History of Norfolk/Volume 3/Chapter 27
OF THE CITY IN QUEEN ELIZABETH'S TIME.
Queen Mary being dead, on the 17th day of November, her sister Elizabeth was proclaimed Queen of England, in the year 1558, and was crowned the 15th of January following by Dr. Oglethorp Bishop of Carlisle; and the 25th of January began a parliament at Westminster, in which the Queen was declared supreme head of the church of England. And the book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments was fully restored; and by degrees the reformed religion, as practised in the time of Edward VI. was amply confirmed and settled.
Richard Bulwer, by will dated Aug. 13, in this year, gave 15l. to the city, to remain for ever, viz. "that three smythes within the cittie shall have the use and occupation thereof, eche of them by the space of two yeares, and at the end of the said two yeares, other three smythes two yeares, laying in sufficient bond to Mr. Mayor, &c." He gave also to the common-hutch, or city chest, 20s.
Robert Rugge, one of the ten aldermen that died this year, gave 10l. to the use of the city, and
Thomas Codde, another of them, was a great benefactor.
The new aldermen, viz. Nic. Norgate, Tho. Whall; Tho. Peck Tho. Parker, John Blome, Andrew Quash, John Gibbes, Tho. Green Christopher Soome, and Rob. Suckelyng, when they were sworn, pai 40s. each, towards the reparation of the city walls, within the war where they were chosen aldermen, according to the ancient custom and order of the city. The aldermen that died were, Tho. Gray John Howes, Nic. Sywhat, Tho. Cocke, Alex. Mather, Tho. Malby, Jeffry Warde, John Atkins, Tho. Codde, and Rob. Rugge.
In 1559, Dr. William Cunningham, a physician of Norwich, published a book entitled "The Cosmographical Glass, conteyning the pleasant Principles of Cósmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie, or Navigation," which was printed at London by John Day, and contains 202 pages, besides dedication, preface, and index, with many curious wooden cuts, and particularly one of the author in his doctor's habit, and another, being "An accurate Map of the excellent City of Norwyche, as the form of it is at this present 1558," with many alphabetical references to an explanation at the bottom, of the principal places set forth in the same: which map, as well as the whole book, is looked upon as a great curiosity.
The frontispiece is a neat wooden cut, in which the sciences leading to the studies treated of, are represented, with some of the ancients, who were eminent therein; and at the bottom are these six lines:
In this Glasse if you will beholde, The Sterry Skie, and Y'earth so wide, The Seas also, with Windes so colde, Yea and thy selfe, all these to guide, What this type meane, first learne aright: So shall the gayne, thy travaill quight.
It is dedicated to Robert Dudley, Knight of the Garter, Master of the Horse to the Queen's Majesty, &c. and after the dedication are divers verses, in praise of the author, by Gilbert Barckley and Tho. Langley of Cambridge. And at the close of the preface he hath this, "If for the difficultie of the worke, any errour escape; remember I am the first that ever in our tongue have written of this argument, &c." dated at Norwich the 18th of July, 1559.
In the second book, is " a Table of the Sun's Meridian Altitude above the Horizon," calculated for every degree in the zodiac, respecting the elevation of the pole-artic at Norwich, 52 deg. 10 min. and the sun's declination 23 deg. 28 min. There is also a calculation of such eclipses of the moon as shall happen from the year 1560 till 1605; applying the time of their beginning in years, days, hours, and minutes, unto the meridian of Norwich exactly, which is 22 deg. and 30 min. from the Canary islands, with the figures of all the said eclipses: Apian's way of finding out the longitude of places by the Jacob's staff, &c. the method being taken when the moon is west or east of the star; further illustrated by an example of finding the longitude of Norwich.
The work was then in such great repute, that Day the printer obtained a royal license for him and his assigns solely to print it.
The author was certainly a learned young man, for though he was but 28 years of age, it appears he had not only been abroad, according to the present mode, but had applied himself diligently to get knowledge and learning during that time, for besides this work, he had wrote seven other treatises, viz. an Apology: a new Quadrat, by no Man ever published: the Astronomical Ring: Organographia: Gazophilacion Astronomicum: Chronographia, and Commentaries in Hypocrat: de Aëre, Aquis et Regionibus. He seems to have commenced doctor at Heydelberg, at which university he says he was handsomely entertained by D. Joan. Bangius, T. Erastus, physicians, and D. Balduinus reader of the civil law. I have seen no more of his works printed, which perhaps may be accounted for from the emblem in the last page of this book, which represents death on a monument, and virtue in the shape of a tree, flourishing out of it, alluding to the known motto of Vivit post funera Virtus.
And now commissioners being sent out to visit every diocese for establishment of the reformed religion, and removing superstitious images, &c. the common people being over zealous, and not content with taking them away, seized upon the ancient monuments of the dead, defacing all arms and portraitures of such benefactors as remained in the windows, stone work of the churches and other publick buildings; by which means abundance of the memorials of our pious ancestors were lost: and the same fate had attended all the rest, had not the Queen put a stop to such doings, by a royal proclamation, which saved many of those monuments of antiquity that we now meet with, from being utterly defaced, which proclamation is printed at large in Fuller.
In 1560, the Duke of Norfolk requested the city to aid the town of Yarmouth in making their haven: and there was a gift of 200 marks sent them to be expended thereon, upon condition that the people of Yarmouth shall not, by making the said haven, lay any impositions or customs to the prejudice of the citizens, who were quietly to enjoy such liberties there as heretofore they did.
In 1561, a jebbet was erected in the Town-close on the outside of St. Stephen's-gates, and a lad about 16 years old was hung in irons thereon, for ravishing and quartering a child.
Sir Richard Southwell, Knt. gave 120l. to be received of Ric. Hede and others, who had purchased his house of him in St. Stephen's parish, to be paid by 10l. a year, to the relief of the poor in the city, except the first 10l. which was paid at lady day, and was to be laid out in buying beds for the poor in St. Giles's hospital.
On May 31st. Mr. Ralph Shelton paid 5l. to be given in alms for William Godsalve, Esq. who died very suddenly in Whitsun week.
This year, the Earls of Northumberland and Huntington, the Lords Tho. Howard and Willoughby, with many other lords and knights, came to Norwich, to visit the Duke of Norfolk there, and were all lodged with their retinue at the Duke's palace; and during their stay, they diverted themselves with shooting and other martial exercises on Moushold-Heath; and it being at the time that the mayor's feast was to be held at the New-hall, Will. Mingay, Esq. then mayor, invited them and their ladies to the feast, John Suckling, baker, Tho. Layer, Christopher Layer, merchants, and Laurence Wood, scrivener, being the four feast-makers.
At the entertainment the Duke and Dutchess of Norfolk sat first, next sat the three Earls of Northumberland, Huntington, and Surrey, then the Lord Thomas Howard, the Lord Scroop and his lady, the Lord Barthlet and his lady, the Lord Burgavenny, with so many other lords, knights, and ladies, that the hall, although it is so very large, could scarce contain them, and their retinue, yet by the good management of the feast-makers, all things were kept in order, and the nobility expressed a great deal of satisfaction at their generous reception.
The Mayor's bill of his share towards the expense amounted to 1l. 12s. 9d. only. The feast-makers bearing the rest, which bill, as it will show us the difference of the price of things then and now, I shall here add:
The ancient arms of the city were confirmed by William Harvey, Clavencieux, king of arms, in his publick visitation held here July 2, 1562, and are accordingly entered in the book of that time.
Richard Rudde, mercer, by will dated Nov. 15, 1562, gave "to the poore people in Norwich, fower pounds yearly for ever, to be distrybuted by my executors on Ashe-Weanesday, to pray for my soule and all Cristian soules. And also I will that my executors shall within vij yers next after my decease, insuer to the mayor, shreves, and commonalte, of the city of Norwich, and ther successors, as moche lands and tenements as shall yearly amounte and come to the some of 4l. 6s. 8d. above all charges, of which said 4l. 6s. 8d. I will there be yerely for ever geven and distributed as aforesaid, 4l. by the discressyon of the mayor and shreves for the time beyng, for whose paynes therein to be taken and done. I will, that the other 6s. 8d. be to the said mayor and shreves, viz. to the mayor for the tyme beyng 3s. 4d. and to eyther of the shreves 20d." And it appears from the chamberlains accounts in 1625, that there was a close without St. Giles's-gates, conveyed to the city according to Mr. Rudd's will, which was then leased at 8l. per annum, and the profits applied accordingly.
In 1563, on the 2d and 3d of July, there landed 900 soldiers sent from Norfolk, Suffolk, and Norwich, at Newhaven, where the English were then besieged by the French: they were well clothed in yellow and blue cloaks; Ferdinando Ligens, Philip Sturley, and Edw. Driver, being their captains; and with them were 50 carpenters, 16 sawyers, and 8 smiths: but notwithstanding these, and many other succours, the English were obliged to surrender the town, by reason of the plague, which broke out there, and carried off a prodigious number of soldiers and inhabitants, among whom died Edward Ormesby, Tho. Drury, alias Poignard, Will. Saule, and Master Bromfield; but a greater misfortune than this followed, for when the soldiers returned they carried the infection into England, which raged so violently in London, that in the parishes belonging to that city; there died from Jan. 1, 1562, to the last day of Dec. 1563, no less than 20, 136 of the plague only.
The benefactors to the city this year were, the Duke of Norfolk, who gave 30l. to be given in alms to the poor. A legacy of 10l. given by Mr. William Mingay, late alderman, was then distributed: and Augustine Steward, executor to the late suffragan, agreed to convey to the city certain houses of the suffragan's gift.
In 1564, the Queen licensed the city to purchase 200l. per annum in mortmain; it bears date at Westminster, May 17; and whereas the ancient dower of women in the city was a moiety of house and land, it seems about this time to be a third part only.
After Michaelmas this year, fell so much rain, that much winter corn could not be sown, and eight days before Christmas, began a very great frost, which lasted nine weeks, so sharp that most of the sheep perished, and the greens, as hollys, furze, laurels, &c. were killed; and by the thaw, which was a very sudden one, great floods ensued, and much damage was done to the mills, bridges, and banks, in most places.
