Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia

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PREAMBLE[edit]

WE, THE KHMER PEOPLE,

Accustomed to having a grand civilization, a prosperous nation, a very large territory, a prestige glittering like a diamond;

Having fallen into a terrifying decay for the two last decades, when we have been undergoing unspeakable, demeaning sufferings and disasters of the most regrettable way;

In a burst of consciousness, rising up with a resolute determination in order to unite, to strengthen the national unity, to defend the Cambodian territory, to preserve the precious sovereignty and the marvellous civilization of ANGKOR, to re-build the country and become once again an "Oasis of Peace" based on the system of a liberal multi-party democracy, to guarantee human rights, to ensure the respect of law, to be highly responsible for the destiny of the nation forever evolving toward progress, development and prosperity.

IN VIRTUE OF THIS UNSHAKEABLE WILL,

We inscribe in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, as followed:

CHAPTER 1: ON THE SOVEREIGNTY[edit]

Article 1

Cambodia is a Kingdom where the King shall fulfill His functions according to the Constitution and the principles of liberal multi-party democracy.

The Kingdom of Cambodia is an independent, sovereign, peaceful, permanently neutral and non-aligned State.

Article 2

The territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia shall be absolutely inviolable within its borders as defined in the 1/100,000 scale map made between the years 1933-1953, and internationally recognized between the years 1963-1969.

Article 3

The Kingdom of Cambodia is an indivisible State.

Article 4

The motto of the Kingdom of Cambodia is: Nation, Religion, King.

Article 5

The official language and script are those in Khmer.

Article 6

Phnom Penh is the capital city of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

The national flag, anthem and coat of arms are defined in Annexes 1, 2 and 3.

CHAPTER II: ON THE KING[edit]

Article 7

The King of Cambodia shall reign, but not govern.

The King is the Head of State for life.

The Person of the King shall be inviolable.

Article 8

The King shall incarnate the symbol of national unity and continuity.

The King shall be the guarantor of the national independence, the sovereignty and the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia, and the guarantor for the respect of citizens’ rights and freedom, and of international treaties.

Article 9

The King shall assume the role as supreme arbiter to ensure the regular execution of public powers.

Article 10

The Cambodian monarchy is an elective monarchy.

The King can not appoint His heir to the throne.

Article 11 new

In case the King can not as usual perform His duties of Head of State for being seriously ill, as certified by a team of specialized medical doctors chosen by the President of the Senate, the President of the National Assembly and the Prime Minister, the President of the Senate shall perform the duties of Head of State as Regent in His stead.

In case the President of the Senate can not perform his duties of Head of State in the stead of the King, acting as Regent, while the King is seriously ill as stipulated in the aforementioned paragraph, the President of the National Assembly shall perform these duties.

In the case stated in the aforementioned paragraph, other dignitaries in the following hierarchy can perform the role of Regent as Acting Head of State:

a - First Vice-President of the Senate
b - First Vice-President of the National Assembly
c - Second Vice-President of the Senate
d - Second Vice-President of the National Assembly
Article 12 new

At the decease of the King, the President of the Senate shall perform the role of Head of State ad interim in his capacity as Regent of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

In case the President of the Senate can not perform his duties of Head of State ad interim in his capacity as Regent, the paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 11 new must be implemented.

Article 13 new

Within a period not exceeding seven days, the new King of Cambodia shall be elected by the Crown Council.

The membership of the Crown Council shall be composed of:

-The President of the Senate
-The President of the National Assembly
-The Prime Minister
-The Supreme Patriarchs of the two religious orders, Mahanikaya and Dhammayutikanikaya
-The First and Second Vice-Presidents of the Senate
-The First and Second Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly

The organization and functioning of the Crown Council shall be determined by law.

Article 14

Shall be elected King of Cambodia, a member of the Royal family, aged at least 30 years, descendant of King Ang Duong or of King Norodom or also of King Sisowath.

Before ascending the throne, the King shall take oath as stipulated in Annex 4.

Article 15

The Consort of the King shall have the title of Queen of Cambodia.

Article 16

The Queen of Cambodia shall have no right to engage in politics, to assume a leading function in State or Government affairs, or to assume an administrative or political role.

The Queen of Cambodia shall devote herself in tasks of social, humanitarian, religious interests, and assist the King in protocol and diplomatic obligations.

Article 17

The provision, in which the King shall reign but not govern, as stipulated in Article 7 paragraph 1 of this Constitution, can not in any case be modified.

Article 18 new

The King communicates with the Senate and the National Assembly through royal messages.

These royal messages can not be subject to debate at the Senate and the National Assembly.

Article 19 new

The King shall appoint the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers in accordance with the procedures stipulated in Article 119 new.

Article 20

The King grants official audiences twice a month to the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, who report on the situation of the country for His highest information.

Article 21

Upon the request of the Council of Ministers, the King shall sign the Kret appointing, transferring or dismissing high-ranking civil and military officials, ambassadors and envoys extraordinary and plenipotentiary from their position.

Upon the request of the Supreme Council of Magistracy, the King shall sign the Kret appointing, transferring or removing judicial judges from their position.

Article 22 new

When the nation faces danger, the King shall make a public proclamation placing the country in a state of emergency, after unanimous agreement from the Prime Minister, the President of the National Assembly and the President of the Senate.

Article 23

The King is the Supreme Commander of the Royal Khmer Armed Forces. A Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Khmer Armed Forces shall be appointed to command the Armed Forces.

Article 24 new

The King is the President of the Supreme Council of National Defense which shall be created by a law.

The King declares war after the approval from the National Assembly and the Senate.

Article 25

The King receives credentials from ambassadors or envoys extraordinary and plenipotentiary of foreign countries accredited to the Kingdom of Cambodia.

Article 26 new

The King signs and ratifies international treaties and conventions after their approval by the National Assembly and the Senate.

Article 27

The King holds the right of commuting court’s sentence and the power of pardon.

Article 28 new

The King signs the Kram promulgating the Constitution and the laws adopted by the National Assembly and thoroughly reviewed by the Senate, as well as the Kret upon the proposal from the Council of Ministers.

