Grammatical Notices of the Burmese Language
BY A. JUDSON.
american baptist mission press
This work is printed, with a few corrections, from a manuscript prepared twenty six years ago, when the author had not a very extensive acquaintance with the Burmese language. He would not, however, have consented to publish it, had he not been satisfied, on a careful examination, that it exhibits a correct outline of the principles of the language, however deficient it may be in grammatical details.
It is committed to the press, as the most ready way of meeting frequent applications for the loan of the manuscript, and in the hope of stimulating some more industrious and ambitious person to furnish a work that shall deserve to be called a Grammar of the language; for the present slender compilation aspires to no higher title, than that of “Grammatical Notices.”
Maulmain, July, 1842.
GRAMMATICAL NOTICES, &c.
The Burmese alphabet consists of ten vowels, သရ, and thirty two consonants, ဗျည်း.
|က ka,||ခ hka,||ဂ ga,||ဃ ga,||င nga;|
|စ tsa,||ဆ htsa,||ဇ dza,||ဈ dza,||ဉ, ည nya;|
|ဋ ta,||ဌ hta,||ဍ da,||ဎ da,||ဏ na;|
|တ ta,||ထ hta,||ဒ da,||ဓ da,||န na;|
|ပ pa,||ဖ hpa,||ဗ ba,||ဘ ba,||မ ma;|
|ယ ya,||ရ ra,||လ la,||ဝ wa,|
|သ tha,||ဟ ha,||ဠ la.|
According to this arrangement, the first twenty five consonants are distributed into five classes. The letters of the first or က class are gutturals, ကဏ္ဌဇာ; those of the second or စ class are palatals, တာလုဇာ; those of the third or ဋ class are cerebrals, မုဒ္ဓဇာ; those of the fourth or တ class are dentals, ဒန္တဇာ; and those of the fifth or ပ class are labials, ဩဌဇာ.
The first letter of each class is a simple, smooth and soft; the third is the same, rough and hard; the second is the aspirate of the first; the fourth, according to the Sungskrit system, whence the alphabet is derived, is the aspirate of the third, but according to the Burmese pronunciation, is the same; and the fifth is the corresponding nasal.
The pronunciation of the cerebrals and the dentals, though different in the Sungskrit, is the same in the Burmese.
Of the seven remaining consonants, five are liquids, viz. ယ, ရ, လ, ဝ, and ဠ; သ is properly a sibilant, but pronounced th, and ဟ is an aspirate.
The cerebrals and the letter ဠ are found only in words derived from the Sungskrit or Pali.
The names and powers of the letters are as follows:—
|ကကြီး, great ka,||k, as in king.|
|ခခွေ, curved hka,||hk, k aspirated.|
|ဂငယ်, small ga,||g, as in good.|
|ဃကြီး, great ga,||the same.|
|င, nga,||ng, as in rang.|
|စလုံး, round tsa,||ts.|
|ဆလိမ်, twisted htsa,||hts, ts aspirated.|
|ဇခွဲ, divided dza,||dz.|
|ဈ or စာမြင်းဆွဲ, bridle dza,||the same.|
|ဉ or ည, nya,||ny.|
|ဋသံလျင်းချိတ်, bier-hook ta,||t, as in time.|
|ဌဝမ်ပဲ, duck hta,||ht, t aspirated.|
|ဍရင်ကောက်, crooked breast da,||d, as in done.|
|ဎရေမှုပ်, water-dipper da,||the same.|
|ဏကြီး, great na,||n, as in not.|
|တဝပ်ပု, abdominous ta,||t, as in time.|
|ထဆင်ထူး, elephant-fetter hta,||ht, t aspirated.|
|ဒထွေး, little da,||d, as in done.|
|ဓအောက်ခြိုက်, bottom-indented da, (formerly written ,)||the same.|
|နငယ်, small na,||n, as in not.|
|ပစောက်, steep or deep pa,||p, as in part.|
|ဖဦးထုပ်, capped hpa,||hp, p aspirated.|
|ဗထက်ခြိုက်, top-indented ba,||b, as in book.|
|ဘကုန်း, hump-backed ba,||the same.|
|မ, ma,||m, as in make.|
|ယပက်လက်, supine ya,||y, as in young.|
|ရကောက်, crooked ra,||r, as in run, or y, as above.|
|လ, la,||l, as in love.|
|ဝ, wa,||w, as in word.|
|သ, tha,||th, soft, as in thin, or th, hard, as in this.|
|ဟ, ha,||h, as in home.|
|ဠကြီး, great la,||l, as in love.|
The character ံ called နိဂ္ဂဟိတ် or သေးသေးတင်, is reckoned among the consonants, by the Burmese. It is placed over the letter, with which it is combined, and has the power of a final မ, divested of its inherent heavy accent (see Accents;) thus သံ, than.
Compound Consonants are formed by combining one or more of the letters ယ, ရ, ဝ, and ဟ under symbolic forms, with simple consonants, according to the following table:—
|ရ||ြ||ရရစ်||မြ||mra or mya.|
|ယ & ဝ||ျွ||ယပင်ဝဆွဲ||မျွ||mywa.|
|ရ & ဝ||ြွ||ရရစ်ဝဆွဲ||မြွ||mrwa or mywa.|
|ယ & ဟ||ျှ||ဟထိုးယပင်||မျှ||hmya.|
|ရ & ဟ||ြှ||ဟထိုးရရစ်||မြှ||hmra or hyma.|
|ဝ & ဟ||ွှ||ဟထိုးဝဆွဲ||မွှ||hmwa.|
The letter ဟ, in the capacity of an aspirate, is combined with the nasals, and the letters လ and ဝ. When combined with ယ or ရ, the compound has the power of sh, as ရှန်, shan. သျှ has the same power, and sometimes လျှ also. ငြ is equivalent to ည, and ယျ to ယ.
Vowels combined with Consonants.
Vowels combined with consonants, simple or compound, are represented by symbols, according to the following table:—
The vowel အ has no symbol, being understood after every consonant, that is not furnished with the symbol of another vowel, or made final in the syllable. See Final Consonants.
The second symbol of the vowel အာ is used, whenever the use of the first would convert the consonant into another letter,—also with ခ and င.
The symbols of the vowels ဣ and ဥ, when united and combined with a consonant, have the power of o, as in note; thus ကို, ko. If they close a syllable, ဝ် may optionally follow, without occasioning any change in the pronunciation, thus ကို and ကိုဝ် are equivalent.
The symbol of any vowel maybe combined with အ, in which case the compound has the power of the vowel which the symbol represents; thus အိ is equivalent to ဣ, အု to ဥ, &c.
When a consonant ends a syllable or is final, it is distinguished by the mark ် over it, thus က်, or by another consonant subjoined, thus က္ခ.
It sometimes happens, however, that two consonants, one placed under the other, are both initials, and therefore come not under the preceding remark, but are to be regarded as a mere abbreviation; thus သ္မား is equivalent to သမား.
A double ဉ is written ည, the same as one form of the single. ဋ, with ဌ subjoined is commonly written ဌ. A double သ is written ဿ.
Final consonants generally assume a new and peculiar power, and also modify the preceding vowel. These permutations are exhibited in the following table:—
As an appendix to the foregoing table, note—
1. Cerebrals, when final, are the same as dentals.
2. The 3d letter of each class is the same as the 1st.
3. The 2d and 4th letters of each class never occur as finals, except in some words derived from the Pali, when they are mute, as မိုဃ်း, from မေဃ, the sky, pronounced as မိုး.
4. ဠ် is the same as လ်.
5. ဝ် and ဟ် are mute.
6. အာ before a final, gives the syllable the same power as အ; thus အာရ် is pronounced an.
The final syllables, as exhibited above, are combined with any consonant simple or compound, as ကက် ket, ကျင် kyen, &.c. without any change in their pronunciation, except in two cases, viz. ဝ before ဠ်, တ်, ပ်, or သ်, is commonly pronounced wōt, not wāt, and before ဏ်, န်, မ်, လ်, or ံ, wōn or woon, not wan; and consonants compounded with ဝ, as ကွ, စွ, &c. before ဠ်, တ်, ပ် or သ်, are commonly pronounced kooat, tsooat, &c. and before ဏ်, န်, မ်, လ်, or ံ, kooan, tsooan, &c.
The sound of a final consonant is frequently lost or absorbed, in the initial consonant of the following syllable or word, as အက္ခရာ ekara, not etkara; and sometimes modified thereby, as သင်ဘော thembau, not thenbau. But these permutations, being dictates of nature, will be naturally acquired without rule.
The heavy accent း, called ဝိသဇ္ဇနိနှစ်လုံး (vulgarly ဝတ်စနှစ်လုံး) or ရှေ့ပေါက် is placed after the letter, thus ကန်း. It is used with the vowels အာ, ဤ, ဦ, ဧ and အို, and the nasal consonants. This accent is considered as inherent in the vowel အဲ (unless superseded by the light accent,) and the final consonant မ်, when combined with the vowel အ. In these cases, therefore, it is frequently omitted, as superfluous.
|၏||ဧည့်||° (over a letter)||က်|
ယ is sometimes represented by its symbol, after က်, as ယောက်ျား for ယောက်ယား, လက်ျာ for လက်ယာ.
