Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes/Volume 12/Book 2/Chapter 7
A Discourse of the Kingdome of China, taken out of Ricius and Trigautius, contayning the Countrey, People, Government, Religion, Rites, Sects, Characters, Studies, Arts, Acts; and a Map of China added, drawne out of one there made with Annotations for the understanding thereof.
Of the Name, Scite, and Greatnesse; the Tributaries, Commoditie, Arts, Printing, Seales, Inke, Pencill-pennes and Fannes.
Here in the author begins l. 1. cap. 2. the first being a place. The divers names of this Kingdome. THis utmost Empire in the East, hath beene made knowne to Europe by divers appellations, as that of Ptolemey, Sina; that later of Marcus Paulus the Venetian, Cathay; and that most usuall received from the Portugals, which call it China. I doubt not also that this is the Region of the Hippophagi, or Hors-eaters, a meat there as common as Beefe here: as also that this is the Region Serica or Silken; forasmuch as there is no Kingdome of the East where Silke is found in that quantitie: and the Portugals ship it thence for Japon, and all India; the Spaniards also of the Philippina Ilands, fraight their ships therewith for all the American World. Moreover, I find in the China Chronicles that this Silke-worke was there two thousand six hundred thirtie six yeares before the Birth of Christ: whence it passed to the rest of Asia, to our Europe and to Africa. But in this varietie nothing seemes so strange to me, as that all these names are so strange to them, not knowne or once heard of, although the change of names be not strange to that Countrey. For as often as the Empire passeth from one Family to another, according to the vicissitude of humane Affaires: The China custome of changing names & yet this name China, Sina, or Cathay, unknowne to them. He which attayneth the Throne, imposeth a name at his pleasure. So hath it beene sometimes called Than (which signifieth exceedingly large) another while Yu, that is, Rest; after that successively Hia, or Great; Sciam, Adorned; Cheu, Perfect; Han, The Milkie way in Heaven, &c. And since this Family, called Ciu, which now holdeth the Sovereigntie, hath reigned, it is called Min, which intimateth Splendour, and by usuall addition of one syllable Ta-min, that is, the Kingdome of Great Splendour, Brightnesse or Glory. Yet doe few of their Neighbour Nations observe these changes of Names, whereby each of them almost, stile it by severall appellations. Those of Cocin, Cauchin-china, and the Siamites call it Ciu; the Japanders, Than; the Tartars, Han; the Westerne Saracens, Catay. Also amongst the Chinois themselves, besides that arbitrary name so imposed by their Kings, it hath some common to all Ages. Such are Ciumquo, that is, the Kingdome; and Chiumhoa, which signifieth a Garden, a name arising from their Geography, Conceit of the Earths forme. beleeving indeed the roundnesse of the Heaven, but a squarenesse of the Earth, and their Kingdome in the midst thereof, a conceit growne out of conceit now, by better instruction of the Jesuits.
The Kings Title. Their King is called Lord of the World, and they supposed accordingly that their Kingdome contayned the principall part thereof; not deeming the Neighbour Kingdomes worthy to bee called Kingdomes, which yet before their Commerce with Europeans were all they knew. And not unworthily is the name Great prefixed to their Kingdomes appellation, Largenesse of the Kingdome of China. beeing the greatest Kingdome in the World, which at this day carrieth One Name, or hath done in former times. For Southward it beginneth in the nineteenth degree, at the Ile which they call Hainam, that is, the South-Sea, and runneth into the North to the two & fortieth, even to those wals which divide the Chinois from the Tartars. The longitude beginneth from the one hundred and twelfth (reckoning from the Canaries) in the Province Yunan, and extends East-ward to the Sea in one hundred thirtie two. These Dimensions wee have observed in divers places of the Kingdome where we have passed, by Astrolabes and other Mathematicall Instruments: adding also the observation of Eclipses in their Almanacks, where the Moones Change and Full are justly described, and specially by authoritie of Cosmographicall Plaines. Yet if others which shall come after us shall more exactly observe the longitude (which I dare say will be no great matter) I shall not unwillingly yeeld. Hence may be observed that this ample Kingdome is for the most The temperate Climate. part within the temperate Zone; neither doth it extend so farre North-ward as some Maps have described by many degrees. And lest any should thinke that some great [III. ii. 381.] parts of so large a Dominion be desert, I will here translate out of a China booke entituled. The Description of that Kingdome, there printed, 1579. that which followeth.
In the Kingdome (of China) there are two Provinces Royall, Nanquin the Southerne Court, and Pequin the Northerne, and thirteene others. In these fifteene Provinces (you might call them Kingdomes) by another division are numbred one hundred fiftie eight Regions or lesse Provinces, called by them Fu; the most of which have twelve or fifteene Cities of reasonable quantitie, besides Villages, Hamlets, Castles and Townes. In these Provinces are two hundred fortie seven greater Cities, called Cheu (howbeit sometimes distinguished from other Cities rather in dignitie then largenesse) of vulgar Cities, which they call Hien, 11 52. Of men growne to ripe age, which pay tribute or poll money to the King, were then fiftie and eight millions, five hundred fiftie thousand, 801. In all which the female sexe is not reckoned: and of the Masculine are omitted, Boyes, Youths, Eunuchs, Souldiers, the Royall kindred, Magistrates, Students, and very many others. And of the Souldiers, although there be a Supine peace (except some Tartarian assault sometimes) there are maintained in the Kings pay, and in perpetuall Armes, above ten hundred thousand. For the three Northern Provinces are almost halfe in pay. In that booke are numbred Kingdomes adjoyning to that of China and tributarie ; to the East three, to the West fiftie three, to the South fiftie five, to the North three. Yet I observe that nothing so many doe in these dayes pay tribute, and those which doe, carry more from China, then they bring thither : and therefore the Chinois care not much whether they continue loyall or no.
To the worth of this Kingdome, may bee added, the . fortification by Nature or Art round about it. To the South and East, the Sea washeth it, and so many Hands guard it, that hardly can a Fleet of Ships approach the Continent. To the North, steepe praecipices are joyned together, with a continued Tract of 405. leagues, and exclude the Tartars assaults. To the North-west is a sandy desart of many dayes journey, which prohibite passage of an Armie, or minace their burialls. The South- west hath great Mountaines and little Kingdomes to pre- vent feare on that side.
Chap. 2. From this largenesse of Territories proceeds such The com- diversified varietie of things growing in that Kingdome, l^him some in the torrid, others in the colder or in the temperate Zones : whatsoever is required to the necessitie or delicacie of food or raiment being there naturall, nothing being here in Europe but either is there, or a better supply : Wheat, Barley, Panike, and other Corne ; Rice, Pulse (in some Fruits of all Provinces two or three harvests yeerely) fruits and Apples sorts. of the best (Nuts and Almonds excepted) Figs and others unknowne in our world, as the Licyas and the Longanas in Canton Province onely ; the Sucusina or China Figge, or Apple so called, because they may dry it as they do Figs, & liker to a Peach red, without hoarinesse or stone : in Oranges, Citrons, Limons they exceed all places. So doe they in goodnesse and varietie of Gardens, Herbs, as being there much used, some for religion, others for povertie eating nothing else. Flowers have there taken up their bowers, admirably varied, more respected for sight then sent; the Art of distilling sweet-waters being there unheard of. In the foure Southerne Provinces grow Betre or Betele leafe, and the tree Arequa or Arequeira, so much used in India, and chewed all day long for their stomacke and teeth. Sesame Oile is both odoriferous and plentifull. Wine is not there so good as in Europe (the Grape being neither plesant nor frequent) made of Rice and other things.
Flesh for food. Hogs-flesh is common food: they have Buffalls, Muttons, Goats-flesh; Hennes, Duckes, Geese, innumerable: Horses also, Asses, Mules, and Dogs-flesh are food, and shamble commodities. In some places superstition abstaineth from Beefe and Buffalls, Venison, especially red Deere, Hare, and divers domestick creatures are common; all cheape. Their Horses and Beasts of labour are not so goodly as in Europe, but more in number, and therefore in cheapnesse. The whole Kingdome is very commodious Passages by water. for passage by Rivers both naturall and hand-made: whence the number and kindes of shipping is incredible; insomuch that a moderne Writer hath averred, that there are as many which keepe on the waters as on the land; an Hyperbole, yet not so exceeding the truth to such as saile these Rivers, as may bee seene to others. I am of Store of shipping and water dwellers. opinion, that there are as many Ships in this Kingdome, as are in all the world beside in fresh-waters; for their Sea- and water shipping is fewer and not comparable with ours. But to returne to their Horses, the Chinois know not how to manage and breake them but by gelding; so that their Horses. Horses for service are innumerable, but so unserviceable, that they will not indure the neighing of the Tartarian Horse without flight. They shooe them not with Iron, so that in rockie and hard wayes they faile.