In case of illness and medical treatment abroad, the King can delegate His power of signing the Kram and the Kret to the Head of State ad interim. This delegation of signature is express.

Article 29 new

The King creates and confers national honorific distinctions.

The King decides on granting military and civilian grades and titles in the framework as determined by the law.

Article 30 new

During the absence of the King, the President of the Senate shall assume the duties of Head of State ad interim.

In case the President of the Senate can not perform the duties of Head of State ad interim during the absence of the King, these duties shall be assumed in conformity with paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 11 new.

CHAPTER III: ON THE RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF KHMER CITIZENS[edit]

Article 31

The Kingdom of Cambodia recognizes and respects human rights as enshrined in the United Nations Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human rights and all the treaties and conventions related to human rights, women’s rights and children’s rights.

Khmer citizens are equal before the law, enjoying the same rights, liberties and duties regardless of race, color, sex, language, beliefs, religions, political tendencies, birth origin, social status, wealth or other situations. The exercise of personal rights and liberties by any individual shall not adversely affect the rights and freedom of others. The exercise of such rights and liberties shall be in accordance with the law.

Article 32

Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

In any case, there shall be no death penalty.

Article 33

Khmer citizen shall not be deprived of his/her nationality, exiled, or arrested to be extradited to a foreign country, except in case of mutual agreement.

Khmer citizen residing abroad enjoys the protection of the State.

The acquisition of Khmer nationality shall be determined by law.

Article 34 new

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall enjoy the right to vote and to stand as candidates for the election.

Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least eighteen years old, have the right to vote.

Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least twenty-five years old, have the right to stand as candidates for the elections of the members of the National Assembly.

Khmer citizens of both sexes, at least forty years old, have the right to stand as candidates for the elections of the members of the Senate.

Provisions restricting the right to vote and the right to stand as candidates for the elections shall be determined by the Electoral Law.

Article 35

Khmer citizens of both sexes have the right to participate actively in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the nation.

All requests from citizens shall be given full consideration and resolution by the State’s organizations.

Article 36

Khmer citizens of both sexes have the right to choose any employment according to their ability and to the needs of the society.

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work.

The work of housewife at home shall have equal value as the remunerated work done outside the home.

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall have the right to enjoy social security and other social benefits as determined by law.

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall have the right to create trade unions and to participate as their members.

The organization and functioning of the trade unions shall be determined by law.

Article 37

The rights to strike and to organize peaceful demonstrations shall be exercised within the framework of law.

Article 38

The law forbids any physical abuse against any individual.

The law protects the life, the honour and the dignity of the citizens.

The prosecution, arrest, police custody or detention of any person shall not be done, except in accordance with the law.

The coercion, physical punishment or any other treatment aggravating the penalty of the detainee or prisoner shall be forbidden. The author of such acts, co-authors and accomplices shall be punished according to the law.

Confessions obtained by physical torture or mental pressure shall not be admissible as evidence of guilt.

The doubt shall benefit the accused.

Any accused is presumed innocent up to the final verdict of the court.

Any individual shall have the right to his/her own defense through the judicial system.

Article 39

Khmer citizens have the right to denounce, make complaints, or file claims for reparations of damages caused by any breach of law by state and social organizations or by staff of those organizations. The settlement of complaints and the reparations of damages are of the competence of the courts.

Article 40

Citizen’s freedom to travel, far or near, and to legally settle down shall be respected.

Khmer citizen has the right to settle in abroad or to return home.

The protection of the rights to the inviolability of residence and to the confidentiality of correspondences by mail, telegram, telex, facsimile and telephone shall be guaranteed.

Search of residences, properties and body search shall be done in accordance with the legal stipulations.

Article 41

Khmer citizens shall have the freedom to express their personal opinions, the freedom of press, of publication and of assembly. No one can take abusively advantage of these rights to impinge on dignity of others, to affect the good mores and custom of society, public order and national security.

The regime of the media shall be regulated by law.

Article 42

Khmer citizens shall have the right to create associations and political parties. This right shall be determined by law.

Khmer citizens may participate in mass organizations meant for mutual assistance, protection of national realizations and social order.

Article 43

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall have the full right of belief.

Freedom of belief and religious practice shall be guaranteed by the State, provided that such freedom and religious practice do not impinge on other beliefs or religions, on public order and security.

Buddhism is State’s religion.

Article 44

All persons, individually or collectively, shall have the right to ownership.

Only natural person or legal entity of Khmer nationality shall have the right to land ownership.

Legal private ownership shall be protected by law.

Expropriation shall be possible only if public utility demands in the cases stipulated by the law and if prior appropriate and fair compensation is granted.

Article 45

All forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished.

The exploitation of women’s labour shall be prohibited.

Men and women have equal rights in all fields, especially with respect to those of marriage and family.

Marriage shall be done according to the conditions set by the law and based on the principles of mutual consent and monogamy.

Article 46

Human trafficking, exploitation of prostitution and obscenities which affect the dignity of women shall be prohibited.

The dismissal of woman worker for reason of pregnancy shall be prohibited. Woman shall have the right to take maternity leave with full pay and with guarantee of her seniority in employment and of other social benefits.

The State and the society shall provide women, especially those underprivileged living in rural areas, with opportunities to benefit from assistance for a profession, for medical cares, for their children schooling and for decent living conditions.

Article 47

Mother and father shall have the obligation to take care of their children, to bring them up and to educate them in order to become good citizens.

Children shall have the duty to attend to the needs of their aged parents and to take good care of them in accordance with Khmer custom.

Article 48

The State shall assure the protection of children’s rights as enshrined in the Convention on Children, especially, the right to life, the right to education, the right to protection during wartime and the right to protection from economic or sexual exploitation.

The State shall protect children from all kinds of labour that can be detrimental to their education and their schooling, or to their health or their welfare.

Article 49

Every Khmer citizen shall respect the Constitution and the laws.

Every Khmer citizen has the obligation to participate in the national construction and to defend the motherland.

The obligation to defend the motherland shall be done in accordance with the provisions of the law.

Article 50

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall respect the principles of national sovereignty and liberal multi-party democracy.

Khmer citizens of both sexes shall respect public property and legally acquired private property.