င် is frequently removed from its natural situation in the line, and placed over the following letter, as သင်္ဘော for သင်ဘော.
The mark ။ is used to separate sentences, and sometimes, the clauses of a sentence.
The double mark ။ ။ is used to divide paragraphs.
PARTS OF SPEECH.
In the Burmese language, there are five parts of speech, viz. Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, and Interjections.
Nouns are of three kinds, common, which are names of whole species; proper, which are names of individuals, as distinguished from others of the same species; and personal, commonly called personal nouns, which are names of individuals, relatively considered, as speaking, spoken to, and spoken of.
Under common nouns, are included two kinds of derivatives, the simple and the compound. Simple derivatives are mostly formed from verbal roots, by affixing အ, as အလင်း, light, from လင်း, to be light; but in composition, the အ is commonly dropped, as ညစာ, for ညအစာ, supper, or evening food. The same is true of all nouns, whose initial is a syllabic အ; and sometimes even when a syllable or word is affixed, as ခက်မ for အခက်မ, a large branch. Compound derivatives will be considered under the head of Verbal Nouns.
A common noun, in its simple state, divested of all definitive adjuncts, is often a noun of multitude, as လူသေတတ်သည်, man is mortal; but the plural of all nouns is regularly formed by affixing ကို့, pronounced ဒို့, to the singular, as လူ, man, လူကို့, men. များ, many, is sometimes used instead of ကို့.
Gender is distinguished, sometimes by a different word, as ယောက်ျား, a man, မိမ္မ, a woman; sometimes by the feminine aﬁix မ or ကတော်, as ရဟန်း, a priest, (of Boodh,) ရဟန်းမ, a priestess, မင်း, a governor, မင်းကတော်, a governess; and sometimes by affixing ထီး, or ဖ, or ဖို, for the masculine, and မ for the feminine, as ခွေးထီး, a dog, ခွေးမ, a bitch, ကြက်ဖ, a cock, ကြက်မ, a hen, ငန်းဖို, a gander, ငန်းမ, a goose.
The relations of nouns, expressed, in most languages, by prepositions or inflections, are here expressed by particles affixed to the noun, without any inflection of the noun itself, except in some of the personal nouns. The affixes of case are as follows:—
|သည်, denoting the agent or subject.|
မူကား, sometimes မူ,
|ditto; as to, concerning, in regard to; sometimes adversative.|
The nominative affixes are omitted in participial clauses, as ဆရာပြောသောစကား, what the teacher said, and frequently in colloquial discourse.
ကို, denoting the object, on which an action terminates; sometimes, the object to which a thing is given, or for which, or on account of which a thing is done; sometimes, the object to which motion is directed.
သို့, towards, unto; according to; at.
The objective aﬁixes are sometimes understood, as ရေပေးပါ, give water, for ရေကိုပေးပါ.
၏, of, denoting possession; very frequently understood.
အား, to; sometimes objective.
ငှါ, for, in order to; chiefly used with verbal nouns, and verbs used substantively.
ကြောင့်, because of, on account of; sometimes instrumentive.
မို့, ditto, but seldom used in writing.
ဖြင့်, by, by means of.
နှင့်, with, together with; sometimes instrumentive, by means of; sometimes causative, on account of.
တွင်, in, at, among; sometimes possessive.
နှိုက်, or ၌, ditto.
မှာ, ditto.; in presence of; as to, concerning, in regard of.
က, from; out of; sometimes nominative; sometimes locative;
မှ, from; out of; besides; sometimes locative.
ကဲ့သို့, as, like as.
လိုလို, a little like.
Certain verbal affixes, as တုံ, လေ, ပေ, ပါ, and ပေါ့, when affixed to nouns, are merely expletive.
The vocative is expressed by the noun, in a simple state, divested of all affixes. Sometimes in grave discourse, it is indicated by အို prefixed, as အိုဆရာ, O teacher.
Some relations of nouns are expressed by means of secondary nouns, which take some of the preceding affixes, and are connected with the principal nouns by ၏, the sign of the possessive, expressed or understood, as in the following examples:—
အပေါ် an upper part; အိမ်၏အပေါ်မှာ or အိမ်ပေါ်မှာ, above, over, or upon the house.
အထက်, ditto. အိမ်ထက်မှာ, ditto.
အောက်, an under part; အိမ်အောက်မှာ, under the house.
ရှေ့, a forepart; အိမ်ရှေ့မှာ, before the house.
နောက်, a hind part; အိမ်နောက်မှာ, behind the house.
အပ, an outside; အိမ်ပမှာ, without the house.
အပြင်, ditto; အိမ်ပြင်မှာ, ditto.
အထဲ, an inside; အိမ်ထဲမှာ, within the house.
အတွင်း, ditto; အိမ်တွင်းမှာ, ditto.
အနား, aside; အိမ်နားမှာ, by the house.
အနီး, a near part, nearness; အိမ်နီးမှာ, near the house.
အထံ, presence; မင်းထံမှာ, in presence of the governor.
ဆီ, ditto; မင်းဆီမှာ, ditto.
အညာ, an upper part; မြစ်ညာသို့, up the river.
အကျေ, a lower part; မြစ်ကျေသို့, down the river.
The following secondary nouns are commonly used without an affix; and in some instances, are connected with the principal nouns, by နှင့် instead of ၏.
အဖို့, a part, portion; အိမ်ဖို့ or, ဘို့, for the house.
အထက်ဆုံး, summit, extremity; အသက်ထက်ဆုံး, through or to the end of life.
ပတ်လည်, a circuit; အိမ်ပတ်လည်, round the house.
ဝန်ကျင်း, ditto; အိမ်ဝတ်ကျင်း, ditto.
ထက်ဝန်းကျင်, ditto; အိမ်ထက်ဝန်းကျင်, ditto.
ပတ်လုံး, a whole circuit; ကာလပတ်လုံး, during or throughout the time.
အညီ, evenness, accordance; အလိုနှင့်အညီ or အလို၏အညီ according to (his) will.
အတိုင်း, measurement; အလိုနှင့်အတိုင်း or အလို၏အတိုင်း, ditto.
အလျောက် an agreeing with; အလိုနှင့်အလျောက် or အလို၏အလျောက်, ditto.
အမျှ, as much as; ဆရာနှင့်အမျှတတ်သည်, to know as much as the teacher.
အတူ, a being with; ဆရာနှင့်အတူ, with the teacher.
အကွ, ditto; ဆရာနှင့်အကွ, ditto.
N. B. In some instances, the numeral တ is optionally substituted for the formative အ, as ဆရာနှင့်တမျှ, ဆရာနှင့်တကွ.
Some relations of nouns are expressed by means of verbs also, as from တိုင်သည်, to arrive at, reach, may be formed—
အိမ်တိုင်အောင်, (with a continuative affix,) unto or as far as the house.
ကာလတိုင်အောင်, until the time.
ပြည်တိုင်တိုင်, (the root doubled,) through the country.
ကာလတိုင်တိုင်, during the time;—in which cases, တိုင် or သို့ is understood after the noun and sometimes expressed.
ငါ, I, masculine or feminine, is used by a person in speaking to himself of himself, and in addressing inferiors.
ကွှန်နုပ်, ကွှန်ုပ်, or ကျုပ်, I, mas. or fem. is used in addressing equals, and in addressing inferiors politely.
ကျန်တော်, a servant, ကျွန်တော်မ, ကျွန်မ, or ကျမ, a female servant, တပည့်တော်, a disciple, and တပည့်တော်မ, a female disciple, are used as first personals in addressing superiors.
အကျွန်, I, fem. is of similar import with ကျွန်မ, but not in common use.
N. B. The plural affix တို့ is sometimes used for the plural of the first personal.
တိုယ်တော်, thou, mas. or fem. is used to a superior; မင်း, you, mas. to an equal or an inferior; မောင်မန်း, you, mas. to an inferior; မင်းမာ, you; mas. to an inferior, expressive of disapprobation, ညည်း or ညဲ, you, fem. to an equal or an interior; and နင်, you, mas. or fem. to children or persons very inferior.
သင်, thou, or you, mas. or fem. is used chiefly in writing, and is irrespective of the relative rank of the parties. ချင်း, you, mas. or fem. is used in judicial language.
ကွယ်, you, mas. or fem. familiar, and ဟယ်, you, mas. or fem. disrespectful, are used vocatively only. ကွယ်, makes ကရို့, and ဟယ်, ဟရို့, in the plural.
သူ, a person, mas. or fem. supplies the place of the third personals, he and she.
သင်း, that (person or thing,) mas. fem. or neut. may also be regarded as a third personal.
ကိုယ် & ကိုယ်တိုင်, one’s self, i. e. myself, yourself, or himself, mas. or fem. are of either person, as the connection requires.
မိမိ, one’s self, mas. or fem. is conﬁned to the second and third persons.
inflection of personal nouns.