In 1565, the city being in much distress by the decay of the worsted manufacture, which was now at so low an ebb that many were forced to leave their houses and go into the country to get their bread: after many consultations had how to redress it, the mayor, sheriffs, &c. resolved to wait upon his grace Tho. Duke of Norfolk, who was then at his palace in the city, and there advising with him what was best to be done, a resolution passed, to invite divers strangers of the Low Countreys, which were now come to London and Sandwich, for refuge from the persecution then raised against them by the power of the Duke of Alva, principal for the King of Spain, which strangers had obtained license from the Queen to exercise the making of Flanders commodities of wool in her Majesty's dominions: and upon application made by the Duke, her Majesty granted her letters patent at the Duke's own charge, for the placing of 30 master workmen, each of them to have 10 servants, being in all 330, Dutch and Walloons, who came to Norwich and set up the making of bayes, sayes, arras, mockades, and such like, which immediately employed a great number of hands, so that the houses which were decayed were now repaired and inhabited, and both city and country grew rich, the first by the plentiful demand of their provisions, and the latter by their new way of trade: and after a while so many came over, that there were above 3000 of these strangers at once in the city, and the Dutch congregation had the quire of the friars-preachers church assigned them for their religious assemblies, which they enjoy to this day. And the Walloon or French congregation, first by leave, made use of the Bishop's chapel, but after had the church of St. Mary at Tombland assigned to them, which they still  enjoy; though both the congregations are now very small, and almost quite decayed.
The said letters patent bear date at Westminster, and were sent by the Duke to Master Thomas Sotherton, then mayor, to be put in execution; who called an assembly, in which the commons refused to suffer the common seal of the city to be put to the admission of any stranger, and upon that, the court agreed to fix the common seal of the office of mayoralty to the admissions of the 30 masters, which were in form following:
Thomas Sotherton, mayor of the city of Norwich, with the advice of his brethren the aldermen, according to the Queen's Majesty's letters patent, bearing date November 5, in the 7th year of her Majesty's reign, do license John Powells, estraunger (alian) to take to farm any house, messuage or rent within the city aforesaid, there to inhabit and dwell with his household and family, to use, exercise, make, and work, as well all such commodities as in the said letters patent been contained, as others not heretofore made or wrought within the said city, during the time of his good behaviour and obedience to such constitutions and orders, as be now made, and hereafter shall be made, for the better governance of the said city, in witness whereof, the said mayor to these presents have caused his seal of office to be put, the 1st day of June, &c. 8 Eliz.
And now the twenty-four following persons were admitted masters for the Dutch, and the six for the Walloons.
1. John Powells.
2. George Van Exsham.
3. John Garrett.
4. Peter Janson.
5. John de Rhoode.
6. John Mychelles.
7. Christian Vrinde.
8. Gilberde Vijscheers.
9. John Brijninge.
10. Geo. Vramboute.
11. Romaine Debeche.
12. Frauncis Trian.
13. Frauncis Mysedome.
14. John Looten.
15. Adrian Van Dorte.
16. Peter Frenin, alias Vanbrughe.
17. Pascall Clarebote.
18. Tho. Bateman.
19. Jerusalem Pottelbergh.
20. Mychel Desonytte.
21. Francis Dedecre.
22. John Goose.
23. Lewis Spillebote.
24. Will. Steene.
1. Rob. Goddarte.
2. Noe le Turcke.
3. Ipolitè Barbè.
4. John Dumimè.
5. John Karseye.
6. Peter Waolls.
These thirty masters, with their families began to make their commodities, and had the church of St. Mary the Less, or St. Mary at Tombland, which was lately purchased by the city, assigned them by the court, for their hall, with seals and all other utensils, for the searching and sealing their goods, and then were rules and ordinances made for their better government, viz.
1. Two aldermen, one of which was to be a justice of peace, were to be assigned, to hear and determine all matters of controversy between them.
2. Every stranger hereafter to be admitted, was to be presented to the mayor, and the said two aldermen, and to produce a token from the elders of their company, of their names, faculties, and honest conversation.
3. All officers chosen for the search of the commodities, were to be sworn by the mayor yearly.
4. They shall truly pay all parish duties whatever, as other people do, both to the church, priest, clerk, &c. "that is to saye, of everye shyllinge for their house rente or fearme, a penye, for the whole yere, &c."
5. They are not to occupy, buy or sell any merchandise or goods whatever, only those of their own making, and them not by retail, unless to their own nation.
6. They are to pay all customs and duties due for their wrought commodities, to the said two aldermen and chamberlain, every quarter, viz. for every whole Flemish cloth ijd. every half one jd. every whole bay ijd. every double saye ijd. every double stamet ijd. and jd. for the single ones.
The knave, knape (or servant) of the hall, to have every 20th penny for his attendance, and the rest to the chamber of the city, &c.
To all which ordinances they willingly obeyed, behaved themselves orderly, became a civil people, and were of great service to the city, though the commons and some of the chief citizens raised many clamours against them; for in 1567, Thomas Whalle, then mayor, who never liked them, would have turned them out, which the majority of the court not approving, he obliged them to accept other ordinances, added to the rest; among which, one was, that the Dutch should yearly elect eight persons, and the Walloons four, and present them to the mayor, for governours, to answer for the whole companies, and that they should lodge no strangers above one night, without certifying the mayor of it; neither should they walk in the streets after the eight o'clock bell at St. Peter's of Mancroft had gone: and in 1569, Justice Whalle acquainted the privy council, that there were continual differences between the English and strangers, (which he, and the rest of his party, were continually raising,) who were now 1132 persons in all; upon which, the Lords directed their letters to the mayor and aldermen, Edward Clere, and Clement Paston, Esqrs. ordering them to permit such strangers as were settled already, to remain here, but suffer no more to come. Yet this did not give such satisfaction to the enemies of the strangers, as was expected, for in 1570, a conspiracy was discovered of certain gentlemen and others in the county of Norfolk, who purposed on Midsummer day, at Harleston fair, to have raised a number of men with sound of trumpet and beat of drum, and then to have declared the cause of their rising, namely, to expulse the strangers from the city and realm; this matter was discovered by Thomas Ket, one of the conspiracy, to John Kensey, who forthwith sent the said Ket to the next justice, before whom, and other justices, he opened the whole matter; whereupon Master Drue Drury immediately apprehended Master John Throgmorton of Norwich, Gent. and after him many gentlemen of the city of Norwich, and county of Norfolk, who were all committed to prison, and at the assizes held at the Castle on the 17th of July following, before Sir Rob. Cattyn, Knt. lord chief justice, Gilbert Gerrard, the Queen's attorney-general, and other justices, ten were then indicted of high treason, and others of contempt, and divers of them were condemned on the 21st of August, and afterwards three were hanged, drawn and quartered, viz. John Throgmorton, who stood mute at his arraignment, but at the gallows confessed himself to be the chief conspirator, and that none had deserved to die but himself, for that he had procured them: with him was executed Tho. Brooke of Rollesby, Gent. on the 30th of August, and George Redman of Cringleford, Gent. was also executed on the 2d of Sept. Mr. John Appleyerd, Mr. Hobart, Bryan Holland, Esq. Mr. Naller, and one more, were condemned to suffer imprisonment, and forfeit their goods and lands for life; one Mr. Holmes first discovered it to the court, assuring them, "that their intentions were to raise forces at Harleston fair, and out of Bongey and Beccles, and so to have been at Norwiche in such a sodeyne, as at the mayor's feaste, to have taken the whoale cubborde of plate, to have maynteyned their enterpryse." But as God shortened some of their days, their purposes were defeated, and the strangers whom they hated, found favour and were continued in their trades, by which they got much riches, and employed abundance of the poor: but still such citizens as were enemies to them, insisted upon new ordinances, and hard customs for them, to be subject to, as that they should sell none of their commodities to any but freemen of the city, and such like, which occasioned them to complain to the Queen's council, who wrote to the city in their behalf, requiring them to continue their favour, "to the poor men of the Dutch nation, who fleeing the persecution lately begun in their country, for the trewe religion, hath fledd into this realm for succour, and be now placed in the city of Norwich, and hath hitherto been favourablye and jentely ordered, which the Quenes Majestie as a mercifull and religious prince doth take in very good part, praicng you to continue your favoure unto them, so long as they shall lyve emongste you, quyetlye and obedyently to Godes trewe religion and to her Majesties lawes, for so one Chrystian man (in charitie) is bownde to helpe an other, especially them, who do suffre afflixion for the Ghospelles sake," &c. Willing them to suffer them to sell their commodities, as their brethren settled in Sandwich and Colchester do, to whom they please, reminding them, that the advantage accruing to the city from their houses being inhabited, which before stood desolate, and the number of people being employed, which before had nothing to support them, together with the consumption of provisions, were no small benefit both to the city and country, and therefore they ought to be favoured; this letter is dated at Greenwich, March 19, 1570.
Upon this, they were summoned to answer, why they had complained? their hall doors were shut up March 26, 1571, and no cloths sealed; and on the first day of April were sent up the orders appointed for the strangers, by John Bleverhasset, Esq. and Robert Suckling, alderman, then members for the city, to the council, who on the 10th of April referred the cause to Sir Walter Mildmay, master of the rolls, and Sir Thomas Smith, who favoured the strangers, and on the 21st of April, it was heard in the Treasury Chamber, and both sides agreeing to stand to the determination of the council, the strangers obtained a letter from Sir Tho. Smith to the mayor, to open their hall door, which was done, and on the 29th of April, the order of council came down, dated at Westminster, April 25, in which it was declared, that the strangers should have no new burthens or exactions laid upon them, but should be conformable as heretofore to their old ordinances, which were afterwards new ratified, and penalties added, by consent of both parties; and then the Dutch prayed the court to confirm certain articles made by the minister of the Dutch church, to keep their company in good order, with the deliberation and conclusion of the consistory, with the deacons, and men of communication, Feb. 24, 1569, being 24 in number, and concerned the government of the church, as for choosing twelve elders, and twelve deacons, administering the Lord's supper four times in the year, &c. which articles being put in execution, caused great debates and differences among them, so that Isebrandus Balkins, the head minister, and his party, openly contended with Theo. Rickwaert and Anthony Algoet the two other ministers, and their party, so much, that they were admonished by the bishop and mayor, to be at peace; but not conforming thereto, the Bishop directed a commission to the Chancellor, the Mayor, Dean Gardiner, and Henry Birde, reader of the Thursday divinity lecture, &c. commanding them to call the parties before them, try the matter, and punish the offenders with banishment, or any way that they thought proper, ordering that Johannes Paulus, author of all these troubles, whom the Bishop commanded to quit the city on the 14th of February last, should be forthwith sent away.