CHAPTER IV: ON THE POLITICAL REGIME[edit]

Article 51 new

The Kingdom of Cambodia adopts a policy of liberal multi-party democracy.

Khmer citizens are masters of their country’s destiny.

All powers shall belong to the citizens.

The citizens shall exercise their powers through the National Assembly, the Senate, the Royal Government and the Jurisdictions.

The powers shall be separated between the legislative power, the executive power and the judicial power.

Article 52

The Royal Government of Cambodia shall commit itself resolutely to preserve and defend the independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia, implement a policy of national reconciliation to ensure national unity, and protect the good mores and custom of the nation. The Royal Government of Cambodia shall defend legality and ensure public order and security. The State shall give priority to the improvement of the living conditions and welfare of citizens.

Article 53

The Kingdom of Cambodia maintains resolutely a policy of permanent neutrality and non-alignment. The Kingdom of Cambodia coexists peacefully with its neighbours and with all other countries throughout the world.

The Kingdom of Cambodia shall never invade any country, nor interfere in any other country's internal affairs, directly or indirectly, and shall solve any problems peacefully with due respect for mutual interests.

The Kingdom of Cambodia shall not join in any military alliance, nor conclude any military agreement which is incompatible with its policy of neutrality.

The Kingdom of Cambodia shall not authorize any foreign military base on its territory, nor have its own military bases abroad, except within the framework of a United Nations request.

The Kingdom of Cambodia reserves the right to receive foreign assistance in military equipment, armaments, ammunition, in training of its armed forces, and other assistance for self-defense and for ensuring public order and security within its territory.

Article 54

The manufacture, use and storage of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons shall be absolutely prohibited.

Article 55

Any treaty and agreement incompatible with the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, neutrality and national unity of the Kingdom of Cambodia shall be abrogated.

CHAPTER V: ON THE ECONOMY[edit]

Article 56

The Kingdom of Cambodia implements the market economy system.

The organization and the functioning of this economic system shall be determined by the law.

Article 57

Tax can be collected only when it is authorized by a law.

The national budget shall be laid down and carried out in accordance with the law.

The monetary management and the financial system shall be determined by the law.

Article 58

State property notably consists of land, underground, mountains, sea, sea-bed, undersea-bed, coastline, airspace, islands, rivers, canals, streams, lakes, forests, natural resources, economic and cultural centers, national defense bases, other building facilities belonging to the State.

The administration, the utilization and the assignment of State’s properties shall be determined by the law.

Article 59

The State shall preserve and protect the environment and the balance of natural resources, by organizing a precise planning for the management, especially of the land, water, atmosphere, air, geology, ecological systems, mines, energy, petroleum and gas, rocks, sand, gems, forests and forest by-products, wildlife, fish and aquatic resources.

Article 60

Citizens have the right to freely sell and exchange their own products. The obligation to sell products to the State or the appropriation, even temporarily, of private riches or possessions by the State shall be prohibited, except under conditions specially authorized by the law.

Article 61

The State shall promote economic development in all fields, especially in agriculture, handicraft, industry, to begin with the remotest areas, with concern for water policy, electricity, roads and means of transportation, modern techniques and credit system.

Article 62

The State shall be concerned with resolving the means of production, sustaining the prices of agricultural and handicraft products, and helping find markets for these products to be sold.

Article 63

The State shall attend to regulating the markets in order to secure a suitable living standard for the citizens.

Article 64

The State shall forbid individuals to import, manufacture or sell illicit drugs, counterfeit products, expired goods harmful to the consumers’ health and life, and shall severely punish them.

CHAPTER VI: ON THE EDUCATION, THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIAL AFFAIRS[edit]

Article 65

The State shall protect and promote the right of the citizen to a quality education at all levels and shall take every measure to progressively make this education available to all the citizens.

The State shall put emphasis on the field of physical education and sports for the benefit of all the Khmer citizens’ well-being.

Article 66

The State shall establish a comprehensive and unified system of education throughout the country, capable of guaranteeing the principles of freedom of education and equal access to schooling, in order to offer each citizen the equal opportunity for the betterment of his/her living conditions.

Article 67

The State implements a curriculum and modern pedagogic principles including the teaching of technology and foreign languages.

The State shall oversee public and private educational establishments and classes at all cycles.

Article 68

The State shall ensure for all citizens free primary and secondary education at public schools.

Citizens shall receive schooling for at least nine years.

The State shall help propagate and promote the Pali schools and the Buddhist education.

Article 69

The State has the obligation to preserve and develop national culture.

The State has the obligation to protect and develop the Khmer language according to the needs.

The State has the obligation to preserve and protect the ancient monuments, antiques, and to restore the historical sites.

Article 70

Any offence affecting or relating to cultural heritage and artistic heritage shall be severely punished.

Article 71

The perimeter of national heritage sites as well as of those classified as world heritage sites shall be considered as neutral zone forbidden to any military activity.

Article 72

The health of the people shall be guaranteed. The State shall give full consideration to disease prevention and medical cares. Poor people shall receive free medical consultations in public hospitals, infirmaries and maternities.

The State shall establish infirmaries and maternities in rural areas.

Article 73

The State shall give full consideration for children and mothers, by encouraging the creation of nurseries and by attending to women without support who have many children under their cares.

Article 74

The State shall provide assistance to the disabled persons and to the families of combatants who sacrificed their lives for the nation.

Article 75

The State shall establish a social security regime for workers and employees.

CHAPTER VII: ON THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY[edit]

Article 76

The National Assembly shall comprise at least 120 members.

The Members of the National Assembly shall be elected by a universal, free, equal, direct suffrage and secret ballot.

The National Assembly’s Members are re-eligible.

Khmer citizens of both sexes, enjoying the right to vote, aged at least 25 years and having Khmer nationality by birth, have the right to be candidates to the National Assembly.

The organization in charge of preparing the elections, their modalities and functioning shall be determined by the electoral law.

Article 77

The Members of the National Assembly are the representatives of the whole Khmer Nation and not of the only citizens from their constituencies.

Any imperative mandate shall be considered as null.

