Graiméar na Gaedhilge/Part II Chapter V
247. In Irish there are two conjugations of regular verbs. They are distinguished by the formation of the future stem. All verbs of the first conjugation form the first person singular of the future simple in -fad or -fead, whilst verbs of the second conjugation form the same part in -óċad or -eóċad.
Forms of Conjugation.
248. Every Irish verb, with the single exception of is, has three forms of conjugation: The Synthetic, the Analytic, and the Autonomous.
249. The synthetic, or pronominal form, is that in which the persons are expressed by means of terminations or inflections. All the persons, singular and plural, with the single exception of the third person singular, have synthetic forms in practically every tense. The third person singular can never have its nominative contained in the verb-ending or termination.
The following example is the present tense synthetic form of the verb mol, praise:—
|molaim, I praise.||molaimid, we praise.|
|molair, thou praisest.||moltaoi, you praise.|
|molann sé, he praises.||molaid, they praise.|
250. In the analytic form of conjugation the persons are not expressed by inflection; the form of the verb remains the same throughout the tense and the persons are expressed by the pronouns placed after the verb. The form of the verb in the third person singular of the above example is the form the verb has in the analytic form of the present tense.
The analytic form in every tense has identically the same form as the third person singular of that tense.
N.B.—The analytic form is generally employed in asking questions.
The following is the analytic form of the present tense of mol:—
|molaim, I praise.||molann sinn, we praise.|
|molann tú, thou praisest.||molann siḃ, you praise.|
|molann sé, he praises.||molann siad, they praise|
The analytic form is used in all the tenses, but in some of the tenses it is rarely, if ever, found in some of the persons: for instance, it is not found in the first person singular above. As the analytic form presents no difficulty, it will not be given in the regular table of conjugations.
“This third form—the Autonomous—has every one of the moods and tenses, but in each tense it has only one person, and that person is only implied. It is really a personality, but it is not a specific personality. It is only a general, undefined personality.
“This third form of an Irish verb has some very unique powers.... I shall illustrate one. An English verb cannot of itself make complete sense alone; this form of an Irish verb can. For instance, ‘Buailtear’ is a complete sentence. It means, ‘A beating is being administered,’ or, ‘Somebody is striking.’ Irish grammarians have imagined that this form of the verb is passive voice. No, it is not passive voice, for it has a passive of its own; and, again, all intransitive verbs (even the verb tá) this form of conjugation. The nearest equivalents in sense and use to this Irish form are the German ‘ ’ and the French ‘on’ with the third person singular of the verb.”—Gaelic Journal.
The usual translation of the French phrase “on dit” is, “It is said.” “Is said” is certainly passive voice in English, but it does not follow that “dit” is passive voice in French. The same remark holds with regard to the Irish phrase “buailtear an gaḋar,” which is usually translated, “The dog is struck.” Buailtear is not passive voice; it is active voice, autonomous form, and gaḋar is its object in the accusative case. The literal translation of the phrase is, “Somebody strikes the dog.” The passive voice of buailtear, someone strikes, is táṫar buailte, someone is struck.
252. As this is the first grammar that has adopted the term “Autonomous form of the Verb,” we think it advisable to state that the form of the verb which we give as the Autonomous form is given in other Irish grammars as the passive voice. A fuller treatment of the Autonomous Verb will be found at the end of the book, where we endeavour to show that in modern Irish, at least, this form of the verb is active voice. The name by which this form of the verb ought to be called is not merely a matter of terms, for on it depends the case of the following noun or pronoun: i.e., whether such noun or pronoun is the subject or object of the verb.
As all Irish scholars have not accepted the Autonomous form of the verb, since it appears that formerly, at least, the verb was not Autonomous, being inflected for the plural number, it has been suggested that both names be retained for the present. In the first edition of this grammar the term “Indefinite” was given to this form, but as the name “Autonomous,” which means possessing the power of self government, is far more expressive, it has been adopted instead of “Indefinite.”
As the Autonomous form has only one inflection for each tense, this inflection is given immediately after each tense in the tables of conjugation.
MOODS AND TENSES.
253. Verbs have three moods, the Imperative, the Indicative, and the Subjunctive.
Some grammars add a fourth mood, the Conditional; and some omit the Subjunctive. The Conditional form, however, is always either Indicative or Subjunctive in meaning, and is here classed as a tense under the Indicative Mood.
The Imperative has only one tense, the Present. Its use corresponds to that of the Imperative in English.
The Indicative Mood has five tenses, the Present, the Imperfect, the Past, the Future, and the Conditional.
The Present Tense corresponds to the English Present, and like it usually denotes habitual action.
The so-called Consuetudinal or Habitual Present—i.e., the third person singular ending in -ann—in no way differs from the other parts of the Present in regard to time. The verb bí, however, has a distinct Present, bím, denoting habitual action. In English the Present—e.g., I write—generally denotes habitual action. Present action is usually signified by a compound tense, I am writing. So in Irish the Present, sgríoḃaim, denotes habitual action, and present action is denoted by the compound tense, táim ag sgríoḃadh. However, as in English, the Present Tense of certain verbs, especially those relating to the senses or the mind, denote present as well as habitual action—e.g., cluinim, I hear; creidim, I believe.
The Imperfect Tense is also called the Habitual or Consuetudinal Past. It denotes habitual action in past time; as, do sgríoḃainn, I used to write.
The Past Tense is also called the Perfect and the Preterite. It corresponds to the Past Tense in English; as, do sgríoḃas, I wrote.
Continuous action in past time is denoted by a compound tense, as in English—e.g., do ḃíos ag sgríoḃas, I was writing.
The Future Tense corresponds to the Future in English: as sgríoḃfad, I shall write.
The Conditional corresponds to the Compound Tense with "should" or "would" in English: as do sgríoḃfá, thou wouldst write.
The Conditional is also called the Secondary Future, because it denotes a future act regarded in the past: as, Aduḃairt sé go sgríoḃfad sé. He said that he would write.
In the Subjunctive Mood there are only two Tenses, the Present and the Past. This mood is used principally to express a wish, and also after certain conjunctions. See par. 550, &c.
Active Voice, Ordinary Form.
254. Each Tense has the following forms:—
1. The action is merely stated, as—
- Buaileann Seaġán an clár,
- John strikes the table.
2. The action is represented as in progress, as—
- Tá Seaġán ag bualaḋ an ċláir,
- John is striking the table.
3. The action as represented as about to happen—
Tá Seaġán ċum
an ċláir do ḃualaḋ, John is about (is going) to strike the table.
4. The action is represented as completed, as—
- Tá Seaġán d’éis an ċláir do ḃualaḋ,
- John has just struck the table.