On summons given by the commissioners, Isbrand and his party appeared, but Rickwaert and Algoet, and their party, did not; and the matter being fully debated, a decree was drawn by Mr. Chancellor and the Commissioners, directed to the ministers, elders, deacons, and other governours of the Dutch church and congregation in Norwich, commanding them to be at unity among themselves, and to make no variances, under penalty of being banished the city, and removed from the congregation; and least any should pretend ignorance, the preachers in their sermons next Sunday were to publish this decree; but the party that did not appear refused to obey, applied to the bishop, and would not publish it; and upon Rickwaert's refusing to do it, he and Algoet were committed to prison for contempt; from whence they complained to the Archbishop of Canterbury, who called all parties before him, and thoroughly examined the whole proceedings of the complaining parties, and of the bishop, chancellor, mayor, and commissioners, and on the 15th day of September, the strangers charging the mayor with having usurped such spiritual jurisdiction in the city of Norwich, over their ministers, in imprisoning them, as did not belong to them, Mr. John Aldrich and Mr. Robert Suckling, aldermen, who appeared as attornies for the mayor, signed a declaration before the Archbishop, that the mayor never did exercise or pretend to exercise any spiritual jurisdiction over the citizens nor strangers, all such jurisdiction belonging to the Bishop of Norwich, and in his absence to his chancellor, and that accordingly, the whole proceedings had been transacted by their knowledge and consent, and that without their direction nothing had been done, which the Bishop not only owned to be true, but declared in their favour, that the city never did so much as pretend to intermeddle in, or have any eccleclesiastical jurisdiction whatsoever, but in this, and all other canses of this nature, always applied to him or his Chancellor for direction therein; this disappointed the strangers, who imagined that the Bishop would have looked upon the imprisonment of their ministers as an incroachment upon his jurisdiction.
Upon this, the Archbishop and the rest of the high commissioners made a final decree, dated September 16, 1571, subscribed by Mathew Archbishop of Canterbury, Edw. Bishop of London, Robert Bishop of Winchester, and John Hamound, containing eight articles, by which all spiritual jurisdiction whatever over them was confirmed and acknowledged to be in the Bishop of Norwich, and neither the mayor nor citizens to meddle in causes merely ecclesiastical: "excepting to the strangers their accustomed manner of governmente, hitherto graciously suffered by the Quene and her Cowncell," reserving to the mayor and commonalty all jurisdiction over them in all civil causes, according to law.
It was also decreed, that Isbrand Balkins, Theophilus Rickwaert, and Anthony Algoer, should be displaced from their ministry and seniority, and be hereafter incapable to be replaced either in Norwich or London, under pain of imprisonment without redemption, and that Johannes Pawlus of Sandwiche do forthwith depart the city of Norwich, and that no man entertain him under pain of imprisonment, and 20l. forfeiture; and the congregation were ordered to choose two ministers, three seniors, and eight men; and when they had so done, to return their names to the Bishop of Norwich, to be confirmed or repealed at his discretion, "the persons elected to continue in suche sorte, as was used in the dayes of King Edwarde, by the prescription of Mr. Alasco, and was practised at the fyrste." And others, as Romaine de Beche, John Cutmann, Peter Obrye, Francis Tryan, William Stenne, Peter the Camere, and Charles Harman were commanded not to trouble the peace of their church, under penalty of being turned out.
This decree being directed to the Bishop and Mayor to put in execution, he sent it to his Chancellor, and he and the Mayor acted accordingly; but the Bishop being in some measure afterwards gained over to Rickwaert's party, pricked for their consistory some of that party, and for the politique elders, Mr. Mayor appointed eight Dutch and four Walloons of the other party, which bred a new contention, both concerning the number that should be permitted to inhabit here, which was, according to the Council's letter, not to exceed 2826 persons, and also about certain articles which the elders were sworn to; as to present all such as made any disturbance, or pretended to trade without the mayor's license, according to the Queen's grant, &c. and the city perceiving the Bishop would not remove those he had pricked, though they gave great disturbance, applied to the high commissioners, upon which the following order was directed for that purpose:
"To the Right Worshipfull Mr. Mayor of the City of Norwich, and to the aldermen of the same.
"Whear we understaunde by credible reporte of the unrestfull dissention betwixte the straungers themselves, the conspirators of which dissention regardinge nothing the goodness of God in this their exile, nor the Quenes Majesties great favoure towards them, and her lovinge subjectes good intertaynment, neyther considerynge the shame and sclander they worke to Chryste his Ghospell and religion, and to the perpetuall blotte of their nation, so insolente in a straunge countrye, which in sences pretendinge a defence of their consciens, and mainteynance of trewe religion, and under the cloake thereof, be rather as Judas and Barabas, amongs a Christian society. Whereupon we have thought good to advertise your Lordshipp to stande earnestlye to the reformation of them. And seinge that diverse of them supposinge that the magistrates of this nation, having nothing elles a doo but to sarve their turnes, we require your Lordshipp, as we do also Mr. Mayor and his Bretherne to governe them in lesse libertye then they have hitherto used, (or rather abused,) and thereupon we wyll you the Bishop to accepte of these syxe men fyrst chosen seniors, viz.
Mr. Mathew Richens.
Nicasius de Wilde.
John de Spigell.
Cornelis de Heill.
John de Rode.
Maximilian Van Dan.
"And your Lordshippe or your Chancellor with the consente of Mr. Mayor, and Mr. Aldriche, and with the counsell of theis aforesaid, to accepte syxe of that nombre that had the most voyces nexte unto the fyrst vi men, viz.
Hubreit Vander Heiden.
Joose de Ram.
Barnard Van Dijnsye.
Jaques Van Borwen.
Jacob de Volder.
"And yf this can not be done by your discrecion to some quiete contentacion, beinge chosen but for one yere to come, then we require you the Bishop and your offycers in all causes ecclesiasticall, to proceed according to your ecclesiasticall jurisdiction, not regarding their particular eleccions or disciplins, before so shamefully abused: and appointe you their preachers and ministers accordynglye. And whereas there is much standinge in the validite of their eleccions (except they desarve better, by their more quiet behaviour) they shall be less regarded; moreover whear such chosen thought but to revenge their yll willers, (as they take them,) and so to abuse their romethes privatelve in fullfyllinge their own partial stomakes. We requyre you the Bishop, and the Mayor of the citye, to bridle in such unruly sprites. And yf ther be any contentious heades lurkinge in those congregations, to fire them in this unnatural and barbarous dissention, we require you, and chardge you, in the Quenes Majesties name, to roote them owte. And if any such be, whom ye cannot rewle, we will be means to the uttermost of ower power, to have them considered. And thus expectyng your awnswers, we comytte you to God, as owr selves. From Lambhethe this therd of November 1571.
Upon this letter the chancellor and mayor summoned the parties at the Gild-hall, and all wisely conferring upon the matter, were brought to unity and peace on all sides, except the four masters, Anthony Pascheson, Anthony Paulus, Jacob de Vos, and John Gherard, who resisted every body, and would agree to nothing that either the chancellor, mayor, aldermen, and their own countrymen did, and not only refused to join them, but withheld the Book of the Drapereye belonging to the hall, so that the whole manufacture was stopped, for which reason they committed the masters to prison, who laid there seven days, and then delivered the book, and were discharged.
It was written in Dutch, and contained excellent orders and rules about the making of bays, fustians of Naples, &c. and concerning the parchmentiers or makers of lace and fringe, and their four wardens, two of which were to be English, one Dutch, and one Walloon, yearly elected and sworn before the mayor; as also for the caungeantries, tufted mockados, currelles, and all other works mingled with silk, saietrie, or linnen yarn, &c. by which the whole manufacture was well managed.
After the delivery of the masters, there came a letter from the Lords of the Council, directed
"To ower lovinge Frendes the Mayor and his Bretherne: the Customer, Controller, and Searcher of the Citye of Norwiche.
"After ower hartye comendacions: for as muche as it is perceyved, that upon a gracious and mercifull dysposicion in the Quens most excellente Majestie, in grauntynge favoure to suche straungers as have of late been compelled for the avoydinge of the calamities and troubles that weare in sondrye countryes beyonde the seas; besyds a great multitude of good, honeste, and devoute poore and afflicted people, ther ar also another nombre of evel disposed people, (under coullor of religion and pietye) lately entered at sondry ports and cryckes into the realme, wherbie the naturall good subjects are lyke not only to be corrupted with the evel condicions of them that are nought) but also by the excesse nombre of both sorts, shall sustayne dyverse ways, suche lacks as yt is not meete to be borne withall, besydes other inconveniences justelye to be feared, by practyse of the lewder sorte. For remedye wherof, her Majestie hath wylled us presentlye and withoute delaye, to take order for redress hereof, and therewithe also, to cause suche moderation to be used, as in no one cittie or towne, shuld be any greater nombre of strangers (thoughe they be of honeste conversation) suffred to resorte and abyde, otherwise than may stande charitablye with the weale, or at the leaste withoute damadge of the naturall enhabitants of the same places. Whereupon as we have directed order to other counties, cities and towns, so do we at this present to you: wyllynge and commandinge you (forthwithe) to take order, that beginninge the tenthe daye of the next monthe, at whiche time a like inquisicion shal be begonne, throughe other the maritime cownties of the realme. You do by all good meanes that in you shall lye, cawse a good and trewe searche to be made, how manye straungers of everie nation are within that citye, and distinctlie apparte, howe manie are come into that cittie, sythence the 25th day of Marche laste, and by what qualitie and meanis they do live and sustayne themselves, and how they do inhabite, and in what sorte they do resorte orderlye to anie churches and places of prayer, to hear and use divine service and sacraments, as (by the ecclesiastical lawes of the realme) they ought to do. Or otherwise wheare anie straungers are tolerated withall by the bishop of the diocesse, to use divine service in their own mother toungs; and hereof to make us sertificate. And ffurther you shall circumspectlye and charitablye consider emonge your selves (being publique offycers) using conference herein withe the bishop of the diocesse (yf he be nere unto you) or withe the ordinarie, parson, or curate of the place, whether the whole nombre of strangers (nowe recidente in that cittye beinge of honeste conversacion) may withowte dammadge to the naturall good subjects of the same, contynue in as greate nombre as they now are, and yf the nombre shall seem to you too grete, to consider how manie may be suffred to remayne, and in what sorte, and to what other places conveniente (for their releife) the excesse may be sent to have habitacion, so as order may be given for that purpose. Wherein we do not meane that anie regarde be had, but only to suche straungers as are known to be honeste in conversation, and well dysposed to the obediens of the Quenes Majestie and the realme. For so it is mente: and so we wyll you, that all other straungers of contrarye sorte, that shall not shewe a good and open testymonye to be obedyent, as above is sayde, shall be charged as unprofitable persons to departe by a reasonable tyme. And therin you shall use all carefulness and circumspecion to cause them (in dede) to departe. Besydes this, you shall cawse a dewe searche to be made, what armoure, or offencyve weapons anie straungers have in their howses. And yf cawses so shall seem requisyte, to commytte the same into the custodye of some meet persons of that citye, that may be awnserable for the same to the owners. And of all this the premises, we chardge you (with all spede) to make to us awnsere (by wrightinge) with your opinions in anie thinge concerning the same, when you have considered of the persons whom you shall think meete to be sente away owte of the realme. We wolde that you should advertise us of the nombre, qualities, and condicions, of the trade, and manner of lyving of the same persons, so meete to be sente owte of the realme, before they be sente awaye. And so we bydd you farewell. From Greenwiche the 26 of Octob. 1571.