Fish. Besides the Seas plentie of Fish and Rivers, they are stored also in Lakes, seeming for their depths and largenesse petie Seas. They have more store of Fish-ponds also, then in these parts, whence the Market is daily furnished.Wilde beasts. Their Woods have no Lions, but store of Tigers, Beares, Woolves, Foxes. Elephants there are not, but for pompe some kept at the Court in Pequin, brought from other places. Flaxe they have not, but are supplied Cotton. with abundance of Cotton, the seed whereof was brought thither foure hundred yeeres since, and hath so liked the Sale of cloth. soyle, that the whole world, as may seeme thence might have sufficient. Of Silke-workes wee say no more. Of Hempe, and of some other Herbs, they make many [III. ii. 382.] clothes, especially for Summer use. They milke not their Sheepe; they sheare them, yet make no cloth of the Wooll (notwithstanding, woollen-clothes brought thither by Merchants is well sold) but light Summer clothes for blankets and other sleight uses. The North parts, though neerer the Sunne then some Regions in Europe, are colder, the great rivers and lakes frozen over, of which we can give no reason, but the neighbouring Mountaines of Tartaria: against which they are furnished with choice Furres.
Metalls. All sorts of metalls are there found. They make besides Brasse and Copper, another shining like Silver, as cheape as the yellow Brasse. Of molten Iron they make Kettles, Caldrons, Bells, Mortars, Ordnance, and other things. Their Gold is cheaper then with us. Silver they use for money, distinguished not by stampe but weight, in all bargaining using the ballance, which is made the more incommodious for the differing goodnesse of the Silver, and frequent allay and fraud. In some places are Brasse farthings. Plate and Gold vessells are used by the greater, but nothing so much as in these parts. The women spend much Gold and Silver in their head-tires. The vulgar use earthen dishes, called, I know not why, Porcellane. porcellane; the best whereof is made in the Kiamsin Province of a yellow earth. It endureth without riving hot meates, yea as woodden dishes here with a wyre, they sowe Glasse. the rifts and make them hold liquor. They make Glasse, but therein are short of the Europeans.
Buildings. Their houses are of Timber commonly, even the Kings Palaces, the walls which serve for partitions of roomes being sometimes of Bricke, but the roofe sustained by Timbers: which together with their shipping argues their plentie of trees. Hard Timber and Reeds. Oakes are rare, but supplied with a hard and everlasting wood with them used for coffins, in which their curiositie will sometimes spend a thousand Duckets. There is also store of a kinde of reed, which the Portugalls call Bambu, of almost Iron hardnesse, the roundnesse scarcely compassed with both hands, and serves for smaller posts; the lesser of them for Launces and other uses. For fire they use Wood, Coles, Reeds, Straw, and a bituminousSea-cole. substance called Mui (a kinde of Mine-cole or Sea-cole) which is most and best in the North, digged out of the earth.
Of medicinable herbs they have divers, specially Rhubarb. China, Muske. Rhubarbe, sold for tenne halfe pence the pound: China Wood, or holy Wood growing in desarts naturally, and thence taken for no other price but the labour: Muske; Salt, Sugar. Home-waxe. Salt both made of Sea-waters, and of others easily in the Continent; Sugar more common there then Hony, though both plentifull: Waxe both of Bees, and another whiter and burning better made by certaine wormes, which therefore are nourished in trees; another also made of a certaine fruit: Paper. Their paper is not so during as ours, nor can endure the presse on both sides.
I omit their parti-coloured Marbles, their gems, colours for paintings, odoriferous Woods, &c. I cannot passe by some rarities; as their shrub whence they make Their drinke Cha, Chia, or Cia. their drinke Cia. They gather the leaves in the Spring, and dry them in the shadow, and keepe it for daily decoction, using it at meates, and as often as any guest comes to their house, yea twice or thrice, if hee make any tarrying. They sup it hot, bitterish to the palate, but wholesome: not of ancient use, for they have no ancient Character in their bookes for it. The Japanders pay deare for it, ten or twelve Duckets a pound for the best, and use it otherwise, putting the poulder of the leafe to hot water, as much as two or three spoonefulls: the Chinois put the leaves themselves into the hot water, which they drinke, leaving the leaves behinde. They have also a bituminous substance like milke, strained out of the barke of a tree, Sandaracha, a rich Varnish. of pitchy cleaving, whence they make Sandaracha, a varnish for their houses and houshold, ships, and other things: yeelding a smooth touch to the hand and glassie splendour to the eye with long continuance. Thus can they more then counterfeit the colours of any wood, and hereby are provided against provisions of Napery, this serving for Table linnen; they recovering any greasie contagion with a little rinsing of water. They have an Oyle also pressed from an apple not unlike it in use, but not so resplendent.
Spices. They have Cinamon and Ginger growing, Pepper and other Spices are brought from other parts. They have store of Gun-powder, not so much for Artillerie (which they can use but meanely) as for Fire-works in pompous spectacles, thereby representing, Trees, Fruits, Battels, and other things with great Art and cost. We saw at Nanquin, in the first moneth of the yeere, as much this way spent as would have served a continued fight two yeeres.
Chap. 4. Of their Arts in China.
This is not to be understood of Temples, &c. as may appeare by Nanquin Temple, &c. For Mechanicall Arts, they are not comparable to our mens Architecture, whether yee regard the beautie or continuance of their buildings, they not so much as conceiving or crediting the stately magnificence or long durance of some in these parts. They either make no foundation, or verie sleight, and thinke a mans age to be age enough for a house, and that scarcely without reparations: their houses being also of Timber, and where the walls are Stone, they have Timbers to beare up the roofe, that the wall may easily be repaired or renewed without meddling with the supporters.
Antiquitie and manner of it. Printing is ancienter there then here; some thinke before the Incarnation, and most certaine above five hundred yeeres old: much differing from ours because of the multitude of their Characters. They grave or cut these Characters in a table of Peare-tree, Apple-tree or [III. ii. 383.] Zizyphus. In this Table they lightly glue on a whole leafe written, and then cunningly shave the drie paper, that they make very little transparence; after which they cut the wood, that onely the prints or lineaments of the Characters are eminent: which done, with great facilitie and celeritie they print off leaves at pleasure, one Printer often 1500. in one day; so ready also in cutting, that to mee Ours seeme to spend as much time in composing and correcting. This course is more accommodated to their great Characters then to ours, whose little letters are not easily cut in woodden Tables. They have this commoditie also, that keeping these Tables by them, they may with little labour adde or take away words or sentences: and need not at once print off any more Copies then present use or sale requireth. Wee doe this with Bookes of our Religion or European Sciences, printing them at home by our China servants. Another way. They have another way of printing Characters or Pictures printed before in Marble or Wood, laying on a leafe of Paper moist, and on that a woollen Cloth, whereon they beate with a Hammer till the Paper insinuates it selfe into the voide spaces and lineaments of the Characters or Picture: after which they lightly colour that leafe with Inke or other colour, those delineations onely remayning white, and retayning the Prototype-figure. But this is for grosser Pourtraitures.
Painting, graving, founding. They are much addicted to pictures, but nothing so cunning in painting, founding, graving, as Europeans. They make magnificent Arches with figures of men and beasts, and adorne their Temples with Idols and Bells, but their Genius otherwise generous and ingenious enough, for want of commerce with other Nations, is herein rudely artificiall. Shadowes and Oyle in picturing are to them unknowne, and their Pictures therefore have no more life of Art then Nature. In Statues, themselves seeme Statues for all rules of Symmetry any further then by the eye, and yet will be doing in huge (indeed) Monsters of this kinde, in Earth, Brasse, and Marble. Bells. Their Bells have all woodden Hammers, which yeeld a woodden sound, not comparable to ours, nor seeming capable of those of Iron. Musikall instruments. They have variety and plenty of Musicall Instruments, yet want Organs and all that have Keyes. Their Strings are made of raw Silke, and know not that any can be made of Guts. The Symmetrie of their Instruments is answerable to ours. All their Musike is simple and single-toned, utterly ignorant of consort in discord-concord: yet much applaud they themselves in their owne Harmonie, howsoever dissonant to our eares. But this pride seemes to grow (as usually it doth) from ignorance, and it is likely they would preferre ours if they knew it.
