Evolution of American Agriculture

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EVOLUTION
of AMERICAN
AGRICULTURE


INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD UNIVERSAL LABEL


By
ABNER WOODRUFF, C. E.


Illustrated by Dust

Published by Agricultural Workers Industrial Union
No. 400 I. W. W.



THE PREAMBLE
OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS OF THE WORLD

■ ■

The working class and the employing class have nothing in common. There can be no peace so long as hunger and want are found among millions of working people and the few, who make up the employing class, have all the good things of life.

Between these two classes a struggle must go on until the workers of the world organize as a class, take possession of the earth and the machinery of production, and abolish the wage system.

We find that the centering of management of the industries into fewer and fewer hands makes the trade unions unable to cope with the ever growing power of the employing class. The trade unions foster a state of affairs which allows one set of workers to be pitted against another set of workers in the same industry, thereby helping defeat one another in wage wars. Moreover, the trade unions aid the employing class to mislead the workers into the belief that the working class have interests in common with their employers.

These conditions can be changed and the interest of the working class upheld only by an organization formed in such a way that all its members in any one industry, or in all industries if necessary, cease work whenever a strike or lockout is on in any department thereof, thus making an injury to one an injury to all.

Instead of the conservative motto, "A fair day's wage for a fair day's work," we must inscribe on our banner the revolutionary watchword, "Abolition of the wage system."

It is the historic mission of the working class to do away with capitalism. The army of production must be organized, not only for the every-day struggle with capitalists, but also to carry on production when capitalism shall have been overthrown. By organizing industrially we are forming the structure of the new society within the shell of the old.



INDEX

Page
Chapter I.
From Primitive Man to Agriculture
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
11
Chapter II.
Indian Agriculture in America
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
16
Chapter III.
Agricultural Periods
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
22
Chapter IV.
Colonial Period (1620-1783)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
25
Chapter V.
The Period of Western Expansion (1783-1830)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
33
Chapter VI.
The Transportation Period (1830-1865)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
40
Chapter VII.
Period of Expansion into the Far West (1865-1887)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
46
Chapter VIII.
Period of Reorganization (1887-1919)
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
54
Chapter IX.
Influence of Machinery on Agricultural Production and Rural Population
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
59
Chapter X.
Development of Agricultural Proletariat
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
68
............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
74



INTRODUCTION

This is not intended so much as an introduction to the book, but rather to acquaint the reader with the organization which makes this interesting little volume possible, and promises the likelihood of more and greater works—it being the intention to publish similar hand-books on all the basic industries.

The book does not purport to be a history of the agricultural industry, but merely a condensed story of the evolution of the tools, the machinery, and the remarkable modern methods of agriculture, horticulture, cattle raising, etc., presenting the wonderful development of the production of all things essential to the life and happiness of people, the control of which by all the people would make the world a good place in which to live.

Incidentally herein is shown the way in which corporations have grown and gigantic trusts have been formed, privately owning vast tracts of land, immense implement factories, stock yards, cold storage and canning plants; also the mines and railroads, thus controlling the necessities of life of which food stuff forms the greater part. But nearly all things are within the greedy grasp of these combined capitalists. These vicious institutions are sapping the very life blood of the human race.

You must realize that this infamous system of robbery amounts in the end to crime worse than murder. The trusts have so developed that they now have their fangs fastened deep into the very heart of society. Their merciless schemes and operations are conceived and carried out for profit and personal aggrandizement alone. It is done with the cognizance, connivance, and endorsement of governments the world over, with the result that there are millions of underfed, overworked, uneducated toilers with nothing to look forward to but work, work,—unceasing labor from the cradle to the grave.

The I. W. W. has nothing but words of the bitterest condemnation for individuals, institutions or governments responsible for the terrible conditions which prevail. On the other hand, the I. W. W. is earnest in its commendation of the great minds that conceived and invented the improved machinery and organized the great industries which we understand through social effort would contribute to the welfare and upbuilding of the people of the world.

The Industrial Workers of the World was organized to improve the conditions of the working class and its efforts have been directed unceasingly to this end. Education is regarded as the greatest weapon that the exploited workers can hope to attain. This book is published for the purpose of education—written, printed and paid for by men who have been condemned and in many instances imprisoned as hoboes and vagrants; more than this, they own the print shop where the work is done.

It has been said that every institution is but the lengthening shadow of a single man. This is not true when speaking of the Industrial Workers of the World, as it has required the united efforts of many individuals to cultivate the idea which has become imperishable; but here, as a matter of record, we should mention the name of Elwood Moore, who contributed a considerable legacy that he had inherited, and which he gave to the I. W. W. for organization and educational purposes. This was just prior to the formation of the Agricultural Workers' Industrial Union which was launched at a convention held in Kansas City in the spring of 1915.

Immediately following the organizing of the A. W. O. of the I. W. W., the name of which afterwards was changed to the Agricultural Workers Industrial Union No. 400, I. W. W., the conditions of the migratory workers began to improve, wages were increased, hours reduced, living conditions made comparatively better; but the work of education in the agricultural industry, like all others, has just begun and remains to be carried on by the workers until the earth is redeemed from private ownership and the spirit of co-operation prevails. Use and occupancy will then be the only title to land and its products. Industrial Freedom will then have been attained.

 
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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1924. It may be copyrighted outside the U.S. (see Help:Public domain).