Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/122. Indication of the Gender of the Noun
Syntax of the Noun.
a 1. According to §80a, Hebrew, like the other Semitic languages, distinguishes only a masculine and feminine gender. To indicate the latter a special feminine ending is generally used (§80b and §87i) both in the singular and plural (see, however, §87p), its use being most consistent in adjectives and participles; cf. §87r. The employment of these special endings is most natural when by means of them the feminine names of persons or animals are distinguished from the masculine of the same stem and the same formation, e.g. אָח brother, אָחוֹת sister; עֶלֶם a young man, עַלְמָה a young woman, maid; פָּר iuvencus, פָּרָה iuvenca; עֵגֶל vitulus, עֶגְלָה vitula. On the other hand, the feminine plays an important part in denoting the gender of whole classes of ideas (see below, p, &c.), which the Hebrew regards as feminine. The language, however, is not obliged to use the feminine ending either for the purpose of distinguishing the sex of animate objects (see b), or as an indication of the (figurative) gender of inanimate things which are regarded as feminine (see h).
b 2. The distinction of sex may be effected even without the feminine ending, (a) by the employment of words of different stems for the masculine and feminine; (b) by the different construction (either as masculine or feminine) of the same word (communia). But the distinction may also, (c) in the case of names of animals, be entirely neglected, all examples of a species being included under one particular gender, either masculine or feminine (epicoena).
c Examples of (a) are: אָב father, אֵם mother; אַ֫יִל ram, רָחֵל ewe; תַּ֫יִשׁ he-goat, עֵז she-goat; חֲמוֹר he-ass, אָתוֹן she-ass; אַרְיֵה lion, לָבִיא lioness. Sometimes with the feminine ending as well, e.g. עֶ֫בֶד male slave, man-servant, אָמָה or שִׁפְחָה female slave, maid; חָתָן bridegroom, כַּלָּה bride.
d Of (b): גָּמָל camel. Plur. גְּמַלִּים construed as masculine, Gn 2463; as feminine, Gn 3216; בָּקָר collect, oxen, Ex 2137, construed as masculine, but in Gn 3313, Jb 114 as feminine. In Jer 224 the construction of פֶּ֫רֶה wild ass, changes directly from the masculine (intended as epicene) to the feminine.Cf. the Greek ὁ, ἡ παῖς· ὁ, ἡ βοῦς.
e Of (c): analogous to the epicene nouns of other languages, many species of animals which are strong and courageous, are regarded in Hebrew as always masculine, while the weak and timid are feminine; cf. ὁ λύκος, ἡ χελιδών, and the German der Löwe, der Adler, &c., but die Katze, die Taube, &c. Similarly in Hebrew, e.g. אַלּוּף ox (ψ 14414 even referring to cows when pregnant), דֹּב bear, Ho 138 דּוֹב שַׁכּוּל (a bear that is bereaved of her whelps; cf., however, 2 K 224, Is 117), זְאֵב wolf, כֶּ֫לֶב dog, all masculine; but אַרְנֶ֫בֶת hare, יוָֹנָה dove, חֲסִידְה stork, דְּבוֹרָה bee, נֲמָלָה ant, &c., feminine.
f Rem. 1. Masculine nouns which either have a separate feminine form or might easily form one, are but seldom used as epicene; such are, חֲמוֹר ass, 2 S 1927 for אָתוֹן; אַיָל hart, ψ 422 for אַיָלָה. In Gn 233 ff. מֵת a dead body, refers more especially to the body of a woman; אָמוֹן a master workman, in Pr 830 refers to wisdom (חָכְמָה feminine, cf. Plin. 2, 1 natura omnium artifex; and our use of friend, teacher, servant, neighbour, either as masculine or feminine; in German, Gemahl spouse, also for fem. Gemahlin, &c.).
g 2. Of words denoting persons נַ֫עַר παῖς, according to the formerly common opinion, was in early times used as epicene (see, however, above, §2n). The use of the plural נְעָרִים in Jb 119 and Ru 221 in the sense of young people (of both genders) does not, however, prove this. In this and in similar cases (cf. e.g. אֹתָם Gn 127 and אֶתְהֶם 32:1) the masculine as prior gender includes the feminine.
