Field Notes of Junius Henderson/Notebook 2

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1225093Field Notes of Junius Henderson — Notebook 2: 1907—1908Junius Henderson

Front pages[edit]

Junius Henderson
Field Notebook
No. 2
1907 - 1908 Junius Henderson
Boulder, (illegible text)

Field Note Book
No. 2

1907-1908

Fort Collins Trip[edit]

Fort Collins trip, May 24-25, 1907

Ft. Collins Trip

May 24, 1907 May 24, 1907

Left Boulder Boulder, Colorado on 9:25 train. Hazy morning, clouding up at train time with an east wind. Train left Boulder 10 min late, rode to Longmont Longmont, Colorado on seat with Capt McGwire, arrived at Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado at 11:32- 7 min late. Went to Northern Hotel, washed up and at 12:15 went in to dinner. In afternoon went to agricultural college, visited Prof. Lory in Physics laboratory, who showed me about the buildings. Also had a visit with Mr. Bragg in the museum, arranged with a student to accompany me tomorrow. Then went to the Mountain avenue Livery Co.’s stable at 127 E Mountain Ave. 127 E Mountain Ave., Ft. Collins, Colorado and arranged for a team for tomorrow, reaching hotel again at 5:15. ((This day’s notes in pencil and somewhat smudged)).

Ft. Collins, Colo., May 25/07

Rained last night. Cool and somewhat cloudy this morning. Had breakfast at 6:30 a.m. Started at 7;10 with O. G. Babcock. A cold rain and fierce wind was blowing chilling us to the bone despites “slickers” and heavy lap robe. We drove through La Porte, thence to the Forks, where we took the right hand road, leaving Livermore to the left, and went about four miles further. It is quite evident that the foothill geology will be much more difficult to work out than further south, as there is much folding, which gives to the formations outcropping very irregular outlines and the folds and general flatness of the dip spreads the formations out over a wide and decidedly variable zone, extending them into the foothills long distances in several places. We fed the team at noon at a point about 9 or 10 miles south of the Wyoming line, then turned back at 2 p.m. Drove by way of Bellevue Bellvue, Colorado where we found a beautiful anticlinal fold which can be nicely photographed in the Lyons formation. Reached the hotel about 5:30, chilled through and very tired. Retired at 8:15. ((pencil))

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, May 25 (sic) 1907 May 26, 1907

Cloudy morning, but calm. Arose at 7:15 intending to remain until 2 p.m., but concluded to take the 8 oclock train, so left without breakfast. A little fresh snow on top of the highest foothills, probably about the altitude of Green Mt. Green Mountain, Colorado At Boulder Boulder, Colorado. ((pencil))

Trip to Northern Colorado[edit]

Northern Colorado Trip June 6-15, 1907

Trip to Northern Colorado

Thursday June 6, 1907 June 6, 1907

Almost perfectly clear morning at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. About 50 piñon jays Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus flew over the house at 7 a.m. going nearly north. Clouded up before 9 a.m. Left Boulder at 9:45 for Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado by C & S Ry arriving there at 11:40. Got outfit from freight depot and then went to Tiedman Hotel for dinner. Got loaded by 2 p.m. and started at 2:20 in a driving rain, Dodds and I in the saddle, Ramaley, Robbins and the driver (Casey) in the wagon, the outfit from Tate and Sedgley’s stable. Dodds and I went due west and photographed the fine fold at Belleview, catching the wagon at Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado at 6:30, where we went into camp. Saw the following birds: magpies Corvidae, redwing blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, lark buntings Calamospiza melanocorys, Arkansas kingbird Tyrannus , T.T. kingbird Tyrannus, mourning doves Zenaida macroura, 1 killdeer Charadrius vociferus, 1 kingfisher Alcedines, robins Turdus migratorius, barn swallows Hirundo rustica, cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota meadowlark Sturnella, burrowing owl Athene cunicularia, goldfinch Carduelis tristis, Brewer’s blackbirds Euphagus cyanocephalus. Several birds singing about camp whose songs I do not recognize. Retired at 9 p.m.

Friday June 7, 1907 June 7, 1907

Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado ((drawing in notebook, showing w to E cross-section of ridges, with dips, ridges numbered 1 to 5; no. 4 = Lykins; no. 5 = Dakota)) Ridge 2 strongly crossbedded at top, took picture, found aragonite crystals. At base of 3 is a strong gypsum bed which has been quarried. Arose at 4:30 a.m. Found cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota busy building nests where Owl Creek Owl Creek, Colorado cuts through ridge No. 1. Nests a little further all finished. We collected mollusca and plants where stream cuts through ridge No. 2 and started on at 9 a.m. At ranch on section line NW of Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado found Fountain conglomerate dipping about 15˚ nearly E. strike about N strongly crossbedded thus ((drawing in field book)) reddish and gray, coarse sand and pebbles up to one inch, just S of ranch house. The exposures to the west between the first and the sharp rise of the micaceous granite hills were arkose; with 2 or 3 inch pebbles toward the base and no crossbedding so far as I discovered in the few moments stop. Has scarcely a tendency toward isolation from the granite into a high ridge as at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. E of Forks Hotel Livermore, Colorado strike changes to N 120˚ W and dip is about N 45˚ W, dipping about 18˚. The strata swing well west or SW then back a mile or so north, so that the cross section (generalized) E or road from Forks Hotel Livermore, Colorado is about thus, looking west. (( drawing in field book)). At N end of section granite swings across road well to the east. Camped on Ten Mile Creek Tenmile Creek, Colorado at 12:20 for lunch. Resumed our journey at 1:30 p.m., Ramaley and Dodds in the saddle. After we left the Laramie road US Rt. 287 we crossed Fountain formation, but soon got to granite, which continued across South Box Elder South Boxelder Creek, Colorado to North Box Elder North Boxelder Creek, Colorado. We camped below Box Elder P.O. a mile or two. The granite weathers into “toadstools” at Box Elder, owing to horizontal resistant zones.

North Box Elder, Saturday June 8, 1907 June 8, 1907

Rained for a little while after breakfast, and was gloomy. I was the last one up, rising when breakfast was nearly ready. At 7 a.m. there were indications of clearing up, so Dodds and I started horseback, crossing over the “Dakota” ridge . Found the “red beds” generally dipping strongly to the eastward and in places folded more or less. The Lykins ? was also folded and considerably crushed in places. In the Jurassic Dodds found some baryta. The “Dakota” exposures consisted entirely of a coarse conglomerate of sand, gravel and igneous boulders up to a foot in diameter with a calcareous cement as shown by its effervescence in acid, at least in the upper part. It was in all perhaps 100 feet in thickness. The upper part reminded me of the “mesa caps” in places north of Boulder Boulder, Colorado where cemented by a calcareous matrix. Passed northward into Wyoming Wyoming, thence westward passing around the head of Sand Creek Sand Creek, Colorado and tributaries except one which we crossed, thence southward to Box Elder P.O. Box Elder P.O. over the Cheyenne road US Rt. 87 and on to camp. Found nothing suggesting the limestone containing Carboniferous fossils mentioned by Darton et al. unless at northwest corner of the quadrangular course of the day’s travel. Saw about 75 piñon jays Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus flying nearly north. Had a very hard day. It hailed about 10 a.m., immense hailstones falling, with very little rain, so that we kept moderately dry, lying under a low cedar cedar which broke the fall of the hailstones. At 2 p.m. it began to hail and rain furiously and kept it up until we reached camp at 3:15, soaked through and chilled, the ground white with hail. The sun then came out, but it clouded again at 4:30. Among the most common birds at this camp is the Brewer blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus. List is as follows: Cliff swallow Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, violet green swallow Tachycineta thalassina, Mt bluebird Sialia currucoides, buzzard Buteo, red tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis, Brewer blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus, catbird catbird, goldfinch Carduelis tristis, red head (sic) woodpecker Melanerpes erythrocephalus, cowbird Molothrus, white throated swift Aeronautes saxatalis, yellow warbler Dendroica aestiva, flicker Colaptes, robins Turdus migratorius, red wing blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus, Townsend warbler Dendroica townsendi,, meadowlark Sturnella, rock wren Salpinctes obsoletus, dipper Cinchlus, Bullock oriole Icterus bullockii, killdeer Charadrius vociferus, long crested jay Cyanocitta stelleri, hummingbird Trochilidae, Lincoln song sparrow Melospiza lincolnii, piñon jay Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, towhee towhee. Meadowlarks Sturnella were also common on high plains near Wyoming Wyoming line.

In evening Dodds + I collected Pisidia Pisidia in the creek.