Active Voice, Autonomous Form.
255. Each Tense has the following forms, corresponding exactly to those given in the preceding paragraph.
1. Buailtear an clár,
- Someone strikes the table.
2. Táṫar a bualaḋ an ċláir,
- Someone is striking the table.
|an ċláir do ḃualaḋ,|
|Someone is about to strike the table.|
4. Táṫar d’éis an ċláir do ḃualaḋ,
- Someone has just struck the table.
256. Passive Voice, Ordinary Form.
1. (This form is supplied by the Autonomous Active.)
2. Tá an clár dá (or ġá) ḃualaḋ,
- The table is being struck.
|3.||Tá an clár||ċum
|The table is about to be struck.|
4. Tá an clár buailte,
- The table has (just) been struck.
257. Passive Voice, Autonomous Form.
1. Táṫar buailte,
- Someone is struck.
2. Táṫar fé ḃualaḋ.
- Someone is being struck.
|Someone is about to be struck|
4. Táṫar buailte,
- Someone has (just) been struck
258. The Principal Parts of an Irish Verb are—
(1) The 2nd sing. of the Imperative Mood.
(2) The 1st sing. of the Future Simple.
(3) The Past Participle (also called the Verbal Adjective).
(4) The Verbal Noun.
(a) The Imperative 2nd. pers. sing. gives the stem of the verb from which most of the other tenses and persons are formed.
(b) The Future tells to what conjugation (first or second) the verb belongs, and gives the stem for the Conditional.
(c) The Past Participle shows whether t is aspirated or unaspirated in the following persons, which are formed from the past participle—i.e.:
- Present, 2nd plural.
- Imperfect, 2nd singular.
- Imperative, Present, and Imperfect.
- Gen. sing. and nom. plural.
(d) With the Verbal Noun are formed the compound tenses.
The four following types include all verbs belonging to the first conjugation:—259.
|Type.||Imper.||Future.||P. Participle.||Verbal Noun.||Meaning.|
|2.||reub||reubfad||reubṫa||reubaḋ||burst or tear|
N.B.—No notice need be taken of the variation in form of verbal nouns, as they cannot be reduced to any rule, but must be learned for each verb. The ending aḋ or eaḋ is that most frequently found, but there are numerous other endings. (See pars. 315 and 316).
260. (1) and (2) are the types for all verbs of the first conjugation whose stem ends in a broad consonant; whilst (3) and (4) are the types for the verbs of the same conjugation whose stem ends in a slender consonant.
As the conjugations of types (2) and (4) are identical with those of types (1) and (3) respectively, except the aspiration of the t in the endings mentioned in par. 258 (c), we do not think it necessary to conjugate in full the four types. We shall give the forms in modern use of the verbs mol and buail, and then give a rule which regulates the aspiration of t in the Past Participle. (See par. 282).
In the following table the forms marked with an asterisk are not generally used in the analytic form. The forms in square brackets were used in early modern Irish, and are frequently met with in books. Alternative terminations are given in round brackets.
|2nd.||mol, praise thou||buail, strike thou|
|3rd.||molaḋ sé, let him praise||buaileaḋ sé|
|let us praise||buailimís (eamuis)
|2.||molaiḋ, praise (you)||buailiḋ|
|let them praise||buailidís|
The negative particle for this mood is ná.
|sing.||1.||*molaim, I praise||*buailim, I strike|
|plur.||1.||molaimíd (amuid)||buailimíd (-imid)|
|2.||molann siḃb||buaileann siḃd|
a[molaiḋ] b[moltaoi] c[buailiḋ] d[buailtí]
|Negative.||Ní ṁolaim,||I do not praise.|
|„||Ní ḃuailir,||You do not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molann sé?||Does he praise?|
|„||An mbuailim?||Do I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Naċ molaid?||Do they not praise?|
|„||Naċ mbuaileann sé?||Does he not strike?|
|SING.||1.||*ṁolainn, I used to praise||*ḃuailinn|
|3.||ṁolaḋ sé||ḃuaileaḋ sé|
|PLUR.||1.||ṁolaimís (-amuis)||ḃuailimís (or imis)|
|2.||ṁolaḋ siḃ||ḃuaileaḋ siḃ|
|Negative.||Ní ṁolainn,||I used not praise.|
|„||Ní ḃuaileaḋ sé,||He used not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An moltá?||Used you praise?|
|„||An mbuailidís?||Used they strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Naċ ṁolainn?||Used I not praise?|
|„||Naċ mbuailinn?||Used I not strike?|
|SING.||1.||ṁolas, I praised||ḃuaileas|
|3.||ṁol sé||ḃuail sé|
|Negative.||Níor ṁolas,||I did not praise.|
|„||Níor ḃuail sé,||He did not strike.|
|Interrogative.||Ar ṁolais?||Did you praise?|
|„||Ar ḃuaileas?||Did I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Nár ṁol sé?||Did he not praise?|
|„||Nár ḃuaileamar?||Did we not strike?|
|SING.||1.||molfad, I shall praise||buailfead|
|2.||molfair, thou wilt praise||buailfir|
|3.||molfaiḋ sé, &c.||buailfiḋ sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molfaimíd (-amuid)||buailfimíd (imid)|
|2.||molfaiḋ siḃa||buailfiḋ siḃb|
|Negative.||Ní ṁolfad,||I shall not praise.|
|„||Ní ḃuailfiḋ sé,||He will not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molfaiḋ sé?||Will he praise?|
|„||An mbuailfead?||Shall I strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Naċ molfair?||Will you not praise?|
|„||Naċ mbuailfid?||Will they not strike?|
|266.||Conditional or Secondary Future.|
|SING.||1.||ṁolfainn, I would praise||ḃuailfinn|
|3.||ṁolfaḋ sé||ḃuailfeaḋ sé|
|PLUR.||1.||ṁolfaimís (famuis)||ḃuailfimís (fimis)|
|2.||molfaḋ siḃ||ḃuailfeaḋ siḃ|
|Negative.||Ní ṁolfainn,||I would not praise.|
|„||Ní ḃuailfeá,||You would not strike.|
|Interrogative.||An molfá,||Would you praise ?|
|„||An mbuailfeaḋ sé,||Would he strike?|
|Neg. Interrog.||Naċ molfaḋ sé?||Would he not praise?|
|„||Naċ mbuailfimís?||Would we not strike?|
|3.||molaiḋ sé||buailiḋ sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molaimid (-amuid)||buailimíd (-imid)|
|2.||molaiḋ siḃa||buailiḋ siḃb|
|The negative particle is nár, which always aspirates when possible.|
|3.||molaḋ sé||buaileaḋ sé|
|PLUR.||1.||molaimís (amuis)||buailimís (-imis)|
|2.||molaḋ sibh||buaileaḋ sibh|
NOTES ON THE MOODS AND TENSES.