The personal nouns, ငါ, သင်, & သူ, in the singular number, not preceded or followed by any adjective or participial adjunct, become င, သင့်, & သု, before the oblique, unaspirated affixes (except သို့,) viz. ကို, အား, ကြောင့်, တွင်, & ၏ understood; but when used nominatively, or followed by သို့, or by ၏ expressed, or by an aspirated affix, ဖြင့်, နှင့်, ၌, မှာ, or မှ, they retain their proper form. Other personal nouns, ending in a nasal, are similarly inﬂected.
Adjectives are of three kinds, pronominal, verbal, and numeral.
Adjectives of either kind are prefixed to their nouns, by means of the connective သည် or သော, if singular, and the same, or ကုန်သည် or ကုန်သော, if plural, or directly affixed. But to this general rule; there are several exceptions, particularly in the pronominals.
An adjective and noun, united in either way, form a compound word, which admits the plural affix, and the affixes of case, the same as a simple noun.
The following pronominals are prefixed to their nouns, in some cases, with, and in some, without a connective,—ရော, နင့်, or နံ့ being occasionally substituted for သော, before words of time:—
ဤ, this, as ဤလူ, this man; ဤသည်နေ့, this day.
ထို that, as ထိုလူ, that person; ထိုသောအခါ, or ထိုရောအခါ, that time.
ဟို, & ဟုပ်, that,—colloquial.
အဘယ်, or ဘယ်, what?—occasionally contracted to အ, before သူ, as အသူ, for အဘယ်သူ, who? and to ဘ, before ဟာ, as ဘဟာ, what thing? In negative sentences, it combines with the negative particle မ, to signify none, as ဘယ်သူမရှိ, there is no one.
မည်, what? whatever. N. B. မည်သည်, ditto, is directly prefixed or affixed.
ဤမည်, such, indefinite.
The following pronominals are prefixed to their nouns, with the usual connectives:—
ဤသို့, သည်သို့ such, of this sort.
ထိုသို့, ယင်းသို့, such, of that sort.
အဘယ်သို့, (by contraction အသို့,) ဘယ်သို့, မည်သို့, of what sort?
အကြင်သို့, of whatever sort.
ကဲ့သို့, and its compounds, such as.
The following, viz. အချို့, and တချို့, some, အချား, တချား, and တပါး, other, ခပ်သိမ်း and အလုံးစုံ, all, are joined to their nouns, according to the general rule, except that when prefixed, the connective is, in some instances, omitted. ခပ်သိမ်းစုံ, all, is prefixed with a connective.
တထူး, other, တကာ, and အားလုံး, all, and အလုံး, all, the whole, are uniformly affixed.
အလုံး, when affixed to a noun, or a numeral, auxiliary, frequently drops the အ, or changes it to စ, as အိမ်လုံး, or အိမ်စလုံး, the whole house, အိမ်သုံးခုလုံး, or အိမ်သုံးခုစလုံး, all the three houses. When affixed to a singular noun, the compound occasionally takes the numeral တ, one, before it, without a change of meaning, as တအိမ်လုံး, or တအိမ်စလုံး, the whole house, သင်္ဘောတစင်းလုံး the whole ship.
ဘယ်နှစ်, how many? is directly prefixed to numeral auxiliaries, or words denoting a part or quantity of a thing, as သရက်သီးဘယ်နှစ်လုံး, how many mangoes? သရက်သီးဘယ်နှစ်တင်း, how many baskets of mangoes?
So much, how much? &c. are expressed, by combining pronominals with such nouns as အမျှ, အလောက်, &c. denoting quantity, as ဤမျှ, so much, ဘယ်လောက်, ဘယ်မျှလောက်, how much?
Some pronominals are doubled to form a kind of plural, as ထိုထိုဥစ္စာ, those goods.
Pronominals are frequently used substantively, and in that character, admit the noun affixes.
Verbal adjectives are made, by joining verbal roots to nouns, according to the general rule, as မြတ်သောလူ, or လူမြတ်, an excellent man; but as the verbal root, when prefixed, is susceptible of the accidents of verbs, it is more correct to regard that construction as participial. See under Participial Affixes.
Verbal adjectives are also formed from verbal roots, by prefixing အ, as အသစ်, new, and by reduplicating the root, as ကောင်းကောင်း, good. Such adjectives are commonly affixed to their nouns; but အများ, from များ, to be many, follows the general rule, as အများသောဆရာ, or ဆရာအများ, many teachers.
The imperfect degree of comparison is sometimes made, by shortening and reduplicating the verbal root, as ချို့ချို့ sweetish, from ချို, to be sweet, ခခ, bitterish, from ခါး, to be bitter; sometimes, by aﬁixing ခပ် to the root reduplicated, as ခပ်ဆိုးဆိုး, rather bad; and sometimes, by shortening the root, and affixing reduplicated chiming increments, as ချို့တို့တို့ sweetish, ငန့်တန့်တန့်, saltish.
The comparative degree is made, by means of the secondary noun အထက်, or အောက်, and a verb, as အိမ်ထက်ကြီးသည်, to be greater than the house, or by a circumlocution of verbs, as သာ၍ကြီးသည်, to exceed in greatness, or be greater.
The superlative degree is made, by prefixing အ, and affixing ဆုံး to the verbal root, as အမြတ်ဆုံး, most excellent; and is joined to nouns, according to the general rule, as အမြတ်ဆုံးသောလူ, or လူအမြတ်ဆုံး, the most excellent man.
Numerals are generally combined with a word, descriptive of some quality in the noun to which they belong, and in that state, are joined to nouns, according to the general rule.
If the numeral is less than ten, the auxiliary word is affixed to it (the formative အ, whenever it occurs, being dropped,) as ခွက်နှစ်လုံး, or နှစ်လုံးသောခွက်, two cups, from ခွက်, a cup, နှစ်, two, and အလုံး, round; if it is a capital number, as ten, twenty, thirty, &c. two hundred, three hundred, &c. the auxiliary is prefixed to it, as ခွက်အလုံးနှစ်ဆယ်, or အလုံးနှစ်ဆယ်သောခွက်, twenty cups; and if it is a numeral, intervening between the capitals, the auxiliary is both prefixed and affixed, as ခွက်အလုံးနှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်လုံး, or အလုံးနှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်လုံးသောခွက်, twenty two cups. But in any case in which the auxiliary is prefixed, it may be omitted, as ဆရာအပါးနှစ်ဆယ်, or အပါးနှစ်ဆယ်သောဆရာ, twenty teachers, may be written ဆရာနှစ်ဆယ်, or နှစ်ဆယ်သောဆရာ, and ဆရာအပါးနှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်ပါး, or အပါးနှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်ပါးသောဆရာ, twenty two teachers, may be written ဆရာနှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်ပါး, or နှစ်ဆယ်နှစ်ပါးသောဆရာ.
The following is a list of the most common numeral auxiliaries, arranged alphabetically, with the classes of things to which they are applied:—
|Numeral Auxiliaries.||Classes of Things.|
|အကောင်, a brute animal.||Brute animals, as မျောက်တကောင်, one monkey.|
|အကြောင်း, a line.||Things extended in a line, as ခရီးနှစ်ကြောင်း, two roads.|
|အကွင်း, a circle or ring.||Rings, nooses, and such like, as လက်စွပ်သံးကွင်း, three rings.|
|အခု, an individual thing.||Things which admit no other word more descriptive, as ခတင်လေးခု, four bedsteads, ကုလားထိုင်ငါးခု, five chairs. Frequently used also instead of a more appropriate numeral auxiliary.|
|အချပ်, what is flat.||Things flat and thin, as ဖျာချောက်ချပ်, six mats.|
|အချောင်း, a bar or long piece.||Things long and straight, or nearly so, as အပ်ခုနှစ်ချောင်း, seven needles.|
|အခွန်း, voice.||Words, speech, as စကားရှစ်ခွန်း, eight words.|
|အစင်း, an extended line.||Things long and straight, or nearly so, as လှံကိုးစင်း, nine spears, သင်္ဘောဆယ်စင်း, ten ships.|
|အစီး, what is ridden upon.||Beasts of burden, vehicles of conveyance, as မြင်းတစီး, one horse; လှည်းနှစ်စီး, two carts.|
|အစောင်, (uncertain.)||Writings, as စာသုံးစောင်, three books or writings.|
|အဆူ, (uncertain.)||Deities, as ဘုရားလေးဆူ, four gods; also, pagodas, and some other articles.|
|အဆောင်, a building.||Buildings, as အိမ်ငါးဆောင်, five houses.|
|အတန်, intervening space.||Whatever occurs, at intervals of time or place, as အကျိုးချောက်တန်, six rewards.|
|အထည်, a piece of cloth.||Wearing apparel, as အင်္ကျီခုနှစ်ထည်, seven coats.|
|အပင်, a tree or plant.||Trees, plants, as သရက်ပင်ရှစ်ပင်, eighttrees; also, thread, hair, &c.|
|အပါး, (uncertain.)||Deities, ecclesiastics, persons in power, any respectable characters, things immaterial, as ဆရာကိုးပါး, nine teachers, သီလဆယ်ပါး; ten duties.|
|အပျား, what is flat.||Things which are flat, as ပျည်တပျား, one board.|
|အဖက်, one of a pair.||Things which are naturally joined in pairs, as လက်နှစ်ဖက်, two hands.|
|အလက်, an arm or hand.||Weapons, tools, whatever is used by the hand, as သေနတ်သုံးလက်, three guns.|
|အလုံး, what is round.||Things round or cubical, or approaching those forms, as အိုးလေးလုံး, four pots, သစ်တာငါးလုံး, five boxes.|
|အသွယ်, what is slender.||Things small in bulk, compared to the length, as မြစ်ချောက်သွယ်, six rivers.|
|ဦး, a head,||Rational beings, as ကုန်သည်ခုနှစ်ဦး, seven merchants.|
|ယောက်, (uncertain.)||Rational beings,—generally mankind or superior beings, as လူရှစ်ယောက်, eight men.|
Sometimes the noun itself becomes the numeral auxiliary, or is substituted for a descriptive word, as ရွာကိုးရွာ, nine villages, မင်းဆယ်မင်း, ten governors.