Box Elder Creek Box Elder Creek, Wyoming
Sunday June 9, 1907 June 9, 1907

Cold, windy morning, clearing by 9 a.m. but west wind continuing. Arose at 6 a.m. Dodds + I collected Pyramidula Pyramidula, Zonitoides Zonitoides, Vallonia Vallonia, Pupilla Pupilla, and Pisidium Pisidium after breakfast, then shaved and started down stream at 10 a. m. Visited + photographed the upper falls in the granite rear where the creek reaches the sedimentaria + at the very edge of the granite a joint plane suddenly changes the course of the stream at right angles for 50 or 75 feet where it flows through vertical walls about 60 ft high and 10 feet apart thus ((drawing in field book)). The last jump of the falls is sheer over a vertical 60 ft. wall formed by a joint plane in the granite just before leaving the granite. The granite lies on both sides of the lateral valley which cuts in from the north at the lower fall. In other words the lateral drainage cuts back into the granite as it does in the region of Boulder Boulder, Colorado, instead of cutting along the contact or into the sedimentaries. This is likely due to the fact that the sedimentaries were laid on a surface of weathered granite. ((at some later date Henderson wrote an emphatic “NO.” at this place in the notebook)). At any rate here the upper part of the granite is weathered, while the lower part is unaffected. If the granite were unweathered there seems no good reason why the cutting should not be in the sedimentaries as they are not particularly resistant, so far as chemical and physical conditions. At least there are soft strata and much rock with soft calcareous cement. In afternoon we went over to South Box Elder South Box Elder and followed it down to junction with the north branch. Its lower course is very steep through granite, with gneiss about 200 or 300 ft back from the edge of the granite. The north branch runs south from the falls between the granite and the sedimentaries and just below the confluence the combined drainage turns eastward and breaks through the sedimentaries. Immediately above the confluence we found an exposure of 75 feet or more of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, varying from dark red to pure white, and extending to the creek bed. ((several lines crossed out with another “NO.”)) The granite cliffs west of the creek are high and steep, from which one may infer the ancient sea wall from which the pebbles were derived, were it not that no large boulders were observed in the conglomerate. The sedimentaries indicate uplift by their eastward dip, which would undoubtedly involve the granite. Following is a generalized section showing their present relations. E and W section across North Box Elder Creek North Box Elder Creek, Colorado just above confluence with south branch. ((drawing in field book, view to S with east edge on left)). The conglomerate where so well exposed is very friable and not calcareous, but a slight exposure just below the confluence effervesces freely in acid. The conglomerate is much thicker than we supposed, as we discovered a little later, with a harder band a little above the exposure just mentioned, then softer above. It answers to the Fountain formation at Boulder Boulder, Colorado except that the cement is weak aside from the ones stratum just mentioned, so that it is covered by debris of the talus slope. Above this are the sandstones, limestones etc., which are equivalent to the Lyons formation at Boulder Boulder, Colorado, a resistant sandstone at the top forming an escarpment on the west and sloping away more gently to the east.

North Box Elder Creek North Box Elder Creek Monday June 10, 1907 June 10, 1907

Strong west wind but warmer than yesterday. Dodds and I started for Sand Creek Sand Creek, Colorado at 8 a.m. finding a much easier trail over the high Lyons ridge and down to the creek. The east slope of the Lyons escarpment is approximately the same as the dip at the contact between the Lyons and the Lykins formations, the latter lying apparently conformably on the former toward the base of the slope, having been eroded from the upper part of the slope. Sand Creek Sand Creek, Coloradois nearly dry and the flat sandy bottom about 200 yards wide where we entered it. An elongated (N and S) hill through which Sand Creek Sand Creek, Coloradocuts about E of our camp is an anticlinal fold in the Lyons formation the west limb dipping very abruptly and the east limb approximately the normal dip for the region. An E and W fold in the same formation occurs about a mile NW of this. North of this hill the entire valley is over 2 miles wide and the anticline and syncline both show beautifully the section being as follows. ((Drawing in field book. I am not sure if this is the same place but similar relations can be seen on US 287 north of Livermore)) E. Sand Creek Sand Creek, Coloradocuts a trough from N 24˚ E through the N end of anticline then swings over into syncline and cuts through it to junction with W Sand Creek Sand Creek, Colorado , then both swing E through anticline. The cliff on the S side Sand Creek Sand Creek, Colorado seems surely Lyons formation. Section as follows, thickness estimated: ((Drawing in field book of layers folded upwards and with descriptions intercalated into the drawing. Numbers from top to bottom)) 1) Sandstone nearly white 10 ft weathers buff massive. 2) Very hard fine pearl gray ? 6 ft massive. 3) Pink thin bedded sandstone, partly cross bedded weathering red 30 ft.? 4 and 5) Very fine grained calcareous sandstone, massive, violetred (?) 30 ft? 6 and 7) Very fine hard clay , slightly effervescent, whitish, 6-10 ft. 8) Pink sandstone, thin bedded weathering red 15 ft massive below. 9) Very fine grained massive sandstone white 9 ft. Apparent dip flatter in actual face of cliff because exposure short.

We measured one face of 20 ft. and from that estimated the whole cliff at 100 ft. Big hill north of fold, in syncline is Lykins at base, dark red and regularly bedded below, lighter red and massive, light pink and very massive in the upper part which forms a bluff. Red and pink massive part about 150 ft in thickness. Above this are about 250 ft. of light colored (mostly gray) limestones and sandstones and clay shales of Morrison age. Above this the slope to the top is covered by Dakota sandstone and conglomerate debris, none in place. Below this exposure we find the red sandstones to the Lyons ridge except for one white band about 20 feet thick everywhere present. Saw 2 white throated swifts on above mentioned hill. On way back we roughly estimated that there is about 200 feet of Lykins below the white zone and about the same above. The white zone itself, including an intermediate reddish zone is 50 ft. or more in thickness. The upper member of the Lyons is eroded back from the edge to make a low ridge and the Lykins still further back, in each case the dip of the strata forming the surface of the hill. Erosion appears to proceed almost wholly at the edges except where drainage breaks through. Wind quieted down very much and it was warm in afternoon.

North Box Elder North Box Elder Tuesday, June 11, 1907 June 11, 1907

East wind this morning, perfectly clear and hot. Dodds and I started N along the Fountain granite contact. In the gulch coming in to N. Box Elder Creek N. Box Elder Creek from the N we found the drainage line to be practically on the contact in some places. S of the ranch about a mile N of Box Elder Falls Box Elder Falls in the lateral N and S valley is a strong outcrop of Fountain out in the valley, while up the slope very close to the granite is an outcrop of thin bedded reddish rock, partly fine grained and partly coarse sandstone, all of the latter outcrop effervescing freely. (This we have not found elsewhere). Between the two is an outcrop of chert containing brachiopods of Paleozoic type, which we were able to trace to where the valley turns westward in Wyoming Wyoming, but found no more of the underlying calcareous rocks, but did find the Fountain. At the westward turn of the valley near head of creek in Wyoming Wyoming we found a strong outcrop of Fountain with 6 or 8 ft. of hard gray limestone overlying it, containing numerous fragments of crinoid stems and a few poorly preserved brachiopods. It passed, apparently conformably, beneath the red, thin bedded Lyons ? sandstone (this may be limestone-see tomorrow’s notes), continuing thus northward as far as we could see. We traced the limestone nearly to the Box Elder Boxelder Creek and reached camp at 6 p.m. with a good load. Saw a night hawk Chordeiles minor in Wyoming Wyoming. Jackson and Crawford arrived and camped at Box Elder P.O. Box Elder P.O. Dodds and I called in the evening and discussed plans.

North Box Elder camp North Box Elder camp Wednesday June 12, 1907 June 11, 1907

Dodds, Crawford, Jackson and I started down N. Box Elder North Box Elder Creek, Colorado in the morning. Found the crinoidal limestone just below N Box Elder falls Box Elder Falls, Colorado well up on talus slope of Lyons escarpment in form of boulders and in one ledge in place, where Dodds and Jackson obtained one brachiopod brachiopod. It has more of a reddish ting than further north. Just below junction of N and S Box Elder Box Elder Creek is a strong ledge of limestone resting on typical Fountain conglomerate, with about 20 ft. of Fountain above the limestone. Above the 2o ft. zone of Fountain is the thinner bedded, finer grained Lyons sandstone, limestones etc. The thickness of the Fountain is difficult to ascertain, but we found it extending to the bed of the creek with but a narrow zone of debris intervening between it and the granite. There is not less than 200 ft of Lyons here and probably considerably more. About a mile S of Box Elder Box Elder is a formation resting on granite which looks as if it were metamorphosed Fountain, but contains no pebbles and no large feldspar crystals. It is full of mica, thin bedded dipping N. 24˚ E. I believe it is weathered shistose (sic) granite. Continuing southward we found it frequently above the hard unweathered granite. At the ranch above mentioned I found Fountain conglomerate resting on granite and at the very contact, with an east slope, found a piece of chert containing brachiopods brachiopods. Further south on the east side of the valley, up on the escarpment we found the crinoidal limestone in Fountain conglomerate, with several other limestones of similar character above, alternating with conglomerate and sandstone, just as we found it in Wyoming Wyoming. The thin bedded formation mentioned in yesterday’s notes as overlying the crinoidal limestone may be a limestone as a similar zone here is. We have not found any other outcrop of the limestone beneath the chert at the ranch NE of camp. Where the strike turns westward I found a nonfossiliferous limestone in the Fountain and in a higher horizon found the crinoidal limestone. Strike N. 30˚ E. forming a syncline next to the foothills with axis approximately E., N limb steep, dip about 30˚ bearing S 5˚ W. Dip of S limb very gentle. Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Occupies base of syncline. ((visible from US 287)) Section E of Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Where strike changes to west ((drawing in field book)) Section through Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Where road swings around west of Red Mt in a valley, following the creek, To the N, W and S the sedimentaries have been removed unless it be the base of the Fountain, leaving a gently sloping plain, sloping from the west to the creek bed. We have now traced the chert horizon near the base of the sedimentaries from Wyoming Wyoming to the place where the strike turns westward toward Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado, finding brachiopods brachiopods frequently most of the way. Also traced the lower crinoidal limestone to the same point, but found no brachiopods in it after leaving the Box Elder Box Elder Creek, Colorado. Saw 2 {taxon|Buteo|buzzards}} and 1 red tailed hawk Buteo jamaicensis at junction of N and S Box Elder Box Elder Creek, Colorado.

Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Thursday June 13/07 June 13, 1907

Dodds and I started on horseback NW from camp on Ten Mile Creek Tenmile Creek, Colorado, just S of Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado, to examine the plain to the WNW and SW which appears to be approximately the ancient sea floor, from which most of the sedimentaries have been eroded. On the divide between Ten Mile Tenmile Creek, Colorado and Lone Tree Lone Tree Creek, Colorado creeks NW of Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado, we measured dip of Fountain conglomerate and found it to be 6 deg. Bearing N. 30˚ E. The conglomerate covers a considerable portion of the plain. ¼ mi. further N dip is 6˚ S. 13˚ W., a valley occupying the syncline here, the sec. fence passing through the valley. It is probably the Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Syncline. 300 yds further N of last mentioned outcrop is an outcrop of thin bedded limestone resting on Fountain conglomerate and bearing N. 25˚ E. The dip is about 30˚ bearing E, but blocks are tilted in every direction. To the east I failed to find a corresponding dip from the granite westward to form the east limb of the syncline. The relations are about thus: ((drawing in field book)). NW is a white quartz blowout on a high hill on E side Deadman Creek Deadman Creek, Colorado. It bears N 29˚ W from Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado. And S 25˚ E of Virginia Dale Mt. Virginia Dale Mt., Colorado The quartz continued on SW as an interrupted ridge and also occurs on S side of this plain, in each case not more than a mile or so into the granite. About a mile S of the first mentioned outcrop, the conglomerate dips 4˚ bearing S 48˚ E. In that vicinity, as usual, the outcrop of Fountain and granite is occupied by a valley. Fountain approaches one quartz blowout very closely. S 40˚ W of Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Is coarse conglomerate, with pebbles up to 4 inches in diameter lying directly on an uneven eroded surface of rotten, deep red granite, contact showing for100 ft., conglomerate dipping 10˚ bearing about E. The center of the plain for some distance back is covered with a thin remnant of Fountain conglomerate thus showing approximately the ancient sea bottom. Another inlet (sic) of the Fountain, including the upper beds extends far west of Livermore Livermore, Colorado. It is a syncline> At Livermore Livermore, Colorado dip is only about 20 to 40 bearing NE. Camped at Owl canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado at 6 p.m.

Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, Friday June 14/07 June 14, 1907

Dodds and I started up canyon on foot in morning and in narrow part, west of bridge, in limestone at top of next to top limestone bench found brachiopods brachiopods of carboniferous type. In a much lower horizon where limestone is a conglomerate laid on an eroded surface. It is in a crushed zone, however, and the apparent nonconformity may be due to crushing. Below the conglomerate just mentioned are red thin bedded slightly calcareous sandstone dipping 10˚ N. 63˚ E., which is in turn underlaid by conglomerate unconformable on lower similar sandstones and then other conglomerates all slightly calcareous in places. Section at Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, top and bottom reversed. -Granite -Covered zone, 25 ft., perhaps weathered granite as at Red Mt. Red Mt., Colorado Very massive, hard, coarse conglomerate, dip 15˚ bearing N. 63˚ E. 8 ft. same conglomerate appearing at intervals above debris for 200 yds to E with rotten deep red conglomerate in upper 100 yds, of considerable thickness -Covered zone of 200 yds or more with 4 or 5 ft of hard gray limestone about midway -Pinkish gray calcareous sandstone, rather thin bedded. Dip same as above, upper half contains crinoids perhaps may be called a limestone, al moderately fine grained. 25 ft. -Very dark red coarse rotten sandstones and conglomerates with pebbles leaching white 15 ft. -Mostly lighter colored, finer grained, harder and thin bedded sandstones, some zones massive and a little of the coarse dark red 35 ft., forming mild escarpment with the two preceding numbers as the lower part of the slope, on S side of lateral gulch of Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado. -Same as above, planed edges occupying the gentle E slope of escarpment and intervening valley between it and main escarpment, estimated at 25 ft. -Massive pinkish limestone in bed of creek about 5 ft. -Covered, with intermediate massive conglomerate estimated at 15 ft (in creek bottom (sic) -Soft rotten reddish and whitish streaked, remarkably crossbedded, coarse conglomerate with an intermediate thin bedded red sandstone and some strong evidence (of erosion?) above sandstone member 44 ft. -Thin bedded fine grained, hard sandstone 16 ft. Left the section of the main escarpment to be finished by Dodds, upon arrival of Crawford, Underhill and Jackson. We all visited the gypsum beds together. After lunch Crawford, Robbins and Dodds continued measurements of the Carboniferous section, while Underhill, Jackson and I examined the Chugwater and Jurassic. After Underhill, Crawford and Jackson left at 4 p.m. Robbins and I went down to the Niobrara formation on horseback. Found the basal limestone not so massive as at Boulder Boulder, Colorado, containing Inoceramus deformis Inoceramus deformis, Ostrea congesta Ostrea congesta and an Ostrea Ostrea and an Inoceramus Inoceramus new to me. It is underlaid by 3 or 4 ft. of sandstone, below which is the Benton shale. The Niobrara here divides into two high ridges with a minor one and another still lower in between. In the latter 3 are Ostrea congesta Ostrea congesta on an unknown large flat Inoceramus Inoceramus as further south. At camp the upper Lyons passes by transition from limestones and calcareous red, pink and gray sandstones through the pink Ten Sleep sandstone to the dark red Lykins shales, thence to the Jura. Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado section completed by Dodds. -Sandstone, calcareous, pinkish, more massive than below, crossbedded and nearer limestone than sandstone at top, mostly covered with talus 40 ft. -Sandstone, red, medium to fine grained, calcareous, rather thin bedded, crossbedded 36 ft. -Friable, fine-grained sandstones and shale, mostly red 5 ft. -Friable coarse sandstone 1 ft. -Red sandstone, calcareous, rather thin bedded, with flagstone appearance 1 ½ ft. -Red sandy shale 1 ft. -Sandstone, calcareous, red, fine-grained partly massive or thick bedded and partly flaggy, some strata friable, some crossbedding, estimated 20 ft. -Sandstone, coarse, crossbedded, friable, dark red 2 ft. Varies in thickness and unconformable on surface below. -Sandstone, calcareous, banded red and white, very hard, flaggy, like Lyons 1 ½ ft. -Shale, sandy, red ferruginous, interlaid with lenticular bodies of gray limestone, becoming conglomeratic at top 6 ft. -Sandstone, pink, calcareous, coarse, laminated in color, not in apparent structure, but weathering into thin beds 15 ft. -Sandstone, fine, massive red or mottled 17 ft. -Limestone, gray, massive, ridge maker, 6 ft., making lowest bench -Sandstone, red, thin bedded, cross bedded, upper part usually massive, estimated 30 ft. crinoidal -Limestone, gray, massive, very hard, strong ridge maker, first real ridge maker, containing brachiopods brachiopods 15 ft. -Sandstone, pink, medium grained, thin and cross bedded, like Lyons 20 ft. -Limestone, massive, gray, very hard strong ridge maker, highest ridge here, 24 ft. -Sandstone, fine grained, pink, mostly thin bedded, partly massive, near bottom making weak ridge; thin bedded part cross bedded, mostly weathering rapidly 50 ft. lies on E slope of escarpment -Sandstone, gray or yellowish, coarse or medium, rather strong making low escarpment 2 ft. -Sandstone, red, thin bedded, one zone dark and rather shaley, all fine grained, weathers readily 33 ft. -Chugwater or Lykins red shales, with strong Gypsum zone -Jurassic buff and gray sands and shale -Dakota sandstones with intercalated shales -Benton shales (found no limestone bands) -Niobrara in several ridges.

All below the Chugwater effervesces freely in acid, unless the lower conglomerates. The base of the sedimentaries consists of coarse conglomerate, gray to dark red and hard to friable. They are not sharply divided from the Lyons beds above, but pass into the latter by a zone of alternating coarse sands and conglomerates and fine grained sandstones, gradually becoming more calcareous. The Lyons equivalent differs from the beds near Boulder Boulder, Colorado in containing limestones, and in being more easily eroded and softer in general, more or less calcareous. The Lyons grades into the Lykins by an alternation, the pink sandstone being overlaid by a few feet of deep red clay, then another few feet of pink sandstone, then the red beds begin in earnest. The North Poudre Ditch North Poudre Ditch turned into the {{place}Box Elder Creek, Colorado|Box Elder}} has started a period of deep erosion which is extending up the lateral gulches by headward progression.

Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado, Saturday June 15, 1907 June 15, 1907

Left for Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado at 7:30 a.m., Robbins and I in the saddle. Visited the Belleview fold on way down. Found it was Lyons formation, very narrow, the dips on the west limb very steep (estimated at 60˚), the Poudre cutting through it, while Belleview occupies the syncline to the west. Reached Collins Ft. Collins, Coloradoat 11:15 and had boxes ready etc. for shipment at 11:45. Dined at hotel and took 2:05 p.m. train, reaching Boulder Boulder, Colorado at 4 p.m. It has been a very hot day with a hot wind.