Want of Hour-glasses, Clocks, and Dials. They have scarcely any Instruments for measuring of (that which measures all things) Time; such as they have, measure by water or fire, but very imperfectly, as is also their Sun-diall, which they know not to fit to differing places. They are much addicted to Comedies, and therein exceed ours; some practising the same in principall Townes, others travelling thorow the Kingdome (or roguing, if you will) being the dregs of the Kingdome, buying Boyes whom they frame to this faigning facultie. Comedies. Their Commedies are commonly antient, whether Histories or devices, and few new written. They are used in publike and in private Solemnities; as also in Feasts, whereto being called, they offer to the Inviter a Booke, in which to take his choise, the Guests looking, eating, drinking together; and sometimes after ten houres feasting, they will spend as much succeeding time in a succession of Interludes one after another. Their pronunciation is with singing accent, and not with the vulgar tone. Seales. Scales are of great use with them, not onely for Letters, but for their Poems also, Pictures, Bookes, and many other things. These contayne the name, sur-name, dignitie, and degree: neither content they themselves with one, but have many, inscribing sometimes the beginning and the end of their workes; not imprinting them in Waxe, or such like substance, but onely colour them red. The chiefe men have on the Table a Boxe full of Seales, which containe their divers names (for every Chinese hath many names) and those of Wood, Marble, Ivorie, Brasse, Crystall, Corall, and better stones. There are many workemen of that Seale-occupation, their Characters Various substances esteemed liberall.
Inke-making. differing from the vulgar, and savouring of Antiquitie and Learning.
There is another Art not unlike, of making Inke for all writing, made into little Cakes or Balls of the smoke of Oyle. For their estimation of exact writing makes the making of Inke also to be holden an Art not illiberall. They use it on a Marble smooth stone; with a few drops of water rubbing those Balls, and colouring the stone, Pensils in stead of Pens. thence taking it with a Pensill of Hares haires wherewith they write.
Fannes. Fannes also are in much use by both Sexes for the causing of winde to coole them in Summer. No man may goe abroad without a Fanne, although the weather be cold, and the winde already bee importunate: the use being rather for ornament then necessitie. They are made of Reeds, Wood, Ivorie, Ebonie, together with Paper or Silke, and a certaine odoriferous Straw, in round, ovall, or square forme. The chiefe men use them of Paper gilded with plaits to be let in or out, and therein inscribe some pithie sentence or Poeme. These are the most common gifts or presents (as Gloves in Europe) and we have a Chist full of them sent us by our friends. In other things the Chinois are liker ours, using Tables, Stooles, and Beds (which the adjoyning Nations doe not, but sit on Carpets on the floore) to eate or sleepe.
[III. ii. 384.]
Of their Characters and writing downward: their Studies, Ethikes, Astrologie, Physike, Authentike Authors, Degrees how taken both Philosophicall and Militarie.
Cap. 5. Monosyllable Language, as also our proper English is almost wholly. NOw, for their more liberall Arts, and Literate-degrees, this Kingdome differs from all others: in which their Learned beare principall sway. The China words are Monosyllables, not one otherwise, howsoever two or three Vowels sometimes are conjoyned into one Diphthong, to speake after our manner; for they have not Consonants nor Vowels, but divers Characters for so many things, and as many of them, as there are Words, so that a Word, Syllable, Letter, are the same; and when we joyne divers Syllables to make one Word, it is after our fashion, because they signifie the same thing; with them each Syllable is a severall word. And although the number of things and Characters seeme the same, yet doe they so compound them together, that they exceed not 70000. Characters seventy or eighty thousand: and hee which knoweth ten thousand of them, hath the most necessary: to know all is in manner for any one man impossible. Of these Characters the sound is often the same, the figure and signification differing: so that no Language is so equivocall; nor can any Speech bee written from the Speakers mouth by the Hearer, nor can a Booke bee read to the Hearers understanding, except they have the Booke Equivocations. before them, by their eyes to distinguish the equivocations which their eares cannot. Yea, in speaking accuratly, the Hearer often understands not without repetition and writing either with Inke, or water on the Table, or forming the Characters in the aire; and this most happens in the most elegant and polite discourses (the stile of Bookes and Inkhorne-dialect of their learned, wholly differing from the vulgar Idiome.) This equivocation and paucity Five Accents. of sounds is in some sort eased by Accents, which are five, and not easie to distinguish; by which of one Syllable (as wee account it) they make it with differing tones five fold in differing signification: and there is no Word which is Hardnesse of China Speech. not pronounced with one of these Accents. Hence is the Language so difficult as none else in the World for Strangers to learne to speake and understand; which importunate labour of ours hath yet attayned. The reason I conceive to be that they alway have laboured to adorne their writing more then their speech, their Eloquentia sine eloquio. eloquence still consisting in writing and not in pronunciation, as Isocrates is commended amongst the Greekes.
This multitude of Characters, as it is burthensome to the memory, so it hath this commodity, the commerce with divers Nations of different Languages by community of writing ; Japon, Corai, Cauchinchina, the Leuhiees, understanding and reading the Characters, each into his owne Language, which the other understand nothing at all. Each Province also hath its owne, and all have one common Tongue besides, which they call Quonhoa, or the Court Language (the Magistrates being all forrainers, and none bearing Office in his Countrey Province) used in their Courts, and by the Learned : this onely did ours learne, nor is the other used by the civiller or learneder in conference, except privatly by Countrey-men : yea, children and women learne this Court-speech. I heare that the Japonians have an Alphabet also of Letters after our fashion, besides these Characters ; but in China they have none, so that from their Cradle to the extremest age they are learning their Characters, as many as professe Learning: which howsoever it takes up time from better Sciences, it doth it also from idle youthfiill vanities. Hence also riseth a kinde of writing with them, in few Characters expressing that which would cost us long dis- courses. Their course of writing is from the right hand, the line downward, ours contrary from the left and side- wayes. Of all the noblest Sciences they are best skilled in morall Philosophie (naturall, they have rather obscured) and being ignorant of Logicke, they deliver those Ethicke precepts in confused sentences and discourses without order by meere naturall wit. Their greatest Philosopher is called Confutius, whom I finde to have beene borne 551. yeeres before the comming of Christ, and to have lived above 70. yeeres, by example as well as precept excit- ing to vertue, accounted a very holy man. And if wee marke his sayings and doings, wee must confesse few of our Ethnike Philosophers before him, and many behinde. But with the Chinois, his word is authoritie, and no speech of his is called in question ; the Learned, yea the Kings also, ever since worshipping him, not as a God, but as a
A.D. - Many nations and Lan- guages have the same Characters. Court Language. Their writing. Morall Philosophie. Confutius. His heroike honours. Man; and his posteritie are much esteemed, the head of that familie inheriting by grant of Kings a title of great honour, with immunities and revenues answerable.
They have some knowledge also of Astrologie, and the Mathemattkes. Mathematikes : In Arithmetike and Geometry antiently more excellent, but in learning and teaching confused. They reckon foure hundred Starres more then our Astrologers have mentioned, numbring certaine smaller Phcenomena. which doe not alway appeare. Of the heavenly Apparances they have no rules: they are much busied about foretelling Eclipses, and the courses of Planets, but [III. ii. 385.] therein very erroneous; and all their skill of Starres is in manner that which wee call Judiciall Astrology, imagining these things below to depend on the Starres. Somewhat they have received of the Westerne Saracens, but they confirme nothing by Demonstration, only have left to them Tables, by which they reckon the Eclipses and Motions.
The first of this Royall Family forbad any to learne this Judiciall Astrologie, but those which by Hereditary right are thereto designed, to prevent Innovations. But he which now reigneth mayntayneth divers Mathematicians, Colledges. both Eunuches within the Palace, and Magistrates without, of which there are in Pequin two Tribunals, one of Chinois, which follow their owne Authors, another of Saracens which reforme the same by their Rules, and by conference together. Both have in a small Hill a Plaine for Contemplation where are the huge Mathematicall Instruments of Brasse before mentioned: One of the Colledge nightly watcheth thereon as is before observed. That of Nanquin exceeds this of Pequin, as being then the Seat Royall. When the Pequin Astrologers foretell Eclipses, the Magistrates and Idoll Ministers are commanded to assemble in their Officiary Habits to helpe the labouring Planets, which they think they do with beating brazen Bels, and often kneelings, all the time that they Eclipses. thinke the Eclipse lasteth, lest they should then bee devoured (as I have heard) by I know not what Serpent.