The Present Tenses.
269. The Present Tense is always formed by adding aim, air, &c., to the stem when the last vowel is broad; if the last vowel is slender add im, ir, eann, &c. The last syllable of the first person plural is often pronounced rapidly—e.g., molamuid (mulʹ-a-mwid), creidimid (kʼredʹimid); but in the South of Ireland this syllable is lengthened, molaimíd (mulʹ-a-meed), creidimíd (kʼredʹ-imeed). Verbs of more than one syllable ending in iġ add míd, not imíd, in the first person plural of this tense.
270. In Ulster the ending muid of the first person plural is very often separated from the verb, and used instead of the pronoun sinn as Ċonnaic muid é. We saw him; Ċonnaic sé muid. He saw us. On no account should this corruption be imitated by the student.
272. The analytic form is not usually found in the first person singular of this tense, nor is the synthetic form often used in the second person plural.
The Imperfect Tense.
273. The initial consonant of this tense is usually aspirated in the active voice, when possible.
The termination aḋ or eaḋ in the 3rd sing. of this tense, as also in the Imperative and Conditional, is pronounced aċ, or aṁ.
274. When none of the particles ní, an, naċ, &c., precede the Imperfect Tense, do may be used before it. This do may be omitted except when the verb begins with a vowel or f. The compound particles, níor, ar, nár, gur, cár, &c. can never be used with the Imperfect Tense.
275. Whenever the word "would" is used in English to describe what used to take place, the Imperfect Tense, not the Conditional, is used in Irish, as—
- He would often say to me. Is minic adeireaḋ sé liom.
The Past Tense.
276. In the Past Tense active voice the initial consonant of the verb is aspirated. The remark which has just been made with regard to the use of do before the Imperfect Tense applies also to the Past Tense.
In the Autonomous form do does not aspirate, but prefixes h to vowels.
277. With the exception of the aspiration of the initial consonant, the third person singular of this tense is exactly the same as the second person singular of the Imperative (i.e., the stem of the verb).
278. The particle formerly used before the Past Tense was ro. It is now no longer used by itself, but it occurs in combination with other particles.
The most important of these compounds are:—
|(1)||Ar, whether (an + ro).||Ar ḃuail sé? Did he strike?|
|(2)||Gur, that (go + ro).||Deir sé gur ḃuaileas é. He says that I struck him.|
|(3)||Cár, where (cá + ro).||Cár ċeannuiġis an capall? Where did you buy the horse?|
|(4)||Munar, unless (muna + ro).||Munar ḃuail sé, unless he struck.|
|(5)||Níor, not (ní + ro).||Níor ċreid sé. He did not believe.|
|(6)||Nár or náċar, whether...not.||Nár ċreid sé? Did he not believe?|
|(7)||dár, to whom (do, to + a + ro).||An fear dár ġeallas mo leaḃar. The man to whom I promised my book.|
|(8)||ler, by or with which (le + a + ro).||An maide ler buaileaḋ é, The stick with which they beat him (or he was beaten).|
279. The compounds of ro aspirate. These compounds are used with the Past Tense of all verbs except the following:—raiḃ, was; tug, gave or brought; rug, bore; faca, saw; táinig, came; fuair, found, got; deacaiḋ, went; deárna, made or did.
The compounds of ro are used in some places before tug and táinig.
N.B. Deaċaiḋ and deárna are used instead of ċuaiḋ and rinne after negative and interrogative particles. Instead of deaċaiḋ and deárna, ċuaiḋ and ḋein (ḋin) are used in Munster.
The Future Tense and Conditional.
280. All the inflections of the Future and Conditional in the first conjugation begin with the letter f, which in the spoken language is generally pronounced like "h." This "h" sound combines with the letters b, d and g (whenever the stem ends in these) changing them in sound into p, t, c, respectively.
N.B.—F is sounded in the second sing. Conditional active and in the Autonomous form.
281. The particle do, causing aspiration, may be used before the Conditional when no other particle precedes it.
Note that the terminations of the Imperative Mood, the Imperfect Tense, and the Conditional are almost the same, excepting the letter f of the latter.
Rule for the Aspiration of T of Past Participles.
282. The T of the past participle is generally aspirated except after the letters D, N, T, L, S, Ṫ, Ḋ, Ċ, and (in verbs of one syllable) Ġ.
There is a great tendency in the spoken language not to aspirate the t in all verb inflexions after consonants: e.g., tugta, tugtar, deirtear, etc.
283. This participle cannot be used like the English participle to express action. He was praised is generally molaḋ é; very seldom ḃí sé molta. The Irish participle has always the force of an adjective denoting the complete state, never the force of an action in progress.
284. After is the Past Participle denotes what is proper or necessary, as, Ní molta ḋuit é. He is not to be praised by you. This form, called the Participle of Necessity, should probably be regarded as distinct from the ordinary past participle, as it may occur in verbs which have no past participle, e.g.:—
“Is deiṁin naċ ḃfuil duine naċ beiṫte ḋó ar coiméad orm.” “It is certain that there is no person who will not have to be on his guard against me.” (Letter of Seán Ó Néill, 1561.) “Tuigṫear as an sgeul, naċ beiṫte do neaċ dul i n-eudóċas.” It may hence be learned that it is not proper for anyone to fall into despair. Ní beiṫte ag a ṡeunaḋ (or simply, ní seunta). It must not be denied. Here beiṫte is the Participle of Necessity of the verb bí.
286. The prefix ion- or in- denotes what is proper or fit to be done: as ion-ṁolta, fit to be praised, deserving of praise.
The prefix so- denotes what is possible or easy to do: as so-reubṫa, capable of being burst, easy to burst.
287. The prefix do- denotes what is impossible or difficult to do: as do-ḃuailte, incapable of being struck, hard to strike.
288. These derivative participles seem to be formed rather from the genitive of the verbal noun than from the participle: as faġáil, finding.
|so-ḟaġála, easily found.||do-ḟaġála, hard to find.|
|289.||Declension of Verbal Noun.|
290. Many verbal nouns are seldom or never used in the plural. As a rule the genitive singular of the verbal noun is identical in form with the past participle; but many verbal nouns are declined like ordinary nouns: nearly all those ending in aċt, áil, and aṁain belong to the 3rd declension—e.g., gaḃáil, act of taking; gen., gaḃála: riṫ, running; gen. reaṫa; leanaṁain, act of following; gen. leanaṁna: siuḃal, act walking; gen. siuḃail: fás, act of growing; gen. fáis, &c.