Your lovinge Freends,
Nic. Bacon Cancs. Tho. Sussex. Fr. Bedford. Ro. Leycestre. Ed. Clynton. Wyllm. Howarde. Willm. Burgllye. Jamis Crofte. Ralphe Sadlerch. Tho. Smythe.
Upon this, the mayor, according to an order of assembly held on this occasion, made search in every ward, and found as follows,
And upon the return, 48 persons were desired to avoid the city, as disturbers of the quiet peace of a great number of good people therein: and out of the said number, the return was thus,
whereof be children Inglish born 666. Of this number 355 be come to this cityc sythen 25 of Marche laste, viz. Dutch 85, Wallowns 25. Women of both nations 85, children of both nations, 160, and one French man from Depe, of no occupation.
They sustain themselves by working and making commodities, and are of two several churches, and use divine service and the administration of sacraments in their own languages, by toleration of the Queen's high commissioners and the Bishop of the diocese.
They certified also that the generality of the strangers were of good and honest conversation, and used trade and lawful exercises of merchandise to the better peopling the city, their number being convenient and profitable for its common weal, by their keeping not only their own people, but many others at work, to the great advantage of the city and adjacent country; only of late some dissensions have risen among them, by means of three of the ministers of the Dutch church, which notwithstanding the great care of the high commissioners, are not fully ended, or like to be, so long as Theophilus Rickwaert is permitted to live in any place of this realm; he obstinately continuing to be, as hitherto he hath been, a great disturber of the peace of the congregation.
Furthermore here are certain disorderly persons of no church, which were designed to be removed. And also others, which are artizans, and though they are men of honest conversation, are not needful to the city, as tailors, shoemakers, bakers, and joiners, which give offence to the citizens of the same trades, and others to the offence of other citizens, are lately made denizens: as to the armour found among them, being only 2 calyvers, 45 dags and pistolets, 4 halberds and bylls, 2 boarspears, 2 swords, and 270 rapiers, we did not think them of quantity sufficient to cause us to take them away.
We do also according to command, "give ower cimple opinions, (that) haven townes be no convenient place for straungers, nor yet anie place within the cownties of Norfolke and Suffolke, but muste needis be to the greate detryment and hinderaunce of this common weale, by reason of conveyenge awaye secretlye the rock-spun yarne, whiche is more naturally spun here, then in anie other place of the realme, and the bayes, mockados and suche other commodities, as are here practised and used."
This return was dated at Norwich, 16 Nov. 1571, signed by Thomas Greene, Mayor, the Sheriffs, and all the Aldermen, and was sent up by Mr. Simon Bowde, alderman, who was elected for that purpose.
After whose return, the strangers, who in the mean time had made some complaints to the mayor, and had remedy, as to their manufacture, became very quiet, and continued their trades to the general advantage of all parties; and it seems, some of them were settled at Lyn, for on Febr. 10, 1571, Ant. de Potter, dyer, on behalf of those that made mockados at Lynn, obtained, after a long debate in the court, that the wardens of the Walloons in this city should search and seal all the commodities appertaining to the saitrie, brought from Lynn, according to the orders made here; and in 1574, it was ordered, that every cloth found truly wrought and dyed should have a seal of lead marked Norwich Dye.
In 1575, the Dutch elders presented in court a new work called Bombasins, and prayed to have the search and seal of it to their own use, exclusive of the Walloons, who alleged that all white works whatsoever belonged to them, but the Dutch first inventing it, had it allowed them.
June 7, 1575, came a letter to the mayor from the high commissioners, to inform them that divers strangers having been examined before them, "had been found to maintain the horrible and dampnable error of the anabaptistes. And therefore commanded him to call before him all straungers in the city, as well men as women being of the yeris of discrecion, to give their assent, and subscribe to the articles followinge, viz.
1. That Chryste, toke flesh of the substance of the Virgin Mary.
2. That the infaunts of the feythefull are to be baptized.
3. That yt is lawfull for a Christian to take an othe.
4. That a Chrystian man may be a magistrate, and beare the sworde of office of aucthorite.
5. That yt is lawfull for a magestrate to execute obstinate heretiques.
6. That yt is lawfull for a Christian man to warre.
7. That yt is lawfull for a Christian man to require the awcthorite of the magestrate and of the lawe, that he may be delivered from wrong, and restored to right.
8. That a Christian man may lawfully have proprietye in his goodes, and not to make them common, yet owght (accordinge to the rewle of charite) to relieve the nedye, accordinge to his habilitye."
To all which articles the whole companye of alyens, did set their hands on the 27th of the same month; so that now there seems to have been none that had openly avouched these tenets, to the disquiet of the realm, as some had done in many other places, but afterwards there were too many that propagated them in these counties; for at a court held in 1578,
Mathew Hamond of Hetherset, wheelwright, was convicted at the sessions held in the Gild-hall at Norwich, for speaking seditious and slanderous words against the Queen's Majesty, and was condemned to pay 100l. in a month next following the sentence, to the Queen, or else be set on the pillory in the market-place, and have both his ears cut off, which was accordingly done on May the 13th, after which he was sent back to prison, being before condemned by the Bishop of Norwich, "for denying Christ Jesus to be the Sune of "God, and that by his death and passion, none can be saved," for when he was tried for heresy, which was on the 13th day of April last, he was found to have openly avowed the following blasphemies:
1. That the New Testament and Gospel of Christ, are but mere foolishness, a story of man, or rather a mere fable.
2. That man is restored to grace by God's meer mercy, without the mean of Christ's blood, death, or passion.
3. That Christ is not God, nor the saviour of the world, but a meer man, a sinfull man, and an abominable idoll.
4. That all they that worship him are abominable idolaters, and that Christ did not rise again from death to life by the power of his godhead, neither that he ascended into heaven.
5. That the Holy Ghost is not God, neither is there any such Holy Ghost.
6. That baptism is not necessary in the church of God, neither the use of the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ.
For which he was burnt in the Castle Ditch on the 20th of May.
And on the 18th of Sept. 1583, John Lewes, who named himself Abdoit, an obstinate blasphemer, (much like his predecessor Hamond,) was burnt here.
And in 1587, Peter Cole of Ipswich, tanner, suffered the like death in the Castle Ditch, for those abominable blasphemies.
In 1588, on the 14th of January, Francis Knight, alias Ket, of Windham, master of arts, was burnt in the same place for the like heresies: this family having now produced three arch-rebels, and one blasphemer, who all met with their deserved ends; and had not some of this crew been made publick examples of, these wicked tenets would in all appearance, under the notion of having all things common, soon have raised such rebellions as might have endangered both church and state. For it is observeable that those strangers who came over last, were the persons that introduced these wicked blasphemies, and gave rise to many sects, which till then were never known here; so that it is difficult to know, all things considered, whether the introduction of these strangers did not do more damage than service to the nation in general, which the Queen foreseeing, resolved to put a stop to their increasing numbers.
For in 1582, there was another certificate required from the mayor, in order to see what increase had been of them in this city, and there were found 1128 men, 1358 women, children strangers born 815, children English born 1378, in all 4679 souls; of which number 653 dwelt in Colgate ward, and paid for the rents of their houses (most of which before stood empty) 292l. 15s. 4d. a year, so that upon this representation, and their living peaceably, they continued to the end of this century, in a flourishing condition, and enjoyed the several privileges of their two congregations.
And now having done with them at present, I shall only observe, that the vast quantities of brass money of divers bignesses, thicknesses, and impressions, which are daily dug up here, and are often called by the common people, Roman counters, were brought over by these strangers, they being the current money of their country, and when brought hither, being of no value, were quite neglected and lost.
In 1567, Rob. Wood, Tho. Whall, and Tho. Peck, aldermen, executors of Mr. Edm. Wood, alderman deceased, paid 66l. 13s. 8d. in full of all the legacies of the said Edmund Wood, for the cleansing the streets. And on the 26th of May, the seal of the city having on it the picture of the Trinity, it was agreed to be altered to the city arms.
In 1568, the two towers at the west end of the Gild-hall, one of which was the treasury, and the other the dungeon to the gaol, fell down through age, and the breach being repaired, it fell again, being damaged by the frost, and was rebuilt in the same manner as it is at this day.