Article 78

The legislature of the National Assembly is of 5 years and shall terminate on the day of the new National Assembly entering in function.

The National Assembly cannot be dissolved before the end of its mandate, except in the case of the Royal government being voted out twice within a period of 12 months.

In this case, the King shall, on the proposal from the Prime Minister and with the approval of the President of the National Assembly, dissolve the National Assembly.

The election of the new National Assembly shall take place at the latest within 60 days, counting from the date of dissolution of the National Assembly.

During this period, the Royal Government is only in charge of dispatching day-to-day affairs.

In time of war or in other exceptional circumstances when it is impossible to organize the elections, the National Assembly may, on the proposal from the King, declare the prorogation of its legislature for one year each time.

The declaration on the prorogation of the National Assembly’s legislature must be adopted by at least two-third of all its Members.

Article 79

The mandate of the National Assembly’s Member is incompatible with actively exercising any public function and with the functions as member of any other institution stipulated in the Constitution, except those exercised in the Council of Ministers of the Royal Government. In this case, the concerned Member of the National Assembly keeps the quality as an ordinary Member of the National Assembly, but he/she must have no position in the Standing Committee and in the different Commissions of the National Assembly.

Article 80

Members of the National Assembly shall enjoy parliamentary immunity.

No National Assembly’s Member can in any case be prosecuted, arrested, kept in police custody or detained because of his/her opinions or of the votes expressed during the exercise of his/her functions.

The prosecution against, the arrest, the police custody or the detention of any Member of the National Assembly is possible only when approved by the National Assembly or by the Standing Committee during the interval between sessions, except in flagrante delicto case.

In this last case, the competent ministry must urgently report to the National Assembly or to the Standing Committee for decision.

The decision of the National Assembly’s Standing Committee must be submitted to the next session of the National Assembly for adoption by two-third majority of all its members.

In all the aforementioned cases, the detention of, the prosecution against any National Assembly’s Member shall be suspended, if the National Assembly so decided by three-forth majority of all its Members.

Article 81

The National Assembly shall have an autonomous budget for its functioning.

The National Assembly’s Members shall receive allowances.

Article 82 new

The first session of the National Assembly shall open sixty days at the latest after the elections, upon the convening by the King.

Before starting its works, the National Assembly shall declare the validity of each Member's mandate and shall vote separately to elect its President, its Vice-Presidents and all the Members of its various Commissions, by an absolute majority of all its Members.

The National Assembly shall adopt its Rules of Procedure by an absolute majority of all its Members.

Before taking office, all the National Assembly’s Members shall take oath according to the text written in Annex 5 of the Constitution.

Article 83

The National Assembly shall convene in ordinary session twice a year.

Each session shall last at least three months. Upon the request from the King or upon the proposal of the Prime Minister or of at least one-third of the National Assembly’s Members, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly shall convene an extraordinary session of the National Assembly.

In this case, the precise agenda of the extraordinary session and the date of this session must be brought to the knowledge of the people.

Article 84

During the interval between the Sessions of the National Assembly, its Standing Committee shall be in charge of the functioning of the National Assembly.

The Standing Committee shall be composed of the President of the National Assembly, the Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly, and the Presidents of all the Commissions of the National Assembly.

Article 85

The sessions of the National Assembly shall take place in the Capital City of the Kingdom of Cambodia, at the National Assembly Meeting Hall, except a decision otherwise specified in the convening act for circumstantial reasons.

Apart from the aforementioned cases and apart from the location and the date specified in the convening act, any session of the National Assembly shall be considered illegal and null in its own full right.

Article 86

Under the circumstances when the nation is in a state of emergency, the National Assembly shall convene everyday, in permanence. The National Assembly has the right to put an end to the aforementioned special circumstances, whenever the situation permits.

If the National Assembly can not convene for imperative reasons, notably in case of territorial occupation by foreign forces, the declaration of the state of emergency must be automatically extended.

During the period when the nation is in a state of emergency, the National Assembly can not in any case be dissolved.

Article 87

The President of the National Assembly presides over the National Assembly sessions, takes cognizance of the laws and the resolutions adopted by the National Assembly, ensures the implementation of the Rules of Procedure and organizes the international relations of the National Assembly.

In case the President of the National Assembly is prevented from performing his/her duties for health reason, or for assuming his/her functions as Head of State ad interim or as Regent, or for being on mission abroad, a Vice-President shall replace him/her.

In case of resignation or decease of the President or of the Vice-Presidents, the National Assembly shall elect a new President or new Vice-Presidents.

Article 88 new (two)

The National Assembly sessions shall be public.

The National Assembly can convene in camera at the request of the President or of at least one-tenth of its Members, of the King or of the Prime Minister.

The session of the National Assembly is only valid, when there is:

a- the quorum of over two-third of all its Members for the votes requiring the majority of two-third of all its Members.
b- the quorum of over half of all its Members for the votes requiring the absolute majority of all its Members.
Article 89

Upon the request from at least one-tenth of its Members, the National Assembly can invite a high ranking personality to come and clarify on issue of particular importance.

Article 90 new (two)

The National Assembly is an organ invested with legislative power which exercises its functions according to the provisions of the Constitution and the laws in force.

The National Assembly votes the national budget, the State planning, the borrowings, the lending, the various pledges of financial warranties, and the creation, modification or abolition of taxes.

The National Assembly approves the administrative account.

The National Assembly votes the amnesty law.

The National Assembly votes the approval or the abrogation of international treaties or conventions.

The National Assembly votes the law on war declaration.

The aforementioned votes must obtain the absolute majority of all the National Assembly’s Members.

The National Assembly grants a vote of confidence to the Royal Government at the absolute majority of all its Members.

Article 91 new

The Senators, the National Assembly’s Members and the Prime Minister have the initiative of laws.

The National Assembly’s Members have the right to propose amendments to the laws, but this proposal is not admissible if that amendment tends to reduce public incomes or to increase the burden on the citizens.

Article 92

Any adoption by the National Assembly contrary to the principles of safeguarding the independence, the sovereignty, the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Cambodia, and affecting the political unity or the administrative management of the nation, is reputed to be null. The Constitutional Council is the sole organ competent to pronounce this nullity.