Their Physicke Rules differ much from ours; they Physicians. examine the Pulse alike. They succeed well in their Prescriptions, which usually are Simples, Herbs, Rootes, and the like. They have for it no publike Schoole, but each learnes it of his owne Master, yet in the two Royall Cities Degrees of this Art are given after Examination, but cursorily and without any respect acquired by his Degree, because all may practise which will. Neyther doth any study Mathematickes or Physicke, which is in any hope of the Ethike glory, but such as want of wit or meanes hath deterred from studies more sublime. Contrariwise, that Ethike Science is the Ladder of China felicity. Confutius brought into order the Bookes of foure former Confutius his Bookes. Philosophers, and wrote a fift himselfe, which five Bookes hee called Doctrines: in which are contayned Morall and Politike Rules, Examples of the Ancients, Rites and Sacrifices, divers Poems also and the like. Besides these five Volumes, out of Confutius and his Disciples are brought into one Volume, divers Precepts without order, Similes, Sentences Ethike, Oeconomike, Politike: this Booke for the foure parts is called the Foure Bookes. These nine are the ancientest China Bookes, whence the others most what are taken, and contayne most of their Characters. And the ancient Kings enacted that they which professe Learning, should take the foundations of their Learning from those Bookes, not only to learne the proper sense of the Text, but to bee able on the sudden to write fitly of any sentence, for which cause that Tetrabiblion Tetrabiblion. is learned without Booke. Neyther is there any Universitie or publike Schoole (as some of ours have affirmed) the Masters or Professors whereof have No University. undertaken to read and expound those Bookes; but every one gets a Master at home at his owne choice and cost (of which there is a huge multitude.) In this Science are three Degrees bestowed on them which offer themselves to Degrees. be examined and are judged meete. That Examination is almost wholly in Writing. The first Degree is conferred in every Citie in that place which is called the Tihio the Proposer. Sieucai a Bachelors degree, or as Master of Art with us. Ornaments. Their Priviledges. The second degree, Kiugin, as Licentiates or Bachelors in Divinitte, if we compare them with ours.
Schoole, by some learned man designed to that Office by the King, who is by that place called Tihio: the Degree is termed Sieucai. A threefold Examination is premised. First, at his comming to any City of his Province, all that stand for that degree in that City, and the confining limits thereof resort thither and are examined by those Masters which are set over the Bachelours till they have attayned further Degree, mayntayned by the Kings stipend. In this Examination every one is admitted, perhaps foure or 5000. assembled to that purpose. The second is by the foure Governours of the City (for none are admitted to Government but the Learned) which present out of all that number 200. of the better Writers to the Tihio, and he in a third Examination chuseth 20. or 30. of the best, which he entituleth Bachelors: their Ensignes are a long Gowne, a Cap, and Boots, which none else may weare, & in all places they are much respected as in a ranke above the vulgar Citizens, and enjoy also divers Priviledges, being in manner subject only to the Masters aforesaid and the Tihio, other Magistrates scarsly medling with them. This Tihio not only hath authority over these new created Bachelors, but over those which were made before to re-examine them: and these according to their writing hee divideth into five rankes ; the first he rewardeth with some publike Office in the City, the second with some inferiour honour, the third he neyther rewards nor punisheth, the fourth he causeth to be publikely whipped, the last he degradeth and maketh againe Plebeians. The second Degree is called Kiugin, and may be compared with our Licentiates, and is conferred but once in three yeares, and that in the Metropolitane City about the eight Moone with greater Majesty. And the degree is not conferred to all, but to a certayne number of the worthiest, according to the dignity of each Province: Pequin and Nanquin have each 150. Cequian, Quamsi, and Fuquian 95. others fewer. Only Bachelors, but not all are admitted to this Examination, the Tihio sending out of each City or Schoole 30. or at most 40. of the best, which number yet Examiners. Palace of examination. ariseth in some Province to 4000. of those Examinates or Probationers for this second degree. A little before the eighth Moon (which often fals in September,) the Pequin Magistrates present to the King 100. of the most esteemed Philosophers in the Kingdome, who thence pricketh or nameth thirty, for each Province two, to take charge of [III. ii. 386.] the Examination of these Candidates. One of these two must bee of the Hanlin Colledge, the Collegians whereof are most famous thorow the Kingdome. The King doth not name them till that nicke of time when they must presently packe to their Province, diligently guarded also that they speake with none of that Province till the Act or Commencement be past. In the same Province also are chosen the best Philosophers to assist these two Examiners. In every Mother City is a huge Palace built for this purpose, compassed with high wals, with many stations for the Examiners separate from noyse; and foure thousand Cels or Studies besides in the midst of the Palace, wherein is a stoole and table for one man, that none may see or confer with any other.
When the Examiners sent by the King, and those of the Province are come thither, they are presently shut up in their stations before they can speake with other men, or with each other, during all the Examination time. Night and day, meane-whiles the Magistrates and Souldiers guard the Palace from Colloquies. Three dayes Dayes of Examination. (the same thorow the Kingdome) the ninth, twelfth and fifteenth of the eighth Moone, from morning to night are appointed for their writing, the doores being shut. A light refection provided the day before is given to the Writers at publike cost. When the Bachelors come to the Palace, they are thorowly searched whether they have any Booke or Writing with them, and are admitted only with the Pensils which they use in writing, their Plate, Paper and Inke; these also and their Garments searched to prevent all fraud, which found causeth the twofold punishment both of losse and sence. When they are admitted, the doores shut and sealed, the two Royall Theamci Seven writings. Care to avoid corruption. Creation and Priviledges. Examiners out of the Tetrabiblium propound three Sentences for so many Theames to every of them; and foure out of the five Bookes of Doctrines for so many other Theames. These seven Writings must bee made for elegance of words and weight of Sentences according to the Precepts of China Rhetoricke; neyther must any Writing contayne above 500. Characters. Two dayes being passed for the Examination of these; the next day out of the Chronicles, or other three Cases of Politic are propounded, wherein each which three Theames or Writing expresse their minde, or Libel-wise admonish the King what were fittest to be done. The third day three Law Cases, such as happen in the Magistrates Offices, are propounded, for each thereof to expresse his Sentence. These in great silence, each in his appointed Cell, having written their Theames, subscribed with their owne, their Fathers, Grand-fathers and great Grand-fathers names, and sealed so that none but men appointed may reade them, offer them to certayne Officers, which before the Examiners see them; cause them to bee transcribed by certayne thereto appointed: which Copies to be distinguished from the Originals are written in Red Inke, without the Authors names (the Originals laid up safely) that none might by the hand or name know the Authour. In this Examination the Assistants first reject the worst & present unto the two Examiners twice so many as are to be chosen Licentiates; as if one hundred and fifty are to bee chosen, three hundred are tendered to passe their last scrutinie: who first lay by the best, so many as are to bee elected, and thence take the first, second, and third, and set them accurately in order, and then conferre them with the Originals, thence taking the names which they cause to bee written in great Cubitall Letters, in a huge Table, which they expose about the end of the eighth Moone in great concourse of Magistrates, and applause of the new Elects Friends and Kindred. The Priviledges and Ornaments of this Degree are more then of the former, and if they intend to proceed no further, they are hereby capable of very good Magistracies. After the Act, the Kings Examiners publish a Booke of their proceedings, the names of the Graduates and their principall Writings, especially his which is as the Elder Brother (they call him Quiayuen) and whose Theames were best liked. The Bachelors of other Provinces may not here be admitted; some only except of the Kings Schoole in Pequin and Nanquin.
Third degree as of Doctors called Cinsu. The third Degree is like our Doctorship, called Cin-su, which is conferred every third yeare also, but onely at Pequin, and alway is the next yeare after that Commencement of Licentiates. Only three hundred chosen out of the whole Kingdome obtayne it, although the Licentiates of every Province are admitted to the Examination.
This Act is in the second Moone on the same dayes that the former and in like forme, saving that the diligence is greater, as for a greater degree, and the Colai, the chiefe Colai. Magistrates of the Kingdome are Examiners. The Doctors being pronounced in the same Palace, where the Licentiates use to bee; all of them in the Kings Palace, before the chiefe Magistrates of the Court (yea anciently the King was wont to bee present) make a Theame, according to the judgement whereof, the order of the Magistracies which they are to beare, is declared, being distributed in three Rankes.