Words denoting some part or quantity of a thing are combined with numerals, in the same manner as words descriptive of a quality, there being no other difference in the cases, excepting that in the latter, the number of individual things merely is expressed; in the former, the number of the parts or quantities of the thing, as ရေနှစ်ခွက်, or နှစ်ခွက်သောရေ, two cups of water; စက္ကူအထုပ်နှစ်ဆယ်, or အထုပ်နှစ်ဆယ်သောစက္ကူ, twenty bundles of paper; နှစ်ရက်, two days, (ကာလ, time being understood) literally, two days of time.
The numeral တ, one, combined with a numeral auxiliary reduplicated, as တခုခု, တယောက်ယောက်, denotes some one, (out of several;) when combined with a numeral auxiliary, and the combination reduplicated, as တခုတခု, တယောက်တယောက်, it denotes one after another, (whether every one or several;) when combined with a numeral auxiliary, and followed by the same numeral, combined with လေ, as တခုတလေ, တယောက်တလေ, (sometimes reversed,) it denotes a few, now and then one, here and there one; when combined with a numeral auxiliary, and preceded by the same numeral, combined with စုံ, as တစုံတခု, တစုံတခုယောက်, it denotes some one, indefinite. Such combinations may be regarded as pronominal adjectives. They are joined to their nouns, according to the general rule.
Ordinal numerals are of Pali origin, and are prefixed to their nouns, as ဒုတိယခဏ်း, the second section. Ordinals are also made by affixing မြောက်, to raise, to cardinal numerals, modified as above, as နှစ်ယောက်မြောက်သောသား, the second son; နှစ်ရက်မြောက်သောနေ့, the second day.
There are a few adjectives, which, on account of some peculiarity, cannot be placed in either of the foregoing classes. Some of them are preﬁxed to their nouns, as မဟာ, great, အာကာ, extraordinary; some are either prefixed or affixed, as အနန္တ, inﬁnite, သာမည, ordinary; and some are affixed, as တိုင်း, every; ကလေး, small; တော် (honorific; ) မ, principal, chief among many; အတိ, pure, clear, free from mixture; ချင်း, single, one only, as တနေ့ချင်းတွင်, in a single day; တည်း, only, no more, used with numerals, as တခုတည်း, one only.
nouns used adjectively.
Nouns used adjectively may be distributed into three classes, viz:—
1. Names of races of men, of countries, towns, &c. when used to qualify a following noun, as အင်္ဂလိတ်, an Englishman, အင်္ဂလိတ်လူ, ditto, အင်္ဂလိတ်ပြည်, England, the country of the English; မြမ္မာ, a Burmese, မြမ္မာစကား, the Burmese language; ရန်ကုန်, Rangoon, the town of Rangoon, ရန်ကုန်မြို့ ditto, ရန်ကုန်သား, or ရန်ကုန်မြို့သား, a son or native of Rangoon.
2. Common nouns used to qualify a following noun, as ရွှေ, gold, ရွှေဖလား, a golden cup; မြောက် the north, မြောက်လမ်, the northern path; အညာ the upper part, (of a country,) အညာသား, an up-country person.
3. Names of trees, plants, and their parts, which are only used in combination with a following noun; thus from သံလွင်, the olive, are formed သံလွင်ပင်, an olive tree, သံလွင်ပွင့် an olive blossom, သံလွင်သီး. an olive (the fruit), သံလွင်ရွက်, an olive leaf.
Verbs are of two kinds, transitive, which express actions that pass from the agent to the object, as ရိုက်သည်, to strike, ချစ်သည်, to love; and intransitive, which express being, or some state of being, or an action which is conﬁned to the agent, as ဖြစ်သည်, to be, နေသည်, to remain, ကောင်းသည် to be good, ပျက်သည်, to be ruined, or in a state of ruin.
Many transitive verbs are formed from intransitive ones, by aspirating the initial letter. If the initial is the first letter of either of the five classes of consonants, it is changed for its corresponding aspirate, the second letter of the class, as ကျသည်, to fall, ချသည်, to throw down, or cause to fall; ပျက်သည်, to be ruined, ဖျက်သည်, to ruin; if the initial is a nasal, or an unclassed letter, it is combined with the letter ဟ, as ညွတ်သည်, to be bent down, ညွှတ်သည်, to bend down; လွတ်သည်, to be free, လွှတ်သည်, to make free.
accidents of verbs.
The accidents of verbs, expressed in most languages, by inflections, or auxiliary verbs, are here expressed by particles affixed to the verb, without any inflection of the verb itself. The verbal affixes are as follows:—
သည်, simply assertive, as သွားသည်, he goes; in certain combinations, written သော.
၏, same as သည်.
ဘူး, simply assertive, in negative sentences, as မသွားဘူး, he goes not,—chiefly colloquial.
ဆဲ, present, but scarcely used except substantively, as သွားဆဲဖြစ်သည်, he is going, (see Verbs used substantively,) or in a participial clause, according to the note below, as ယခုဖြစ်ဆဲသောအမှု, the business that now is, or the present business. In the substantive construction, it may be combined with a preceding future affix, as သွားလုဆဲ, or reduplicated, as သွားမည်ဆဲဆဲတွင်, when he was just about going.
ပြီ, past, as သွားပြီ, he went, or has gone; sometimes future.
အံ့, future, as သွားအံ့, he will go; sometimes equivalent to the continuative affix လျှင်, which see.
လတံ့, or လတ္တန့်, future.
N. B. The assertive affixes of tense, ဆဲ, ပြီ, အံ့, မည်, and လတံ့, occasionally lose their assertive power, and become auxiliary to a continuative, participial, or simply assertive affix, in which case ပြီ becomes ပြီး.
လျက်, denoting the continuance of an action, or state of being, during another, as သွားလျက်စားသည်, he eats as he goes; sometimes equivalent to လျှင်.
လျက်နှင့် denoting the continuance of an action, or state of being, during another, but somewhat inconsistent with it, as သွားလျက်နှင့်စားသည်, though going, he eats.
လျှင်, denoting 1st, the completion of an action, or state of being, prior to another, as သွားလျှင်သေသည်, having gone, he died; 2ndly, supposition or conditionality, as သွားလျှင်သေမည်, if he go, he will die.
သော်, same as လျှင်.
မူ, မူကား, ရကား, တမူကား, and တပြီးကား, in some combinations, equivalent to လျှင်.
မှ, denoting the completion of an action, prior to another.
ကတည်းက, from the first of; as သွားကတည်းက, from the first of his going.
သော်လည်း, though, notwithstanding, as သွားသော်လည်းမသေ, though he go, he will not die.
|ကစား, or လင့်ကစား,
အောင်, 1st, that, noting a consequence, so that, so as to, as သေအောင်သွားသည်, he went, so that he died; 2nd, that, noting a final end, in order to, as သေအောင်သွားသည်, he went, that he might die.
၍, and, as သွား၍သေဝည်, he went and died; sometimes pronounced လို့; sometimes equivalent to လျှင်.
(connected with the verbal root, by an assertive affix, သည် being commonly abbreviated to သ).
|as သွားသည်လော, does he go?|
|နည်း,—formal,||used in connection with an interrogative pronominal, as ဘယ်ကိုသွားသနည်း, whither does he go?|
စင့်, or စံ့, affixed to the root, without an intervening assertive affix, as သွားစင့်, does he go?—rather infrequent.
စို့, or စို့၏, first person plural, as သွားစို့, let us go.
ကြကုင်အံ့, ditto, preceded by the first personal, as ငါတို့သည်သွားကြကုန်အံ့, let us go, or we will go.
လော့, imperative proper, as သွားလော့, go.
နှင့်, prohibitory, မ being prefixed to the verb, as မသွားနှင့်, go not.
The simple root also is imperative, as well as when combined with certain of the euphonic, or qualifying affixes, as ပါ, တော့, ပေ, လေ, ချေ, ခဲ့, ဘိ, လိုက်, စေ, ရော့, ဦး, ရစ်, စမ်, &c. Some of these affixes are also variously combined with one another, and with the imperative affixes, to convey the ideas of intreaty, authority, &c.
စေသော, may, as သွားစေသော, may he go.