Magnola-Rollinsville, South Boulder Canyon, Left Hand Canyon[edit]

Trips Aug and Sept. 1907



Magnolia Magnolia, Colorado-Rollinsville Rollinsville, Colorado Aug. 22, 1907 August 22, 1907

Dr Ramaley and I started by team at 7 a.m. On divide SW of Magnolia Magnolia, Colorado we stopped and collected mollusca and plants, with a few scale insects etc. Then drove to the lake beyond the school house. In the lake we collected leaches, crustacea, water beetles, frogs etc. and the following mollusca: Lymnaea palustris Lymnaea palustris Calyculina sp. Calyculina Planorbis exacuous (sic) Planorbis


In the quaking aspen Populus tremuloides groves and willows Salix along the divide we collected the following mollusca:

Pyramidula cronkhitei anthonyi Pyramidula cronkhitei anthonyi - common Vallonia cyclophorella Vallonia cyclophorella- scarce, only found at Pine Glade School Succinea cf. avara Succinea ? a few Vitrina alaskana Vitrina alaskana common Zonitoides arboreus Zonitoides arboreus common Euconulus trochiformis Euconulus trochiformis common Cochlicopa lubrica Cochlicopa lubrica 1 specimen Pupilla Pupilla or Bifidaria sp. Bifidaria

Reached home at 6:45

South Boulder Canyon South Boulder Canyon Via Flagstaff road Aug 24, 1907 August 24, 1907

Dr. Ramaley and I started for South Boulder South Boulder, Colorado by team at 7 a.m. and stopped at Kossler ranch Kossler Ranch, Colorado and he collected plants while I collected mollusca. In aspens Populus found Vallonia cyclophorella Vallonia cyclophorella common Vitrina alascana (sic) Vitrina alaskana a few Succinea cf avara Succinea a few Zonitoides arboreus Zonitoides arboreus common Pupilla sp. Pupilla a few Euconulus trochiformis Euconulus trochiformis

In the edge of pine forest under pine boughs (Pinus scopulorum Pinus scopulorum) found Z. arboreus Zonitoides arboreus and Vallonia cyclophorella Vallonia cyclophorella sparsely. On South Boulder below the Longridge Mill Longridge Mill, Colorado found also Agriolimax campestris Agriolimax campestris. Not good collecting ground for mollusca. Pyramidula Pyramidula notably absent, though common SW of Magnolia Magnolia, Colorado. Saw 50 nighthawks Chordeiles minor flying S by SW in a scattered flock S of Kossler ranch Kossler Ranch, and 20 piñon jays Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus by roadside near head of Gregory Canyon Gregory Canyon, Colorado.

Saturday Sep. 6, 1907 September 6, 1907 Left Hand canyon Left Hand Creek, Colorado

Started with Nellie Rust, Lillian McCracken and Mrs. Henderson at 8:10 for mouth of Left hand Canyon Left Hand Creek, Colorado with team and surrey from Fields and Lucas’ stable. Took Red Hill Red Hill, Colorado road and reached Left Hand Left Hand Creek, Coloradoat 10:15. Fountain conglomerate and sandstone there several hundred feet thick and well exposed north of creek just above where we reached Left Hand Left Hand Creek, Colorado. Chiefly hard, coarse red sandstones with bands of coarser conglomerates in places very rich dark red with white patches as if from leaching out of iron oxides. S of creek dip N. 63˚ E = 30˚ near contact and 38˚ near top of Fountain. N of creek Fountain exposure is 150 paces horizontal extent E and W with dip 30 to 40 degrees easterly. Formation strongly arkose, with some traces of lime on some exposed surfaces. Down creek a short distance below where the stream turns northward about 200 ft (156 ft measured, balance estimated) occurs east of stream beneath the Lyons or part of it. It appears not as hard as that west of creek and is comparatively free of feldspar crystals. In the creek bed between these two exposures is a bed of thin bedded rather fine grained intensely red (dark) sandstone, 8 or 10 ft.? The relations are about thus ((drawing in field book)). The upper friable conglomerate is exactly like that on N. Box Elder North Box Elder Creek, Colorado just above junction with S fork South Box Elder Creek, Colorado, but is not at all effervescent. At Box Elder Box Elder, Colorado, however, there is no hard conglomerate beneath it. It rests on the granite. I am inclined to believe the hard stuff is older and begins to come in at Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado where I found it in contact with the granite. After dinner I found outcrops of the conglomerate in the creek bed and west of the creek in such position as to practically connect the different conglomerates through the covered zones. The clear exposure of conglomerate E of creek measured this morning has a pinkish appearance due to the intermingling of white and red, making a well defined difference in color from the evenly reddish overlying Lyons sandstone. The conglomerate passes gradually into the Lyons by variable beds, varying in thickness from minutely to coarsely crossbedded, very irregular in stratification, with undoubted evidence eddying shore currents. The main body of the Lyons forms a nearly vertical face of the escarpment above the fountain slope and is rather uniformly thin bedded and fine grained. The east slope of the escarpment about follows the dip. Lyons has strong regular crossbedding instead of irregular as in the Fountain thus ((drawing in field book)). The directions of dip are often exactly reversed.

Geology Society Accounting[edit]

Geological Survey Account Oct 2, 1907 October 2, 1907 Fare 2.50 " 4 " Hotel & stable Livermore Livermore, Colorado 5.00 " " " Train ___ Ave

Fort Collins Trip 2[edit]

Fort Collins Trip 2 Oct. 2-27, 1907



Ft Collins, Colo. Ft. Collins, Colorado Wednesday Oct. 2, 1907

Left Boulder Boulder, Colorado at 5:20 p.m. on time arrived Ft Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado 7:30, 10 minutes late, 45 miles. Day closed cloudy and threatening, but clouds showed westerly air currents. Went to Northern Hotel, and had supper. Nellie accompanied me.

Thursday Oct. 3, 1907 October 3, 1907

A cloudy gloomy morning and cool, with a north wind. We started by team for Livermore Livermore, Colorado at 7:30 a.m. Stopped to examine and map the fold north of La Porte La Porte, Colorado in Dakota sandstone. In this region the escarpments and dips are such that folds can be detected at great distance by changes in the strikes of ridges. The Jurassic is well up on the slope of the Dakota escarpment except just inside cache La Poudre Canyon Cache la Poudre Canyon, where it occupies the valley or a portion of it. Heard meadowlarks Sturnella singing all along the road. Saw one good sized flock of bluebirds Sialia and many sparrow hawks Accipiter. Along the “Lykins” valley from the La Porte fold to Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado there are two light colored low ridge making sandstones at the Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado end of the area and one at the southern end. Made coffee and ate lunch at Owl canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado at noon. At 12:45 it cleared off rapidly. Hitched up and drove out to the mouth of the canyon at 1 p.m. In the sandy shales between the two sandstone ridges of the Dakota we found a 4- inch stratum literally filled with Ostreidae Ostreidae, but in very poor condition. Collected a lot, hoping that some of them might prove determinable. Reached Livermore Livermore, Colorado at 5 p.m., stopped at Ramer House, C. W. Ramer, proprietor. Alt 5733, B.M. ((bench mark)) in sidewalk in front of hotel.

Livermore, Colo. Livermore, Colorado Oct. 4, 1907 October 4, 1907

White frost this morning. I arose at 6 a.m. and looked around a little before breakfast. Drove west. About a mile west of Livermore Livermore, Colorado just N of road is an apparent fault through contact of Fountain and Lyons, SE side of fault dipping NW 50˚ and NW side dipping NE thus ((drawing in field book)). Upon more careful examination I found it was plainly a very sharp fold, thus ((drawing in field book)). Other changes in dip immediately west, then dip becomes normal and continues so to the granite. NE of where Rabbit Creek Rabbitt Creek, Colorado emerges from the granite the Fountain appears to butt squarely into the abrupt slope of the granite granite thus: ((drawing in field book)). Lunched at Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado at noon and started on at 1 p.m. 1st gulch S of Engleside (sic) I left the team with Nellie and started back of the Lyons ridge on foot. In Fountain-granite contact just S of gulch is a white quartz outcrop, strike N of W, large chunks of quartz rolling down over the Fountain. It makes a ridge. Fountain and Lyons same here as at Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado, Fountain barely standing up on granite slope. From there south to where the strike changes abruptly to the west the Fountain, if it exists west of the thread of the valley, is covered with soil on the granite slope. It appears at the base of the Lyons escarpment all along, but, as northward, is weak and usually but little seen in the valley or the granite slope. Reached Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado at 5:20. After supper called for Kittle, J. L. Bartlett and Mrs. Collins by phone at Greeley Greeley, Colorado and Boulder Boulder, Colorado but did not reach Mrs. Collins. Saw 29 crows Corvus in on((e)) flock near Ingleside flying SE. Bright warm day.

Ft. Collins, Colo. Ft. Collins, Colorado Oct. 5 October 5, 1907

I started for La Porte La Porte, Colorado and Belleview Belleview, Colorado at 7:45 on horseback, leaving at the hotel Nellie who expects to go to Greeley Greeley, Colorado on the morning train, where she will join the Kittle auto party for Boulder Boulder, Colorado. Where the road to Belleview Belleview, Colorado crosses the “Dakota” sandstone it is divided into two distinct and massive members with a covered interval of 100 yds or more. Back (west or NW) of that, in the middle Lykins, we find the same light colored, crossbedded ridge making sandstone so persistent further north. At N end of Belleview Belleview, Coloradofold on west slope the dip is 30˚ W by N, that limb not having been entirely eroded away by the Cache a la Poudre Cache la Poudre River, but the stream is now undermining it into the bluff at one place thus, looking south ((drawing in field book)). In the bay NW of Belleview fold, where the road running W on the N side of river passes the end of the Lyons ridge, and a lot of rock is thrown out, the formation is very red and massive. Dip N 6˚, 25˚. Along the stream which flows east of the ridge, but S of the road, the light colored crossbedded Lykins sandstone follows the W side of the stream, dip 20˚. S of the river this sandstone makes a high ridge, and they have quarried the massive red Lyons sandstone. I lunched, fed the pony and rested at 12 n. to 1 p.m. Where I rested the tree sparrows Spizella arborea and chickadees Poecile were abundant. I saw a killdeer Charadrius vociferus. Meadowlarks Sturnella were singing here as the house finches are in town. Very few outcrops in the bay NW of Belleview fold, but enough to show the relations of formations The normal Lyons monocline next to granite is much more like typical Lyons further south, but still with some limestone bands (thin) and calcareous sandstones, as shown by effervescence. At Belleview light colored Lykins sandstone is good building stone and flagging, particularly the latter. The Belleview anticline is an elongated dome NW and SE. The river has cut through the Lyons and very deep into the Fountain, which is well exposed in the escarpment on E side of the river but covered in the valley. West of Lyons normal monocline escarpment, NW W and SW of Belleview the Lyons outcrops in very few places, but is occasionally exposed on the western slope of the valley, and on the south bank of the Cache a la Poudre Cache la Poudre River nearly the whole series is exposed. The E and W cross section W of Belleview: ((drawing in field book, W to left and E to right)). SW of Belleview, again, again I found the uniform decidedly red (not as deep red as the Lykins except the crossbedded sandstone) Lyons, but not even a narrow white limestone band as a mile or so further N. N to the Wyoming Wyoming line and also in the Belleview anticline the Lyons is variegated, banded broadly by alternating pinkish or reddish and grayish or whitish zones. Nothing of this kind appears SW of Belleview and but a narrow band of gray a mile north of that locality. The Lykins remains very deep red, thinbedded, with the white ridge making member, always strongly crossbedded, in about the middle of the series. Hot and dry, and bright day.

