Encyclopædia Britannica, Ninth Edition/Tangiers
TANGIERS, or Tangier (Ṭanja), a seaport of Morocco and capital of a pashalik, on the Strait of Gibraltar, about 14 miles to the east of Cape Spartel, stands on two eminences at the north-west extremity of a spacious bay. The town has a fine appearance from the sea, rising gradually in the form of an amphitheatre, and defended by walls and a castle. The streets, which are unpaved, are very narrow and crooked, and the houses, except those occupied by foreign ambassadors or consuls and a few others, are mean. The main thoroughfare is that which leads from the Bab-al-Marsa (Gate of the Port) to the Bab-al-Sok (Gate of the Market Place); the sok presents a lively spectacle, especially on Sundays and Thursdays. The manufactures of Tangiers are of little importance, consisting chiefly of coarse woollen cloth, mats, and pottery; tanning is also carried on, but the leather, though much esteemed in Europe, is inferior to that made in other parts of Morocco. The harbour is a mere roadstead, but it is the best Morocco possesses, and affords good anchorage and shelter to the largest vessels, except during the prevalence of strong winds from the north-west or east. Tangiers has a large trade with Gibraltar. The climate is temperate and healthy, but the inhabitants often suffer much in summer from deficiency of water-supply. Tangiers, which is the residence of all the foreign ministers and consuls to the court of Morocco, has a population estimated at about 20,000, of whom some 400 are Europeans.