Article 93

The law voted by the National Assembly and definitely reviewed by the Senate, and being subject to promulgation by the King, shall come into force in the capital city of Phnom Penh within ten clear days counting from the date of promulgation, and throughout the country within twenty clear days counting from the date of promulgation. However, if the law is declared urgent, it shall come immediately into force within the whole territory of the country as counting from the date of promulgation.

Article 94

The National Assembly creates various necessary commissions. The organization and the functioning of the National Assembly shall be stipulated in the National Assembly’s Rules of Procedure.

Article 95

In case of decease, resignation of a National Assembly’s Member or loss of his/her membership which would take place at least six months before the end of the legislature, his/her replacement must proceed in the conditions set by the National Assembly’s Rules of Procedure and by the Electoral Law.

Article 96

The National Assembly’s Members have the right to raise questions to the Royal Government. The questions must be put in writing and transmitted through the President of the National Assembly.

The answers shall be given by one or several ministers depending on whether the raised issue comes under the responsibility of one or several ministers. If the issue concerns the general policy of the Royal Government, the Prime Minister shall reply in person.

The answers by the minister or by the Prime Minister shall be verbal or written.

The above answers shall be given within seven days after receiving the questions.

In case of verbal answer, the President of the National Assembly can decide whether to open the debate or not. If he does not authorize the debate, the answers of the minister or the Prime Minister put an end to the raised questions.

If he authorizes the opening of a debate, the authors of the questions, the other orators, the concerned minister or the Prime Minister can discuss and exchange the points of view within a time-frame that can not exceed one meeting.

The National Assembly shall reserve one day a week for questions time.

The meetings reserved for the questions time can not in any case give place to voting.

Article 97

The Commissions of the National Assembly can invite any minister to give clarifications on issue relating to his/her responsibility.

Article 98 new

The National Assembly can dismiss a Member of the Royal Government or remove the Royal Government from office by voting a motion of censure at the absolute majority of all its Members.

The motion of censure against the Royal Government must be submitted to the National Assembly by thirty of its Members before this motion of censure can be examined.

CHAPTER VIII new: ON THE SENATE[edit]

Article 99 new

The Senate is an organ invested with legislative power which exercises its functions according to the provisions of the Constitution and the laws in force.

The number of the Senators must not exceed half of the total number of the National Assembly’s Members.

The Senate is composed of appointed members and members elected at restricted suffrage.

The Senators can be appointed anew or re-eligible. Can be candidates to the Senate the Khmer citizens of both sexes enjoying the right to vote, aged 40 years at least and having Khmer nationality by birth.

Article 100 new

Two Senators are appointed by the King.

Two Senators are elected by the National Assembly at a relative majority vote.

The other Senators are elected at a restricted suffrage.

Article 101 new

The modalities of the organization and the functioning of the appointment and the elections of the Senators as well as the determination of the voters, the electoral colleges and the electoral constituencies must be determined by a law.

Article 102 new

The legislature of the Senate is of 6 years and shall terminate on the day the new Senate enters in function.

In time of war or in other exceptional circumstances when it is impossible to organize the elections, the Senate may, on the proposal from the King, declare the prorogation of its legislature for one year each time.

The declaration of prorogation of the Senate’s legislature must be adopted by at least two-third of all the Senators.

Under the aforementioned circumstances, the Senate shall convene everyday, in permanence. The Senate has the right to put an end to the aforementioned special circumstances, whenever the situation permits.

If the Senate can not convene for imperative reasons, notably in case of territorial occupation by foreign forces, the declaration of the state of emergency must be automatically extended.

Article 103 new

The Senator’s mandate is incompatible with actively exercising any public function, with the functions as the National Assembly’s Member and with those as member of another institution stipulated in the Constitution.

Article 104 new

The Senators shall enjoy parliamentary immunity.

No Senator can in any case be prosecuted, arrested, kept in police custody or detained because of his/her opinions or of the votes expressed during the exercise of his/her functions.

The prosecution against, the arrest, the police custody or the detention of a Senator is possible only when approved by the Senate or by the Standing Committee during the interval between sessions, except in flagrante delicto case.

In this last case, the competent ministry must urgently report to the Senate or to the Standing Committee for decision.

The decision of the Senate’s Standing Committee must be submitted to the next session of the Senate for adoption by two-third majority of all the Senators.

In all the aforementioned cases, the detention of, the prosecution against any Senator shall be suspended, if the Senate so decides by three-forth majority of all the Senators.

Article 105 new

The Senate shall have an autonomous budget for its functioning.

The Senators shall receive allowances.

Article 106 new (one)

The first session of the Senate shall open sixty days at the latest after the elections, upon the convening by the King.

Before starting its works, the Senate shall declare the validity of each Senator’s mandate and shall vote separately to elect its President, its Vice-Presidents and all the Members of its various Commissions, by an absolute majority of all the Senators.

Before taking office, all the Senators shall take oath according to the text written in Annex 7 of the Constitution.

Article 107 new

The Senate shall convene in or dinary sessions twice a year.

Each Session shall last at least three months. Upon the request from the King or upon the proposal of the Prime Minister or of at least one-third of the Senators, the Senate shall convene in an extraordinary session.

Article 108 new

During the interval between the Sessions of the Senate, its Standing Committee shall be in charge of the functioning of the Senate.

The Standing Committee shall be composed of the President of the Senate, the Vice-Presidents of the Senate and the Presidents of all the Commissions of the Senate.

Article 109 new

The sessions of the Senate shall take place in the Capital City of the Kingdom of Cambodia, at the Senate Meeting Hall, except a decision otherwise specified in the convening act for circumstantial reasons.

Apart from the aforementioned cases and apart from the location and the date specified in the convening act, any session of the Senate shall be considered illegal and null in its own full right.

Article 110 new

The President of the Senate presides over the Senate sessions, takes cognizance of the laws and the resolutions adopted by the Senate, ensures the implementation of the Rules of Procedure and organizes the international relations of the Senate.

In case the President of the Senate is prevented from performing his/her duties for health reason, or for assuming his/her functions as Head of State ad interim or as Regent, or for being on mission abroad, a Vice-President shall replace him/her.