စေသတည်း, ditto, authoritatively, as ဖြစ်စေသတည်း, be it so.
သော, connecting the verb with a subsequent noun, being equivalent to the relative pronoun, in most languages, as မြတ်သောလူ, the excelling man, or the man who excels; ပြေးသောမြင်း, the running horse, or the horse which runs; ရောက်သောသင်္ဘော, the arriving ship, or the ship which arrives; sometimes contracted to သ, as ရှိသမျှ, as much as there is;—commonly omitted after the assertive future affix မည်.
Auxiliary Affixes of Tense.
သေး, denoting present continuance, as သွားသေးသည်, he is still going; မသွားသေး, he is still not gone, or he is not yet gone; sometimes denoting beside, more than, in addition, as ငစကားသာမဟုက်။စာရှိသေးသည်, there is not only my word, but there is scripture also.
ခဲ့, just past, as သွားခဲ့သည်, he has just gone; frequently written ကဲ့; very frequently euphonic.
ဘူး, past indefinite, as သွားဘူးသည်, he went. In negative sentences, prefixed by စ, it becomes ဖူး, and signifies (not) ever, as မသွားစဖူး, he never went. စသီး and စတောင်း are of similar import, but infrequent.
နှင့်, prior-past, or prior-future, according to the connection, as သွားနှင့်ပြီ, he had gone, သွားနှင့်မည်, he will go, before (another goes.)
ခင်, ditto,—rather infrequent.
လု, near future, about to, on the point of, retaining its meaning, whatever affixes of tense are superadded, as သွားလုသည်, သွားလုပြီ, or သွားလုမည်, he is about to go, or is near going; sometimes used substantively, though not an assertive affix, as သွားလုနီးပြီ, ditto.
Affixes of Number.
|denoting the plural, as သွားကြသည်, they go;—frequently omitted, and the idea of plurality left to be conveyed by the noun affix of number, or gathered from the connection.|
ဦး, (pron. အုံး,) more or again, commonly used with an assertive future affix, as သောက်ဦးမည်, he will drink more or again; in prohibitive sentences, (not) yet, as မသောက်နှင့်ဦး, do not drink yet.
ကုန်, entirely, wholly, (from ကုန်, to come to an end,) as သေကုန်ပြီ they are all dead.
ကောင်း, with the verb repeated, probably, as သေကောင်းသေမည်, he will probably die.
ခင်, see မှီ.
ချင်, optative, to wish, desire, as ပြုချင်သည်, to wish to do; also, to have a tendency to, as ဖျားချင်သည်, to be disposed to fever.
ချင်း, with မ prefixed to the root and to itself, and a continuative affix or clause, commonly တိုင်အောင်, expressed or understood, until, as မသွားမချင်းတိုင်အောင်လုပ်လျက်နေသည်, he continued working, until he went.
စေ, causal, (from စေ, to send, order,) as ပြုစေသည်, he makes [him] do, ဖြစ်စေ, let it be; when affixed to intransitive verbs, equivalent to the aspirated initial, as လွတ်စေသည်, equivalent to လွှတ်သည်, to make free, from လွတ်သည်, to be free. When used as an imperative or precative, the shade of meaning is frequently determined by an intervening euphonic affix, as ဖြစ်ပါစေ, may it be, ပြေးပါလေစေ, let it run. Combined with အံ့, it makes စိမ့်.
စွ, slightly intensive or emphatic,—commonly connected with the verb, by a euphonic affix, and sometimes superseding the assertive affix, as ကြီးလေစွ, it is great indeed.
စွာ, intensive,—mostly used before the participial affix သော, as မြတ်စွာစောသူ, a very excellent person.
ဆန်း, with the verb repeated, merely, nothing more, as ကြီးဆန်းကြီးသည်, to be large merely.
ဆိတ်, to be at leisure, as နေဆိတ်သည်, to be at leisure to stay.
တုံ, sometimes euphonic, but when repeated after a following verb, partaking of the nature of a continuative, and denoting alternation; as မြုပ်တုံပေါ်တုံရှိသည်, to be sinking and appearing by turns.
တော့, denoting a slight necessity.
တည့်, suddenly, prematurely, inconsiderately.
နှိုင်, sometimes in conversation နိုင်, potential, to be able, (from နိုင်, to prevail, overcome,) as သွားနှိုင်သည်, to be able to go.
ပြန်, again, (from ပြန်, to return,) as ပြုပြန်သည်, to do again.
ဘဲ, with မ prefixed to the root, and a continuative affix, expressed or understood, without, as မစားဘဲသွားသည်, he went, without eating.
မိ, implying carelessness or fault, as ပြောမိပြီ, he has said it (and therefore committed himself;) sometimes euphonic.
မှီ, with မ prefixed to the root, and a continuative affix, expressed or understood, before, as မသွားမှီစားသည်, he ate, before going; combined with တိုင်အောင်, until, as မသွားမှီတိုင်အောင်, until he went;—sometimes taking a noun affix, as မသွားမှီ၌, before going.
ရ, must, as သွားရမည်, he must go; frequently euphonic.
ရက်, to be capable, (in regard to feeling,) as သတ်ရက်သည်, to be unfeeling enough to kill; မကွာရက်, he cannot bear to part.
ရစ်, remaining behind, as ပြုရစ်သည် to do (it), remaining behind, နေရစ်သည်, to stay behind.
ရော့, denoting disapprobation or regret; sometimes euphonic, particularly when used imperatively.
ရှာ, denoting affection or sympathy in the speaker, as သွားရှာသည်, he goes, alas!
လွန်း, denoting excess (from လွန် to exceed), as ကောင်းလွန်းသည်, to be too good.
လှ, very, as ကြီးလှသည်, to be very great.
လှာ, denoting coming to pass, as ကောင်းလှာသည် to become good.
To these may be added a number of verbs, which are occasionally used to qualify a principal verb, as:—
အပ်, to be right, proper, as သွားအပ်သည် it is right to go; sometimes passive, in translations from the Pali, particularly when used, as an adversative to တတ်; frequently euphonic.
အား, to be at leisure, as သွားအားသည်, to be at leisure to go.
ကောင်း, to be good, as သွားကောင်းသည်, it is good to go.
ခဲ, to be hard, difficult, as ရခဲသည်, it is difficult to obtain.
စမ်, to try, make trial, as ပြုစမ်သည်, to do by way of trial; sometimes but little more than euphonic.
တတ်, to know how, be skilled in, as ပြုတတ်သည်, to know how to do; sometimes denoting the way, custom, usual course, as လူသေတတ်သဉ်, man is mortal.
တန်, to be suitable, as ပြုတန်သည်, it is suitable to be done.
ထိုက်, to be worthy, deserving of, as သေထိုက်သည်, to deserve to die.
နေ, to remain, continue, as ပြုနေသည်, to continue doing.
ပျင်း, to be reluctant, averse to, as မြင်ပျင်းသည်, to hate to see.
ဖြစ်, to be practicable, as မသွားဖြစ်, it is not practicable to go.
ဖွယ်, to be meet, suitable, fit for, as အံ့ဖွယ်သောအမှု a wonderful affair.
ရာ, similar to အပ်; frequently euphonic.
လောက်, to be enough, as စားလောက်အောင်ရှိသဉ်, there is enough to eat.
လို, to desire, as ပြုလိုသည်, equivalent to ပြုချင်သည်.
လွယ်, to be easy, as ပြုလွယ်သည်, it is easy to do.
ဝံ့, to dare, as ပြုဝံ့သည်, to dare to do.
သင့်, to be suitable, proper, becoming, as ပြောသင့်သည်, it is suitable to say.
သာ, to be easy, pleasant, as ပြောသာသည်, it is pleasant to say.
ချေ, when combined with အံ့, ချိမ့်; when repeated after a following verb, similar to တုံ, which see under Qualifying Affixes.
ငြား or ညား, mostly used before the continuative affix သော်လည်း, and the assertive future affix အံ့, when used for လျှင်.
စ, in certain combinations, noticed in their places.
ထ, mostly used before the participial affixes, when several successive participial clauses precede a noun, in commendatory discourse.
ပေ, when combined with အံ့, ပိမ့်.
ဘိ, mostly used before the assertive affix သည်, abbreviated to သ, in connection with the noun affix as ကဲ့သို့, as သွားဘိသကဲ့သို့, like as he went; also, before the closing affix ချင်း, in which case, it is rather intensive, as များဘိချင်း, there are very many.
လပ်, mostly used before the continuative afﬁx သော်.
လေ, when combined with အံ့, လိမ့်, which combination is mostly used before the future affix မည်; when repeated after a following verb, it denotes correspondence or reciprocity, as လိုက်လေပြေးလေ, as (one) pursues, (the other) runs.
လိုက်, mostly used with transitive verbs.
ဟု, that, noting indication, viz., namely (from ဟူ, to say, declare, mean,)—used at the close of a sentence, which is the subject of a subsequent assertion, as သိသည်ဟုပြောသည်, he says that he knows,—also, after a word which is explanatory of a subsequent word, as မင်းရှင်စောဟုဘွဲ့ကိုပေးသည်, he gave (him) the title of Menshenzau;—sometimes it takes a verbal affix, but ought then to be written ဟူ, and parsed as a verb.
