. Cf. mod. E. 'what with one thing and what with another.'

What, why, 104.

Wher, conj. whether (shall I go), 430. Contracted form of whether.

Whether, which ever, 249.

Which, what (sort of), 168.

Whider, adv. whither, 133, 182.

Wight, s. man, 107. A.S. wiht.

Wighte, adj. pl. active, 893. Cf. Icel. vígr, skilled in arms; Swed. vig, active (whence vigt, adv. nimbly).

Wil, s. will; Of good wil, readily, 78 (see note); In good wil, anxious, 173.

Wil, pr. s. desires, 262; Wilt, 2 pr. s. wishest, 207; Wiln, 1 pr. pl. will, 314, 821.

Wisschen, pt. pl. washed themselves, 542. (More commonly weschen or woschen.)

Wiste, pt. s. knew, 167, 369, 864; Wist, pp. 393.

Wit, s. wisdom, wittiness, 111. (Not 'wits, senses.')

Witen, ger. to know, ascertain, 572; 1 pr. pl. subj. may know, 644.

Withoute, adv. outside, 286, 854; on the outside, 564.

Wo, adj. sorry, 335. Cf. Ch. Prol. 353. This use of wo arose from putting 'he was wo' for 'him was wo'; wo being orig. a sb.

Wolde, pl. s. willed (it to be so), 899; desired, 15.

Wolt, 2 pr. s. wilt, wishest to, 182.

Wolves-heed, s. wolf's-head, proscribed as an outlaw, 700, 710, 722. See note to l. 700.

Wonderly, adv. wonderfully, 266.

Wood, adj. mad, 386, 472.

Woode-bowgh, s. boughs of the wood, 633; Woode-bough, 774.

Woode-linde, s. a linden-tree in a forest, 676, 702.

Woode-rys, s. thicket, branches of the forest, 771, 803. A.S. hrīs, brushwood.

Woode-schawe, s. thicket of the wood, 638; Woode-schawes, pl. 670, 696. See Schawes.

Woon, s. abundance; Good-woon, abundantly, 125. 'Woone, or grete plente, Copia, habundantia'; Prompt. Parv.

Worschip, s. honour, 185.

Worthe, v. be, 491; imp. s. 3 p. may (it) be, 482.

Wot, 1 pr. s. know, 34.

Woxe, pp. waxen, grown, 232.

Wrak, pt. s. wreaked, 303; avenged (himself), 896.

Wrastled, 1 pt. s. wrestled, 257.

Wrastling, s. wrestling-match, 171, 183; Wrasteling, 190, 194.

Wraththe, v. make angry, 80; Wraththed him, pt. s. grew angry, 91.

Wreke, pp. avenged, 346.

Wrothe, adv. evilly, ill (lit. perversely), 73. In Rob. of Glouc., ed. Hearne, p. 31, Lear complains that Cordelia returns his love wroþe, i.e. evilly.

Wroughte, pt. pl. worked, 525; Wrought, pp. done, 51.

Wurs, adv. worse, 740.

Wyde-wher, adv. far and wide, in various lands, 13.

Wyf, pl. wives, 713. See the note.

Wyke, s. week, 687.


Y-, prefix, of past participles (and occasionally of past tenses) of verbs. Common in Southern, occasional in Midland, and unused in Northern poems. A.S. ge-, G. ge-, Goth, ga-, prefix.

Yaf, pt. s. gave, 246, 500.

Yare, adj. ready, 90. A.S. gearo.

Yare, adv. quickly, 793. See above.

Yat, s. gate, 293; Yate, 579.

Y-bought, pp. bought, 278.

Y-bounde, pp. bound, 350, 397, 606, 778.

Y-broken, pp. broken into, 85.

Y-brought, pp. brought, 624.

Y-come, pp. come, 459, 684.

Y-crouned, pp. crowned, 660.

Y-doon, pp. done, 54; Y-don, 529; ended, 846.

Y-drawe, pp. drawn, dragged, pulled to the ground, 84.

Y-dronke, pp. drunk, 428.

, s. eye, 334. A.S. ēage.

Ye, adv. yea, 447.

Yede, pt. s. went, 243, 311, 352; Yeeden, pt. pl. 510. A.S. geēode, went.

Yeer, pl. years, 361, 404; Yer, 358.

Yelde, 3 p. pr. s. imper. (may God) requite, repay, 368; Yeldeth, imp. pl. yield ye, give up, 648.

Yeme, s. heed, care, 825.

Yemede, pt. pl. took care of, guarded, 267. A.S. gȳman, gēman, to take care of; Goth. gaumjan, to heed.

Yerde, s. yard, court of a mansion, 81, 296.

Yeve, v. give, 48, 205; Yeven, pp. given, 456, 847; Yeve, pp. 394.

Y-fetered, pp. fettered, 612, 812.

Y-founde, pp. found out, invented, 393.

Yif, imp. s. 3 p. may (God) give, 551. See Yeve.

Yif, conj. if, 158. A.S. gif, if; which probably stands for ge-if, i.e. if with the prefix ge-. For compare Icel. ef, O. Icel. if, if.

Y-go, pp. gone, ago, 257; Y-gon, 356; Y-goon, 347, 415.

Y-grave, pp. buried, 69.

Y-had, pp. had, 357.

Ying, adj. young, 105, 148, 887. The spelling ging is found occasionally in A.S.; ȝng is in Rob. of Brunne, tr. of Langtoft, p. 95, l. 10. See Yonge.

Y-lad, pp. led, 884; carried, 528. The M.E. infin. is leden.

Y-lore, pp. lost, 301.

Y-mad, pp. made, 689.

Y-nome, pp. taken, 119, 741.

Yonder, adv. yonder, 641.

Yonge, adj. young, 38, 70.

Yongest, adj. youngest, 44.

Yore, adv. for a long while, long since, 257, 324; a long time, 9.

Yow, pron. acc. you, 63; you, 200.

Y-pilt, pp. put, 894. Pp. of pilten, pulten (mod. E. pelt); from Lat. pultare, to beat, strike, knock.

Y-prisoned, pp. cast into prison, 737.

Y-proved, pp. proved, experienced, 241.

Y-put, pp. put, thrust, 144.

Y-schet, pp. shut, 292.

Y-set, pp. set, 857.

Y-steke, pp. fastened, 563; fastened up, 329.

Y-taken, pp. taken, 350.

Y-told, pp. told, 546.

Yvel, adv. ill, badly, 73, 448.

Y-wis, adv. certainly, 155, 411.

Y-wounded, pp. wounded, 548.

Y-wroken, pp. avenged, 541.

Y-wrought, pp. done, lit. worked, brought about, 32; Y-wrought, caused, 203.

Y-yeve, pp. given, 870.