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Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/71. Verbs פ״י. Third Class, or Verbs with Yôdh assimilated

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§71. Verbs פ״י. Third Class, or Verbs with Yôdh assimilated.

In some verbs פ״י, the Yôdh (or the original Wāw) does not quiesce in the preceding vowel, but is regarded as a full consonant, and, like Nûn,[1] is assimilated to the following consonant. These forms, therefore, belong properly to the class of strong verbs. Assimilation invariably takes place in יָצַע (prop. וצע) to spread under; Hiphʿîl הִצִּיעַ, Hophʿal הֻצַּע; יָצַת to burn, imperfect יִצַּת, Niphʿal נִצַּת, Hiphʿîl הִצִּית (in Is 274 also אַצִּיתֶ֫נָּה is to be read with König; in 2 S 1430 the Masora has rightly emended the Kethîbh והוציתיה, which could only be the 1st sing. perf. of a verb פ״ו, to the imperative וְהַצִּית֫וּהָ in agreement with the context and all the early versions); יָצַג, Hiphʿîl הִצִּיג to place, Hophʿal הֻצַּג; and probably also in the forms ordinarily derived from נָצַב, viz. נִצַּב (Niphʿal), הִצִּיב, יַצִּיב, הֻצַּב; at any rate a stem יָצַב is implied by the Hithpaʿēl הִתְיַצֵּב; instead of the anomalous וַתֵּֽתַצַּב Ex 24 read with the Samaritan ותתיצב, i.e. וַתִּתְיַצֵּב. Besides the common form we find once אֶצֹּק in Is 443 (from יָצַק to pour) with a transitive meaning, beside וַיֵּ֫צֶק intransitive, 1 K 2235. Elsewhere the imperfect consecutive has the form וַיִּצֹק Gn 2818, 3514, &c., cf. §69f, where also other forms of יָצַק are given; וַיִּ֫יצֶר and יִּצֹּר (Is 4412, 498, Jer 15 Qe), from יָצַר to form, are, however, used in the same sense. Cf. also אֶסֳּרֵם Ho 1010; וַיִּשַּׁ֫רְנָה (for וַתִּ׳ according to §47k) 1 S 612; לִיסֹּד 2 Ch 317 (cf. §69n) and מוּסָּד Is 2816. This assimilation is found always with sibilants (most frequently with צ‍) except in the case of וַיִּקַּץ 1 K 315 (so ed. Mant., Ginsb., Kittel; but Jabl., Baer וַיִּקַץ) and in הֻ֫לֶּדֶת Gn 4020, Ez 165 (cf. הוּלֶּדֶת verse 4), infinitive Hophʿal of יָלַד (cf. נוּלְּדוּ §69t).

  1. These verbs, like verbs ע״ע (cf. above, note on §67g), may perhaps have been influenced by the analogy of verbs פ״ן.