တည်း, used at the close of a simple sentence, equivalent to the substantive verb ရှိသည်, to be, the nominative being generally made by ကား, as အမည်ကားမောင်လောက်တည်း, his name is Moung Louk,—sometimes taking ပေ, or ပေလျှင် immediately before it;—also, at the close of a parenthetic sentence, or a distinct paragraph, closing in သည်, (commonly abbreviated to သ,) as သွားသတည်း, he went,—sometimes taking လျှင်, or က, or လျှင်က immediately before it.
တတ်, ditto, at the close of a parenthesis or paragraph.
တကား, emphatic, or indicative of some emotion, as ငသားကလေးသေပြီတကား, my little son is dead, alas! မသွားပါတကား, he goes not indeed.
ရကား, sometimes equivalent to တကား.
ချင်း, ditto, commonly expressive of regret, as ဖြစ်ရလေချင်း, it is so, alas.
စွ, see under Qualifying Affixes.
တောင်း, intensive,—commonly connected with the verb by another affix, as ကြီးပေတောင်း, it is great indeed!
တမုံ့ or တမူ, expletive, after an assertive affix, as သွားသည်တမုံ့, (obsolete.)
The following are colloquial only:—
နော်, soliciting acquiescence, as သွားတော့မည်နော်, I will go, shall I? သွားတော့နော်, go, will you?
လေ, or လားလေ, slightly emphatic or persistive, used after the assertive affixes, as ရှိသည်လားလေ, it is certainly, or I assure you.
ပ, or ပေါ့, familiar,—after the assertive affixes.
တော, or တောလေ, ditto, sometimes superseding the assertive affix.
တည့်, (pron. ဒဲ့) denoting that the words to which it is affixed, are the words of the speaker, as ငါမယုံဘူးတည့်။ ဘဲ့နှယ်ဆိုဦးမည်လဲ, I don’t believe, I say; what will (you) say next, or repeated from the mouth of another person, as ရှိသည်တည့်, it is, he says.
The negative is made by prefixing မ to the verb, which, beside its negative power, has the privilege of occasionally dispensing with the assertive affixes, or of conveying an assertive power to the root, or to the qualifying and euphonic affixes, the affixes of number, and the auxiliary affixes of tense, all of which, in affirmative sentences, require an assertive affix, thus သွားသည်, he goes, မသွား or မသွားဘူး, he goes not, သွားသေးသည်, he is still going, သွားသေး, he is not yet gone, သွားနှိုင်သည်, he can go, မသွားနှိုင်, he cannot go.
In colloquial discourse, a strong negative is sometimes made by affixing ရိုးလား to the root, or မို့တုံး, a contraction of မဟုတ်တုံး, to an assertive affix, as သွားရိုးလား, or သွားသည်မို့တုံး, he goes not.
VERBS USED SUBSTANTIVELY.
Verbs terminating in the assertive affix သည်, (occasionally changed to သ, သော or သော့,) are frequently used substantively, and in that character, admit the noun affixes. Verbs terminating in an assertive affix of tense, are capable of being used in the same manner, but the termination သည် or သော is, in some cases, superadded to qualify them for the substantive construction.
သွားသည်မှန်သည် or သွားသည်ကားမှန်သည်, it is right or true that he goes.
သွားသည်နောက်မှ (နောက် being a verb,) or သွားသည်နောက်, after he goes.
သွားသည်ကိုသိသည်, he knows that he goes.
သွားသည်တိုင်အောင်, (ကို or သို့ understood,) until he goes.
သွားသည်၏အတိုင်း or သွားသည်အတိုင်း, according as he goes. N. B. When verbs are constructed with a following noun, the possessive afﬁx ၏ is commonly omitted, as သွားသည်အရပ်, the place of going, or the place where he goes, သွားသည်အခါ, the time of going, or when he goes; သွားသည်အစည်, while he goes; သွားသည်အကြောင်း, the reason of going; သွားသည်နည်းတူ, in the same manner as he goes; သွားသောအားဖြင့်, by means of going, &c.
သွားအံ့သော့ငှါ, (with the assertive future affix,) in order to go.
သွားအံ့သော့ကြောင့်, because he goes.
သွားသဖြင့်, by means of going, when he goes.
သွားသည်နှင့်, with going, when he goes.
သွားသည်နှင့်အညီ, in accordance with the going.
သွားသည်တွင်, ၌, or မှာ, in going, while he goes.
သွားသည်က, or မှ, from going.
သွားသကဲ့သို့, like as he goes.
သွားသည်လိုလို, a little like, &c.
When a verb used substantively, and connected, by the affix ၏, with a following noun, whose initial is a syllabic အ, drops both the noun affix, and the verbal, and takes the noun into union with itself, by rejecting or modifying the initial letter, the abbreviated compound becomes a verbal noun of the same import as the original clause, thus သွားသည်၏အခါ becomes သွားခါ, the time of going; နေသည်၏အစည်, while remaining; ပြောသည်၏အစ, ပြောစ, the beginning of speaking.
Several classes of verbal nouns, on account of their frequent occurrence, deserve particular mention.
1. The verbal in ခြင်း, from အခြင်း, an act, deed, denotes action or being, in the abstract, as သွားခြင်း, going, ကောင်းခြင်း, being good.
2. The verbal in ရာ, from အရာ, a thing, subject, matter, denotes the object of an action, or the place, where a thing is, or is done, as နှစ်သက်ရာ, an object of love; နေရာ, a remaining place; စွန့်ပြစ်ရာ, a place of throwing away.
3. The verbal in ရာ, from အလျာ or အလျှာ, what is for, commonly written စရာ, the verbal in ဖို့ or ဘို့, from အဖို့, a portion, and the verbal in ရန် (from ရန်သည်, to appropriate,) denote what is for some purpose, as စားစရာ, what is for eating, or to be eaten; ကြည့်ဘို့, what is to be looked at; ပြုရန်, what is to be done.
4. The verbal in ဖွယ် or ဘွယ်, sometimes စချင်ဘွယ်, from အဖွယ်, what is suitable, denotes what is fit for, adapted to, or worthy of some use or purpose, as စားဘွယ်, what is good to eat, an eatable; အံ့ဘွယ်, what is wonderful; ချစ်စချင်ဘွယ်, what is lovely. But this verbal seems frequently to partake of the nature of an adjective.
N. B. The terminations ခမန်း or ဂမန်း, according to one acceptation, လိ, ခလိ and လိလိ are of similar import with the termination ဖွယ်, but used in a bad sense only. Several of these are sometimes combined, as ရွံစလိ, (စ euphonic,) ရွံစဖွယ်လိ, ရွံဖွယ်လိခမန်း, what is disgusting.
The terminations ခမန်း, according to another acceptation, ဘိနန်း or ဘနန်း, and မတတ် form verbals denoting nearness of accomplishment, occasionally taking လု before them, as လောင်ခမန်း or လောင်လုခမန်း, what is near burning; မြုပ်လုမတတ်, what is near sinking; ကုန်မတတ်, nearly the whole.
The termination နိုး, နိုးနိုး, or စနိုး, followed by a verb expressive of opinion, denotes what is likely to take place, sometimes admitting an affix of tense between itself and the root, as သင်္ဘောရောက်နိုးနိုးထင်သည်, or ရောက်မည်နိုးနိုးထင်သည်, he thinks that the ship will probably arrive.
5. There are several other verbals, formed from nouns, which being obsolete, or never occurring in their full form, or in any other connection, cannot be so satisfactorily analyzed, as most of the preceding; thus the verbal in တုန်း, perhaps from အတုန်း, time being, denotes the time of action or being, as သွားတုန်းတွင် or သွားတုန်းခါ, equivalent to သွားစည်တွင်, or သွားစည်အခါ, the time of going, while going.
The verbal in ရုံ, perhaps from အရုံ, just so much and no more, conﬁnes the action or being to what is expressed by the root, as ပြောရုံပြုသည်, or ပြောရုံမျှပြုသည်, he just speaks, i. e. does no more than speaking.
The particle ကာ is of somewhat similar import with ရုံ, as ရိပ်ကာပြောသည်, he speaks allusively merely; ပြောကာမျှအားဖြင့်, by means of speaking merely.
The verbal formative မှန်း, from မှန်, to be right, true, is used chieﬂy in negative sentences, as ရောက်မှန်းကိုမသိ, or ရောက်မှန်းမသိ, (he) knows not the fact of the arrival. It is sometimes used without a verbal root, as ဘုရားမှန်းမသိ။ တရားမှန်းမသိ, (he) knows nothing about God or religion.
6. Beside verbal nouns formed from verbs used substantively, there is another kind which may be termed the honoriﬁc verbal, formed by combining the verbal root with the adjective တော်. This verbal, followed by the verb မူသည်, to do, perform, is always used instead of the simple verb, in speaking becomingly of deities, kings, or any exalted personages, as မိန့်တော်မူသည်, (the deity or king) speaks, literally, does divine or royal speaking, မိန့်တော်မမူ, he speaks not.