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 6, 1907 October 6, 1907

Left Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado on the 8 a.m. train, arrived in C about on time. Hot and bright.

Ft. Collins, Colo. Ft. Collins, Colorado Tuesday, Oct. 8, 1907 October 8, 1907

Left Boulder Boulder, Colorado, on 9:28 train, about 15 minutes late. Bright, beautiful morning. Dined at Northern Hotel, then drove north past Terry lake to Rocky Ridge reservoir No. 1 Rocky Ridge reservoir No. 1, about six miles. Found Fossil Creek sandstone just E of Terry Lake Terry Lake, Colorado. The road practically follows the ridge made by the sandstone. It is just as at Fossil Ridge, S of Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, sloping gently on the east side of the ridge and more steeply on the west side. At Rocky ridge Reservoir No. 1 Rocky ridge Reservoir No. 1 it forms steep, much dissected, bluffs, which give to the reservoir its name. The dip changes rapidly at the latter place. Along the ridge from Terry Lake Terry Lake, Colorado northward the dip is easterly and only about 5˚. Then it changes to N and then N by NW (remains about 4˚ or 5˚) and swings around to the north end of Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1 Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1, the strike changing in response to change of dip. There is a series of reservoirs about which large flocks of ducks and numerous large gulls were flying. The sandstone, as at Fossil Ridge, contains large numbers of Inoceramus oblongus Inoceramus oblongus and some of the other Inoceramus Inoceramus found at Fossil Ridge, but I only saw two or three Pinna lakesii Pinna lakesii and Baculites compressus Baculites compressus, one Callista Callista, one Scaphites nodosus Scaphites nodosus, and a very few Ostrea cf. O. inornata Ostrea. Anomia raetiformis Anomia raetiformis is common and there are some Halymenites major Halymenites major. I saw no Placenticeras Placenticeras or other fossils except those mentioned. The formation is practically the same as at Fossil Creek Fossil Creek, gray sandstone containing numerous ironstone concretions, some several feet in diameter, the formation having a tendency toward forming an escarpment on the west side of the ridge and a gentle slope on the east side.

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct. 9, 1907 October 9, 1907

Started for mouth of Owl canyon Owl Creek Canyon at 7:55 (25 minutes late on account of slowness of livery man) with team and driver from Mt. Ave. stable. Took the road running north from La Porte La Porte, Colorado, following the Niobrara ridge most of the way. Found Benton formation mostly covered in a valley west of Niobrara, but outcropping in places as a calcareous sandstone just below Niobrara limestone, indeed forming a trans-tion zone to the limestone. Niobrara about as elsewhere, the three ridges usually showing, the eastern one often making an abrupt slope to the Pierre valley. No Pierre exposed so far as I saw, occupying a rather flat undissected valley. To the east could see Fossil Creek sandstone extending northward from where I traced it yesterday. Niobrara contains I. deformis Inoceramus deformis and O. congesta Ostrea congesta in about the usual condition as from Boulder Boulder, Colorado northward. Arrived where Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado breaks through Dakota ridge at 10:45. I got out and the driver went to the Forks Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado to get his dinner and feed the horses. In the upper Niobrara I noticed some tendency toward minor folds where the big ditch cuts through it 4 or 5 miles S of Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, but I did not examine the region particularly, merely noting a few dips. At Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado(mouth of) found great numbers of Ostrea Ostrea and Inoceramus Inoceramus. The latter look very much like I. labiatus Inoceramus labiatus. They occur in calcareous bands about half way down the west slope of the upper sandstone member of the Dakota ridge. Beginning at top of ridge we find, not the usual hard, thick bedded sandstone, but a softer thin bedded sandstone, weathering rapidly, perhaps 20 feet thick with numerous fucoids ? Below this are possibly 50 feet of sandy shales, including fossiliferous calcareous bands, the pure sands not at all calcareous. Below this 30 ft. or more of noncalcareous, thin bedded black and gray shales, much like those of the Benton and Pierre, non-fossiliferous extending to bottom of lateral gulch. Below this, on east slope of west ridge, friable sandstone. This is underlaid by typical hard “Dakota” sandstone and conglomerate which forms the crest of the second ridge thus: ((drawing in field book)). Nearly a mile north of the road there is either a fault or fold in the Dakota, N and S, thus (( drawing in field book)). Exposures too poor to determine the exact condition. Nearly a mile north of the road there is either a fault or fold in the Dakota, N and S, thus (( drawing in field book)). Exposures too poor to determine the exact condition.

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 10, 1907 October 10, 1907

Left hotel Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado at 7:30 on a horse from the stable back of Bell’s which makes a specialty of saddle horses. Road west on road which crosses the railroad at the Passenger depot. At mouth of gulch found Niobrara and Benton in usual position, all covered except basal Niobrara limestone, which makes a low ridge. The lower Benton, however, has been rather extensively quarried for brick making south of the road, making a fair exposure, in the upper part of which I found a thin bed of Ostrea Ostrea, apparently the same undescribed species found at Six Mile Six Mile, N of Boulder Boulder, Colorado, and in the same condition, with other thin limestone strata above it. Here the Dakota forms 3 distinct benches. The Lykins has a dip of 27˚, the medial ridge making member rises nearly as high as the Lyons, with the valley consisting of a lateral running each way from the pass, but not very deep at the pass thus: ((drawing in field book)). The Lykins and the Lyons are both quarried, the former to a limited extent, the latter extensively. The Lyons furnishes large, fine blocks of flawless sandstone of a uniform red color, not very intense red. It is much thicker here than a short distance northward, massive and uniform, sharply differentiated from the Fountain in the escarpment both in texture and color, but conformable. The basal and (?) third beds 15 or 20 ft thick are strongly crossbedded in the escarpment where it faces SW, thus: ((drawing in field book. Caption= Fountain purplish red coarse sand and conglomerate)). A large part of the Fountain here is quite calcareous, in places might be called limestones almost. It passes abruptly into noncalcareous fine red sandstone above, but conformably. Could find no fossils. There are probably over 200 feet of Fountain and same amount of Lyons up to Ten Sleep sandstone. There is a little lime in Lyons in places above base but no well defined horizons and no limestone. In Lykins above the cross bedded sandstone is a limestone band similar to that at Boulder Boulder, Colorado which has been burned for lime. The Dakota has been quarried a little at one place. The Fountain is friable and occupies a north and south valley as northward with tendency to harden at very base as at Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado. Cross bedding in Lykins ridge at Spring Canyon Spring Canyon, Colorado thus ((drawing in field book)). The Morrison from where I struck foothills south for at least several miles is covered with talus except in one or two places, which show its existence plainly. At Stout Stout, Colorado, in Spring Canyon Spring Canyon, Colorado there is a 6 foot stratum of hard crystalline limestone near top of Lyons, just below Ten Sleep sandstone. The formation is much thinner than where I struck the foothills 4 ½ miles north, not really so massive, and separated from Fountain by the same sharp line, though 40 ft down in the conglomerate is a 10 foot band not distinguishable from the Lyons above. On the whole the appearance of the escarpment is much more like that at Owl canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado than it was at Belleview Belleview (not the fold) or 4 ½ miles north of here. Southward found a good exposure of Morrison on slope of Dakota ridge, consisting, as usual of soft, variously tinted sandstones and shales, underlaid by Lykins thin bedded, red sandy shales, including massive layer in which Fenneman thought he had found fossils at Boulder Boulder, Colorado (containing concretions of some sort) and the Morrison overlaid by “Dakota” conglomerate. A little further south about 25 or 30 feet of hard limestone is exposed at top of Morrison and formation seems much thicker. This limestone probably exists at first outcrop, but if so is covered by talus. Finished the Ft. Collins quadrangle and not having the Loveland sheet with me and the horse being tired, I came home reaching the hotel Forks Hotel, Livermore, Colorado at 4 p.m. very tired. Worked hard all day. Following is a list of birds I have seen here last week and this week. Meadowlarks Sturnella- abundant and singing in the valley as far west in the mountains as I have been, 4 miles west of Livermore Livermore, Colorado. Robins Turdus migratorius- Common in valley in flocks. Have not noticed them closely, but this morning noticed one M. migratorius Turdus migratorius migratorius with flock of M. m. propinqus Turdus migratorius propinquus. Mt. Bluebird Sialia currucoides- Saw a large flock at Ingleside and another (yesterday) in the valley.
Sparrow Hawk Accipiter- abundant
Marsh Hawk Circus cyaneus- have seen a number, always singly
Red Winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus – quite common, have seen no large flocks yet.
Brewer blackbird Euphagus cyanocephalus- a few
Vesper sparrow Pooecetes gramineus- a few
Shore larks Eremophila alpestris- common, especially in the mountains (foothills).
Gulls- probably ring billed Larus delawarensis – numbers on Rocky Ridge Reservoir Rocky Ridge Reservoir
Ducks- same as gulls
Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias-one
House finches Carpodacus mexicanus- singing in town
English sparrow Passer domesticus- in town
Killdeer Charadrius vociferus- common
Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura- not common.
Yesterday and today there was frost in the morning. Yesterday it was cool riding all day. Today it was quite hot. Both days were bright.