(a) Names of countries and towns, since they are regarded as the mothers and nurses of the inhabitants; e.g. אַשּׁוּר Assyria, אֱדֹם Idumaea, צֹר Tyre; cf. also such expressions as בַּת בָּבֶל, בַּת צִיּוֹן daughter of Babylon, daughter of Zion, &c. On the other hand appellatives which are originally masculine, remain so when used as place-names, e.g. Am 55 בֵּית־אֵל, הַגִּלְגָּל, &c.
i Rem. The same proper nouns, which as names of countries are regarded as feminine, are frequently used also as names of the people, and may then, like national names in other languages, be construed as masculine (the national name almost always being used also as the personal name of the supposed ancestor of the people); thus יְהוּדָה masc. Is 38, &c., Judaei; but Is 76, fem., Judaea; אֱדֹם masc., Idumaei, Nu 2020; fem., Idumaea, Jer 4917. Nevertheless, it sometimes happens that by a very common transference of thought (just as we say Turkey concludes peace) these names are construed as feminine, even when they denote not the country but the inhabitants; so יְהוּדָה La 13; cf. Gn 418, Ex 107, 1233, 1 S 1721, 2 S 82, 249, Is 72, 212, 4211, Jer 5010, Jb 115. Hence the frequent personification of nations (as well as of countries and towns, see h, note 5) as female beings, e.g. Is 501, 541 ff., and the use of the expressions בַּת בָּבֶל Is 471 ff., בַּת צִיּוֹן &c. (see above) as collective poetical personifications of the people.
k (b) Appellative nouns, which denote a circumscribed space, such as אֶ֫רֶץ earth, land, תֵּבֵל world, שְׁאֹל the abode of the dead, כִּכָּר circle (of the Jordan valley), עִיר a town, בְּאֵר a well, צָפוֹן the north, תֵּימָן the south.
l In the majority of nouns denoting place the gender is variable, e.g. אֹ֫רַח and דֶּ֫רֶךְ a way (usually feminine; the masculine gender only begins to predominate with Ezekiel; cf. Albrecht, l. c., 1896, p. 55), גַּיְא (גַּי) valley, גַּן garden (fem. Gn 215, unless לְעָבְדֹה, &c., is to be read), הֵיכָל palace, temple, חָעֵר court, כֶּ֫רֶם vineyard, שַׁ֫עַר door, &c.; also מָקוֹם place, at least in Gn 1824 (referring to Sodom), Jb 209, and 2 S 1712 Kethîbh, is construed as feminine. The mountains and hills commanding the surrounding country are almost without exception masculine (see Albrecht, l. c., p. 60 f.).
m (c) The names of instruments, utensils, and (on the same analogy) members and parts of the body in man or beast, since these are all regarded as subservient and subordinate (consequently as feminine).
n Thus חֶ֫רֶב sword, יָתֵד tent-peg, כַּד bucket, כּוֹס cup, נַ֫עַל shoe, עֶ֫רֶשׂ bed, &c.; in other cases, as אֲרוֹן chest, ark (with the article הָֽאָרוֹן), תַּנּוּר oven, the gender is variable. (‘Instruments for binding or holding, girdles and the like, as constraining and mastering, are masculine,’ Albrecht, l. c., p. 89.)—Also אֹ֫זֶן ear (and in general, members occurring in pairs, Albrecht, l. c., p. 73 f.), אֶצְבַּע finger (and so probably בֹּ֫הֶן thumb, great toe), יָד and כַּף hand, יָמִין right hand, רֶ֫גֶל foot, בֶּ֫רֶךְ knee, יָרֵךְ thigh, כָּתֵף shoulder, לְחִי cheek, בֶּ֫טֶן belly, כָּנָף wing, קֶ֫רֶן horn, שֵׁן tooth; as a rule also זְרוֹעַ arm (masc. Is 175, &c.), לָשׁוֹן tongue (masc. ψ 2216, Pr 2628, &c.), עַ֫יִן eye (masc. Zc 39, &c.), שׁוֹק thigh (masc. Ex 2927).
o (d) Certain names of natural forces or substances are feminine, being probably regarded as instruments, while in the names of the heavens, the heavenly bodies and natural phenomena, the masculine generally predominates (cf. Albrecht, l. c., p. 323 ff.); thus feminine are שֶׁ֫מֶשׁ sun (but often also masc., ψ 196, 10419); אֵשׁ (Ethiopic ’ĕsât) fire (rarely masc.); נֹ֫גַהּ brightness, אֶ֫בֶן a stone, as a rule also רוּחַ wind, spirit; נֶ֫פֶשׁ breath, soul; also אוֹר light in Jer 1316, Jb 3632, and others.