Hee that in Examination of Doctors had the first place, hath in this second Examination the third place without First and second place glorious. question: but hee which hath the first or second enjoyeth a great dignitie during his life, besides the greatest Offices in the Common-wealth; and might (compared with ours) bee as a Duke or Marquesse, if it were Hereditary. These Doctours presently have their peculiar Vest, Cap, Bootes, and other Ensignes of Magistrates, and are preferred to the best Offices, such as the Licentiates may not attayne, and are as the prime men of the Kingdome.
[III. ii. 387.] Those Licentiates which are rejected from the Doctorship, if they meane to proceed no further, are preferred to Magistrate; but if they list still to stand for that degree Ambition will be highest or nothing. they betake themselves home to their Bookes afresh, till the third-yeare-examination returnes, so that some stand ten times, continuing so long private to become more publike. A Booke is also published of them and of their successe. Another is yearely set forth contayning the Names, Countrey, Parents, Offices of all the Doctors; and where they governe, whereby a man may know how any hath risen or descended all his life, as is there usuall after their merits. It is remarkable also how the Licentiates and Doctors of the same yeare respect one the other as Brethren ever after, and love the Friends also of their Colleagues, and honour their Examiners as Fathers.
Military degrees. They use to grant at the same times and places the same Titles (in the Moone following) to Military Professors, but with lesse pompe, because Souldierie is of no such reckoning with them, and few stand for them. Threefold tryall. This Military tryall is three-fold, in the first they shoot nine Arrowes on Horse-backe running; in the second they shoot as many at the same marke standing: and hee which hath hit the Marke with foure on Horse-backe and two Arrowes on foot, is admitted to the third tryall wherein they have some Theame of Military matters propounded, and the Judges examining this Triple tryall out of the whole number pronounce about fifty Licentiates in every Province. And when the Doctorall Act is at Pequin, one hundred of the choice of these after a Triple Examination are made Military Doctors. These Doctors are more easily admitted to Military Prefectures (but scarcely without Bribes) then the Licentiates. Both the Philosophicall and Military, over their doores, set up in great Letters this their new attayned dignity. All the Examiners, whether of Mathematicall, or Military, or Philosophicall degrees, are of those Philosophers, without assistance of any Captaine, Mathematician, or Physician, as if thereby they were inabled to all things.
Chap. 5. Polo hath related the Conquest of Mangi by Cublai Can, whose successor (and perfecter haply of that Conquest) was Tetnur or Tamor, sup. 83. & 126. about 100. yeares before Tamerlane, yet it seemes they were not fully subject (for Mandevile served in the wars of Echiant Can against Mangi sup. 135) till Tamerlane; of whom, see sup. 154. But to ascribe it to Tamerlane, and to end the Tartars Reigne at 1368. argues small skill in History of the Tartars, Tamerlane then being but young, if so soone borne. The time how ever is here misreckoned.
Of the Tartarian Conquest; Of Humvu the Establisher of the present Government. The Revenues. Magistrates in the Courts Royall, Provinces, Cities, Orders, Exaltations, Visitations, Deprivations.
THe Government of China is Monarchicall. In times past, there have beene Lords of Title, as are Dukes, Marquesses, and Earles in Europe, but taken away eighteene hundred yeares since. It was never subdued by any Forreiners before the Tartarian Conquest. The Jesuites thinke that that Conquerour was Tamberlane: for the Chinois call him Tiemor, and say that he had before subdued Persia and Tartaria. Hee (whosoever hee was) conquered all the Chinois and left them to his Posterity till the yeare 1368. At that time the Tartarians growing weaker, divers Captaynes arose in divers parts of the Kingdome which shooke off that yoke. Amongst them all the most famous was of the Family Ciu, whom afterwards the Chinois called Humvu, a famous Captayne, or rather a Floud of Armes. He of a common Souldier grew to such greatnesse, that hee first expelled the Tartars, and then repelled the Rebels thorow all the Kingdome, and possessed that Sovereigntie which still continueth in his Line. For the Crowne there goeth by Inheritance: only two or three of the Ancient Kings have commended it to others, their owne Sonnes seeming unworthy; and the people have by Rebellion sometimes raysed a new Family, divers yet losing their lives rather then acknowledging that Faction, this being Proverbiall in their Philosophie, An honest Woman hath but one Husband, and a faithfull Servant but one Lord.
There are no ancient Lawes, but the first Founder of any Royall family makes new Lawes, which his Posteritie are not easily permitted to transgresse. So the present Lawes of China are no ancienter then Humvu, who either made new, or confirmed the old. Out of ignorance of other parts of the world, they thinke their King Lord of the World, and call him Thiencu, the Sonne of Heaven, or (which is all one in their Theologie) of God. His usuall title yet is Hoamsi, that is, supreame Monarch: whereas they stile other Kings Guam, an inferiour title. To prevent Rebellions and Factions, Humvu ordayned that none of the Royall bloud should intermeddle with Government. Those Captaynes which had ayded him in expulsion of the Tartars, hee gave militarie Commands with revenues and titles, to descend to their Heires. The Royall race hee gave the titles of Guam, as pettie Kings, with large revenues to bee yeerely payed out of the Exchequer, and commanded all Magistrates to reverence them. Their Posteritie hee honoured with inferiour Honours and revenues, so much lesse as further from the originall, and after certaine generations to have no more then might well maintayne them without labour. The like in Marriages and Titles were provided for the Royall Daughters. Those assisting Captaynes he honoured with a plate of Iron like a Charger, in which are engraven those [III. ii. 388.] their exploits for deliverance of the Kingdome; which being shewne to the King, is priviledged with pardon of any penaltie, though mortall, three times, except for Treason which forfeiteth presently all Priviledges. Every time it obtaynes any pardon, it is engraven in the Plate. The Sonnes in Law, and Fathers in Law of the King, and some which have extraordinarily merited of the State, enjoy like Honours and Revenues with the same diminution of time, as before.
Magstrates. He also ordained that all Magistracie and Government should belong to those Licentiates and Doctors, whereto neyther the favour of the King or other Magistrates are necessary, but their owne merits, except where corruption frustrates Law. Quonfu and Lau Ye or Lau Sie. Mandarin a Portugal name.All Magistrates are called Quonfu, and for honours sake they are stiled Lau ye or Lau sie, that is. Lord, or Father. The Portugals call them Mandarins.
A DISCOURSE OF CHINA These have some representation of Aristocratie, in that Government: for though they doe nothing but first petitioning the King, hee also determines nothing without their sollicitation. And if a private man petitions (which is seldome, because Officers are appointed to examine Petitions before the King sees them) the King, if hee will grant it, sends it to the Tribunall proper for that businesse, to advise him what is fit to bee done. I have found for certaine, that the King cannot give Money or Magistracie to any, except hee bee solicited by some Magistrate : I meane this of publike Revenues ; which doubtlesse doe exceed one hundred and fiftie Millions yearely, & are not brought into the Palace Treasurie, nor may the King spend them at his pleasure : but all whether Money or Rice and other things in kinde, are layed up in the publike Treasuries and Store-houses, in all the Kingdome. Thence the expenses of the King his Wives, Children, Eunuches, Family, and of all his Kindred are in Royall sort disbursed, but according to the ancient Lawes, neither more nor lesse. Thence the Stipends of Magistrates and Souldiers and all Officers thorow the Kingdome are paid : the publike Buildings, the Kings Palace, Cities, Walls, Towres, Fortresses and all provision of War are thence sustayned, which cause new Tributes sometimes to be imposed, this huge Revenue notwithstanding.
Of Magistrates are two sorts, one of the Court which rule there, and thence rule the Kingdome ; and other Provinciall, which governe particular Cities or Provinces. Of both sorts are five or six Bookes to be sold every where, printed twice each moneth at Pequin, as by their course of printing (you have seene) is easie ; contayning nothing else but the name, Countrey, and degree of the Magis- trates ; and therefore printed so often because of the exaltings, shiftings, setting lower, death of Parents (which suspends three yeares to mourning in private) their owne deaths or deprivations.
Of the Court Tribunals are reckoned sixe ; the first, Lipu (Pu is asmuch as Tribunall or Court, and Li, as
Kings Revenues 150. Millions.
Bookes of Officers.