Loveland, Colo. Loveland, Colorado Oct 11, 1907 October 11, 1907

Left Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado at 8 p.m. and reached Loveland Loveland,Colorado at 8:30, put up at Bushnell Hotel Bushnell Hotel. Got team at ---- ((left blank)) stable and drove up Big Thompson Big Thompson Creek, Colorado thence up Buckhorn Creek Buckthorn Creek, Colorado to plot the Arkins fold. West limb of anticline, “Dakota” sandstone and Niobrara dips SW 70˚ to 75˚. W limb of syncline much more gentle as also E limb of anticline. The Dakota forms a high narrow dyke of the hard sandstone. The Fountain is in escarpment. The valley west of granite intrusion is covered, mostly. The upper Lyons is hard, light colored, exactly as in the quarries NW of Colorado Sanatorium Colorado Sanatorium at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. I have not made copious notes on the Arkins anticline and syncline, because they are normal en echelon folds and the map gives about all the data. At the northern end of the syncline however, east, northeast and northwest of Masonville Masonville, Colorado, a peculiar condition exists. East of Masonville Masonville, Colorado is a fold (anticline) in the Lyons and Fountain which is cut of entirely from the strata east and west. A cross section from Masonville Masonville, Colorado east through Redstone Canyon Redstone Canyon, Colorado and on to the plains is as follows: ((drawing in field book, W to left)). At Masonville Masonville, Colorado the Dakota, Lykins and Lyons butt squarely into mica schist and play out. The Dakota does not appear to be dragged up, nor does the Jura, but the Lykins is dragged up sharply thus: ((drawing in field book)). The two schist mountains shown on the map tower far above the sedimentaries flanking them. The dip of cleavage planes is very steep, dipping west, with a strike a little W of N, approximately the same as the sedimentaries to the west, and so pronounced as to make the mountain in places look as if composed of stratified rocks. The western formations are a normal monocline. The anticline east of Masonville Masonville, Colorado seems to have overturned and developed into a thrust fault which has carried it up over the Dakota, and all the formations above the Lyons have been planed off. It seems likely that these formations formerly extended over the high mountain and joined the corresponding strata to the east in the present monocline, or rather that the strata were continuous in a more nearly level position before the development of the fold. Reached hotel at 6:15 very tired, having done a large amount of rapid climbing on foot and driven over 32 miles. Had a fine team, though skittish and headstrong. Following birds were overlooked in Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado list made yesterday. Crows Corvus- saw some several times in the valley and 29 in one flock in the foothills. Long crested jay Cyanocitta stelleri- abundant in foothills Magpie Magpie- common in valley and foothills Towhees Towhees- spurred or arctic, do not know which, abundant along foothills in brushy places A large hawk- probably Swainson’s Buteo swainsonii or red tailed (western) Buteo jamaicensis Flicker Colaptes- common

Loveland Colo. Loveland, Colorado, Oct 12/07 October 12, 1907

Started with team and driver at 8:15 a.m., west on road that leads from south part of town west to foothills. At S end of anticline the lower Niobrara forms a beautiful semi circular ridge like a broad railroad grade. Basal limestone on E limb of fold dips E by SE 25˚, on W limb W by S 40 degrees. Upper shales of W limb 80˚ and overturning for upper foot by creek. Benton shales here steeper than basal Niobrara. Near Loveland Loveland, Colorado settling Plant (S of it) is an anticline in the Lyons and Fountain. In the center I found an outcrop thus: ((drawing in field book; caption= flat at base)). The western escarpment here is crowned by the Lykins, the Lyons forming a bench on the west slope of escarpment, the Fountain beneath it and sharply differentiated as at Spring Gulch Spring Gulch, Colorado. The Fountain also extends up the slope of the mountain. The latter consists of mica shist, as described at Masonville Masonville, Colorado yesterday, the Fountain resting upon it thus: ((drawing in field book)). There is a fine exposure west of Loveland Loveland, Colorado Filter Bed and Dam. Lyons is quite thin, Fountain thick and much as at Left Hand, 150 ft. (estimated) west of drainage line upturned 15˚ on granite (shist) and about the same amount below to Lyons in escarpment. The lower half – that west of the medial line of the valley – is not at all calcareous, but some horizons in the upper half are slightly , others highly, calcareous, almost limestone. Reached hotel at 6:30 after a hard days work . Mapped a number of folds, including those around Loveland Loveland, Coloradofilter bed and two S of Dry Creek Dry Creek, Colorado.

Berthoud, Colo. Bertoud, Colorado Oct 15, 1907 October 15, 1907

Left Boulder Boulder, Colorado at 5:50 p.m., 35 minutes late, reached Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado at 6:50, 25 minutes late. Rode to Longmont Longmont, Colorado in seat with F. M. Downer. Got supper at hotel and arranged at livery stable for team for tomorrow, being unable to get saddle horse. Stopped at Grand View Hotel, W. M. Brady, proprietor.

Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado Oct 16, 1907 October 16, 1907

Started with team at 7:30 a.m. West of Stever Reservoir Stever Reservoir found Tepee Buttes Tepee Buttes with Baculites compressus Baculites compressus, Ostrea inornata Ostrea inornata and Lucina occidentalis Lucina occidentalis in quantities but in poor condition. There were many fossil fragments. Did not stop to collect any. Found also Inoceramus barabini Inoceramus barabini, fragments of a large Heteroceras Heteroceras and probably a medium sized Ptychoceras Ptychoceras. 150 yards W of the buttes The Hygiene sandstone is found dipping east about 15˚, not at all calcareous. To the west the basal Pierre shales and Niobrara dip E 42˚, the Benton shales are somewhat crushed and the boulder mesa cap over the Benton is well consolidated. Just within the canyon the Dakota is badly tangled. A section of the medial shales is thus: ((drawing in field book)). A big fold in addition to several small ones spreads the “Dakota” over much territory here. The strong capping limestone of the Morrison can be followed around the north end of the syncline via Carter Lake Carter Lake, Colorado. The west limb of the anticline, as usual, is steeper than the east limb, from 55 to 80 degrees. The pink krinkled sandstone with limestone bands can be traced around the main syncline in the Lykins at head of Carter Lake Carter Lake, Colorado. It is much as at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. The medial gray sandstone of the Lykins is very hard and resembles the Lyons sandstone of the quarries NW of Colorado Sanitarium at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. (query, is the latter Lyons?) In the underlying red sandstones of the Lykins at one place just west of the head of Carter Lake Carter Lake, Colorado I found numerous casts of fossil bivalves bivalves, but unrecognizable in a coarse sandstone. ((the following parenthetical statement added later by JH “(these are casts of concretions)”)). The Fountain extends well across the west valley at Chimney Hollow Chimney Hollow. Carter Lake Carter Lake, Colorado has no outlet now. It may be due either to deformation or an outwash dame of debris, probably the former. Old terraces indicate that the water once rose some feet higher and that at one time there was an outlet at the S end. The S barrier is not now very high. In afternoon I collected fossils in the Benton. Found Inoceramus cf. I. labiatus Inoceramus labiatus just below middle of formation, with undetermined cephalopods cephalopods and an undescribed oyster oyster found near Boulder Boulder, Colorado and west of Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado. In two or three thin limestones in the upper half of the formation I found the usual abundance of I. labiatus Inoceramus labiatus and a few cephalopods cephalopods. Reached hotel at 5:30. It has been very warm in the sun today.

Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado, Oct 17, 1907 October 17, 1907

Started with sorrel team at 7:30. Drove W and then S. Just before reaching Little Thompson Little Thompson Creek, Colorado on road next to foothills found a sandstone E of typical Hygiene. It was soft and fine grained below with a with a two foot hard and coarse stratum of darker color than the other. On E side Rabbit Rabbit Creek, Colorado we have an unusual case of an anticline with E limb much steeper than west limb. Killed a rattlesnake rattlesnake on Dakota Ridge W of Lykins ranch Lykins Ranch. Struck an outcrop SW of town and E of the Hygiene (1 ½ or 2 mi.) which looks much like concretions of Fossil Creek sandstone, but decidedly lime concretions. Contained a few Inoceramus sagensis Inoceramus sagensis and probably I. barabini Inoceramus barabini. Collected Vallonia cyclophorella Vallonia cyclophorella, Oreohelix strigosa Oreohelix strigosa, Zonitoides arboreus Zonitoides arboreus and Pupilla sp. Pupilla where little Thompson Little Thompson Creek, Colorado breaks through the “Dakota” ridge. Went south nearly to St. Vrain St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Reached Hotel at 5:30. Cloudy, with raw wind early forenoon, warm and bright afternoon.

Berthoud, Oct 18, 1907

Started at 8:30 driving west and north. Hazy over the mountains and a cold northerly breeze blowing, changing later to easterly. North of Lone Tree Lake I found a strong outcrop of typical Hygiene sandstone dipping SE, 15˚, continuing NE to SW corner of Loveland. Its strike continued SE would about meet the outcrop west of Berthoud. No fossils. Returned to the hotel for dinner at noon, and packed the fossils from W and SW for shipment. In the afternoon started north at 2 p.m., then east to E line of Loveland Quadrangle around twin Mounds Twin Mounds, thence S of Little Thompson Little Thompson Creek, Colorado , where I found Fox Hills strata containing Cardium speciosum Cardium speciosum etc. E of road and S of creek. Reached hotel at 5 p.m. Took 6:25 train for Loveland Loveland, Colorado arriving practically on time and after engaging the little black team I used last week I went to the Bushnell Hotel Bushnell Hotel. Nearly in collision with runaway car as we pulled into Loveland Loveland, Colorado.