p 4. The following classes of ideas, which are also regarded as feminine in Hebrew (see above, h), are usually indicated by the feminine form, notwithstanding their occasional transference to masculine persons (see r and s):
q (a) Abstracts (sometimes along with masculine forms from the same stem, as נְקָמָה vengeance, as well as נָקָם, עֶזְרָה help, as well as עֵ֫זֶר), e.g. אֱמוּנָה firmness, faithfulness, גְּבוּרָה strength, גְּדוּלָה greatness, מְלֵאָה fullness, מֶמְשָׁלָה dominion, &c. Similarly, the feminine (sing. and plur.) of adjectives and participles is used substantivally in the sense of the Latin and Greek neuter, e.g. נְכוֹנָה stedfastness, ψ 510, טוֹבָה goodness, רָעָה evil, Gn 5020, נְקַלָּה a light thing (i.e. a trifling thing), Jer 614; so especially in the plural, e.g. גְּדֹלוֹת great things, ψ 124; הַנֶּֽהֱרָסוֹת the ruined places, Ez 3636, along with הַנְּשַׁמָּה that which was desolate, טֹבוֹת kindnesses, 2 K 2528, נְכֹחוֹת uprightness, honesty, Is 2610, נְעִימוֹת amoena, ψ 1611 (but in verse 6 in the same sense נְעִימִים), נִפְלָאוֹת wonderful things, Ex 3410 and frequently, קָשׁוֹת hard things, roughly Gn 427, 30 (but cf. also רֵיקִם vain things, Pr 1211, 2819). Cf. moreover, the very frequent use of זֹאת, הִיא (as well as זֶה and הוּא), Ju 144, ψ 11823, &c., in the sense of hoc, illud (also הֵ֫נָּה equivalent to illa, Is 5119): also the use of the feminine form of the verb in Is 77 לֹא תָקוּם וְלֹא תִֽהְיֶה it shall not stand, neither shall it come to pass; cf. Jer 107; so too the suffixes Gn 156, Ex 1011, Jb 3818, referring back to a whole statement.
r (b) Titles and designations of office, properly a subdivision of the abstract ideas treated above, under q, and specially noticed here only on account of their peculiar transference to concrete male persons. Thus we have קֹהֶ֫לֶת Ec 11, &c. (as a title of Solomon), properly no doubt that which takes part in or speaks in a religious assembly, hence LXX ἐκκλησιαστής, i.e. concionator, preacher; the proper names סֹפֶ֫רֶת Ezr 255, Neh 757, and פֹּכֶ֫רֶת Ezr 257, Neh 759, and the foreign word פֶּחָה viceroy; in the plural כְּנָוֹת prop. cognomina, then like-named, colleagues; פְּרָעוֹת princes (if this be the true meaning). All these words, in accordance with their meaning, are construed as masculine (in Ec 727 instead of אָֽמְרָה ק׳ the words should rather be divided as אָמַר הַקּ׳; cf. 12:8). s Abstract ideas include also—
(c) Collectives in the fem. form, generally fem. participles used substantivally, especially as the comprehensive designation of a number of persons, e.g. אֹֽרְחָה (fem. of travelling), prop. the travelling (company), i.e. travelling persons (a caravan); גּוֹלָה (fem. of גֹּלֶה one going into exile) the company of exiles (also frequently used of those who had returned home again); יוֹשֶׁ֫בֶת (that which inhabits) i.e. the population, Is 126, Mi 111 f.; אֹיֶ֫בֶת (prop. that which is hostile) the enemy, Mi 78, 10 (cf. Mi 46 f. the halting, cast off, driven away, i.e. those who halt, &c.); דַּלָּה (the abject) the poorest sort; of living beings which are not persons, cf. חַיָּה (that which lives) in the sense of cattle, beasts; דָּגָה a shoal of fish, Gn 126 (but in Jon 22 as a nomen unitatis, cf. t, for דָּג a fish, which in verses 1 and 11 is used as the nomen unitatis). Cf., moreover, נְבֵלָה dead body, Is 2619, &c. (construed as masculine), for a heap of dead bodies.—On the collective poetic personification of a nation, by means of בַּת daughter, in בַּת בָּבֶל, בַּת עַמִּי (equivalent to בְּנֵי עַמִּי) my countrymen, see above, i.
t (d) Conversely the feminine form of substantives is sometimes used (as in Arabic) as a nomen unitatis, i.e. to indicate a single example of a class which is denoted by the masculine form; cf. אֳנִי a fleet (1 K 926), אֳנִיָּה a single ship (Jon 13 ff.); צַ֫יִד hunting, game, צֵידָה Gn 273 Keth. (צָ֑יִד Qerê) a piece of venison; שֵׂעָר hair (coll.), שַֽׂעֲרָה a single hair (Ju 2016; in the plural, ψ 4013, 695); שִׁיר a poem, frequently collective, שִׁירָה a single song; so probably also תְּאֵנָה a fig (the corresponding masculine tîn is collective in Arabic); שֽׁוֹשַׁנָּה a lily (also שׁוֹשָׁן); לְבֵנָה a brick (Arab. libina, but libin collective), &c.