I. Li pu, or Court of Magistrates. Magistrates) to which it belongeth to name the chiefe Magistrates of the Kingdome, bringing up from the lower to the higher according to the Lawes prescribed, or if they deserve it, abasing or quite depriving them. For those Licentiates and Doctors continually ascend, except their owne faults deject them, wherein a deprivation makes 2. Ho-pu. for ever uncapable. The second is called Ho-pu, that is, the Exchequer Court, or that of the Treasury; which 3. Li-pu. exacts and disburseth the Kings Revenues. The third is the Li-pu, or Court of Rites, which ordereth the publike Sacrifices, Temples, Priests, Kings, Marriages, Schooles, Examinations, Festivall Dayes, common Gratulations to the King, Titles given to the wel-deserving. Physicians, Colledges of Mathematicians, entertayning and sending Embassages, with their Rites, Presents, Letters; the King holding it abasing to his Majesty to write to any. The 4. Pimpu. fourth, is the Pimpu, or Military Court, which rewards the meriting, and takes from the sluggish Souldier; ordereth their Musters and gives Military degrees. The 5. Cumpu. fifth is Cumpu, which hath care of the publike Buildings, Palaces for the King or his Kindred, and the Magistrates; Shippes for publike burthens or Armadas, Bridges, Walls 6. Himpu. of Cities and all like provisions. The sixth Court is Himpu, which inquireth into Criminall Causes and sentenceth them; also all the publike Prisons are subject hereto.
All the affaires of the Kingdom depend on these Courts, which therefore have Magistrates and Notaries in every City and Province, to admonish them faithfully of all things, the multitude and order facilitating this so weighty a Designe. For first, in every Court is a Lord Chiefe The President or Ciam Ciu. Cilam. Justice or President called Ciam Ciu, who hath two Assistants, one sitting at his right hand, the other at his left, called Cilam: their dignity in the Royall Cities is accounted principall. After these every Tribunall hath divers Offices, each of which hath divers Colleagues, besides Notaries, Courtiers, Apparitors, and other Servants. Besides these Tribunals there is another the Colai, or Counsell of State.
Choli and Zauli Magistrates extraordinary.
greatest in the Court and Kingdome; they call them Colaos, which are three or foure, sometimes sixe which have no peculiar businesses, but take care of the whole Re-publike, and are the Kings Privy-Counsell in all Affaires. These are daily admitted into the Kings Palace, and there abide whole dayes, and answere as they see cause to the Petitions which are put up to the King (who was wont to define matters with these Colai in publike) and shewing their answere to the King, hee alters or approoveth the same, and sets his hand thereto for the execution.
Besides these Orders of Magistrates and others not mentioned (as like to our owne) there are two sorts not usuall with us, the one Choli, the other called Zauli. In each of these Orders are above sixty choice Philosophers, men approved for their wisdome and courage before [III. ii. 389.] experienced. These two Rankes are used by the King in Court or Province businesses of greater weight, with great and Royall power, which causeth to them great respect and veneration. These by Libell admonish the King if any thing be done contrary to the Lawes in any parts of the Kingdome, not sparing any of the Magistrates, nor the Kings House, nor the King himselfe; to the wonder of other Nations. And although the King sometimes bee touched to the quicke, and toucheth them to the quicke againe, yet cease they not still to rip the sore till it be cured. Other Magistrates may doe it, yea any private man, but these mens Libels or Petitions are of most worth, as proceeding from their peculiar Office. The Copies of them and of the Kings answers are printed by many, so that the Court and State Affaires flye thorow the Kingdome, and are by some written in Bookes, and those of most moment transcribed into the Annals of the Kingdome. Of late when the King would for love of a second Sonne have excluded the eldest, so many by Libels reprehended the King, that he in anger deprived or abased See Pantoia. one hundred of the Magistrates. They yet ceased not but one day went together into the Kings Palace, and offered Colledges.
Han lin Yuen.
Cause of the removing the Seat Royall from Nanquin to Pequin.
up their Magistracies if he persisted to breake the Law. Lately also when the chiefe of the Colai did not observe the Law, in two moneths space about one hundred Libels were put up, notwithstanding they knew him a great Favourite; and hee dyed within a while after, as was thought, of griefe.
There are also besides Magistrates, not a few Colledges instituted for divers purposes, but the most eminent is that called Han lin Yuen, into which none are chosen but choice Doctors after due Examinations. They which live in that Royall Colledge, meddle not with Government, yet are of higher dignitie then the Governours. Their Office is to order the Kings Writing, to make Annals of the Kingdome, to write Lawes and Statutes. Of these are chosen the Masters of the Kings and Princes. They wholly addict themselves to their studies, and in the Colledge have their degrees of honours, which they attayne by writing. Thence they are preferred to great dignities but not out of the Court. Neither is any chosen to bee a Colao, but out of this Colledge. They gaine much also by Writings for their Friends, Epitaphs, Inscriptions and the like; which all seeke to have of them, their name giving credit and reputation of Elegance. These are the chiefe for Examinations of Licentiates and Doctors, who hold them for Masters and send them Presents.
All these Pequin Magistrates are found also at Nanquin, but obscured by the Kings absence. Hum vu had fixed his Seat at Nanquin, but after his death Yun lo one of his Nephewes, who in the Northerne Provinces defended with an Armie those Borders against the Tartars, perceiving Hum-vus Sonne but weake, thought to deprive him of the Kingdome, which hee effected by helpe of the Northerne Provinces, and with force, fraud and largesse obtayned his Uncles Throne. And because he was strongest in the North parts, and most feare was from the Tartars there, he there fixed his Residence, where the Tartar Kings had wonted to abide and called that Citie Pequin, that is, the Northerne Court, as Nanquin signifieth the Southerne, leaving to this the former Offices and Immunities.
The Government of the other thirteene Provinces depends on two Magistrates, the one Pucinsu, the other Naganzasu: the former judging Civill Causes, the later Criminall; both residing with great Pompe in the Mother Citie of the Province. In both Courts are divers Colleagues and they also chiefe Magistrates called Tauli, which governing other Cities often reside in them. The Provinces are all distributed into divers Regions, which they call Fu, each of which hath a peculiar Governour called Cifu. These Regions are subdivided into Ceu, and Hien, that is the greater or more eminent Townes, and those which are more vulgar, which are not lesse then our Cities, if you except our greatest. These have their speciall Governours called Ciceu and Cihien. The Governours of Cities and Regions have their foure Assistants and Colleagues as Auditors, and Judges to helpe them. As for the opinion of some that thinke those only to bee Cities, which are called Fu, and Ceu, and Hien to bee Townes, it is an errour: for the City wherein the Governour of the Region resides, is also called Hien, and hath its peculiar Governour called Cihien, and Assistants; and the Cifu hath no more power there then in other places of his Jurisdiction; which is the first Appeale to him as Superiour from the Cihien or Ciceu. The second Appeale is to the Pucimfu and Naganzosu and their Colleagues in the Metropolitane Cities, which Cities likewise have their Cihien and Cifu, aswell as the Subordinate; all in incredible Symmetrie.
And because the whole Provinciall Government hath reference to Pequin, therefore in every Province besides these, are other two superiour to them sent from the Royall Citie, the one fixing his Residence in the Province, called Tutam, which may bee compared to our Vice-roy, having command over other Magistrates, and in Martiall affaires: the other is yeerely sent from the Court, and is
Division of Provinces.
Regions or Shires.
Ceu and Hien.
Title fu mistaken.
Cifu, Cihien and Ciceu.
Tutam. A.D. 1579. Cia-yuen or Chaen. PURCHAS HIS PILGRIMES Militarie commands. Magistrates fees.
called Cia-yuen, as a Commissioner or Visitor, which reviewes all the Causes of the Province, the Cities also and Castles, inquireth of the Magistrates, and punisheth some of the meaner sort, acquainting the King touching the rest, how every one demeaneth himselfe; and he onely executeth Capitall punishments. Besides these, are many others in Cities, Townes and Villages: and beside them, many which have command of Souldiers, especially in the [III. ii. 390.] Confines and on the Coasts in supinest Peace, watching and warding in Ports, Walls, Bridges, Castles, as in the hottest Warres, with Musters and Martiall exercises. All the Magistrates of the Kingdome, are reduced to nine Orders, whether you respect the Philosophicall or Militarie Senate: to all which out of the Treasury is proportionably distributed monethly pay. Money or Rice; yet little answerable to that their Magnificence (the highest Order not having one thousand Duckets yeerely) and equall to all of the same ranke, the supreame in matters of Warre having as much as the supreame in the literate Order, if you looke to that which the Law alloweth. But much more accrueth extraordinarie then this fee or stipend, besides what any mans industrie, covetise, fortune, bribing addeth, by which they oft attayne to great wealth.