291. The second conjugation comprises two classes of verbs—(1) derived verbs in iġ or uiġ; and (2) syncopated verbs.
292. Syncopated verbs are those in which the vowel in the final syllable of the stem is omitted when any termination commencing with a vowel is added: as laḃair, speak; laḃraim (not laḃairim), I speak. Verbs of more than one syllable whose stem ends in il, in, ir, is, ing, belong to this class.
VERBS IN IĠ (-UIĠ).
|Type.||Imper.||Future.||Past Participle.||V. Noun.||Meaning|
294. Except in the Future and Conditional, all verbs in iġ and uiġ are conjugated like buail (first conjugation), except that the t is aspirated in all terminations beginning with that letter. It is, therefore, necessary to give only the Future and Conditional in full.295.
|1.||baileóċad, I shall gather,||ceannóċad, I shall buy|
|3.||baileóċaiḋ sé,||ceannóċaiḋ sé.|
|1.||baileóċaimíd (-ċamuid),||ceannóċaimíd (-ċamuid).|
|2.||baileóċaiḋ siḃ,||ceannóċaiḋ siḃ.|
|1.||ḃaileóċainn, I would gather,||ċeannóċainn, I shall buy|
|3.||ḃaileóċaḋ sé,||ċeannóċaḋ sé.|
|1.||ḃaileóċaimís (-amuis),||ċeannóċaimís (-amuis).|
|2.||ḃaileóċaḋ siḃ,||ċeannóċaḋ siḃ.|
297. In early modern usage, when the stem ended in -uiġ, preceded by d, n, t, l, or r, these consonants were usually attenuated in the Future and Conditional: as árduiġ, raise, future áirdeóċad; saluiġ, soil, future saileóċad; but nowadays árdóċad, salóċad, &c., are the forms used.
298. The personal endings of syncopated verbs vary somewhat according as the consonant commencing the last syllable of the stem is broad or slender.
Type (1). Stems in which the last syllable commences with a broad consonant, as fuagair (fógair), proclaim.
Type (2). Stems in which the last syllable commences with a slender consonant, as coigil, spare.
299. In early modern usage the Future is formed by lengthening the vowel sound of the last syllable of the stem from ai or i to eó. In the case of Type 1 the broad consonant which commences the final syllable of the stem must be made slender. Examples: innis, inneosad, I shall tell; díbir, díbeorair, you will banish; imir, imeoraiḋ sé, he will play; coigil, coigeolad, I shall spare; fuagair, fuaigeoraid, they will proclaim; d’ḟuaigeoraḋ sé, he would proclaim; codail, coideolad, I shall sleep; ċoideolainn, I would sleep.
300. In the present-day usage the Future stem is formed as if the verb ended in iġ or uiġ: by adding -óċ in Type 1 and -eóċ in Type 2.301.
|2.||fuagair, proclaim||coigil, spare|
|3.||fuagraḋ sé||coigleaḋ sé|
|SING.||1.||fuagraim, I proclaim||coiglim, I spare|
|3.||fuagrann séa||coigleannc sé|
|2.||fuagrann siḃb||coigleann siḃd|
|3.||d’ḟuagraḋ sé||ċoigleaḋ sé|
|2.||d’ḟuagraḋ siḃ||ċoigleaḋ siḃ|
|3.||d’ḟuagair sé||ċoigil sé|
|a[fuagraiḋ] b[fuagarṫaoi] c[coigliḋ] d[coigiltí]|
|3.||fuagróċaiḋ sé||coigleóċaiḋ sé|
|2.||fuagróċaiḋ siḃ||coigleóċaiḋ siḃ|
|3.||d’ḟuagróċaḋ sé||ċoigleóċaḋ sé|
|2.||d’ḟuagróċaḋ siḃ||ċoigleóċaḋ siḃ|
|3.||fuagraiḋ sé||coigliḋ sé|
|2.||fuagraiḋ siḃ||coigliḋ siḃ|
|3.||fuagraḋ sé||coigleaḋ sé|
|2.||fuagraḋ siḃ||coigleaḋ siḃ|
|311.||Past Participle and Participle of Necessity.|
314. In stems of Type (2) ending in r, the Participle is usually in the form earṫa, not irṫe, as díbir, banish: díbearṫa, banished; imir, play; imearṫa, played.
The endings formed on the participle [see par. 258 c.] follow this change, e.g., Imperfect 2nd singular, ḋíbearṫá; Present Auton., díbearṫar, &c.
315. General Rules for the formation of Verbal Noun.
(a) As a general rule verbs of the first conjugation form their verbal noun in aḋ, if the final consonant of the stem be broad; in eaḋ, if it be slender, as—
(b) When the last vowel of the stem is i preceded by a broad vowel, the i is usually dropped in the formation of the verbal noun, as—
The i is not dropped in—
(c) Verbs of the second conjugation ending in in, il or ir generally form their verbal noun by adding t, as—
|cosain, defend||cosaint (cosnaṁ)|
(e) Derived verbs in iġ form their verbal noun by inserting u between the i and ġ and then adding aḋ; as míniġ, explain, míniuġaḋ.
316. There are, however, many exceptions to the above rules. The following classification of the modes of forming the verbal noun will be useful.
(a) Some verbs have their verbal noun like the stem, e.g., fás, grow; ól, drink; riṫ, run; snáṁ, swim, &c.
(b) Some verbs form their verbal noun by dropping i of the stem, e.g., cuir, put or send, cur; coisg, check, cosg; sguir, cease, sgur; guil, weep, gul, &c.
(c) Some verbs add aṁain or eaṁain to the stem to form their verbal noun, e.g., caill, lose, cailleaṁain(t); creid, believe, creideaṁain(t); fan, stay, fanaṁain(t), lean, follow, leanaṁain(t); sgar, separate, sgaraṁain(t), &c.
In the spoken language t is usually added to the classical termination -aṁain.
(d) A few add an or ean for the verbal noun, e.g., leag, knock down, leagan; léig, let or permit, léigean; tréig, abandon, tréigean; teilg, throw or cast, teilgean.
(e) A few add aṁ or eaṁ, e.g., seas, stand, seasaṁ; caiṫ, spend, consume, caiṫeaṁ; deun, do or make, deunaṁ (or deunadh); feiṫ, wait, feiṫeaṁ.
(f) A small number end in áil or , as gaḃ, take, gaḃáil; faġ, find, faġáil; fág, leave, fágáil; fead, whistle, feadġail.
A fairly full list of irregular verbal nouns is given in Appendix V.
