Graiméar na Gaedhilge

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Graiméar na Gaedhilge  (1906) 
Christian Brothers
Graiméar na Gaeḋilge leis na bráiṫreaċaiḃ críostaṁla

1906


Dublin: M. H. Gill & Son.


THIRD EDITION – REVISED.

CAHILL & CO., Printers, Dublin.

PREFACE.


THE Grammar of Spoken Irish presents many difficulties owing to the forms peculiar to different places, but as the literary usage embraces the dialects current in different localities, save a few archaic survivals, the literary usage has been adopted as the standard of this grammer.

Modern Irish may be said to date from the end of the 16th, or the beginning of the 17th century. At the commencement of the modern period many forms are found which belong to an earlier period, and many forms which have since grown obsolete, side by side with those by which they have since been replaced. We have deemed it advisable not to introduce into this grammer any obsolete grammatical forms, how prominent soever they may be in early modern literature. However, as students preparing for public examinations are frequently required to read the works of early modern authors, we have added in the present edition an appendix containing the verb-system of early modern Irish. Such early modern grammatical forms as survive only within a small area are not given in the large type; on the other hand, those grammatical forms generally found in literature, and which are still in use in any one of the three Irish-speaking Provinces, are given in the large print in preference to those more generally used by Irish speakers, but which are not found in literary works. It is hoped that this method may help to popularise Irish literature, and to reconcile in some degree the slight discrepancies which exist between the spoken and the literary usages.

In the present Grammar the letters l, n, and r are reckoned among the aspirable consonants, and s is omitted from the eclipsable ones. The declension of verbal nouns is transferred from the third declension to the chapter on the verbs. A collection of heteroclite nouns is inserted. The usual declension of the personal pronouns is not employed, and the terms Conjunctive and Disjunctive pronouns are adopted. The naming of the four principal parts of an Irish verb, the treatment of the Autonomous form of conjugation, the rejection of compound prepositions, infinitive mood, and present participle form a few of the features of this grammar. Among the appendices will be found lists of words belonging to the various declensions, of verbs of both conjugation, and of irregular verbal nouns.

Many of the rules have been taken from the "O'Growney Series" and from the "Gaelic Journal." The grammars of Neilson, O'Donovan, Bourke, Craig, and of many other authors, have been consulted. The chapter on the classification of the uses of the prepositions is based on Dr. Atkinson's edition of Keating's Trí Bior-ghaoithe an Bháis. Some of the sentences which illustrate the rules have been culled, with the author's permission, from the Mion-chaint of the Rev. Peter O'Leary, P.P.

In the present edition the enunciation of the rule Caol le caol ⁊ leathan le leathan has been modified so as to bring it more into harmony with the spoken language. The sections on the Relative pronouns, Demonstrative pronouns, Adverbs, and Conjunctions have been greatly enlarged and improved. A large collection of Idiomatic expressions and an exhaustive Index have been also added.

The Christian Brothers acknowledge with pleasure their indebtedness to Mr. John McNeill, B.A., and Rev. Peter O'Leary, P.P., for their generous and invaluable aid in the production of this grammar. To Mr. R. J. O'Mulrenin, M.A., Mr. J. H. Lloyd, to Mr. Shortall, and to many other friends their best thanks are due, and gratefully tendered.


CONTENTS.