Most verbal nouns retain the same power of government as their verbs, that is, cause the preceding noun to take the same affix, as their verbs do, as ဇာတ်ကိုဟောစပြုသည်, he makes a beginning of rehearsing the zat, ဇာတ်ကိုဟောတော်မူသည်, he rehearses the zat, or he does rehearsing the zat; but some, particularly the verbal in ခြင်း, govern the preceding noun in the possessive, as ဇာတ်၏ဟောခြင်း, the rehearsing of the zat.
Adverbs are of nine kinds, viz:—
1. Adverbs proper, as ဧကန်, certainly, အလကား, in vain, လားလား, an intensive before a negative, as လားလားမပြော, he says nothing at all, ခပ်, rather, prefixed to adjectives, formed from verbal roots by reduplication.
2. Pronominal adjectives used to modify a following verb, as အဘယ်သို့နေသနည်း, how does (he) remain? ထိုသို့နေသည်, (he) remains thus; or combined with a secondary noun and similarly applied, as ဘယ်လောက်ကြီးသနည်း, how large is (it)? သဉ်ကလောက်, properly သဉ်ခန့်လောက်ကြီးသည်, (it) is so large. How? in what manner? and thus, in this manner, are also expressed, by combining pronominals, lightly accented, with နှယ်, manner, as ဘဲ့နှယ်, how? သည့်နှယ်, thus.
3. Adverbs formed from simple or compound verbs:—
- (1) from simple verbs—-
—by prefixing အ, as အလွန်ကြီးသဉ်, to be very great, အလျှင်သွား, go quick;
—by affixing စွာ, as ကောင်းစွာ, well;
—by reduplication, as ကောင်းကောင်း, well;
—by reduplication, with အ or တ prefixed, as အပြားပြား, variously, တလဲလဲ, by turns;
—by reduplication, with အ prefixed to each member, as အသီးအသီး, separately;—
- (2) from compound verbs—
—by affixing စွာ, as ကောင်းမြတ်စွာ, excellently;
—by prefixing အ to each member, as အကွပ်အညှပ်, penally, by way of punishment;
—by prefixing အ to the first member, and တ to the latter, as အဆောတလျှင်, quickly, အမြတ်တနိုး, affectionately;
—by preﬁxing အ or တ to the ﬁrst, and reduplicating the latter, as အလျှင်မြန်မြန်, fast, တစိုးရိမ်ရိမ်, anxiously;
—by preﬁxing အ to the first, and တ to the latter reduplicated, as အမွှေးတကြိုင်ကြိုင်, fragrantly;
—by reduplicating both members, as ထူးထူးဆန်းဆန်း, extraordinarily;
—by preﬁxing အ or တ to each member reduplicated, as အထူးထူးအဆန်းဆန်း, ditto, တလည်လည်တဝိုက်ဝိုက်, circuitously;
—by preﬁxing က or ပ (pron. ဂ and ဗ) to each member, as ကရောက်ကရက်, disorderly, ပရုန်းပရင်း, tumultuously.
Under this head, may be classed a few of anomalous construction, made up in imitation of some of the above forms, as အမှတ်တမဲ့, without notice, အစိုးတရ, as having power, ကြောက်လန့်တကြား, frightedly, အကျွေးအငမ်း in expectance of payment; also a few formed from negatives, by affixing chiming increments, as မကောင်းတရောင်း, not well, မလှဘမ, not handsome, not agreeable.
4. Adverbs formed from verbal roots, by reduplication, prefixing the negative မ to the first member, and တ to the second, thus intending to convey both the ideas of affirming and denying, as မလောက်တလောက်, just enough and hardly that, မမှီတမှီ, just reaching and yet not quite reaching.
5. Adverbs formed from a certain class of compound verbs, by affixing ခတ်, or ဆန်, or ဆန်ခတ်, denoting collision, as ရောက်ရက်ခတ်ပြုသဉ်, to behave disorderly, ရုန်းရင်းဆန်ခတ်ပြုသည်, to make a disturbance.
6. Adverbs formed from nouns by reduplication, dropping the syllabic အ, in the latter member, if it is the initial of the noun, and prefixing it to the former member, if the noun begins with a consonant, as အခါခါ, repeatedly, from အခါ, a time; အလိုလို, of one’s own accord, from အလို, will, pleasure; အသောင်းသောင်း, tens of thousands, from အသောင်း, ten thousand; အပြည်ပြည်, of various countries, or from country to country, from ပြည်, a country.
N. B. Adverbs formed from verbs or nouns are sometimes used adjectively, as အပြာ:ပြားသောအကြောင်းတို့, various reasons, အပြည်ပြည်သောမင်းတို့, kings of various countries.
7. Adverbs formed from nouns, beginning with a syllabic အ, by dropping the အ, prefixing တ, one, and affixing တည်း, only, as တညီတဉ်း, even, all together, from အညီ, evenness, uniformity.
8. Incomplete clauses, as အကယ်၍ certainly, for အကယ်ဖြစ်၍; အထူးသဖြင့်, exceedingly, for အထူးဖြစ်သဖြင့်.
9. Adverbial affixes, as follows:—
ချည်း, only, merely, nothing but, as လူတို့ချည်း, men only, nothing but men, သွားသည်ချည်း, he only goes, does nothing but go.
စင်, even, slightly emphatic.
စီ, each, as တယောက်စီ, each one, ကိုယ်စီ, ditto; apiece, as တခုစီ, one apiece.
တစေ, same as ချည်း.
တည်း, used to designate an object with some particularity, as မိမိသားငယ်ကိုတည်းပေးသဉ်, he gives to his youngest son,—particularly—or in distinction from the others;—in this sense, used frequently, in connection with ဟူသော, or ဟု, after a word explanatory of a subsequent word, as ကောင်းမှုတည်းဟူသောမျိုးစေ့, seed-grain, which means merit, မောင်လောက်တည်းဟုအမည်ရှိသည်, he has the name of Moung Louk;—used also, in asking questions, to designate the point on which the question turns, and frequently repeated after those words or clauses, in successive questions, which are intended to be set adversatively, as အသီးဧကိုတဉ်းစားလိုသလော။ အသီးမူကိုတဉ်းစားလိုသလော, do you wish to eat cold fruit or hot? ငါ၌အပြစ်ရှိ၍တည်းနှစ်လုံးမသာရှိတော်မူသလော။ ကိုယ်တော်၌တစုံဘခုစိုးရိမ်ဘွယ်ရှိ၍တဉ်းနှစ်လုံးမသာရှိတော်မူသလော, is thy mind distressed, because there is some fault in me, or because there is some cause of concern in thee?
ပင်, even, slightly emphatic.
မျှ, (from အမျှ, as much as,) frequently pron. မှ, used as an intensive, in negative sentences, as ဘယ်သူမျှမရှိ, there is not so much as one person, or there is not even one person; ဘဟာကိုမျှမရ, or brieﬂy ဘာမှမရ, (he) obtains nothing at all; ရောက်သည်ကိုမျှမသိ, (he) knows not even of the arrival; sometimes expletive, as ရုန်းရင်းခက်မျှပြုသည်, to make a disturbance.
လည်း, also; sometimes used familiarly for the continuative affix လျှင်.
လည်းကောင်း, both—and, placed after other all affixes, and repeated at the close of successive clauses, as ငကို၎င်ငသားကို၎င်မြင်သည်, he sees both me and my son; in judicial language, equivalent to the pronominal adjective ထို, that, as ၎င်နေ့, that day, ၎င်နည်း, in the same manner.
လျှ, distributive, as တလလျှင်တတင်း, a basket a month; sometimes definitive or emphatic.
Verbal affixes are used adverbially, when placed after an adverbial or noun affix. The same is true of noun affixes, when placed after a verbal or adverbial affix.
The noun affix ကား is sometimes used emphatically after another noun affix, as အရိုက်ကိုကားခံနှိုင်ပါသလော, can you indeed bear the beating? also repeated after successive clauses, intended to be set adversatively, as မြေအပြင်၌ကားမြင်သာသည်။ ရေထဲ၌ကားမမြင်နှိုင်, on the land, it is easy to see; in the water, we cannot see.
A few of the most common are as follows:—
အည်, eh! expressive of pain.
အမယ်, အမယ်လေး, အမယ်ကြီးလေး, mother! denotingor distress.
အလယ်, အလယ်လေး, alas! expressive of pain.
အလို, အလိုလေး, oh! alas! denoting sorrow or distress.
အိမ်း, pron. eh, yes! expressive of assent.
အေ, don’t, disapprobatory—prohibitive.
အေ့ပော, aa haa! contemptuous.
အေး, အေးအေး, yes!
အဲ, အဲအဲ, that’s right.
အော o! of various applications.
အောအော, o! expressive of satisfaction.
အို, o! vocative, or indicative of pain.
ယော, there now! expressive of disapprobation.
ယော့, here! take it!
သယ်, wonderful! rather ironical or disapprobatory.
သာမု, well done!
ဟေ့, haa! a familiar vocative, rather disrespectful.