317. In Old and Middle Irish the conjugation of verbs was very complex, but by degrees the varieties of conjugations became fewer, and nearly all verbs came to be conjugated in the same way. At the commencement of the modern period (i.e., about the end of the sixteenth century) about fifteen verbs in common use retained their old forms. These are now classed as irregular. Excepting occasional survivals of older forms, all the other verbs had by this time become regular; so that from the stem of the verb it was possible in nearly every instance to tell all its forms except the verbal noun.
During the modern period even the irregular verbs have, through the operation of analogy, shown a tendency to adopt the forms of the modern regular conjugations.
TÁIM, I AM.
318. The correct spelling of this verb is undoubtedly atáim, but long since it has lost its initial a, except when it occurs in the middle of a sentence, where it usually has a relative force. Some persons, by confounding this initial a, which really belongs to the verb, with the modern relative particle a, write the a separated from the tá: as a tá instead of atá.
|319.||—||bímís, let us be|
|bí, be thou||bíḋiḋ, let you be|
|bíoḋ sé, let him be||bídís, let them be|
The negative particle is ná.
All the persons, except the 2nd sing., are often written as if formed from the spurious stem biḋ: e.g., biḋeaḋ sé.
|táim, I am||táimid, we are|
|táir thou art||tá siḃ, táṫaoi, you are|
|tá sé, he is||táid, they are|
|Present Tense (Analytic Form).|
|tá mé, I am||tá sinn, we are|
|tá tú, thou art||tá siḃ, you are|
|tá sé, he is||tá siad, they are|
|I am not, &c.||Am I, &c.||Am I not, &c.|
|ní ḟuilim||an ḃfuilim||naċ ḃfuilim|
|ní ḟuilir||an ḃfuilir||naċ ḃfuilir|
|ní ḟuil sé||an ḃfuil sé||naċ ḃfuil sé|
|ní ḟuilmíd||an ḃfuilmíd||naċ ḃfuilmíd|
|ní ḟuil siḃ||an ḃfuil siḃ||naċ ḃfuil siḃ|
|ní ḟuilid||an ḃfuilid||naċ ḃfuilid|
The analytic forms are like those given above; as, ní ḟuil siad, naċ ḃfuil tú, &c.
|bím (biḋim)||bímíd (biḋmid)|
|bír (biḋir)||bíonn siḃ, bíṫí|
|bíonn sé (bíḋ sé, biḋeann sé)||bíḋ (biḋid)|
Negatively, ní ḃím, &c. Interrogatively, an mbím, &c.
Neg. Interrog., naċ mbím, &c.
Relative form ḃíos (ḃiḋeas).
|do ḃínn (do ḃiḋinn)||do ḃímís (ḃiḋmís)|
|„ bír („ biḋir)||„ bíoḋ siḃ|
|„ bíoḋ sé („ biḋeaḋ sé)||„ bídís (biḋdís)|
|Neg. interrog.||naċ mbínn?|
|do ḃíos (ḃiḋeas)||do ḃíomar (ḃiḋeamar)|
|„ ḃís (ḃiḋis)||„ ḃíoḃar (ḃiḋeaḃar)|
|„ ḃí sé||„ ḃíodar, ḃiḋeadar|
Negative, ní raḃas, ní raḃais, ní raiḃ sé, &c.
Interrogatively (Was I? &c.).
an raḃas an raḃais an raiḃ sé an raḃamar, &c.
Neg. interrog. (Was I not? &c.).
naċ raḃas naċ raḃais naċ raiḃ sé, &c.
|béad, bead (béiḋead)||béimid, beimíd (béiḋmíd)|
|béir, beir (béiḋir)||béiḋ siḃ, béiṫí|
|béiḋ, beiḋ sé||béid, beid (béiḋid)|
|Relative Form,||ḃeas, ḃéas (ḃéiḋeas)|
|Neg. Interrog.,||naċ mbéad?|
|do ḃéinn (ḃéiḋinn)||ḃéimís (ḃéiḋmís)|
|„ ḃéiṫeá (ḃéiḋṫeá)||ḃéaḋ, ḃeaḋ (ḃéiḋeaḋ) siḃ|
|„ ḃéaḋ, ḃeaḋ (ḃéiḋeaḋ) sé||ḃéidís (ḃéiḋdís)|
|Neg. interrog.,||naċ mbéinn|
|go raḃad||go raḃmuid|
|go raḃair||go raiḃ siḃ (raḃṫaoi)|
|go raiḃ sé||go raḃaid|
The negative particle for this tense is ná: as, Ná raiḃ maiṫ agat. No thanks to you.
|go mbínn||go mbímís|
|go mbíṫeá||go mbíoḋ siḃ)|
|go mbíoḋ sé||go mbídís|
|The negative particle is nár.|
|go raḃṫar!||may (they) be! (for once).|
|go mbítear!||„ „ (generally).|
ḃeiṫ, to be.
330. Phrases containing the Verb Noun.
|Is féidir liom (a) ḃeiṫ||I can be, &c.|
|Ní féidir liom (a) ḃeiṫ||I cannot be, &c.|
|Tig leat (a) ḃeiṫ||You can be, &c.|
|Ní ṫig leat (a) ḃeiṫ||You cannot be, &c|
|Caiṫfiḋ sé ḃeiṫ||He must be, &c.|
|Caiṫfiḋ mé ḃeiṫ||I must be, &c.|
|Ní fuláir go raiḃ tú||You must have been, &c.|
|Is cosṁail go raiḃ tú|
|Níor b’ḟéidir nó ḃí tú|
|Ní cosṁail go raiḃ mé||I must not have been, &c.|
|Ní fuláir naċ raiḃ mé|
|Is cóir ḋom (a) ḃeiṫ||I ought to be.|
|Ní cóir duit (a) ḃeiṫ||You ought not to be.|
|Buḋ ċóir ḋó ḃeiṫ||He ought to have been.|
|Nior ċóir ḋom (a) ḃeiṫ||I ought not to have been.|
|Buḋ ṁaiṫ liom (a) ḃeiṫ ann||I wish I were there.|
|Ba ṁaiṫ liom go raiḃ mé ann||I wish I had been there.|
|Tá sé le ḃeiṫ ann||He is to be there.|
331. The forms fuilim and raḃas are used—
(1) After the particles ní, not; cá, where? an (or a), whether? go, that; and naċ or ná, that (conj.)... not.