And now also the order relating to post-horses was first established here, by the Duke of Norfolk, and the mayor, who agreed that there should be three post-masters, every one of which had 3l. 13s. and 4s. lent them out of the city treasury, free from interest, and a stipend of 4l. per annum, paid by the sheriffs, the half of which was levied on the inn-keepers and tiplers in the city, and the other half on the other inhabitants, and was taxed by the aldermen, and gathered by the constables of every ward: and no man was to take up any post-horses in the city, unless he was licensed by warrant from the Queen's Majesty, the Duke of Norfolk, the Privy Council, or the Mayor, nor to use any one horse above 12 or 14 miles together; for which he was to pay 2d. each mile outward, and 6d. to his guide, to go and carry back the horses, and the said horses were not to carry any cloakbag, &c. of above ten pounds weight.
The hire of the hackney horses in the city, was also now settled, at 12d. the first day, and 8d. each day after till their redelivery, for which horses all strangers were to give security for their return, and if the horse held not out his journey, the owner was to pay all charges of such default; but journeys to London were excepted, for which every one was to agree as he could.
On the 2d of Oct. 6l. was distributed to the poor, of the gift of Mrs. Wingfield, and 3l. of the gift of Mr. Rich. Walpole, late of Braken-Ash; and on Oct. 6, Will. Yelverton of Rougham, Esq. paid 26s. 8d. to the Norwich prisoners, of the gift of William Howlet of Ketlestone.
Nic. Norgate, alderman, gave 20l. which was distributed Dec. 23.
In 1569, Dr. Spencer gave 10l. and Mrs. Anne Tailor, widow, 15l. which sum was distributed every year for her gift, till 1576.
An aid of an 100l. was levied upon the citizens, which was assessed and rated by 4 commoners of every ward, with the advice of the aldermen of the said wards.
In 1570, Rich. Fletcher, alderman, by will dated April 12, gave 15l. (if his debt due from Mr. Bainard was recovered) to be employed among the young sadlers in Norwich, as the gift of Mr. Bulwer was to the smiths, namely, three sadlers to have each 5l. lent them free from interest, giving security at the discretion of Mr. Mayor, and three of the justices.
About this time Mr. Augustine Steward, alderman, gave five tenements in St. Swithin's churchyard, for five poor widows, of good behaviour to dwell in, such as the mayor and court shall think fit, who for misbehaviour, have power to remove them and put in others.
This year the city purchased a close without St. Stephen's gates, and two orchards in St. Stephen's, of Tho. Pede, notary; and 66l. 13s. 4d. remaining in the treasury of the gift of Mr. Edward Wood, late mayor, was applied towards the purchase.
The art of printing was now introduced here, by Anthony Solen, printer, one of the strangers, which was so well approved of by the city, that they presented him with his freedom.
Ten days before Christmas, there began a snow, which increased to such a depth in the Christmas holidays, that the like had not been known in the memory of man; it continued, by reason of the sharp frost that attended it, till Candlemas day, when it began to thaw, and then the waters rose exceedingly, so that on Saturday morning the 5th of Febr. all the part of the city on the north side of the river was totally overflown, and it continued rising till the Wednesday following, to such a degree, that the mayor and aldermen, at a court held on Monday the 7th of Febr. were forced to provide "relyfe of bread, drynke, and herryng, to be gyven to the pore on the further side of the water, who are now kept in their houses by a great rage of water," which flowed so violently that it not only threw down many stone walls and buildings, "but remeved the stooles in all the churches on the other side of the water, except St. Augustens: and the water at this flud, was a handfull higher than St. Leonard's flodd." This was called Candlemas flood. It did incredible damage at Yarmouth, Dunwich, Wisbitch, Lynn, and Marshland, as Holinshed shows us.
In 1571, the poor being very oppressive for want of regular relief, Mr. John Aldrich, mayor, and Tho. Greene, his successour, made divers excellent orders and rules for their maintenance, and by erecting a bridewell at the Norman spitel, did much service to the city.
In 1572, on the 14th of June, "abowt 9 of the clock in the forenone, a good, godly, and a vertuos brother of this howse, viz. John Rede, alderman, a bigg man, and hott with travell, after reverens done to Mr. Mayor and other bretheren, and his place taken in the councill chamber, beyng trobled with a rume that fell from his hed, as it is supposed, did coffe iij tymes, wherwith he was stoppyd, and his wynd fayled, and so in a soden sized downe, and never spake eny worde, and so there presently departed this transytory lyfe, unto a more joyfull place of rest."
On the second of June, the Duke of Norfolk, who had always been a great friend to the city, was beheaded on Tower-hill, for whom there was great lamentation here, such a number of poor being constantly relieved at his palace, where hospitality always abounded.
In 1573, died John Caius, Dr. of Physick, who was born in this city in 1510, the 2d of King Henry VIII. His true name was Keye; Fuller makes his father, Rob. Keye, a Yorkshire man, but as far as ever I cold learn, without foundation; for it is evident that he was not of the same family with Thomas Key or Cay of Oxford, who was descended from the Yorkshire family of that name, whose book intituled Assertio Antiquitatis Oxoniensis Academiœ, our Caïus answered in his book intituled, De Antiquitate Cantabrigiensis Academiœ, under the name of Londinensis, in 1568, and in 1574, in his own name; to which, Thomas wrote a reply, but it was never printed; so that there being no relation between them, I am apt to believe he was of the Norfolk family of that name, who had been settled in Norwich and different places in this county a long time, though in truth of no great fortunes; which appears to me the more likely, our Caïus not so much as pretending (that I can find) to bear any arms from his family, for which reason he procured a coat for his own bearing, with license for his college to bear it impaled with that of Gonvile, as they do at this day.
Fuller rightly tells us, that they are better hierogliphicks than heraldry, fitter to be reported than blazoned, viz. or, seme of slips of purple amarant, or flower gentle, on a pedestal or marble stone, two serpents erect, with their tails nowed or knotted together, az. between them a book sab. bossed or, the leaves edged gul. on it a root and springing branch of semper-vive, or houseleek, proper, "wherein wisdom is designed in a stable posture, by the embracing of learning, to attain to uncorrupted immortality, or to take the words of the patent, ex prudentia et literis, virtutis petra firmatis, immortalitas, that is, from prudence and learning established on the rock of virtue, proceeds immortality.
He was first educated in school learning at Norwich, whence he was admitted of Gonvile-Hall in Cambridge, very young, where he studied some time, was chosen fellow, and admitted doctor of physick, went thence to Italy, and entered himself in the University of Padua, a city of Venice, then famous for the study of physick, under John Baptist Montanus of Verona, the greatest physician of that time; there he abundantly filled himself with all the medicinal knowledge of the Esculapian schools, being so great a master of the faculty, that he became a most renowned public reader of physick for several years, and a great ornament of that University, where he also read publick Greek lectures, as he informs us, about the year 1542, and the 32d year of his age: while he was abroad, he made many, and translated more, learned books: at his return he came to Norwich, and practised physick with great success, till the year 1551, when the sweating sickness came hither, which he treated with such success, and was so generous as to communicate his method to all men for the publick good, that he became the most famous physician in the whole realm; was sent for to London and made physician to King Edward VI. and in 1556, he published his "History of the Sweating Sickness," in Latin, for the benefit of foreigners.
In 1557, being then physician to Queen Mary, to whom he was a most acceptable oracle, and great favourite, he applied to her Majesty for leave to advance the hall in which he had been educated, to a college; for till this time, Gonvile's Hall, was never incorporated, but had only several licenses of Mortmain, to receive or purchase lands, tenements, &c. notwithstanding the statute: the master and fellows did indeed suppose themselves a corporation, though they were only incorporated by Bishop Bateman's power, and letters confirmed by the chancellor of the University, and the Bishop of Ely, which, without letters patent under the great seal of England, gave them no legal power to be a corporation or body politique, but were, what they thought they had been, rather by the piety, goodness, and simplicity of those ages, than by any right of law: wherefore the master and fellows, by the advice of Caïus, petitioned the King and Queen for a charter of foundation, and confirmation of all their rights, estates, and privileges they formerly enjoyed, which was obtained by Caïus, who thereby was made a founder, and added to Gonvile and Bateman, and had full power assigned him, to appoint rules and statutes, for the master, fellows, and scholars to observe and keep, providing they were not repugnant to Bateman's statutes, or any way incroaching on the prerogative of the Queen, or her successours; the same charter also impowered him to settle 70l. per annum more, and to found two fellows or more, and 12 scholars or more, the college being hereafter to be called, the College of Gonvile and Caius; and to be incorporated by the name of, The Master and Fellows of Gonvile and Caius College, founded in the honour of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and by this title and no other, they are to sue and be sued, implead, or be impleaded, receive lands, manors, houses, &c. And the year following, on the Feast of the Annunciation, Dr. Caius rededicated and consecrated the college to the honour of the Annunciation aforesaid, to which it was formerly dedicated by Gonvile and Bateman, and endowed it (besides plate, money, books, and other things, which now and soon after he gave to it) with the manor of Croxley in Hertfordshire, then 23l. 1s. 7d. ob. per annum, formerly parcel of the abbey of St. Alban's. The manor of Runcton in Norfolk, formerly belonging to the monastery of St. Edmund's Bury in Suffolk, then 22l. 5s. per annum, together with the patronages of Holme, Wallington, and the manor of Burnham in Norfolk, formerly belonging to the monastery of Wimondham, then 6l. per annum. All these manors he purchased of King Philip and Queen Mary (they being vested in the Crown upon the dissolution of monasteries) on the 12th of Feb. in the 4th and 5th year of their reign, at the price of 1030l. 12s. 6d. But the advowsons of Runcton, Holme, and Wallington, were conveyed before to Sir Edward Fines, Lord Clinton and Saye, High Admiral of England, and Henry Herdson of London, by Edward VI. anno regni 6° Dec. 11°. So that the college has lost them. After that determination of the leases then in being, Dr. Caius ordained the raising of the rents, together with the quitrents, to the annual sum of 121l. 14s. 2d. ob. such a proportion of land did he then settle upon his colleges, notwithstanding the unjust cavil of a certain author, who would insinuate that his gifts were small and inconsiderable: but this was not all, for he built the south court called Caius's Court, at his own charge, of durable freestone, and uniform in all respects; which he designed should continue so, as is evident from his ordering that no new windows should be ever made in it, new lights causing the decay of old structures; and that the gates might read a lecture of morality to them that go through them, he caused that which enters the college by St. Michael's church, low and little as it is, to be inscribed humilitatis, or the gate of humility; a necessary qualification for the students that enter there; the next entrance is inscribed, virtvtis, or the gate of virtue, to which humility is a principal step; on the other side of this portico, which is one of the best pieces of architecture in England, (as Fuller says,) are these words, Jo. Caivs posvit sapientiæ, 1567, that is John Caius placed this in honour of wisdom, which every virtuous man must be acquainted with; the other gate on the south side of his court, leading to the publickschools, exceeds the former, according to the judgment of some, and is inscribed honoris, or the gate of honour, which all that pass through it for their degrees, are supposed to have attained: the expenses of all which amounted to above 1834l. and so careful was he of his foundation, that he was chosen warden or master, Jan. 24, 1559, and resigned in the year 1573, when he appointed Dr. Thomas Legge of Norwich his successour; and lived in his chambers over the gate of wisdom and virtue, as fellow commoner in his own college, and having built himself a little seat in the chapel, was constantly present at Protestant prayers: and though some since have thought to injure his memory for being a Papist, considering the time in which he was born, and the foreign places where he was bred, it could hardly be expected but that he should think favourably that way; however, it may be justly averred in his defence, that he never mentioned Protestants but with respect, and sometimes condemns the superstitious credulity of Popish miracles; if any say all this amounts to a lukewarm religion, let us leave the heat of his faith to God's sole judgment, and the light of his good works, to men's imitation. After he had compiled a body of statutes for his college, he died at London, of a languishing disease, disturbed (I believe indeed) at the furious and too rash zeal of those times.