ဟော, there! pointing to an object.
|တစ်, or တ, ၁, one,||ပဌမ, first,|
|နှစ်, ၂, two,||ဒုတိယ, second,|
|သုံး, ၃, three,||တတိယ, third,|
|လေး, ၄, four,||စတုတ္ထ, fourth,|
|ငါး, ၅, five,||ပည္စမ, fifth,|
|ချောက်, ၆, six,||ဆတ္တမ, sixth,|
|ခုနှစ်, ၇, seven,||သတ္တမ, seventh,|
|ရှစ်, ၈, eight,||အဌမ, eighth,|
|ကိုး, ၉, nine,||နဝမ, ninth,|
|တဆယ်, ၁၀, ten,||ဒသမ, tenth,|
|တဆယ်တစ်, ၁၁, eleven,||ဧကာဒသမ, eleventh,|
|တဆယ်နှစ်, ၁၂, twelve,&c.||ဒွါဒသမ, twelfth|
နှစ်ဆယ်, ၂၀, twenty,
သုံးဆယ်, ၃၀, thirty, &c.
တရာ, ၁၀၀, one hundred,
တထောင်, ၁၀၀၀, one thousand,
တသောင်, ၁၀၀၀၀, ten thousand,
တသိန်း, ၁၀၀၀၀၀, one hundred thousand,
တသန်း, ၁၀၀၀၀၀၀, one million,
တကုဋေ, ၁၀၀၀၀၀၀၀, ten million.
One half is expressed by တဝက်, placed after the noun of dimension or quantity, as ယူဇနာတဝက်, half a yoozana; one and a half, two and a half, &c. by တ, နှစ်, &c. placed before, and ခွဲ after, as တယူဇနာခွဲ, one yoozana and a half, နှစ်ယူဇနာခ, two yoozanas and a half, &c. One and a quarter, &c. is expressed by prefixing တ, &c. and affixing တစိတ်, connected to the noun, by နှင့်, as တယူဇနာနှင့်တစိတ်, one yoozana and a quarter, &c. All fractions, except one half, are commonly expressed by the help of အစု, a collection; thus သုံးစုတွင်တစု, one third, လေးစုတွင်တစု, one quarter, ငါးစုတွင်သုံးစု, three fifths.
The true epoch of Burman time is the annihilation of Gaudama, the last Boodh or deity, which is placed five hundred and forty-four years before Christ; but the vulgar epoch is placed eleven hundred and eighty-two years later, or six hundred and thirty-eight years after Christ.
Time is measured by lunar months, consisting of twenty-nine and thirty days alternately. Twelve lunar months make a common year, and every third year admits an intercalar month of thirty days. The names of the months are as follows:—
|တံကူး, April, (nearly,)||သတင်းကျွတ်, October,|
|ကဆုန်, May,||တန်ဆောင်မုန်း, Nov’er.|
|နယုန်, June,||နတ်တော်, December,|
|ဝါဆို, July,||ပြာသိုလ်, January,|
|ဝါခေါင်, August,||တပို့ထွဲ, February,|
|တော်သလင်း, September,||တပေါင်း, March.|
တံကူး consists of twenty-nine days, ကဆုန် of thirty, and so on. In leap-year, the month ဝါဆို is repeated, under the name of ဒုတိယဝါဆို, second July.
A month is distinguished into two parts, the waxing, လဆန်း, and the wane, လပြည့်ကျော်. The full moon, လပြည့်, falls on the fifteenth of the waxing, after which a new count of days begins, and the change or disappearing of the moon, လကွယ်, falls on the fourteenth or fifteenth of the wane.
The days of worship are the eighth of the waxing, the full, the eighth of the wane, and the change.
Time is also divided into weeks, or periods of seven days, which are, of course, independent of the lunar arrangement, and follow the same order, that obtains in all other parts of the world, viz.
|တနင်္ဂနွေ, Sunday,||ကြာသပတေး, Thursday,|
|တနင်္လာ, Monday,||သောက်ကြာ, Friday,|
|အင်္ဂါ, Tuesday,||စနေ, Saturday,|
The day and the night are each divided into four periods, which as they terminate, are designated by their appropriate beat of drum. The single beat, တချက်တီး, accords with 9 o’clock, morning or evening; the double beat, နှစ်ချက်တီး, accords with 12 o’clock; the triple beat, သုံးချက်တီး, with 3 o’clock; and the quadruple beat, လေးချက်တီး, with 6 o’clock.
A natural day is also divided into sixty equal parts, called နာရီ, which are again subject to various subdivisions, seldom used but in astrological works.
ချင်ရွေး, the seed of the abrus precatorius, marked ( ွေ), as ၁ွေ, တရွေး.
ရွေးကြီး, the seed of the adenanthera pavonina, double the weight of the above, marked the same.
8 ချင်ရွေး, or 4 ရွေးကြီး make one ပဲ great, marked ( ဲ), as ၁ဲ, တပဲ
6 ချင်, or 3 ရွေးကြီး make one ပဲ small, marked the same.
4 ပဲ great, or 5 ပဲ small make one မတ်, marked ( ံ), as ၁ံ, တမတ်.
4 မတ် make one ကျပ်, marked ( ိ), as ၁ိ, တကျပ်
100 ကျပ် make one ပိဿာ, marked ( ိါ), or ( ါ), as ၁ိါ or ၁ါ, တပိဿာ).
N. B. The term အခွက် is substituted for ပိဿာ, in connection with any capital number above ten, as အခွက်နှစ်ဆယ် for ပိဿာနှစ်ဆယ်, twenty pikthahs. Ten pikthahs is written အခွက်တဆယ်, or ဆယ်ပိဿာ.
2 ပဲ great make one မူး great, marked ( ူ), as ၁ူ, တမူး
8 မူး great make one ကျပ်,
2 ပဲ small make one မူး small, marked as above.
10 မူး small make one ကျပ်.
measures of length.
အသစ် or လက်သစ်, a finger’s breadth, marked ( ံ), as ၁ံ, တသစ်.
|8 သစ်||make||one မိုက်, marked ( ိ), as ၁ိ.|
|12 သစ်||one ထွေ, marked ( ါ), as ၁ါ.|
|2 ထွာ||one တောင်, marked ( င် ), as င်္၁.|
|4 တောင်||one လံ.|
|7 တောင်||one တာ, marked ( ါ), as ၁ါ.|
|1000 တာ||one တိုင်.|
|6400 တာ||one ယူဇနာ.|
|20 တာ||make||one ဥဿဘ.|
|20 ဥဿဘ||one ကောသ.|
|4 ကောသ||one ဂါဝုတ်.|
|4 ဂါဝုတ်||one ယူဇနာ.|
N. B. According to the royal cubit, which measures 19 1-2 English inches, a yoozana is 13 1-2 English miles.
measures of capacity.
စလယ်, or ကွန်းစား, a small measure, marked ( ဲ), as ၁ဲ, တစလယ်.
|4 စလယ်||make||one ပြည်, marked ( ်), as ၁်.|
|2 ပြည်||one စရွတ်.|
|2 စရွတ်||one စိတ်, marked ( ိ), as ၁ိ.|
|2 စိတ်||one ခွဲ.|
|2 ခွဲ, or 16 ပြဉ်||one တင်း, marked ( င် ), as င်္၁.|
Notwithstanding the notice in the preface, the work has been so long in passing through the press, that a great part has been re-written, The following corrigenda and addenda also have occurred:—
|Page||8,||line||10,||for တဝမ်ပု, read တဝမ်ပူ.|
|10,||3,||for ယပင်, ——ယပင့်,|
|15,||4,||for သင်ဘော, ——သင်းဘော.|
|23,||6,||for ဝန်ကျင်း, ——ဝန်းကျင်,|
- 23, between ပတ်လုံး and အညီ, insert the following items:—
အစား, stead; ကိုယ်စား, instead of self.
အတု, likeness; ထိုနည်းတု, in like manner.
အလောက်, about so much, (obsolete); လူလောက်ကြီးသည်, to be about as large as a man.
အခန့်, about so much; တနှစ်ခန့်, about a year.
Page 24, line 19, for ကျန်တော်, read ကျွန်တော်.
Page 42, line 2, for ကတည်း, read သည်လို့.
Page 47, instead of the present deﬁnition of ဆိတ်, read thus :—
ဆိတ်, (from ဆိတ်, to be still; quiet,) to be quiet, unmoved, though the occasion calls for exertion, as နေဆိတ်သည်, to remain unmoved.
- Corrected on p. 75 to တဝမ်ပူ.
- Corrected on p. 75 to ယပင့်
- Corrected on p. 75 to သင်းဘော
- Corrected on p. 75 to သင်းဘော
- Corrected on p. 75 to ဝန်းကျင်
- See pp. 75–76 for additions to be inserted here
- Corrected on p. 76 to ကျွန်တော်
- Corrected on p. 76 to သည်လို့
- This paragraph has been replaced on p. 76 by: “ဆိတ်, (from ဆိတ်, to be still; quiet,) to be quiet, unmoved, though the occasion calls for exertion, as နေဆိတ်သည်, to remain unmoved.”
- An old unit of length equal to approximately 20.5 km or 12.7 miles