In case of resignation or decease of the President or of the Vice-Presidents, the Senate shall elect a new President or new Vice-Presidents.

Article 111 new (two)

The Senate sessions shall be public.

The Senate can convene in camera at the request of the President or of at least one-tenth of its Members, at the request of the King, of the Prime Minister or of the President of the National Assembly.

The session of the Senate is only valid, when there is:

a- the quorum of over two-third of all its Members for the votes requiring the majority of two-third of all its Members.
b- the quorum of over half of all its Members for the votes requiring the relative or absolute majority of all its Members.

The number of votes required for the adoption by the National Assembly, as provided in this Constitution, shall also apply to the adoption by the Senate.

Article 112 new

The Senate has the attribution to coordinate the work between the National Assembly and the Government.

Article 113 new

The Senate shall examine and give its views on draft law or on proposed law adopted by the National Assembly in its first reading, as well as all the questions submitted by the National Assembly, within a period not exceeding one month.

In case of urgency, this time frame shall be reduced to five days.

If the Senate gives a favourable view, or gives no view, within the provided time limits, the law already adopted by the National Assembly will be submitted for promulgation.

If the Senate proposes amendments to these draft laws or these proposed laws, the National Assembly shall immediately examine them in a second reading. The National Assembly shall decide on the sole amendments proposed by the Senate, either by accepting or rejecting them, in totality or in part.

A shuttle between the Senate and the National Assembly shall proceed within a limited time frame of one month. This time frame shall be reduced to ten days for the budgetary texts and the laws on finances, and to two days in case of urgency declaration.

If the National Assembly exceeds or extends the time frame at its disposal for examination, the time frame by principle allocated for agreement between the two Chambers is increased as much.

In case the Senate purely and simply rejects them, the draft laws or the proposed laws can not be examined by the National Assembly in a second reading, before a time frame of one month. This time frame is reduced to fifteen days for budgetary texts and the laws on finances, and to four days in case of urgency declaration.

When examining the draft laws or the proposed laws in a second reading, the National Assembly shall adopt them by open ballot and at the absolute majority of all its Members.

The draft laws or the proposed laws, once adopted according to aforementioned modalities, are submitted for promulgation.

Article 114 new (one)

The Senate creates various necessary commissions. The organization and the functioning of the Senate shall be stipulated in the Senate’s Rules of Procedure. These Rules of Procedure are adopted by absolute majority of all its Members.

Article 115 new

In case of decease, resignation of a Senator or loss of his/her membership which would take place at least six months before the end of the legislature, his/her replacement must proceed in the conditions set by the Senate’s Rules of Procedure and by the law pertaining to the appointment and the elections of the Senators.

CHAPTER IX new: ON THE CONGRESS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AND THE SENATE[edit]

Article 116 new

In case of necessity, the National Assembly and the Senate can convene in Congress to resolve the important issues of the country.

Article 117 new

The important issues of the country as provided in the Article 116 new, as well as the organization and functioning of the Congress shall be determined by a law.

CHAPTER X: ON THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT[edit]

Article 118 new (former Article 99)

The Council of Ministers is the Royal Government of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

The Council of Ministers shall be headed by a Prime Minister, assisted by Deputy Prime Ministers as well by Senior Ministers, Ministers and Secretaries of State as members.

Article 119 new (former Article 100)

Upon the proposal of the President of the National Assembly in agreement with the two Vice-Presidents, the King assigns a high ranking personality among the Members of National Assembly from the elections winning party, to form the Royal Government. This assigned high ranking personality, accompanied by his collaborators who are Members of the National Assembly or members of the parties represented at the National Assembly and who are in charge of ministerial functions within the Royal Government, solicits the confidence from the National Assembly. Once the National Assembly has voted the confidence, the King signs the Kret appointing the whole Council of Ministers.

Before taking office, the Council of Ministers shall take oath according to the text written in Annex 6.

Article 120 new (former Article 101)

The function of Member of the Royal Government is incompatible with any professional activity in the field of trade or industry and with the holding of any position in the public function.

Article 121 new (former Article 102)

All the Members of the Royal Government are collectively responsible to the National Assembly for the general policy of the Royal Government.

Each Member of the Royal Government is individually responsible to the Prime Minister and to the National Assembly for his/her own actions.

Article 122 new (former Article 103)

The Members of the Royal Government can not resort to a written or verbal order from whomever to decline their own responsibility.

Article 123 new (former Article 104)

The Council of Ministers shall convene every week in plenary session or in working session.

The plenary session is chaired by the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister can delegate to a Deputy Prime Minister the chairmanship of the working sessions.

All the minutes of the Council of Ministers’ sessions shall be submitted to the King for His highest Information.

Article 124 new (former Article 105)

The Prime Minister can delegate his/her powers to a Deputy Prime Minister or to a Member of the Royal Government.

Article 125 new (former Article 106)

In case of the definitive vacancy of Prime Minister’s position, a new Council of Ministers shall be appointed under the conditions provided by the present Constitution. If the vacancy is temporary, a Prime Minister ad interim shall be provisionally assigned.

Article 126 new (former Article 107)

Each Member of the Royal Government holds penal responsibility for the major or minor indictable offences while performing his/her functions.

In this case and in the case of serious misdeeds committed by a Member of Royal Government while performing his/her functions, the National Assembly can decide to seize the competent jurisdictions.

The National Assembly shall decide on such matter in a secret ballot by an absolute majority of all its Members.

Article 127 new (former Article 108)

The organization and functioning of the Council of Ministers are stipulated by a law.

CHAPTER XI new: ON THE JUDICIARY[edit]

Article 128 new (former Article 109)

The Judicial power is an independent power.

The Judicial power is the guarantor of impartiality and the protector of the citizens’ rights and liberties.

The Judicial power covers all litigations, including administrative litigation.

This power is entrusted to the Supreme Court and to the Jurisdictions of the various categories and at all the degrees.

Article 129 new (former Article 110)

Justice is rendered in the name of Khmer people in accordance with the legal procedures and the laws in force.