  Page
The Letters 1
Sounds of the Vowels 2
The Diphthongs 2
The Triphthongs 3
Consonants, Division of the 4
  „   Combination of the 6
Accent 6
 „  Words distinguished by 7
Obscure Sounds of the Vowels 7
Aspiration, Explanation of 9
  „   How marked 10
  „   Rules for 11
Eclipsis 13
 „  Rules for 15
  Insertion of n 16
     „  t 17
     „  h 18
Attenuation and Broadening 18
Caol le caol ⁊ leathan le leathan 19
Syncope, Explanation of 20
  „   Examples of 21
The Article 23
  „   Initial changes produced by 23
Gender, Rules for 26
Cases, Number of 28
 „  Rules for formation of the 28
First Declension 30
   „    Examples of vowel-changes 33
   „    Irregular Genitive Singular 34
   „    Irregular Nominative Plural 34
Second Declension 36
   „    Examples of vowel-changes 37
   „    Irregular Genitive Singular 39
   „    Irregular Nominative Plural 39
Third Declension 41
   „    Irregular Nominative Plural 44
Fourth Declension 45
   „    Irregular Nominative Plural 46
Fifth Declension 47
Heteroclite Nouns 51
Irregular Nouns 52
The Adjective 56
   „    First Declension 56
   „    Second Declension 59
   „    Third Declension 60
   „    Fourth Declension 60
   „    Aspiration of 61
   „    Eclipsis of 62
   „    Comparison of 63
   „    Irregular Comparison 68
   Numeral Adjectives 69
    „    „   Notes on 71
   Personal Numerals 73
   Possessive Adjectives 74
   Demonstrative „ 78
   Indefinite   „ 79
   Distributive  „ 82
   Interrogative  „ 82
   Intensifying Particles 66
   Emphatic   „ 75
   Translation of “Some” 80
     „    “Any” 81
The Pronoun
   Personal 83
   Reflexive 84
   Conjunctive and Disjunctive 85
   Neuter Pronoun eadh 86
   Prepositional 87
   Relative 91
   Demonstrative 93
   Indefinite 94
   Distributive 95
   Interrogative 96
   Reciprocal 97
The Verb
   Conjugations, Number of 98
      „    Three forms of 99
      „    Autonomous form of 100
   Moods, Number of 102
   Tenses, Number of 103
    „  Various forms of the 104
   Principle Parts of a Verb 106
      „    Examples of 107
First Conjugation 108
   „    Notes on Moods and Tenses of 112
   Rule for Aspiration of t of the Past Participle 116
   Participle of Necessity 116
   Derivative Participles 117
   Declension of Verbal Nouns 118
Second Conjugation 118
   Verbs in igh and uigh 119
   Syncopated Verbs 120
Rules for formation of Verbal Noun 125
   Irregular Verbs 127
Irregular Verbs, Absolute and Dependent forms of 138
   Táim 127
   Is 133
   Beir 136
   Tabhair 137
   Abair 140
   Gabh 142
   Fagh 142
   Deun 145
   Feic 147
   Clois or Cluin 150
   Tar 150
   Téigh (Téidh) 152
   Ith 154
   Righim 155
Defective Verbs
   Ar, Dar, Feadar 156
   Thárla, D’fhóbair, Feudaim 157
Adverbs 157
   Interrogative Words 160
   “Up and Down,” &c. 160
   “This side, that side,” &c. 162
   “Over” 162
   North, South, East, West 163
Compound or Phrase Adverbs 164
   Days of the Week 167
   “Head-foremost” 167
   “However” 168
   The Adverb “The” 168
Prepositions 168
Conjunctions 168
   Use of and ná go 170
   Use of mar 170
Interjections 171
Word-Building
   Prefixes 173
   Affixes 176
   Diminutives 178
     „  in ín 179
     „  in án 179
     „  in óg 180
   Derivative Nouns 181
   Compound Nouns 182
   Derivative Adjectives 186
   Verbs derived from Nouns 190
     „  „     Adjectives 191
Syntax of the Article 192
   Article used in Irish but not in English 193
Syntax of the Noun 196
   Apposition 197
   Collective Nouns 197
   Personal Numerals 198
   Personal Nouns 199
Syntax of the Adjective 201
   Adjective used Attributively 202
      „    Predicatively 204
   Numeral Adjectives 205
   Dual Number 209
   Possessive Adjectives 211
Syntax of the Pronoun 213
   Relative Pronoun 214
   Translation of the Genitive case of the English Relative 216
Syntax of the Verb 218
   Uses of the Subjunctive Mood 219
   Relative form of the Verb 221
Verbal Noun and its Functions 224
   How to translate the English Infinitive 226
   Definition of a Definite Noun 235
   When to use the Verb is 236
   Position of Words with is 240
   Translation of the English Secondary Tenses 241
   Prepositions after Verbs 243
   Translation of the Word “Not” 246
Syntax of the Preposition 249
   Translation of the Preposition “For” 256
      „     „    “Of” 260
   Uses of the Preposition 262
Specimens of Parsing 284
Idioms 289
Idiomatic Phrases 305
The Autonomous form of the Irish Verb 315
Appendices
   i. List of Nouns belonging to First Declension 325
327
   iii. List of Nouns belonging to Third Declension 329
   iv. List of Nouns belonging to Fifth Declension 333
   v. List of Irregular Verbal Nouns 334
   vi. List of Verbs of First Conjugation 336
   vii. List of Syncopated Verbs 338
339
   ix. Verb-System of Early Modern Irish 340
Index 343
This work was published before January 1, 1923 and it is anonymous or pseudonymous due to unknown authorship. It is in the public domain in the United States as well as countries and areas where the copyright terms of anonymous or pseudonymous works are 107 years or less since publication.