All the Magistrates use the same Caps, both Mercuriall and Martiall, of blacke Cloath with two Eares or wings, of Ovall figure, which may easily fall off, which being a disgrace, causeth the more modestie and steadinesse in carriage of their heads. They all weare like Vest, and like blacke leather Bootes of peculiar fashion; also a Girdle wider then the body, about foure fingers broad, adorned with circular and square Figures: On the breast and backe, they weare two square Cloathes Embroidered: in which and the Girdles is great varietie, according to their divers Degrees; by which the skilfull know their ranke and place. The cloathes intimate it by the figures of Flowers, Fowles, Beasts; the girdles by the matter, of Wood, Home, Sweet wood. Gold or Silver; and the best of all of that Jasper before mentioned, called Yuce,
Robes and Ornaments. brought from Cascar. Their shadowes or Sumbreros, by their Colours and numbers intimate like difference. They have other Ornaments, Banners, Chaynes, Censors, Guards with Cryes to make way, that in most frequent streetes no man appeareth, more or lesse, according to the Magistrates Dignitie.
The Chinois having plentie of all things, care not for subduing the neighbour-Nations, better keeping their owne, lesse caring for others Countries, then our Europeans: their Chronicles of foure thousand yeeres not mentioning any care of enlarging their Empire. And if any China impressions or foot-prints bee, it is from men voluntarily going to other Countries, not from the Kings ambition sending them. It is also remarkable that Philosophers beare all the sway, the Souldiers and Captaynes being subject to them, and sometimes beaten of them as Schoole-boyes by their Master: even in Militarie matters, the King more using the advise of Philosophers then Captaynes; whereupon every haughtie spirit rather affects meane places in the Literate Order, then great in the Martiall. Yea these Literate are more magnanimous, and more contemne their lives in zeale of the publike then the Souldierie. No lesse admirable is the Symmetrie and Order of Magistrates in their subordinate Orders, in Obedience, Reverence, Visitations and Presents; the Inferiour giving honourable Titles to the Superiour and kneeling to them. None beares any Office above three yeeres, except the King confirme it. And the chiefe Magistrates of Provinces, Cities and Regions, every third yeere must appeare at Pequin, and doe their Rites to the King, at which time severe inquirie is made of the Magistrates, and they thereupon rewarded or punished. I have also observed, that the King dares not alter any of those things, which in this publike Disquisition are ordered by the Judges. Anno 1607. we reade foure thousand Magistrates condemned, that being the Search-yeere, and a Booke published thereof.
These Condemned are of five sorts; First, Covetous
See in Goes. Cap. 4.
Beautie of Order.
No Office above 3. yeeres.
Appearing at Pequin.
Severe Justice. 4000. Judges judged.
1. Covetous. 2. Cruell. 3. Remisse. 4. Rash. 5. Ungoverned.
Care to prevent rebellions factions, and bribes.
which have taken Bribes to pervert Justice, or have usurped the publike or private mens fortunes: these are wholly deprived of all Offices for ever. The second are the Cruell, which have too severely punished, which are also deprived of their Places and Ensignes: The third are the Old and sickly, and the Remisse and negligent; these are deprived, but permitted the Immunities and Ensignes. The fourth sort, are the rash, headdie, and unadvised, which are put in lower Offices, or sent to more easie places of Government. The last are such, as have not governed themselves or theirs, worthy of that place of Government; these are wholly deprived. The like Inquisition is made every fifth yeere of the Court Magistrates, and the same time also, of Militarie Commanders.
None may beare Office in his native Province, except Militarie. The Sonnes also or Domestike servants of Magistrates, may not goe out of the house lest they should bee Factors for bribes: but all services without doores is done by Officers, designed to his place: and when hee goeth out of his House hee sealeth the doores, whether private or publike, that none of his Servants may goe out unwitting to him.
They permit no Stranger to live with them that mindes to returne to his Countrey, or is knowne to have Commerce with forraigne Nations: and no Stranger although of a friendly Nation and Tributarie, may have accesse to the inward parts of the Kingdome ; a thing whereof I have scene no Law, but Custome: neither have I ever scene any of Corai in China, except some Slaves which a Captayne brought thence, although a tributarie Nation which useth in manner the China Lawes. And if a Stranger steale into the Countrey, they punish him not with Death nor Slaverie, but permit him not to returne. They most severely punish those, which without the Kings leave have commerce with Strangers: and hardly can any bee perswaded to be sent abroad with Mandates; and such are rewarded with some Dignitie at their returne. None beare Weapon in Cities, not the Souldiers or Captaynes, but in Weapons. Brawles. Succession and royall kindred.
their Traynings; nor have any men weapons in their [III. ii. 391.] Houses, except some rustie blade which they use when they travell for feare of Theeves. Their greatest Brawles goe no further, then scratching or pulling by the hayre; hee which flees or abstaines from wrong is esteemed both Wise and Valiant. When the King dyeth, none of his Sonnes are permitted to remayne in the Roy all Citie, but the Heyre; and it is Capitall for them, being dispersed in divers Cities to stirre thence. Some principall amongst them, compounds their strifes and rules them; in Cases with others, they are subject to the Magistrates.
Their manifold rites in Salutations, Entertaynments, and other Civilitie : to the King and Magistrates: Of Buryals and Marriages, Birthdayes; their Men, Women, Names, and Games, Habites.
Cap. 7. Courtesie in mutuall veneration and circumspect behaviour to others. Side-reverence.
Curtesie or Civilitie, is reckoned one of their five Cardinall vertues, much commended in their Bookes. (Their common Rites yee have had largely in Pantoia.) When greater respect is used, as after long absence, or on a Solemne day, after the common bowing, both fall on their knees with the forehead to the ground, and then rise and downe againe in like sort three or foure times. When they doe this reverence to a Superiour, hee stands at the head of the Hall, or sits, and at all those prostrations joyning his hands, bowes a little and sometime for greater modestie hee goeth to the side of the Hall, whose head is Northwards as the doore is Southwards. The same rites they performe to their Idols; and sometimes as the Servants to their Master, or the meanest of the people to honourable persons, which is presently to kneele and knock the ground thrice with their forehead: they stand at his side when their Master speakes, and kneele at every answer. When one speakes to another, Respect of persons.
Epistle, sup. 344.
Visiting one another.
they use not the second person, nor the first person when they mention themselves, except to their inferiour, and have as many formes of depressing themselves, as of exalting others, the lowliest of which is to call a mans selfe by his proper name, in stead of I. When they speake any thing of another mans, they use a more honourable forme; Of their owne, or theirs, a more modest: which a man must learne both for manners sake, and to understand their meaning.
The Visitors send their Libels or papers of visitation, so many that the Porter is faine to keepe a note of their names, and where they dwell, lest wee should forget; and if the partie to bee visited be not at home or at leasure, that libell is left with the Porter for a testimonie. The more honourable the Visitor, the larger hee writes his name. In sending Presents they use like libelling; setting downe also each gift in a line by it selfe, part of which may bee sent backe without offence, which is done with a like libell of thankes. They often send money or pieces of Gold for presents. They have Garments proper for visitations. The chiefe place in both Royall Courts, is given to Strangers, most remote especially, which made us commonly to bee preferred. The servant, when they are set, brings as many little Cups of Cia as are Guests. When they part, neere the Hall doore, they reiterate their bowings, then at the Doore, and at the passing out, and after they are in their Chayre or on Horsebacke, againe without doores; and lastly, a Servant is sent after in his Masters name, to salute them, and they send their servants likewise to resalute.
Their Banquets are not so much commessations as Compotations; for although their Cups be as little as Nut-shels, yet they drinke often. Their Civill and Religious affayres are therein handled, besides the demonstration of kindnesse. In eating they have neither Forkes, nor Spoones, nor Knives; but use small smooth stickes, a palme and a halfe long, wherewith they put all meats to their mouthes, without touching them with their fingers. They bring all Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/475 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/476 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/477 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/478 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/479 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/480 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/481 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/482 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/483 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/484 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/485 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/486 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/487 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/488 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/489 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/490 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/491 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/492 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/493 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/494 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/495 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/496 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/497 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/498 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/499 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/500 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/501 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/502 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/503 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/504 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/505 Page:Hakluytus Posthumus or Purchas His Pilgrimes Volume 12.djvu/506 putteth forth hundreds of ships for the keeping of Cauchin-china, and is 380. leagues in breadth, and hath 483383. great Houses which pay Tribute, and 39400. men of Warre.