Only the judges are vested with the judicial function. The judges shall fulfill their duties in strict respect of the law, in all honesty and conscientiousness.

Article 130 new (former Article 111)

No organ of the Legislative Power or of the Executive Power can exercise any judicial power.

Article 131 new (former Article 112)

Only the public prosecution has the right to take public action.

Article 132 new (former Article 113)

The King is the Guarantor of the independence of the Judiciary. The Supreme Council of Magistracy assists the King in this task.

Article 133 new (former Article 114)

The Magistrates are irremovable. However, the Supreme Council of Magistracy shall pronounce disciplinary sanctions against the Magistrates committing misdeeds.

Article 134 new (former Article 115)

The Supreme Council of Magistracy shall be created by an Organic Law which determines its composition and attributions.

The Supreme Council of Magistracy is placed under the Presidency of the King. The King can designate His Representative to preside over the Supreme Council of Magistracy.

The Supreme Council of Magistracy submits to the King the proposal for appointment of judges and public prosecutors to all the Jurisdictions.

To decide disciplinary sanctions against the judges and the public prosecutors, the Supreme Council of Magistracy convenes under the presidency of the Supreme Court’s President or of the General Public Prosecutor to the Supreme Court, whether the case relate s to the judges or the public prosecutors.

Article 135 new (former Article 116)

The statutes of judges and public prosecutors and the judicial organization shall be stipulated in separate laws.

CHAPTER XII new: ON THE CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL[edit]

Article 136 new

The Constitutional Council shall have the competence to guarantee the respect of the Constitution, to interpret the Constitution and the Laws adopted by the National Assembly and definitively reviewed by the Senate.

The Constitutional Council has the right to examine and to decide on litigations related to the elections of the Members of the National Assembly and to the elections of the Senators.

Article 137 new (former Article 118)

The Constitutional Council is composed of nine Members whose mandate is limited to nine years. One-third of its Members shall be renewed every three years. Three Members shall be appointed by the King, three elected by the National Assembly and three others elected by the Supreme Council of Magistracy.

The President is elected by the Members of the Constitutional Council. In case of a tie in the voting, the voice of the President prevails.

Article 138 new (former Article 119)

The Members of the Constitutional Council shall be chosen among the high ranking personalities holding high diplomas in law, administration, diplomacy or economics and having extensive professional experience.

Article 139 new

The functions as member of the Constitutional Council are incompatible with the functions as senator, as member of the National Assembly, as member of the Royal Government, as incumbent magistrate, as personnel in the public function, as President or Vice-President of a political party or as President or Vice-President of a trade union.

Article 140 new

The King, the Prime Minister, the President of the National Assembly or one-tenth of the National Assembly’s Members, the President of the Senate or one-fourth of the Senators, may send the laws adopted by the National Assembly to the Constitutional Council for examination before their promulgation.

The rules of procedure of the National Assembly, the rules of procedure of the Senate and the organic laws must be sent to the Constitutional Council for examination before their promulgation. The Constitutional Council shall pronounce within the time frame of thirty (30) days at the latest, whether the laws, the rules of procedure of the National Assembly and those of the Senate are or not in conformity with the Constitution.

Article 141 new

After a law has been promulgated, the King, the President of the Senate, the President of the National Assembly, the Prime Minister, one-fourth of the Senators, one-tenth of the National Assembly’s Members, or the Courts can request the Constitutional Council to examine the constitutionality of that law.

Any citizen has the right to raise the unconstitutionality of the laws through the intermediary of the National Assembly’s Members or that of the President of the National Assembly or of the Senators or of the President of the Senate, as provided in the aforementioned paragraph.

Article 142 new (former Article 123)

A provision of any article, declared by the Constitutional Council not in conformity with the Constitution, can not be promulgated or implemented.

The decision of the Constitutional Council is final without recourse.

Article 143 new (former Article 124)

The King consults the Constitutional Council on any proposal aiming at amending the Constitution.

Article 144 new (former Article 125)

The organization and the functioning of the Constitutional Council are subject to an organic law.

CHAPTER XIII new: ON THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION[edit]

Article 145 new (one)

The territory of the Kingdom of Cambodia is divided into Reach Theany (Royal Capital City), Khet (provinces), Krong (municipalities), Srok (districts), Khan (arrondissements), Khum (communes) and Sangkat (quarters).

Article 146 new (one)

Reach Theany, Khet, Krong, Srok, Khan, Khum and Sangkat are administered according to the conditions provided by an organic law.

CHAPTER XIV new: ON THE NATIONAL CONGRESS[edit]

Article 147 new (former Article 128)

The National Congress allows the citizens to be directly informed on various affairs of national interest, to raise issues and to submit suggestions to the State authorities for a solution.

Khmer citizens of both sexes have the right to participate in the National Congress.

Article 148 new (former Article 129)

The National Congress shall meet once a year, in early month of December upon the convening by the Prime Minister.

The National Congress shall proceed under the High Presidency of the King.

Article 149 new

The National Congress shall adopt suggestions to be submitted to the Senate, the National Assembly and the State authorities for consideration.

The organization and the functioning of the National Congress shall be stipulated by a law.

CHAPTER XV new (two): ON THE ELECTION BODY[edit]

Article 150 new (two)

The National Election Committee is the body which has the competence for organising, regulating and administering the Elections of the Senators and the Elections of the Members of the National Assembly and other elections as determined by law.

The National Election Committee shall exercise its competence independently and impartially in order to ensure free, accurate and fair elections in accordance with the principles of liberal multi-party democracy.

The functions as the Members of the National Election Committee are incompatible with the positions in the public function and the function as the members of other institutions as stipulated in the present Constitution. The member of the National Election Committee cannot be the member of political party or president of the non-governmental organisation, association, trade unions or any commercial company.

The National Election Committee shall have an autonomous budget for its operation.

Article 151 new (two)

The National Election Committee is composed of nine Members whose mandate is five years. Four members shall be elected by the political party leading the Royal Government; four shall be elected by the political parties that won seats in the National Assembly, not in coalition with the Royal Government, and the other one shall be elected with the consent of all political parties having seats in the National Assembly.