(e) The feminine is also used for things without life (as being weaker or less important), which are named from their resemblance to organic things expressed by the corresponding masculine form; cf. יָרֵךְ side (of the body), thigh, יְרֵכָה or יַרְכָּה back part, border (of a country, house, &c.); מֵ֫צַח forehead, מִצְחָה greaves. On a similar distinction between the masculine for natural, and the feminine for artificial objects, see §87o.
v Rem. The juxtaposition of the masculine and feminine from the same stem serves sometimes to express entirety; e.g. Is 31 מַשְׁעֵן וּמַשְׁעֵנָה stay and staff, i.e. every kind of support (unless we omit verse 1b as a gloss and take staff as = staff-bearer, official; the list of officials begins in verse 2); cf. Is 166, Pr 813. For similar groupings in the case of persons, see Is 436, 4922, 604 (sons and daughters); 49:23, Ec 28.
- So in early Arabic, ba‛l (lord) and zauǵ (conjux) are used both for maritus and uxor; ‛arūs for bridegroom and bride; the later language, however, distinguishes the feminine from the masculine in all these cases generally by the ending a (at). In early Arabic also the feminine ending is commonly omitted in such participles as ḥāmil, bāṭin (gravida), and the like, which from the nature of the case can only be used of females. Thus also אֹמֵן, at least in Nu 1112 (Is 4923?), probably means nurse (for אֹמֶ֫נֶת 2 S 44, &c.), not nursing-father.
- The Arab grammarians call this use of the masculine plural and dual (e.g. el-abawāni, the two fathers, i.e. parentes) taghlîb or the making (the masculine) prevail (over the feminine).—Cf. M. Grünert, Die Begriffs-Präponderanz und die Duale a potiori im Altarab., Vienna, 1886.
- The masculine gender is attributed ‘by the Hebrews and the Semites generally to whatever is dangerous, savage, courageous, respected, great, strong, powerful ...; the feminine to whatever is motherly, productive, sustaining, nourishing, gentle, weak, ... subject, &c.’ (Albrecht, ZAW. 1896, p. 120 f.).
- When, on the other hand, words with a feminine-ending, such as קֶ֫שֶׁת a bow (stem קוש), עֵת time (see the Lexicon), are sometimes construed as masculine, this is owing probably in some cases to a misunderstanding of the formation of the word, the ת of the feminine being regarded as a radical.
- Cf. a city and a mother (אֵם) in Israel, 2 S 2019. In the same way אֵם (like μήτηρ, mater) on Phoenician coins stands for mother-city, μητ ρόπολις. The same figure is used in such expressions as sons of Zion, ψ 1492; sons of Babylon, Ez 2315, &c., as also in speaking of the suburbs of a city as its daughters, e.g. Jos 1545 ff., &c.—The comparison of Jerusalem to a woman is especially frequent in allegorical descriptions, e.g. Ez 1623, La 11, &c.
- מַֽחֲנֶה camp is feminine only when it is a collective, denoting the persons in a camp.
- אַף nose, גִּיד sinew, זָנָב tail, חֵךְ palate, כָּבֵד liver, לֵב, לֵבָב heart, מֵעִים, רַֽחֲמִים bowels, מֵ֫צַח forehead, עוֹר skin, עֹרֶף back of the neck, פֶּה mouth, צַוָּאר neck, רֹאשׁ head, שְׁכֶם shoulder, also רֶ֫חֶם womb, except in Jer 2017, are invariably construed as masculine.—עֶ֫צֶם bone is common.
- Cf. the list of masculine and feminine abstracts in Albrecht, l. c., 1896, p. 111 ff.
- While in all these instances it is simplest to speak of the feminine in Hebrew as being used for the neuter (which in Latin, Greek, and German is commonly employed for similar purposes), it must yet not be forgotten that since the language is wholly wanting in neuters, the Semitic mind regarded the above-mentioned forms primarily as actual feminines. Hence the Arab commentators are accustomed to explain the feminines of adjectives and participles (which would be neuter in Latin, &c.) by supplying a feminine substantive.
- This use of the feminine form is far more frequent in Arabic, Ethiopic, and Aramaic; cf. e.g. in Arabic ḥalîfa (fem. from ḥalîf, following after, taking the place of) in the sense of the successor or representative (of Muḥammad), and ‛allāma (great wisdom) as a title of learned men. Analogous to this is the Latin magistratus, magistracy, for magistrate, and our his Majesty, Excellency, Highness, &c.
- Cf. in Greek ἡ ἵππος, the cavalry (as well as τὸ ἱππικόν), ἡ κάμηλος, Hdt. 1, 80, &c., the camel corps.