The 29th of July, on which day he died, is now one of his commemoration days, and the 6th of October, which is his birth day, is the other.
Before his death, he gave orders for making his sepulchre, under the altar of the Virgin Mary, on the north side of the chapel, in which he was interred; his monument, when the chapel was rebuilt some time since, and made longer than formerly, was raised from the floor, and placed in the wall, as it now stands, and then his body was found whole and perfect, as I have been informed by some who were eye witnesses.
The tomb consists of a canopy supported by three pillars of veined marble, over a scrinium, or sort of altar tomb, with this excellent short epitaph,
VIVIT POST FVNERA VIRTVS.
Obiit xxix Ivlii Anno Dni 1573.
I was CAIUS.
Virtue or Death survives.
He died 29th July, in the year of our Lord, 1573, of his age 63.
And left William Gerard, Esq. and William Cornway, citizen and grocer of London, his executors, ordering them purchase lands of 100l. per annum, and settle them on his college; and further appropriated his fellowships and scholarships to his own countrymen of the diocese and city of Norwich, therein following the example of the first founders, who had done the same, for the singular comfort and instruction of their posterity, to the great benefit and advantage both of their college and native country, for which reason it cannot be amiss for all us of this foundation, "to express our gratitude to the wisdom of our founders, who did not without the direction of God, consecrate the foundations of this college to the nation and genius of the East-Angles, perhaps because they foresaw the sunshine of so many patrons rising out of this corner, who might in process of time cherish this their country structure with their rays;" which happened accordingly: the college being raised to the flourishing condition it now enjoys, chiefly by the liberal benefactions of such as were either educated in it, or were masters of it; among which, to avoid ingratitude, I shall here add such benefactors only as this city hath produced, that belonging only to my present purpose.
William Buckenham, D. D. rector of St. Michael Coslany in this city, was chosen the 12th warden in 1514, having been vice chancellor in 1509; besides divers gifts of his own, he procured
Nicholas Buckenham, his brother, to build the south part of the college as far as the chapel, and to give the lands at Hadenham on the Hill, in the isle of Ely.
In 1516, Dame Anne Drury of Norwich gave 20 marks issuing out of her house in St. Michael's of Coslany parish, to buy lands of the yearly value of 13s. 4d. to be laid out in bread and wine for the three stipendiary priests celebrating in St. Michael's church aforesaid, and the overplus to be given to those that perform divine service in the college chapel.
In 1524 Rob Long, citizen, and Agnes his wife, gave to the college the nomination of an honest priest or fellow of the college, to their chantry in St. Michael's church in Coslany in Norwich, with the perpetual donation of that chantry.
Nicholas Shaxton, D. D. Bishop of Salisbury, president here, and guardian of St Giles's hospital at Norwich, was a benefactor.
In 1539, John Witacres, clerk, of Norwich, gave all his lands and tenements in Steeple-Morden and Gilden-Morden in Cambridgeshire, and Ashwell in Hertfordshire, then valued at 3l. 13s. 4d. per annum to this college.
Mathew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, was also a benefactor, as will hereafter appear.
Thomas Legge, LL. D. a native of this city, was first of Trinity, and after of Jesus college, to whom Dr. Caius resigned his mastership; he was one of the Masters in Chancery, the King's Law Professor, twice Vice-Chancellor, and a great antiquarian, therein following the steps of his friend Caius; he wrote a tragedy intituled the The Destruction of Jerusalem, which was filched from him by a plagiary: and another of the Life of Richard III. which was acted with great applause in the University. He left money to build the side of the New Court by St. Michael's church, which was accordingly done; and dying on the 12th day of July, 1607, was interred in the college chapel, on the south side of which is fixed a large monument in the wall, having a canopy with his effigies kneeling in his doctor's robes under it, his hands erected towards heaven, and a book on a desk lying before him, and this under him,
Legvm Doctor Quondam
Cvstos Hvjvs Collegij
Obijt Anno Domini
- 1607, 12 die Jvlij
Ætatis svæ 72.
Between the two columns of this inscription, is the representation of two hands supporting a heart, and under it these verses,
JVNXIT AMOR VIVOS, SIC JVNGAT TERRA SEPVLTOS, GOSTLINI RELIQVVM COR TIBI LEGGUS HABES. MORIENDO VIVIT.
Placed there, I suppose, by Dr. John Gostlin, his great friend, who was afterwards master of this college; which may be thus rendered in English,
Thomas Legge, Doctor of Laws, formerly warden of this college, died in the year of our Lord, 1607, the 12th day of July, in the 72d year of his age:
That love, that living, made us two but one, Wishes at last we both may have this tomb, The heart of Gostlin, still continuing here, Is kept for Legge, to whom it was so dear, By death he lives, for ever to remain, And Gostlin hopes to meet him once again.
On the top are the arms of Legge, viz. or a cross flore sab. And under them these words:
COL, LEGAME, DELLA, LEGGE.
William Branthwait of Norwich was bred in Clare-hall, chosen fellow of Emmanuel college, created doctor of divinity in 1598, elected warden in 1607, on Legge's death; he died vice-chancellor, Feb. 15, 1618, and gave most part of his valuable library to the college, and according to his will Rich. Branthwait, Esq. his executor, purchased lands in Wigenhall in Norfolk, in 1621, above the clear yearly value of 26l. 13s. 4d. and settled them on the college, for the founding of four scholarships, of 5l. per annum each, and 3l. per annum for the master and fellows, to make a feast on his commemoration day, which is kept on the day of his death, and 20s. for the like, to the scholars: to the provost of King's and master of Emmanuel colleges, his superintendants, 6s. 8d. each, to two scholars of Emmanuel, 1s. each, and to dine in the hall.
On the 30th of Sept. 1615, died Stephen Perse, doctor of physick, senior fellow of the college, who by his will gave his executors 5000l. to purchase lands of 250l. per annum in mortmain: with which, Martin Perse, Esq. purchased the manor of Fratinghall in Bassingbourn in Cambridgeshire, with all the farms and woods belonging to it, of Sir Thomas Bendish, to the yearly value of 250l. and settled it according to the doctor's will, as follows,
To the schoolmaster, who is to be a master of arts of the University of Cambridge, 40l. a year; and to the usher, who is to be at least a bachelor of arts of that University, 20l. a year; both master and usher to be such as were educated in his school (if fit for it) before others; which school he ordered his executors to erect and build: they are to teach 100 scholars born in Trumpington, Chesterton, Barnwell, and Cambridge, and no more, nor any other are to be taught in this school.
To six women of his alms-house 4l. per annum each; they are to be poor, aged, single, and unmarried people, at least 40 years old, to be chosen out of the parishes of St. Edward and St. Michael in Cambridge, and for want of such persons in those parishes, out of St. Benedict's.
To six fellows of his foundation 10l. per annum each; they must be bachelors of arts at least, and such as are scholars, to be elected and have his fellowships before any other.
To six scholars of his foundation 4l. per annum each, and such to be chosen as have been scholars in his school three years at least, before any others.
These and many other gifts this society enjoys of his munificence, besides the north side of their new-court, which was built in 1618, with 500l. that he left for that purpose.
He lies buried in the college chapel, in the north wall of which is fixed a grand monument, much like Dr. Legge's, his arms being on the top of it, viz.
Perse, sab. a chevron ermine, between three cockatrices heads erased arg. langued gul. Crest, on a torce arg. and sab. a pelican or, vulning herself-proper.
Prænomen Stephanvs Cognomen PERSE vocatvm, Sola Deo soli vita Corona fvit, Cvm vivente Deo remanet mihi vita perennis, Jamqve Cano soli [pantote doxa theo]] Hæc moriens cecini Lectvro PERSEVS ipse, Non vlli melivs qvam mihi notvs eram.
Christin, Svrnamde, Stephan PERSE I hight, Sole life with God alone, my Crowne, my Light, With living God eternall Life I live, This now my Song, to sole God Praise I give, This Epitaph by me PERSE was deviz'd, To none else better were my Thovghts compriz'd.
Hic Stephanus Perse, Medicinæ Doctor, per Quadraginta annos Socius hujus Collegij, requiescit, qui moriens donavit quinque mille Librarum, quibus annui Redditus ducentarum et quinquaginta Librarum emerentur, ut ex ijs, Socij sex, sex scholares, sex Eleemosinarij, Ludimagister et Hypodidasculus alerentur, et Stipendia Custodis hujus Collegij et quatour Seniorum Sociorum, et Sociorum Jocosæ Franckelande augerentur, Qui legavit quingentas Libras ad Cubicula suis Socijs et Scholaribus in Collegio ædificanda, Qui Grammaticam Scholam ad centum Discipulos recipiendum idoneam et domum ad suorum Eleemosinariorum habitationem extrui, Viamque à villâ Cantab: ad Pontem Stirbrigiensem, ex relictis Bonis perfici, ultima voluntatate mandavit. Vixit annos 65. mortuus est ultimo Sept: Anno 1615.