The Standing Committee of the National Assembly shall organise an open and transparent election of the National Election Committee's members. The Standing Committee of the National Assembly shall prepare the list of the composition of the National Election Committee to submit to the National Assembly for an absolute majority vote of confidence of all the Members of the National Assembly.

Members of the National Election Committee shall be appointed by Royal Kret.

In case, any Member of the National Election Committee loses membership, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly shall conduct the procedure to choose the new member within the period of 15 days at the latest from the date of the loss of membership. Detailed procedures for choosing a new member for replacement shall be determined separately by law.

In case of failing to organise the composition of the National Election Committee, the existing Members of the National Election Committee shall remain in office and shall have competence to organise the election in accordance with the law.

The organisation and the functioning of the National Election Committee shall be determined by law.

CHAPTER XVI new (two): ON THE EFFECT, THE REVISION AND THE AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION[edit]

Article 152 new (two) (former Article 150 new)

The present Constitution is the supreme law of the Kingdom of Cambodia.

All the laws and decisions of all the state institutions must be absolutely in conformity with the Constitution.

Article 153 new (two) (former Article 151 new)

The initiative of the revision or the amendment of the Constitution belongs to the King, to the Prime Minister and to the President of the National Assembly on the proposal from one-fourth of all the National Assembly’s Members.

The revision or the amendment of the Constitution must be carried out by a constitutional law adopted by the National Assembly at the two-third majority of all its Members.

Article 154 new (two) (former Article 152 new)

The revision or the amendment of the Constitution is prohibited when the nation is in a state of emergency, as provided in the Article 86.

Article 155 new (two) (former Article 153 new)

The revision or the amendment of the Constitution can not be done, if affecting the liberal multi-party democracy system and the constitutional monarchy regime.

CHAPTER XVII new: ON THE TRANSITIONAL PROVISIONS[edit]

Article 156 new (two) (former Article 154 new)

The present Constitution, once adopted, shall be promulgated by the King of Cambodia with immediate effect.

Article 157 new (two) (former Article 155 new)

After the present Constitution comes into force, the Constituent Assembly becomes the National Assembly.

The Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly shall come into force after their adoption by the National Assembly.

In case the National Assembly can not take its function, the President, the First and the Second Vice-Presidents of the Constituent Assembly fulfill their mission within the Crown Council, if so required by the situation of the country.

Article 158 new (two) (former Article 156 new)

After the present Constitution comes into force, the King is elected under the conditions provided in the Articles 13 new and 14.

Article 159 new (two) (former Article 157 new)

The duration of the first legislature of the Senate is five years and comes to an end when the new Senate assumes office.

For the first legislature of the Senate:

- the total number of Senators shall be sixty-one,
- the King shall appoint two Senators, as well as the President and the two Vice-Presidents of the Senate,
- the other Senators shall be appointed by the King among the members of the political parties having their seats at the National Assembly, on the proposal from the President of the National Assembly and the President of the Senate,
- the Congress of the National Assembly and the Senate shall be held under the chairmanship of the Co-Presidents.
Article 160 new (two) (former Article 158 new)

Laws and normative acts in Cambodia that guarantee the State properties, the rights, the liberties and the legal properties of private persons and that are in conformity with the national interests, shall remain in force until the new texts are made to amend or to abrogate them, except the provisions contrary to the spirit of the present Constitution.

The present Constitution is adopted by the Constituent Assembly

in Phnom Penh, on September 21, 1993

at its second plenary session Phnom Penh, September 21, 1993
The President,

Signed : SON SANN

ADDITIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL LAW[edit]

TENDING TO ENSURE THE REGULAR FUNCTIONING OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

Article 1

This Constitutional Law aims at ensuring, under all circumstances, the good functioning of the national institutions in respecting the basic principles of a liberal multi-party democracy, according to the state of necessity.

Article 2

At the beginning of each legislature, the National Assembly under the presidency of its most senior member, before starting its works and after the validation of each member’s mandate, can proceed to adopt the texts of constitutional or legislative nature within the objective stipulated in the aforementioned Article 1.

After their adoption by the National Assembly, the most senior member must immediately take cognizance of these texts in accordance with the procedure reserved for them, until their promulgation and coming into force.

Article 3

In case when the procedures stipulated in the Articles 82 and 119 new of the Constitution can not be implemented, the National Assembly, on the proposal of the majority political party, can proceed with the package vote to elect its President and its Vice-Presidents as well as the Chairpersons and Vice-Chairpersons of the Commissions, and at the same time to grant the confidence to the Royal Government.

Article 4

The elaboration of the candidate lists for the elections and for the vote of confidence shall be organized as followed:

- the list of the candidates for Presidency, Vice-Presidencies of the National Assembly, as well as of those for Chairmanship and Vice-Chairmanships of specialized Commissions, must be prepared and proposed by the political parties which agree to form a coalition government, then conveyed to the most senior member of the National Assembly;
- upon the proposal by the majority political party at the National Assembly, submitted through the most senior member, the King designates a high ranking personality among the members of the National Assembly from the elections winning political party to form the Royal Government.
This designated high ranking personality prepares the attribution of the different ministerial posts within the Royal Government, then sends the list of all its members to the most senior member of the National Assembly;
- the most senior member of the National Assembly shall combine these lists into a single one, composed of the candidates for Presidency, Vice-Presidencies of the National Assembly, for the Chairmanships and Vice-Chairmanships of all the specialized Commissions of the National Assembly as well as for the posts of Prime Minister and members of the Royal Government, in order to submit it to the vote of the National Assembly.
Article 5

No debate is possible during the proceedings of the package vote, neither any explanation is possible after the proclamation of this vote result.

The National Assembly’s Members vote in favor of or against this single list, proposed by its most senior member.

The vote is done by a show of hands.

Article 6 new of the Additional Constitutional Law

The package vote shall be done at the absolute majority of all the National Assembly’s Members.

In case the vote at the first ballot is not decisive, the same procedure shall apply to the following ballots.

Article 7

This Additional Constitutional Law is declared as urgent and comes into enforcement right from the beginning of the present legislature.

This Additional Constitutional Law is promulgated by Kram No NS/RKM/0704/001 of July 13, 2004