(2) After the relative particle a, when it is preceded by a preposition, after the relative a when it means “what,” “all that,” “all which,” and after the negative relative naċ, who...not, which...not. Cá ḃ-fuil sé? Where is it? Ní ḟuil a ḟios agam. I don’t know. Tá ḟios agam ná fuil sé ann. I know it is not there. Deir sé go ḃfuil sé slán. He says that he is well. Sin é an fear naċ ḃfuil ag obair. That is the man who is not working. Duḃairt sé liom naċ raiḃ sé ann. He told me he was not there.
332. We sometimes find the verb fuil eclipsed after the negative ní, not; as, ní ḃfuil sé he is not
For the use of the Relative Form refer to pars. 554–560.
THE ASSERTIVE VERB IS.
333. The position of a verb in an Irish sentence is at the very beginning; hence, when a word other than the verb is to be brought into prominence, the important word is to be placed in the most prominent position viz., at the beginning of the sentence, under cover of an unemphatic impersonal verb. There is no stress on the verb so used; it merely denotes that prominence is given to some idea in the sentence other than that contained in the verb. There is a similar expedient adopted in English: thus, “He was speaking of you,” and, “It is of you he was speaking.” In Irish there is a special verb for this purpose, and of this verb there are forms to be used in principal clauses and forms to be used in dependent clauses—e.g.:
Is mise an fear. I am the man.
Deirim gur ab é Seaġán an fear. I say John is the man.
(a) In Principal Sentences.
- Present Tense, is. Relative, is or as.
- Past Tense, ba.
- [Future Simple, buḋ. Relative, ḃus].
- Secondary Future or Conditional, baḋ.
- Subjunctive, ab; sometimes ba.
- Subjunc. Pres. (with go) go mba, gurab; (with ná) nárab, nára.
- Subjunc. Past. dá mbaḋ, “if it were.”
|is mé, I am; or, it is I.||is sinn, we are, it is we.|
|is tú, thou art, it is you.||is siḃ, you are, it is you.|
|is é he is, it is he.
is í, she is, it is she.
|is iad, they are, it is they.|
|ba mé,||I was, it was I.|
|ba ṫú,||thou wast, &c.|
|dob’ é, b’ é, ba h-é,||he was, &c.|
|dob’ í, b’ í, ba h-é||she was, &c.|
|ba sinn,||we were, &c.|
|ba siḃ,||you were, &c.|
|dob’ iad, b’ iad, ba h-iad||they were, &c.|
337. In the Present Tense the verb IS is omitted after all particles except MÁ, if: as, Is mé an fear. I am the man; Ní mé an fear. I am not the man.
338. In the Past Tense BA is usually omitted after particles when the word following BA begins with a consonant: as, Ar ṁaiṫ leat an áit? Did you like the place? Nár ḃeag an luaċ é? Was it not a small price? Ba is not usually omitted when the following word begins with a vowel or f, but the a is elided: as, Níor ḃ’ é sin an sagart. That was not the priest. Notice that the word immediately after ba or baḋ, even when ba or baḋ is understood, is usually aspirated when possible.
(b) In Dependent Sentences.
339. Present Tense.—Ab is used instead of is after gur, meaning “that”; as, measaim gurab é sin an fear. I think that is the man. Before a consonant ab is usually omitted; as, deir sé gur mise an fear. He says that I am the man. Ab is always omitted after naċ, that... not. Saoilim naċ é sin an rí. I think that is not the king.
340. Past Tense.—The word ba or baḋ becomes ḃ’ in dependent sentences and is usually joined to the particle which precedes it. When the following word begins with a consonant the ḃ’ is usually omitted. Measaim gurḃ é seo an teaċ. I think that this was the house; measann sé nár ṁaiṫ le Niall ḃeiṫ annso. He thinks that Niall did not like to be here. An measann tú gur ṁaiṫ an sgeul é? Do you think that it was a good story?
341. Conditional.—In dependent sentences ba or baḋ becomes mba. Saoilim go mba ṁaiṫ leis dul leat. I think he would like to go with you. Deir sé naċ mba ṁaiṫ leis. He says that he would not like. In the spoken language the tendency is to use the past tense forms in dependent sentences; hence Irish speakers would say gur ṁaiṫ in the above sentence instead of go mba ṁaiṫ, and nár ṁaiṫ instead of naċ mba ṁaiṫ.
The Future is never used in dependent sentences in the spoken language.
BEIR, BEAR or CARRY.
This verb is conjugated like buail, except in the Past, Future and Conditional.
rugas, rugais, &c., like ṁolas (par. 264).
The prefixes do and ro were not used before this Past Tense in early usage and not generally in present-day usage.
beurfad, beurfair, &c., like molfad (par. 265).
In early modern usage there was no f in this Tense, or in the Conditional. The rule was that when a short vowel in the Present became long in the Future stem no f was added. This rule is still observed in the Futures ending in -óċad or -eoċad.
ḃeurfainn, &c., like ṁolfainn (par. 266).
Verbal Noun breiṫ, gen. breiṫe or beirṫe.
345. This verb is of very frequent use in the idiom “beir ar”; lay hold on, catch, overtake; e.g., rugaḋ orm, I was caught. Ní ḟuil breiṫ air. There is no laying hold on him (or it).
TAḂAIR, GIVE or BRING.
|1.||—||taḃraimís, tugaimís (taḃram)|
|3.||taḃraḋ or tugaḋ sé||taḃraidís, tugaidís (or -adaois)|
|Autonomous, taḃarṫar, tugṫar.|
|SING. 1.||(do-) ḃeirim||taḃraim|
|3.||(do-) ḃeir(-eann) sé||taḃrann sé|
|PLUR. 1.||(do-) ḃeirimíd||taḃraimíd|
|2.||(do-) ḃeireann siḃ||taḃrann siḃ|
tugaim, &c. (like molaim), may be used in both constructions.
Autonomous, (do-)ḃeirṫear, taḃarṫar or tugtar.
348. By the “Dependent Form” of the Verb we mean that form which is used after the following Particles, viz., ní, not; an, whether; naċ, whether... not; or who, which or that... not; go, that; cá, where, muna, unless; dá, if; and the relative when governed by a preposition.
&c., like ḃuailinn (262)
|&c., like d’ḟuagrainn (305)|
Or, ṫugainn, ṫugṫa, &c., for both absolute and dependent constructions.Autonomous, beirtí, taḃarṫaoi, tugtaoi.
350. The Past Tense has only one form: ṫugas, ṫugais, &c., like ṁolas (264). Auton tugaḋ.
In early usage this Past Tense did not take do or ro, as go d-tugas, “that I gave.” In present-day usage this peculiarity is sometimes adhered to and sometimes not.
like molfad (265)
taḃarfad, &c., may be used in both constructions.
