Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period/Chang P'u

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CHANG P'u 張溥 (T. 天如, H. 西銘), 1602–1641, founder of the politico-literary group known as Fu-shê 復社, was a native of T'ai-ts'ang, Kiangsu. An ardent student from youth up, he developed the habit of making frequent notes on what he had read, and therefore named his library, Ch'i-lu-chai 七錄齋, or "Seven-Recordings Studio". In 1620 he made the acquaintance of Chang Ts'ai 張采 (T. 受先, H. 南郭, 1596–1648), and during the years 1623 to 1628 the two labored together in his studio. Because of their friendship and their combined literary interests they came to be known as "The Two Changs East of the River Lou" (婁東二張). Early in 1628 they both went to Peking, Chang P'u as a senior licentiate, Chang Ts'ai to take the metropolitan examination and win his chin-shih in that year. Chang Ts'ai was appointed magistrate of Lin-ch'uan, Kiangsi, and Chang P'u went back to his native place where he organized the Fu-shê which some sources take to mean "the society for the revival of ancient learning." Although Chang P'u was granted his chin-shih at the next triennial examination of 1631, rather than take up the usual official career he chose to devote himself to his organization.

Literary societies of the Ming dynasty date back to the beginning of the 17th century. The purpose of such groups was to "make friends by means of literature," as the Analects say, and to help the members prepare for the examinations. The Fu-shê began with this modest objective, but under Chang P'u's skilled guidance it took in many small local units until it became a nationwide social movement and a political force of great significance. Its first great meeting was held at Yin-shan in Wu-chiang, Kiangsu, in 1629; the second at Nanking in 1630, and the third at Hu-ch'iu, 7 li northwest of Soochow, in 1632—attended by thousands of scholars from all parts of the empire. The list of members as recorded by Wu Ying-chi 吳應箕 (T. 次尾, H. 樓山, 1594–1645), and supplemented by his grandson Wu Ming-tao 吳銘道 (T. 復古, H. 古雪山民) under the title, 復社姓氏錄 Fu-shê hsing-shih lu, includes 2,025 names. Its membership increased as it grew in influence and prestige. It brought pressure to bear on both Court and local officials, took a hand in appointments and removals from office, and recommended favorite candidates for the examination system. As its power increased so did the number and hatred of its enemies. Its chief opponents were the followers of the eunuch, Wei Chung-hsien [q. v.], and those who for one reason or another experienced the society's disapproval.

In 1637 one, Lu Wên-shêng 陸文聲, a native of Soochow, memorialized the Emperor denouncing the Fu-shê as a corrupting and disturbing force in the nation. As a measure of defense Chang P'u proceeded to strengthen his organization by resorting to more direct activities of a political nature. The decree imposing the penalty of death on the prime minister, Hsüeh Kuo-kuan 薛國觀 (T. 賓廷, d. 1641, a chin-shih of 1619), and the substitution of Chou Yen-ju 周廷儒 (T. 玉繩, H. 挹齋, d. 1644, chuang-yüan of 1613) early in 1641 was in part a Fu-shê maneuver. The promulgation of the manifesto of Nanking, entitled 留都防亂公揭 Liu-tu fang-luan kung-chieh, against Juan Ta-ch'êng [q. v.] in 1639 was a direct interference in politics on the part of students. In the summer of 1641 Chang P'u died and was given unofficially the posthumous name, Jên-hsüeh hsien-shêng 仁學先生. In the year following his death, the Fu-shê held another meeting at Hu-ch'iu which was the last of the great gatherings. On the whole, the Fu-shê carried on the traditions of the Tung-lin party 東林黨. Its membership included the descendants of prominent Tung-lin members, such as Huang Tsung-hsi [q. v.], and for that reason was also known as "the little Tung-lin" 小東林. When Juan Ta-ch'êng ordered the wholesale arrest of Fu-shê members he entitled his list of proscribed names, 蝗蝻錄 Huang-nan lu—the Tung-lin members being thus slightingly referred to as Huang 蝗, or "locusts", and the Fu-shê members as Nan 蝻, or "unfledged locusts".

The Imperial Catalogue (see under Chi Yün) gives notice of four works by Chang P'u: a compilation of commentaries on the Odes, 詩經注疏大全合集 Shih-ching chu-shu ta-ch'üan ho-chi, in 34 chüan; a work on the Spring and Autumn Annals, 春秋三書 Ch'un-ch'iu san-shu, in 32 chüan; essays on historical topics, 歷代史論二編 Li-tai shih-lun êr-pien, in 10 chüan; and a collection of literary works by 103 authors of the Han, Wei and Six Dynasties, 漢魏六朝百三名家集 Han Wei Liu-ch'ao pai-san ming-chia chi, in 118 chüan, the last being copied into the Ssŭ-k'u Manuscript Library (see under Chi Yün). His collected literary works Ch'i-lu-chai chi (集), in 15 chüan, were named after his studio.


[M.1/288/18a; T'ai-ts'ang-chou chih (1919) 19/33a; Ssŭ-k'u 17/7a, 30/6b, 90/4b, 189/12a; Wu Wei-yeh [q. v.], 復社紀書 Fu-shê chi shih in Mei-tsun chia-ts'ang kao; Tu Têng-ch'un 杜登春, 社事始末 Shê-shih shih-mo in 昭代叢書 Chao-tai ts'ung-shu; Hsieh Kuo-chên 謝國楨, 明清之際黨社運動考, Ming-Ch'ing chih-chi tang-shê yün-tung k'ao (1934).]

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