Collier's New Encyclopedia (1921)/Surajah Dowlah
SURAJAH DOWLAH, the last independent nawab of Bengal, under whom was perpetrated the massacre of the Black Hole. He succeeded his grandfather, Ali Verdy Khan, in 1756, and within two months of his accession found a pretext for marching on Calcutta. On the arrival of Clive and Admiral Watson he retreated to Moorshedabad, but was routed at the battle of Plassey (June 23, 1757). He then fled up the Ganges, but was betrayed by a fakir, and was put to death by order of the son of Meer Jaffier, the new nawab. Surajah Dowlah's reign lasted 15 months, his age at the time of his death being barely 20.