Autonomous, ḃeurfar taḃarfar
like ṁolfainn (266)
taḃarfainn, &c., may be used in both constructions.
Autonomous, ḃéarfaí, taḃarfaí.
This Mood occurs only in dependent construction.
353. Present—tugad, tugair, tugaiḋ sé, &c., or taḃrad, taḃrair, &c.
354. Past—tugainn, &c., like molainn (268).
taḃairt, gen. taḃarṫa.
|3.||abraḋ sé||abraidís, abradaois|
|3.||(a)deir or deireann sé||abrann sé (abair)|
The initial a of adeirim, &c., is now usually dropped. The same remark holds for the other tenses. The d of deirim, &c., is not usually aspirated by a foregoing particle. The absolute and dependent constructions are sometimes confused in spoken usage.
|3.||adeireaḋ sé||abraḋ sé|
|aduḃras, aduḃart||duḃras, duḃart|
|aduḃairt sé||duḃairt sé|
Autonomous, (a)duḃraḋ or (a)duḃarṫas
|deurfaiḋ sé||abróċaiḋ sé|
In the spoken language the absolute and dependent forms are often confused.
|deurfaḋ sé||abróċaḋ sé|
In spoken language the two constructions are often confused.
|Present,||abrad,||abrair,||abraiḋ sé, &c.|
|Past,||abrainn,||abarṫá,||abraḋ sé, &c.|
ráiḋte, ion-ráidṫe, do-ráidṫe, so-ráiḋte
This verb is regular except in the Future and Conditional.
geoḃad, geoḃair, geoḃaiḋ sé, &c.
ġeoḃainn, ġeoḃṫá, ġeoḃaḋ sé, &c.
367. In the spoken language the Future is often made gaḃfad, &c., and the Conditional, ġaḃfainn, as in regular verbs.
gaḃáil or gaḃál, gen. sing, and nom. plural gaḃála.
FAĠ, GET, FIND.
|(do-)ġeiḃeann sé, ġeiḃ sé||faġann sé|
|(do-)ġeiḃeann siḃ||faġann siḃ|
In spoken usage faġaim, &c., is used in both dependent and absolute constructions.
In the Auton. faġtar, faiġtear and faċtar are used.
|Autonomous, ġeiḃṫí, faġtaoi, faiġtí.|
Spoken usage, Absolute, ġeiḃinn or faġainn, &c.
This Tense has only one form for both absolute and dependent constructions. The prefixes do and ro are not used with it.
|3. fuair sé||fuaradar|
|Autonomous, friṫ, fuarṫas or fuaraḋ.|
In spoken usage friṫ often becomes friṫeaḋ.
|1.||ġeoḃad, ġeaḃad||ḃfuiġead or ḃfaiġead|
|2.||ġeoḃair, &c.||ḃfuiġir &c.|
|3.||ġeoḃaiḋ sé||ḃfuiġiḋ sé|
|2.||ġeoḃaiḋ siḃ||ḃfuiġiḋ siḃ|
|ġeoḃainn or ġeaḃainn||ḃfuiġinn or ḃfaiġinn|
|ġeoḃṫá, &c.||ḃfuiġir, &c.|
|ġeoḃaḋ sé||ḃfuiġeaḋ sé|
|ġeoḃaḋ siḃ||ḃfuiġeaḋ siḃ|
|Present,||faġad, faġair, faġaiḋ sé, &c.|
|Past,||faġainn, faġtá, faġaḋ sé, &c.|
faġta, faiġte or faċta.
The derivative participles of this verb are usually formed from the genitive of the verbal noun.
ion-ḟaġála, so-ḟaġála, do-ḟaġála.
|3. deunaḋ sé||deunaidís|
|1.||(do-) ġním (ġniḋim)||deunaim|
|2.||„ ġnír &c.||deunair|
|3.||„ ġní sé or ġníonn sé||deunann sé|
|2.||„ ġníṫí||deunann siḃ|
In present-day usage deunaim, &c., are very frequently used in the Absolute construction.
|„ ġníṫeá, &c.||deunta|
|„ ġníoḋ sé||deunaḋ sé|
|„ ġníoḋ siḃ||deunaḋ siḃ|
|„ rinnis, &c.||deárnais|
|„ rinne sé||deárna sé|
In Munster dialect deineas, ḋeinis, ḋein sé, ḋeineamar, deineaḃar, and ḋeineadar are used as the Past Tense in both absolute and dependent constructions.
|ABSOLUTE AND DEPENDENT.|
|deunad||deunair||deunaiḋ sé||deunamaoid, &c.|
|deunainn||deuntá||deunaḋ sé||deunamaois, &c.|
|deunaṁ (deunaḋ)||gen. deunta|
|1. —||feicimís (feiceam)|
|3. feiceaḋ sé||feicidís|
387. The imperative 2nd sing. and 2nd plural are hardly ever found; for we rarely command or ask a person to “see” anything, except in the sense of “look at” it. In Irish a distinct verb is always used in the sense of “look at,” such as feuċ, dearc, breaṫnuiġ, &c. The verb feuċ must not be confounded with feic; it is a distinct verb, and has a complete and regular conjugation.
388. In early modern Irish faic was the stem used in the imperative and in the dependent construction throughout the entire verb.
|1. do-ċím (ċiḋim)||feicim|
|2. do-ċír, &c.||feicir|
|3. do-ċí sé, ċíonn sé||feiceann sé|
|2. do-ċíṫí||feiceann siḃ|
390. The prefix do-, now usually dropped, is an altered form of the old prefix at—e.g., atċím. This form survives in the spoken language only in the Ulster form, ’tím or tiḋim, &c.
|1. do-ċínnm (ċiḋinn)||feicinn|
|2. do-ċíṫeá, &c.||feicṫeá|
|3. do-ċíoḋ sé||feiceaḋ sé|
|2. do-ċíoḋ siḃ||feiceaḋ siḃ|
In spoken language feicinn, &c., is used in both Absolute and Dependent constructions.
Ulster usage, tiḋeann, tiḋṫeá, &c.
|3.||ċonnaic sé||(ċonnairc sé)||faca sé||feaca sé|
|Autonomous,||conncas||facas or facṫas|
The older spelling was atċonnac and atċonnarc, &c. The t is still preserved in the Ulster dialect: ṫanaic me, &c., I saw.
In the Future and Conditional feicfead, &c., and feicfinn, &c., can be used in both constructions.
|Present,||feicead, feicir, feiciḋ sé, &c.|
|Past,||feicinn, feicṫeá, feiceaḋ sé, &c.|
- feicsint, feiscint, gen. feicseana.
From the genitive of the verbal noun the compound participles are formed: viz., in-ḟeicseana, so-ḟeicseana, do-ḟeicseana.