Dr. John Gostlin of Norwich, was chosen fellow in 1591, proctor in 1600, doctor of physick in 1602, and warden Feb. 16, 1618, on which day and year he was also elected vice-chancellor. This learned and excellent governour of the college died Oct. 21, 1626, and is still commemorated on that day; he gave the Rose and Crown in Cambridge to the college. "Item, I do give unto the said master and fellows and their successors for ever, my annuity of 30l. per annum out of the manor and lordship of Milton, with arrearage of rents, already due of 73l. which annuity of 30l. I purchased of Mr. Harris of the said town, to the end that the rents of the aforesaid house or houses, and also of the aforesaid annuity, should for the first 7 years be gathered into the college chest, and that time being expired, the master and fellows for the time being shall out of that money, together with the houses and annuity, make sufficient and good surety unto Caius college of 40l. per annum, for ever to be employed, viz. to four scholars born in the city of Norwich, 5l. apiece per annum." 4l. for a feast on his commemoration day, 40s. to the master of the college, for his care to see his will performed, 13s. 4d. to the preacher, 3s. 4d. to each of the senior fellows present, 2s. 6d. to each of his scholars present, and the residue to the college chest.
On the 12th of June, 1635, died Mr. Mathew Stokys, senior fellow of the college, and gave both his rectories of Dilham and Honing in Norfolk, held by lease of the Bishop of Ely, to the master and fellows, after his decease, to the following uses; viz that within every ten years for ever, they should renew the lease with the Bishop for the time being, at and under the usual rent of 13l. 6s. 8d. per annum, and shall pay yearly for ever to three scholars of his foundation, 5l. apiece, and 10s. per annum, to each for their chamber rent, and to one fellow who is actually a divine, or to apply himself to the study of divinity, 15l. per annum and 20s. for his chamber rent; they are all to be subject to the college statutes, and to be chosen within three months after every vacancy, and two of the three scholars must be born within the city of Norwich, or county of Norfolk, and the third scholar is to be named by the Bishop of Ely, within two months after every vacancy, otherwise the election devolves to the college; he is commemorated on his dying day, having settled 4l. for a feast on that day, and 6s. 8d. on the master; on the esquire beadles who are to be invited, 2s. each, and to each of the college almes-women, 3s. 4d.
Caius, fo. 65, mentions John Warrok, and John Preston, citizens of Norwich, among the benefactors; to which we may be add,
John Gostlin, doctor of physick, 25 years a worthy president of this house, who gave 500l. in his lifetime to augment the stipends of the four scholars founded by Dr. Gostlin, his great uncle, and at his death gave them the advowson of Hetherset in Norfolk, as I learn from the following inscription, which is on a mural monument on the south side of the college chapel, where he was buried, on which are the arms of
Gostlin, viz. gul. a chevron between three crescents ermine.
In vicino pulvere, spe letæ Resurrectionis, quiescunt Reliquiæ, Johannis Gostlin M. Dris. in Politiori Literaturâ, et fœlici medendi Methodo peritissimi, et hujus Collegij 25 annos Præsidentis dignissimi, qui vivus 500l. ad augenda Stipendia 4 Scolarium porpatrui sui Dris. Gostlin, quondam hujus Collegij Custodis donavit, et Testamento suo, perpetuam advocationem Rectoriæ de Hetherset in Agro Norff. Collegio legavit: obijt Feb. 10. A. Æt. 72. Dni: 1704.
In 1573, the citizens of Norwich collected by way of benevolence, 87l. 12s. 7d. towards the charges of Yarmouth haven.
In 1574, it appears by the Queen's musters, that Norfolk had 6150 able men on the muster-roll, of which 3632 were armed; and the city of Norwich had 2120 able men, of which 400 were armed; and 2065 of them were selected men, fit to be ready on any occasion. And in 1584, her majesty appointed 380 men to be trained in Norfolk, 80 in Norwich, 20 in Lynn, and 20 in Yarmouth.
In 1575, the city procured sundry writs directed to the mayors, of London, Lynn, and many other places, certifying them that the citizens of Norwich were free from all toll, pontage, &c. throughout all England.
It was occasioned by the citizens of London, who continually disputed the liberties of the citizens of Norwich, but could never prevail; for this year the mayor and citizens of London issued a printed proclamation, dated Oct. 28 by which they forbad all wares and merchandise coming from Norwich to be lodged in any of the Londoners houses, ordering them to be brought to a certain hall. and there sold at fixed times only, imposing certain customs and sums of money to be paid by the owners of such goods, which were never before paid; upon which, the Norwich citizens complained to the Lords of the Privy Council, who referred them to the Lord Chief Jastices of England, and of the Common Pleas, who examined their charters and gave it in favour of the citizens of Norwich; notwithstanding which, the Londoners still aggrieved the Norwich people, and were again cited to appear before the Privy Council at a set time, which they neglected to do; and then was signed an act of council, dated at Whitehall, Febr. 8, 1578, viz. "that the citizens of Norwich shoulde continwe their trade of occupyeng and buying and selling of ther wares in the cittie of London, as they had bene accustomed withome any exaccion or innovacon to be offered by them of London, untill they of London shoulde shew more sufficient cause before their lordeshipps for the contrary." And thus it rested quiet, the Norwich citizens enjoying their ancient privileges unmolested till 1638, notwithstanding a proclamation dated at Royston, 7th Dec. 1613, which ordered all clothes, drapery, &c. to be searched in BlackwellHall in London, in which the Norwich citizens goods were never so much as pretended to be included; but then the Londoners having procured another proclamation, grounded on the statutes of 39th and 43d of Eliz. dated at Whitehall, Apr. 16, 1638, which commanded all woollen cloths and stuffs made or mixed with wool, and brought to London, to be sold or transported, to be first searched in Blackwell-Hall: the city of Norwich petitioned the King, setting forth that the worsted stuffs made in Norwich and Norfolk were never heretofore taken to be included in those acts; they, by the statutes of 7th Edward IV. divers statutes of Henry VII. and 26th Henry VIII. having wardens yearly elected and sworn to view and seal the stuffs made in the city of Norwich, and county of Norfolk, by the mayor of the city, and steward of the Dutchy of Lancaster, which acts are duly executed: upon this, the King referred it to his council, before whom the two cities had a hearing, May 25, 1638, and the Council declared Norwich stuffs not to be included in the proclamation, but that they might buy and sell them as usual, having wardens of their own to search and seal them, so that no further search was needful to be required.
Under this year I must not omit an account of that great benefactor to the publick, and eminent ornament to this city,
Mathew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, son of William Parker, citizen of Norwich, by Alice Monings his wife; which William was son of John Parker, son of Nic. Parker, publick notary, of Norwich diocese: and though a schismatical writer says that his father was a poor man, a scourer or calenderer of worsteds, it was not so, his family having been in this city many ages, and principal traders here. In 1391, Roger Parker is often mentioned as a principal citizen, who in 1396 was chosen one of the bailiffs of the city, his father William was a worsted weaver of good fortunes, his brother, Tho. Parker, was mayor in 1568, and Michael Parker, his son, in 1625. Indeed it is certain, the Archbishop did not pretend to derive his lineage from that family of the Parkers Lord Morley, because in 1559 he had the ancient arms of his own family confirmed, viz.
Gul. a chevron between three keys arg. to which were added on the chevron as many estoils or stars.
He was born in St. Saviour's parish in this city, Aug. 6, 1504, and was brought up at the grammar school here; his father died Jan. 10, 1516, from which time he continued with his mother till Sept. 4, 1520, by whom he was then sent to Corpus Christi or Bennet college in Cambridge; and on the 4th of March following, was elected Bible clerk, studied philosophy in St. Mary's hostle, which belonged to the college, took his bachelor of arts degree in 1524, and his master's in 1527, was elected fellow, and then studied divinity, read over all the fathers and councils in five years, and took his bachelor's degree in divinity in 1535, and doctor's in 1538; on June 24, 1547, he married Margaret, daughter of Robert, son of Thomas Harleston of Mateshate, Gent. who was born June the 23d, 1519; he was a most noted preacher, not only in the University, but in all other publick places in the kingdom; being so remarkable that Queen Anne Bullen sent for him to court, and made him her chaplain; and soon after he was made dean of the college of Stoke by Clare, at her intercession; in 1541, he was made prebend of the second stall in the church of Ely, by Henry VIII. and in 1544, was chosen warden or master of his own college; in 1545, was elected vice-chancellor of the University, and again in 1548; was presented by the college to Landbeach rectory, about 6 miles from Cambridge; and made chaplain to Edward VI. by whom he was preferred in 1552, to the deanery of Lincoln, and prebendary of Coldingham in that church; but when Queen Mary came to the crown, he lost all his spiritualities because he was married, and lived beyond sea during her time. His mastership was given to Dr. Laurence Maptid, his deanery to Dr. Francis Mallet, confessor to the Queen, and master of Michael-house in Cambridge; Mr. Will. Whaley had his rectory of Landbeach, and John Young, provost of Pembrook-hall, his prebendary: but when Queen Elizabeth came to the crown, Dr. Parker, though a married man, was nominated by her to the see of Canterbury, and was consecrated thereto in the Archbishop's chapel at Lambhithe, on Sunday the 17th of Dec. 1559, according to the royal mandate, dated Dec. 6, directed to Anthony Kitchin Bishop of Landaff, William Barlow, late Bishop of Bath and Wells, lord elect of Chichester, John Scory late Bishop of Chichester, lord elect of Hereford, Miles Coverdale late Bishop of Exeter, John Hodgeskins Suffragan of Bedford, John Salisbury Suffragan Bishop of Thetford, and John Bale Bishop of Ossory in Ireland; the first and two last did not attend the service, which was performed by the other four, according to the ordinal of King Edward VI. then newly published: the ceremony was performed with much magnificence, the east end of the chapel being hung with rich tapestry, the floor covered with red cloth, the morning service read by Mr. Andrew Pearson, the Archbishop's chaplain, the sermon preached by Dr. Scory lord elect of Hereford, whose text was in 1 Peter v. 1. The elders which are among you I exhort, &c. The letters patent for proceeding to the consecration were publickly read by Dr. Dale; the act of consecration lawfully performed by the imposition of the hands of the said four bishops, according to the ancient canons, and King Edward's ordinal; and after all, a grand dinner was provided for the entertainment of the company, amongst whom Charles Howard, eldest son of the Lord Effingham, who was afterwards created Lord Howard, and Earl of Notingham, happened to be one, and after testified the whole truth, when the reality and form of this consecration was called in question by some busy and too forward sticklers for the church of Rome.