17 The Province of Enam hath seven great Cities and 13. small, and 90. Townes and Castles: and is 88. leagues broad, and hath 589296. great Houses that pay Tribute, and 15100. Souldiers.
The Spanish Friers of the Philippinas, as Mendoza recordeth, thus out of the China Bookes relate the names of the Provinces, Paguia, Foquiem, Olam, Sinsay, Sisuan, Tolanchia, Cansay, Oquiam, Aucheo, Honan, Xanton, Quicheu, Chequean, Susuam and Saxii; tenne of which are seated on the Sea-coast. He also addes that Paguia or Pequin hath forty seven Cities (stiled Fu) and one hundred and fiftie others termed Cheu. Canton hath thirtie seven of the one, and one hundred and ninetie of the other, and so proceedeth with somewhat differing account, reckoning in all five hundred ninety one Cities entituled Fu, and 1593. of the Cheu Cities, which he makes Townes: whereas the Jesuites have taught us that Fu is the Title of a Region or Shire, in each Province, which are sub-divided into Ceu and Hien, those the more, these the lesse principall, but yet equall to our Cities, as before is observed.
Againe, in a Dialogue printed at Macao, in the Confines of China, 1590. by the Portugals, these Provinces are thus reckoned, Sixe upon the Sea, Coantum, Foquien, Chequiam, Nanquin, Xantum, Paquin; the other nine In-land Provinces, Quiansi, Huquam, Honam, Xiensi, Xansi, Suchuon, Queichen, Junan, Coansi. Perera reckons them thus, Fuquien in which Cinceo is the best knowne City; Cantan, Chequeam, Xutiamfu, Chelim, Quianci, Quicin, Quanci, Confu, Urnan, Sichiua, &c. all which diversity proceedeth partly from ignorance, partly from different Language and Dialect in the expounding these Characters. And it must needs be so, the Chinois wanting use of, and Characters to expresse b. d. r. and all Trig. Epist. Note of Souldiers Peeces. Pantoia mistaken, perhaps the Printers fault.
[III. ii. 404.]
Provinces and their names.
their Characters being of things not Letters; in proper names is very great difficulty to expresse ours in their Characters, or theirs in our Letters; insomuch that one Jesuite doth not perfectly agree with another, nay, often dissents from himselfe, as in Janseu, Yamceu, Hianceu, for their great River which Polo cals Quian; and Chi, and Ci, and Qui I find often confounded in their syllables, as also X and sci, as Xauchin, Sciauchin, and the like. Yea, such is the difficulty, that the Jesuits can scarsly devise to expresse in China Characters, the forme of Baptisme, to put the Latine words thereof, into China Characters, that Baptisme might uniformely bee administred after the Romish Rite, as themselves confesse.
Touching their Souldiers, I thought good, to adde this note for their Peeces whose Barels Pantoia sayth, are but a span long, that Captayne Saris beeing asked told mee, hee saw many of them, and they were as long as Pistols, but the Cocke such as makes them of little service.
I have added these Pictures of a Man and Woman of China, not by ghesse, but out of certayne in China Pictures made also in China in very good Colours, but with Arte meane enough, fine cloth inserted in strong Indian Paper; of which Captayne Saris communicated many to me. Their little Eyes and Noses, long Hayre bound up in knots, womens feete wrapped up, long wide-sleeved Garments, Fannes, &c. I have (taking divers parts out of divers) presented to thee. A taste of the China Characters thou hast in the Title. That of Ricius I have added from the Jesuits, in thankes for his great paines, and to shew the habit of the head, &c.
The names of the Provinces I have hunted out of the Jesuites Journeyes and other Relations. In the most I am sure I am right, in the other  you have my conjecture; for neyther know we their Characters, nor have any given us a particular Geography or Chorography, but only the names of the Provinces. I have added names also to some Cities and Rivers of principall note. As for the truth of the Map I finde well to agree with the Jesuites Journeyes ; but it hath not European Art, it being neyther graduated, nor Hils, nor Woods, or other differing places presented to the view ; only having Characters, Lines, Lakes, and Rivers. I have adventured to adde Degrees Degrees. to helpe such Readers as cannot doe it better themselves, following the Jesuits prescripts in generall, although I cannot but marvell at that longitude, so farre differing from the generall opinion, and could almost doubt, that herein these Portugals are minding that division agreed on betwixt the Spaniards and them, which hath anciently caused such contentions, and wherein you have read some Offices of the Jesuits in these China Discourses. But I will not contend, where themselves speake faintly.
Now for Quian which Polo hath mentioned, as the Quian. greatest River in the world (it is here called Jansu, or *Mandevile Others Caramoran Hiansu, or Yamsu, that is, the Sonne of the Sea, and Jansuchian) and another called Caramoran (Cara signifieth (rremlariiie&t blacke, and this great Northerne River is alway thicke and troubled) and their Marriage by Art, is here viewed; and more then two hundred Cities (one of Polos Wonders) communicating their Merchandizes by that Quian, or Chian, as they now terme it Jansuchian, chian signifying the chiefe River. For the name Cathay to bee given by the Tartars to China, Goez his Journey hath made it out of doubt ; also that Pequin is Cambalu, that is, the Citie of the King. I doe conceive that Polos Mangi was the nine Southerne Provinces of China ; the Northerly before conquered was knowne by the name of Cathay; a name by the Tartars given to divers Countreyes, as Cara Catay and Catay Calay and Great Catay. This Great Catay is China.
Polo and other Authors speake of Cathay and Mangi as two; perhaps the Tartars so accounting them ; the one, to wit, the North parts being formerly subject to them, and called by their ancient name, the other called Mangi in contempt; as the Romanes called the subject Britaines of this Hand by their former name, and the others Picts and Barbarians; and as our Ancestors called those Britons which withstood them Walsh or Welch in a kind of disgrace. Nay still the Northerne Chinois call the Southerne Mangines, that is, rude or barbarous, as the Jesuites have taught us. But neither Cathay, nor Mangi, was then the name which they assumed, but was given them by the Tartars, as China is a name unknowne to them now. If any will find no other Cambalu, nor Cathay but Pequin and China, I will not contend, though my Reasons elsewhere P. Pil. L. 4. c. 12. §. 2. given out of Polo, and Chaggi Memet, and others, with the former Relations of Pinto and Alhacen, make me scrupulous, and still to beleeve some greater Prince or Can with his Cambalu or Court in the more Northerly parts of Asia, then the Jesuits could learne of; which the China jealousie, admitting no entercourse of Strangers, and the many quarrelling Tartar Princes in the way have concealed from us hitherto.
The great blacke space on the North-west hath in the Originall certayne Characters in it which expresse it: whether it intendeth Mountayns which their Art could no better expresse, and the Rivers thence running may import; or that sandy Desert on the North-west, I cannot so well determine. The Jesuits say, that ab occasu qui Aquiloni vicinior est, counterminus visitur arrenæ sitientis ager, qui multorum dierum penuria advenarum exercitus ab Sinarum Regno aut deterret, aut sepelit. I rather thinke that it is Cara Catay or Blacke Catay, before often mentioned, both Mountaynous, and Desert, and perhaps coloured blackish, as the name intimates, by black sands, or as health grounds with us: it was the first Tartarian Conquest, and beginning of the greatest greatnesse which this World hath yeelded; the Countrey before of Presbyter Joannes Asiaticus.
The wall is in this forme in the original, not in the Picture made up of Mountaynes, wherein I thinke they had not art to imitate Nature; the Art in the whole Map much resembling our old Maps, of wooden prints, save that I see not one Mountaine presented in swelling fashion to the Eye. The Ilands are very many with their Characters, but poorely delineated, their names here omitted for their uncertaynties: so little (and yet how much more then any other?) doe wee give you of China, till Time give us more. The degrees are not so perfectly accommodated to the Map, by reason that we must at once follow the Chinian Map which had no degrees (nor could their Art without degrees give every place his just longitude or latitude) and the Jesuits Rules: yet we have comne somewhat neere, as may be seene. Other things appeare in the History.
- Some say many more see the Map and notes.
- Three or 4. to the South-west.