These two verbs are quite regular except in the Past Tense.
In old writings the particle at or do- is found prefixed to all the tenses in the absolute construction, but this particle is now dropped.
|clos or cloisint (or more modern cluinsint or cloistin).|
|SING.||1. —||PLUR.||tigimís (tigeam)|
|3. tigeaḋ (tagaḋ) sé||tigidís|
|3. tig sé||tigid|
The Present Tense has also the forms tagaim or teagaim inflected regularly.
- ṫiginn, ṫagainn, or teagainn, regularly.
The ng in this Tense is not sounded like ng in long, a ship, but with a helping vowel between them—e.g., 2nd pers. sing.—is pronounced as if written ṫánagais; but in Munster the g is silent except in the 3rd pers. sing.—e.g., ṫángas is pronounced haw-nuss.
404. Future Tense, tiocfad, &c., inflected regularly; also spelled tiucfad, &c.
Conditional, ṫiocfainn, &c., inflected regularly.
Present, tigead, tagad, or teagad, inflected regularly.
Past, tiginn, tagainn, or teagainn, inflected regularly.
406. Verbal Noun, teaċt (or tioḋaċt, tiḋeaċt)
- Participle, teagṫa or tagṫa.
N.B.—The present stem is also spelled téiḋ, but téiġ is preferable, as it better represents the older form, tiag or téig.
|1. —||téiġimís (téiġeam)|
|3. téiġeaḋ sé||téiġidís|
409. In the Imperative 2nd sing. and 2nd plur. other verbs are now usually substituted, such as gaḃ, imṫiġ, téiriġ. The use of téiriġ, plur. téiriġiḋ, seems to be confined to these two forms; imṫiġ has a full, regular conjugation.
|1. téiġim (téiḋim)||1. téiġimíd|
|2. téiġir &c.||2. téiġṫí|
|3. téiġ sé, téiġeann sé||3. téiġid|
ṫéiġinn (or ṫéiḋinn), &c., regularly.
|3. ċuaiḋ sé||deaċaiḋ sé|
In Munster ċuadas, &c., is used in the dependent construction, as níor ċuaiḋ sé, he did not go. Deaġas, &c., is also used in Munster.
|1. raċad, raġad||raċamaoid, raġamaoid|
|2. raċair, raġair||raċaiḋ siḃ, raġaiḋ siḃ|
|3. raċaiḋ sé, raġaiḋ sé||raċaid, raġaid|
|Relative, raċas, raġas.|
|Autonomous, raċṫar, raġṫar.|
raċainn or raġainn, &c., regularly.
The Future and Conditional are sometimes spelled raċfad, &c., and raċfainn, &c.
|Present,||téiġead, téiġir, téiġiḋ sé, &c.|
|Past,||téiġinn, téiġṫeá, téiġeaḋ sé, &c.|
dul, gen. dola (sometimes dulta).
Participle of Necessity.
dulta (as, ní dulta ḋó, he ought not to go).
ion-dola, so-ḋola, do-ḋola.
This verb is regular except in the Future and Conditional.
|1. íosad (íosfad)||íosamaoid|
|2. íosair, &c.||íosaiḋ siḃ|
|3. íosaiḋ sé||íosaid|
|Relative, íosas (íosfas).|
|1. íosainn (íosfainn)||íosamaois|
|2. íostá, &c.||íosaḋ siḃ|
|3. íosaḋ sé||íosaidís|
|3. duaiḋ sé||duaḋadar|
RIĠIM, I REACH.
420. This verb is nearly obsolete, its place being taken by the regular verbs sroiċim and sroisim.
Its Past Tense is inflected like tánag.
|1. rángas, ránag||rángamar|
|3. ráinig sé||rángadar|
roċtain or riaċtain.
Riġim has a special usage in the phrase riġim a leas, “I need,” (whence, riaċtanas, need, necessity: riaċtanaċ, necessary: from the verbal noun.)
MARḂAIM or MARḂUIĠIM, I KILL.
422. This verb is quite regular except in Future and Conditional.
Future, maróḃad, marḃóċad, maireóḃad, mairḃeóċad or muirḃfead (with usual terminations).
Conditional, ṁaróḃainn, ṁarḃóċainn, ṁaireoḃainn, ṁairḃeóċainn or ṁuirḃfinn, &c., &c.
marḃaḋ or marḃuġaḋ, to kill or killing.
SOME DEFECTIVE VERBS.
423. AR, quoth, say or said. This verb is used only when the exact words of the speaker are given. (It corresponds exactly with the Latin “inquit.”) It is frequently written arsa or ars, as arsa mise, said I. When the definite article immediately follows this latter form the s is often joined to the article, as, ars an fear or ar san fear, says the man. “Cia ṫú féin?” ar seisean. “Who are you?” said he.
When the exact words of the speaker are not given translate “says” by deir, and “said” by duḃairt. When the word “that” is understood after the English verb “say” go (or naċ if “not” follows) must be expressed in Irish.
424. DAR, It seems or it seemed. This verb is always followed by the preposition LE: as, dar liom, it seems to me, methinks; or, it seemed to me, methought. Dar leat. It seems to you. Dar leis an ḃfear. It seemed to the man.
425. FEADAR, I know, I knew. This verb is nearly always used negatively or interrogatively, and although really a past tense has a present meaning as well as a past. Ní ḟeadar. I do, or did, not know. Ní ḟeadair sé. He does not know, or he did not know.
|1. feadar||1. feadramar|
|2. feadrair (-ír)||2. feadraḃar|
|3. feadair sé||3. feadradar|
N.B.—The forms just given are those used in the spoken language, the literary forms are: feadar, feadair tú, feadair sé, feadamar, feadaḃar, and feadadar.
426. ṪÁRLA, There came to pass, it happened or happened to be. It is also used to express the meeting of one person with another.
427. D’ḞÓBAIR or BA ḊÓBAIR, “It all but happened.” E.g., d’ḟóbair ḋam tuitim, It all but happened to me to fall, I had like to fall, I had well nigh fallen. The same meaning is expressed by d’ḟóbair go dtuitfinn.
428. FEUDAIM, I can, is regular in all its tenses, but it has no imperative mood.
- A few of these take te in past participle; as osgail, open, osgailte; ceangail, bind, ceangailte. The parts of these verbs [258 c.] which are formed from the past participle will, of course, have slender terminations, e.g., d’osgailteá, you used to open.
- The early modern form, viz., taoi, is still used in Munster, e.g., Cionnus taoi? (or Cionnus taoi’n tú?) How are you?
- This a is usually heard in the spoken language