Loveland Loveland, Colorado, Oct 19, 1907 October 19, 1907

Started by team at 7 a.m. Drove up above Masonville Masonville, Colorado and traced out sedimentaries to where they ended. In the schist E of the fault plane there has been some prospecting. Then crossed into Redstone Canyon Redstone Canyon, Colorado and traced the Fountain, Lyons and Lykins up about 3 ½ miles to where they ended. Fed the horses here at just noon. Reached the hotel at 3:15 p.m. having driven about 45 miles with a fine team. Reached Boulder Boulder, Colorado at 5:55 p.m.

Boulder Boulder, Colorado, Oct. 22, 1907 October 22, 1907

Left Boulder Boulder, Coloradoat 9:45 a.m., 25 minutes late, reached Loveland Loveland, Colorado at11 a.m. with G. S. Dodds. He went on to Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado by train while I got off and started north on foot with the idea of meeting Dodds at Fossil Creek with horse and buggy. At intake S end of Loveland Lake Loveland Lake, Colorado I found Hygiene sandstone with usual characters including some greenish yellow strata, dipping east, 8˚, one stratum containing numerous Inoceramus barabini Inoceramus barabini, I. oblongus Inoceramus oblongus and Anomia rectiformis Anomia rectiformis, all poorly preserved. I have now no doubt of its identity with the Fossil Ridge sandstone . Passing thence around the east side of the lake the Inoceramus oblongus Inoceramus oblongus increased rapidly in numbers and I found several Scaphites nodosus Scaphites nodosus. Found no outcrop at extreme north end of lake . Thick sheet of clay exposed. In bottom of outlet ditch there appears to be a soft sandstone, probably the same one as at the south end. Along east side sandstone is unmistakably the Fossil Ridge formation. The fossils at Fossil Ridge are mostly in upper part (eastern part of exposure) as here. Passed northward then along RR track. Saw occasional evidence of the sandstone on both sides of the track and believe the ridge east of track all the way is composed of it as at Fossil Ridge. Reached Trilby Schoolhouse road Trilby Schoolhouse Road road at 4:45 and found Dodds with horse and buggy. We reached Hotel Northern Hotel Northern at Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado at 6 p.m. There seems now no possible doubt about the Fossil Ridge sandstone being continuous with the Hygiene.

Ft. Collins, Colo. Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 23, 1907 October 23, 1907

Started S at 8 a.m., collected fossils where Fossil Creek Fossil Creek, Colorado breaks through the ridge and crosses the road, then drove S to Trilby schoolhouse Trilby Schoolhouse and turned east visiting the sandstone outcrop 1 ½ miles east. It dip E 8˚ and is indistinguishable from the Fossil Ridge sandstone, but contains no fossils except a few Inoceramus cf. barabini Inoceramus barabini. (see below). Probably represents upper member of Hygiene sandstone as found further south, but much further from the lower member. Upon further search found quite a number of fossils, all of which were I. oblongus Inoceramus oblongus, but small specimens, and Dodds found Halymenites major Halymenites major. The concretions are just as at Fossil Ridge Fossil Ridge. It is possible that it is a fold. N of Trilby schoolhouse Trilby schoolhouse we found a good exposure just S of Brickyard and E of RR track. At base there is a transition zone from shale to sandstone . Above this are about 40 feet of rather soft, irregularly bedded sandstone, then a covered zone of a few feet, above which is he hard, massive, concretionary, fossiliferous sandstone about 50 feet, the whole dipping easterly 9˚. Reached Hotel at 6 p.m. I have been ill all afternoon having sever intestinal pains. Got a shave and haircut in evening and at 8 p.m. Chas. A Lory called on us.

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct 24, 1907 October 24, 1907

Started N with team at 8 a.m. On W side of reservoir system, Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1 Rocky Ridge Reservoir No. 1, found a greenish, coarse, friable, impure sandstone, irregularly bedding, dipping E 12˚ and in passing N changing to NE 20˚, thus passing under the typical Fossil Ridge sandstone E of the reservoir. Proceeding E along the ditch bank half way to the Fossil Ridge sandstone, found impure sandy shale all the way dipping NE 18˚ to 20˚. Going W and N around head of Douglas Reservoir No. 10 Douglas Reservoir No. 10 is a typical massive sandstone with a tendency toward greenish gray color, containing hard and darker concretions just as at Fossil Ridge. Fossil less numerous than further south and consist only of Halymenites major Halymenites major, Inoceramus barabini Inoceramus barabini, Callista deweyi Callista deweyi, Anomia rectiformis Anomia rectiformis, and Cardium speciosum Cardium speciosum. Collected a few fossils at Rocky Ridge Reservoir No---- Rocky Ridge Reservoir No---- and reached livery bar at 4 :15. It was cloudy at daylight, but not cold. Temperature fell during the day. At noon it began to sprinkle and at 4 p.m. developed into light rain. Prepared a box of fossils for shipment before supper. Still drizzling at bedtime.

Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado, Oct. 25, 1907 October 25, 1907

Still gloomy, damp and muddy, but not raining this morning. Spent the forenoon at hotel waiting to see what the weather would do to us. Started to Windsor Windsor, Colorado by train at 11:40, late as usual. Went to American Hotel American Hotel and had dinner, then started for bluffs on S side Cache a la Poudre Cache la Poudre River, Colorado SE of Windsor Windsor, Colorado. 3 mi. S and 1 ½ E found bluffs about the same as at our 1906 camp 2 miles further east. Massive greenish, yellowish sandstones above, quite friable, with hard dark colored stratified concretions and concretionary zones, and darker colored shales below. Found Mactra Mactra and numerous gastropods gastropods above and Veniella humilis Veniella humilis and other fossils below as at the other camp, strata practically horizontal. There is an exposure of several hundred feet of strata in the bluffs and crowning slopes. It nearly cleared during afternoon and became much colder. Reached hotel at 5:30. have had trouble with left eye all day- catarrhal conjunctivitis. The zinc solution I carry appears to have decomposed, so I cannot use it. I got some boric acid and hope that will do the work.

Windsor, Colo. Windsor, Colorado, Oct. 26, 1907 October 26, 1907

A cold frosty morning. My eye is somewhat better but by no means well. Quite warm soon after reaching the bluffs where we worked yesterday. The base of the bluffs at water’s edge and for some distance (perhaps 50 ft. or more)is of black shales much like the Pierre at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. Saw no fossils in it. Above it passes gradually into yellow sandy shales and sandstones (very friable). In the black shales 25 ft below the yellow we found Veniella humilis Veniella humilis but none above. In the yellow sandstone found Nucula sp. Nucula, but not in the black shale except at the very top. Cardium speciosum Cardium speciosum, Mactra Mactra and Tellina Tellina common to both horizons. Have not seen what Dodds has. Started up stream at 11 a.m. After lunching and feeding the horse we drove to a gulch 2 miles SW of Windsor Windsor, Colorado. The gulch has cut deeply into the Pierre shales with some narrow sandstone bands. Found but 2 determinable fossils, one ((Ostrea inornata Ostrea inornata written in, then crossed out)) and another which I do not recognize but which I also found in the upper Pierre shales at the first station this morning. Then we drove S and W around the long gulch, reaching a point about 6 miles SW of Windsor Windsor, Colorado, and crossed the Cache la Poudre Cache la Poudre River, Colorado 3 miles W and ¼ mile N of Windsor Windsor, Colorado, crossing Fossil Creek Fossil Creek, Colorado just before crossing the river. On the bluffs just before reaching Fossil Creek Fossil Creek, Colorado we crossed what appears to be the yellowish concretionary Fox Hills sandstone as found SE of Windsor Windsor, Colorado, but it was dipping sharply toward the E or NE, from which we must infer a fold. The Cache la Poudre Cache la Poudre River, Colorado SE of Windsor Windsor, Colorado looks and smells like a sewer, in spite of its volume, but it is clear west of town. It is probably the waste drain from the sugar factory. Reached Windsor Windsor, Colorado at 4 p.m., packed our material and shipped it. Dodds left on 5:30 train for Ft. Collins Ft. Collins, Colorado and I took the 8:00 o’clock train for Greeley Greeley, Colorado, where J. L. Bartlett met me at the depot. Nellie had gone up from Boulder Boulder, Colorado on the morning train.



Greeley Greeley, Colorado, Oct 27, 1907 October 27, 1907

J. L. Bartlett and I drove around town for a while, then met Grace and Nellie at the sugar factory and were shown through the plant by the assistant superintendent. Dined at the Canfield Hotel Canfield Hotel and I took the 1 p.m. train for Boulder Boulder, Colorado leaving Nellie to come down tomorrow. It has been a beautiful day.

Berthoud, Colo. Bertoud, Colorado, May 28, 1908 May 28, 1908

Cloudy and cool. Left Boulder Boulder, Colorado for Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado on 9:28 train, for Colorado Geological Survey Colorado Geological Survey, about on time, reached Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado at 10:30, went to hotel, then to livery stable and ordered team. Had dinner at 11:45. Started west at 12:30. I about the middle of the medial “Dakota” shales we found Inoceramus cf. labiatus Inoceramus labiatus and Avicula linguiformis Avicula linguiformis as at Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, with other spp. and many plant stems. In west limb of W syncline basal Dakota sandstone is very massive and hard, and Morrison consists mostly of hard limestones and calcareous sandstones below, upper part covered. Found no fossils. The Dakota consists of friable sandstones at top, underlaid first

1908 Trips[edit]

by sandy shales, then black shales, with very hard, massive sandstones and conglomerates below. Found no conglomerate in the easternmost ridge of the basal sandstone which would represent the off shore deposit. Reached hotel at 6:05 p.m. Retired early, very tired. Cloudy all day, sprinkling more or less.

Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado, May 29, 1908 May 29, 1908

Arose at 6 a.m. A bright morning. Yesterday we saw 2 mallard ducks at mouth of gulch. On a lake we saw a blue heron Ardea herodias and some black terns? Chlidonias niger. Orioles Icterus bullockii are more common in the villages like Berthoud Bertoud, Colorado than at Boulder Boulder, Colorado. Lark sparrows Chondestes grammacus abundant in foothills, vesper sparrows Pooecetes gramineus not so abundant. Started for gulch west of town at 7:15. First visited the fine anticline. Fountain there contains very little limestone and none in upper part. Well up west slope of anticlinal valley found massive conglomerate , overlaid by 10 ft. of thin bedded red sandstone, then a bed of conglomerate, then sandstone to top. Probably the highest conglomerate may be considered top of Fountain. No unconformity. On the west slope of the W limb very hard Lyons occurs. Whole thing much metamorphosed, including limestone well down in the Fountain. The limestone associated with the “crinkled” sandstone in the Lykins is just as at Boulder Boulder, Colorado, non-fossiliferous. Has been burned for lime around Carter lake Carter Lake, Colorado. Some distance beneath it on the W limb of the syncline is a hard sandstone just like the Lyons underlaid by typical Lykins micaceous shaley sandstone, some of it very hard and containing flat iron concretions which dissolve out, leaving casts which resemble casts of rather flat pelecypods. In one place this extends nearly to crest of the Lyons escarpment. Fountain west of Lyons escarpment practically same as in the anticline first visited. Collected a number of cephalopods cephalopods , including two large ones, in the Benton on way back. Reached hotel at 5 p.m., very tired, back aching. Clear and quite warm out of the wind. Mt. Mahogany Mt. Mahogany does not constitute a compact formation on the sandstone slopes ending abruptly at the grass line below as it does at Box Elder Boxelder Creek, Colorado. It is more scattered.

Berthoud, Colo. Berthoud, Colorado, May 30, 1908 May 30, 1908

Drove west from Berthoud Berthoud, Colorado and 2 miles north, then into gulch where we found the Dakota ridges widely separated and the Morrison limestones occupying the crest of the ridge and the west face, while between it and the lower Dakota conglomerate were drab and greenish clays, quite hard. Dakota conglomerate coarse. Medial Dakota clays covered. “Dakota” is 30 ft or more sandstone on top, then 50 ft sandy shale below, then 50 ft black clay shale, then 60 ft hard sandstone and conglomerate with a tendency to form two ridges. Near base of upper sandy shale are calcareous bands containing some oyster and Inoceramus as at Owl Canyon Owl Creek Canyon, Colorado, with fish fish vertebra. S side of gulch3 or 4 miles north of where we entered foothills a ditch tunnel exposes Dakota- Morrison contact where a massive, light colored iron stained sandstone rests conformably upon sandy shales, variegated, yellow, greenish gray and maroon. Lower are greenish shales, underlaid by limestones. Here, as further south, the limestones form highest crest of first hogback series. Dip E 25˚. Same ditch reemerges from tunnel in a black shale sandy band which is probably the cause of the tendency of basal Dakota to separate into two benches. No conglomerate here. Shale about 20 ft. thick – contains lots of vegetable fragments carbonized. On S side big ditch it cuts through entire Dakota, making a fine exposure. Low in the shales, below middle, find the same fossils as further south. Due E is a fine fold in Niobrara. Reached Berthoud Berthoud, Colorado at 1:30 and shipped a big box of fossils. Measured Jurassic section at last canyon visited, as follows, generalized: Upper Dakota sandstone----------------------------- 30

Dakota Shales-----------------------------150

Lower Dakota s.s.--------------------------------25

Jurassic Variegated clays, some parts calcareous (some green fine grained s.s. in talus probably from above stratum)------------------------------------------------------------------30

Hard l.s. with many minute calcite slivers (?)-------------------------------------40

Rather friable light gray s.s (or is it indurated clay)------------------------------31

Compact drab l.s. partly soft---------------------------------------------------------30

Light gray, rather friable s.s. (10 ft. bluff in center)------------------------------58

Lykins ? Light gray hard s.s. --------------------------------------------------------12

Abruptly passing into pink, then into red. The gray is by leaching as shown by the irregularity of the pink line, which does not follow stratification. Left Berthoud Berthoud, Colorado on the 3:56 p.m. train reaching Boulder Boulder, Colorado at 4:00 p.m. (sic). Met Prof. George at depot, starting east to be married.

Boulder Boulder, Colorado, June 3, 1908 June 3, 1908

Instead of attending commencement and taking my B. A. degree I started north on foot, up the Lykins lateral valley NW of Colorado Sanitarium Colorado Sanitarium. There the Lykins extends up well on the flanks of the Lyons, with Fountain at top of second hogback. Morrison sandstones, limestones and clays (latter partly calcareous) pretty well exposed. In middle of Dakota shales 2 miles N found a stratum filled with plant fragments and a few poorly preserved fish scales and vertebra. Here medial sandy shales are 90 ft. thick between the well defined walls, dip E 80˚. In Two Mile Twomile Creek, Colorado the crinkled sandstone and accompanying limestone are within 135 feet of the Lyons. Lyons is about 100 ft thick. Top of Fountain contains alternating sandstones and conglomerates same as true all the way down, the conglomerates predominating. Lenses of fine grained sandstone occur in coarse conglomerates, thus ((drawing in field book)). Fountain very thick here. Creek bed affords most nearly complete exposure of entire Fountain section I have seen. At or near base found a few chert nodules similar to those at Box Elder Boxelder Creek, Colorado, but no fossils in them. Found none elsewhere in the formation.

At 4-Mile Four Mile, Colorado crinkled sandstone is 250 feet above Lyons with good exposure and no indication of light colored ridge making sandstone found in lower Lykins from St. Vrain St. Vrain Creek, Colorado northward. Reached home at 5:30 p.m., very tired. An almost cloudless day, which would have been very hot were it not for a brisk, cool breeze which made itself manifest except in well sheltered places.

Boulder, Colo. Boulder, Colorado, June 4, 1908 June 4, 1908

Bright morning with quite a cool breeze. Started north via Red Hill Red Hill, Colorado road at 8:50 a.m., horseback. At 4-Mile Four Mile, Colorado and northwardLyons has a tendency to separate into two or more ridges, but with no intervening Lykins. Just north of Left Hand Left Hand Creek, Colorado a porphyry dyke occurs in the lower Lykins, 50 ft. or more below the Crinkled sandstone, its lower limit is near the Lykind-Lyons contact. Estimated its thickness at 200 feet. The Crinkled forms a low ridge from here to the St. Vrain St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. In Lykins gulch Lykins Gulch, Longmont, Colorado is an almost complete exposure of Lykins and Morrison. Here there are about 50 or 60 feet of deep red sandy shales below the Crinkled and 300 or 400 feet of same above. The Lyons is widely spread here. Reached home at 6 p.m.

Boulder, Colo. Boulder,Colorado 1908-06-05 June 5, 1908June 5, 1908

Started south over Chatauqua mesa Chataqua Mesa, Colorado on foot. Lyons here flanks the Fountain with tendency to form a low ridge. Collected Quaternary fossils in Bear Canyon Bear Canyon, Colorado. On S side of canyon found upper Morrison shales well exposed. “Dakota” basal sandstone here about 75 ft thick, medial shales 50 ft. and upper sandstone with intercalated clay bands 60 ft. No fossils. Shales look as at Owl Canyon Owl Canyon, Colorado, lower part covered. No conglomerate at base of the “Dakota”. Went S nearly to S. Boulder Creek South Boulder Creek, Colorado, but found no exposures of anything later than Fountain except a little Lyons on flanks of Flatirons Green Mountain, Colorado of S. Boulder Creek South Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Dakota where gulches expose it. Mesa debris almost tops the Dakota ridge on divides between E-W gulches. On return found 150 ft. of Hygiene sandstone exposed on east side of isolated hill in mouth of Bear Canyon Bear Canyon, Colorado, dip practically vertical, strike N 33˚ W, containing Inoceramus spp. Inoceramus and Baculites compressus Baculites compressus.

Boulder, Colo. Boulder, Colorado, June 20, 1908 June 20, 1908

Dodds and I started on horseback for Coal Creek Coal Creek, Colorado at 8 a.m. A very hot day. Where the road running S from Marshall Marshall, Colorado strikes Coal Creek Coal Creek, Colorado the Laramie sandstone and some shales are well exposed with dip E of 38˚ and strike N 6˚ W. Rocky Flat, between S. Boulder South Boulder, Colorado and Coal Creek Coal Creek, Colorado has much quartzite in the debris sheet, increasing southward. Coal Creek valley is almost covered with it, forming “windows” in many places, though there is but little on the higher mesas. Following up creek to first ranch house, we then turned west and in old R.R. grade cut at edge of mesa we found Hygiene sandstone with typical fossiliferous concretions, as at Fossil Ridge Fossil Ridge, Colorado, containing Baculites compressus Baculites compressus, Inoceramus vanuxemi Inoceramus vanuxemi, sagensis Inoceramus sagensis and oblongus Inoceramus oblongus, Heteroceras sp. Heteroceras etc. Then passed up the gulch cutting into the mountains west of there. Found quartzite underlying Fountain, dip of Fountain E 38˚, dip of quartzite SE 39˚. To the west of this is Fountain again, dip E 70˚ and a few rods SW same thing dip W ---˚, possibly fallen down. Dodds reported quartzite again W of this. “Dakota” here with 25 ft of conglomerate at base, then 100 feet covered, then 5o ft. sandstone. Morrison sandstone and shales exposed but saw no limestone.


Boulder, Colo. Boulder,Colorado, July 22, 1908 July 22, 1908

Left Boulder Boulder,Colorado on interurban car at 6 a.m. for the Perry Park region Perry Park, Colora