He sat in this see with great honour to the time of his death, being a religious learned man, of modest manners and courteous behaviour, well read in English history, a diligent and curious collector of ancient manuscripts, which were scattered about at the dissolution of the monasteries.
He got together a most valuable library of such ancient records, all which he gave to the college in which he had been educated, where they now are deposited, and are the most valuable collection remaining in this nation: he had a spirit of universal charity, and was one of the greatest benefactors to the publick that we ever had; as the following account of his benefactions testifies.
The principal book which he published and wrote (assisted therein by his chaplain, John Josline,) was that De Antiquitate Britannicæ Ecclesiæ et Privilegijs Ecclesiæ Cantuariensis cum Archiepiscopis ejusdem 70, printed in folio at London, in 1572; most of the copies of the impression that were sold, conclude with the life of Reginald Pole Archbishop of Canterbury, who died in 1558; the other copies which remained and were bestowed on publick libraries or given to special friends, had in 1574 added to them,
1. The life of the author Mathew Parker, containing 29 pages.
2. A catalogue of such books as he gave to the Publick Library at Cambridge, containing 4 pages.
3. A catalogue of chancellors, vice-chancellors, proctors, and doctors of all faculties, that took their degrees in Cambridge from 1500 to 1571, containing 6 pages.
4. A catalogue of all the bishops that have been educated at Cambridge, &c.
5. The divers charters granted to that University from Henry III. to 14th Eliz.
6. A particular delivered to the magistrates and servants of the University, when they enter into their respective places.
7. The foundations of the colleges, &c. and all contained under this head, were involved by Caius, in his History of Cambridge.
This great man died May 17, 1575, and was buried in the chapel where he was consecrated, and there rested in peace, till the time of the Usurpation, "when the bishops were put down, and their lands sold, and then the palace (at Lambhithe) was inhabited by several lay persons, of whom Thomas Scot, one of the regicides, and one Hardynge, were two; which last having the chapel allotted to him, as part of his share, he divided it into two rooms, making the upper part towards the east (where the altar stood) a dining room, on the bottom of which he laid joysts, and on them a floor of boards. At length hearing that the corps of Archbishop Parker had been there interred, he took up the floor and pavement under it, and having so done, dug up the corps, which was put into cerecloth of many doubles in a coffin of lead. The coffin he sold to a plummer, and after caused the cerecloth to be cut open to the flesh, (which he found fresh as if newly dead,) he conveyed the corps into an outhouse where he kept poultry, and there privately tumbled it into a hole. About the time of the restauration of King Charles II. that base fellow, the brute that removed it, was forced to discover where he had laid it: whereupon it was brought into the chapel, and buried just above the litany desk, near the steps ascending to the altar." He had issue John Parker, born May 5, 1548, educated at Cambridge, who married Joan, daughter of Dr. Richard Coxe Bishop of Ely; secondly, Mathew, who died young; thirdly, another Mathew, who married Frances, daughter of William Barlow Bishop of Bath and Wells, and afterwards of Chichester, but he dying 28th Jan. 1574, his widow married Dr. Tob. Mathews, Dean of Durham, who was afterwards Archbishop of York. There was a decent tomb over him, which was destroyed by Scot and Harding.
Holinshed, fo. 1261, says it was a marble, with this epitaph,
Sobrius et Prudens, Studijs excultus et Usu, Integer, et veræ Relligionis amans, Matthæus vixit Parkerus, foverat illum Aula Virum, Juvenem, fovit et Aula Senem, Ordine res gessit, Recti Defensor et Æqui, Vixerat ille Deo, Mortuus ille Deo est.
Matthew Parker lived soberlie and wise, Learned by Studie and continuall Practise, Loving, true, of Life uncontrol'd, The Court did foster him both yoong and old, Orderlie he dealt, the Right he did defend, He lived unto God, to God he made his End.
This reverend father examined thoroughly the English translation of the holy Bibles, using the help of his bretheren, the bishops and other doctors, and caused the same to be new printed in a large volume, for the proper furniture of many churches that then wanted them.
He made diligent search after the British and English-Saxon antiquities, and caused such ancient records to be well covered, and such as he found had but few good copies extant, (as Mat. Paris, Mat. Florilegus, Tho. Walsingham, &c.) he caused to be printed.
The famous palace of his see at Canterbury, by long continuance decayed and consumed with fire, he fully restored at 1400l. expense.
He founded a grammar school at Rachdale in the county of Lancaster, in 1564, and endowed it with 15l. per annum for the master, and 40s. a year for an usher, payable by the farmers or lessees of the rectory of Rachdale for ever; the master to be named by the Archbishop within three months after every vacancy, signified to them by the vicar and church-warders, and the youth born in Rachdale to be taught gratis.
He added four fellowships, two from the increased rents, and two of his own foundation, one Bible clerk, eight scholars of his own foundation, one from Canterbury, five from Norwich, and two from Windham and Aylesham, to Corpus Christi college in Cambridge.
He gave the patronage of St. Mary Abchurch in London, and procured them a charter of mortmain to amortize 100l. per annum.
Moreover, he gave them 309 ounces of silver plate double gilt, and surrendered to them a lease with the improvement of 14l. 8s. yearly for 17 years, also 100l. the interest whereof was to find a fire in the common-hall from All-Saints to Candlemas, and also 500l. more to the increase of the commons of the fellows and scholars.
And furthermore there is granted to the Regr. his whole commons, with one chamber amongst the Norwich scholars, to be hereafter named by the city, and to be the senior Bible clerk.
Which sums were paid by his son, John Parker, Esq. of Lambhithe, his executor, in 1580, and then the college settled 4l. a year to keep the fire, 13s. 4d. to treat the two masters of Trinity-hall and Caius college, when they dine in the hall every 6th of August, to view all the Archbishop's ordinances and foundations, and 3s. 4d. for their pains in coming.
He gave to this city, one bason and ewer of silver double gilt, weighing 175 ounces, to be used at the mayor's table, and to be delivered from mayor to mayor by indenture, for ever; and the mayor and aldermen, in 1572, sent him a letter of thanks for that, and all other his honourable favours and furtherances, touching the quiet state of the city, and particularly for his fellowships and scholarships.
They are now  used by the mayor, and are adorned with his arms and name in a cipher,
On the bason is this;
Matthævs Parker, Norwicensis, Archiepiscopus Cantuar: dedit eidem Civitati 1° Jan. Ao. Dni: 1569, et Anno Consecrationis Suæ xi°. Ætatis vero suæ 66.
There is a curious draught of them in the Archbishop's book in the Gild-hall.
He founded a physick scholar in Gonvile and Caius college in 1571, with a salary of 3l. 8d. per annum his chamber rent and tutorship free, to be chosen by the Archbishop of Canterbury, or if the see be void, by the Dean and Chapter there, which scholar must be born in Canterlury, and educated in some school there, and shall enjoy it six years. He gave them a standing cup and pot of silver double gilt, with a number of good books to their library.
He founded also a scholarship in Trinity-hall, for a student in civil law, of the same value, rent, and tutorship free; which scholar they may choose out of Bennet college every vacancy, if they will, out of some of them newly established by the Archbishop, or else that college is to certify to the mayor and aldermen of the city of Norwich, the voidance of that scholarship, and they are to fill it in a month's time with a scholar out of their school from Norwich; he gave them also a standing cup, and a pot of silver gilt, weighing 53 ounces, all which are delineated in the Archbishop's book, besides a nest of silver goblets gilt, and several valuable manuscripts.
He gave 50 ancient manuscripts, and 50 printed books to the University library, and repaired the Regent-Walk and walls by the publick schools in Cambridge.
Augmented the parsonage, repaired, pewed, and beautified the chancel of Beakebourn in Kent, and gave 100l. to set the poor at Canterbury on work, 30l. to Lambeth, and 30l. to Croydon for the same uses.
And in 1573, when Queen Elizabeth was at Canterbury, and dined in the Archbishop's hall with her nobles and the French ambassadour, on her birth-day, this prelate presented her with a salt-celler of gold and agate, with a diamond on the top, and the hollow of the agate filled with six Portugal pieces of 3l. 10s. each.
In 1566, the Archbishop offered the city a gift of 200l. if they would assure to the master and fellows of Bennet college in Cambridge an annuity of 10l. for which that college was for ever to receive, at the nomination of the mayor of the city of Norwich, and majority of the aldermen for the time being, under their hands, three scholars "out of the scholes at or in the saide city of Norwiche or Aylesham in Norfolk," and each of them to receive of the college 53s. 4d. a a year, their chamber rent, washing, barber, landerer, and teaching, freely, without any thing paying therefore; all which the city thankfully accepted, and on the 24th of June, the indentures for that purpose were sealed between the city and college, in which the city settled an annuity of 10l. per annum out of their manor and farms of Hetheld and Carleton in Norfolk, to be paid to the college by halfyearly sums at Lady and St. Michael, the college to employ 8l. yearly for the exhibition of the three scholars as aforesaid. "the maior with the more part of his bretheren the aldermen, without all affection and parcialytie, as they will answer to Almighty God for doing the contrarye, shall name and appointe for scholars such as be or shall be borne within the said city being betwixte the age of xiiij and xxty yeres, being well instructed in the grammer, hable to write and singe, and if it may be, hable to make a verse, and such as shall be of honest parents, and brought up in the fear of God, and disposed to enter by God's grace into the ministery, in that vocation to serve God and his churche," which scholars, after three years study, if found not to like divinity, are to be removed upon notice to the mayor and aldermen from the master and fellows, and then they are to send others in their places; otherwise they are to enjoy their exhibitions for six years from their admission. If the mayor sends any scholar unfit to be admitted, the college shall certify their refusal of him, but must have him examined first by the proctors, who must also declare his unfitness, and no scholarship shall be longer vacant than six weeks; the fellows to have two weeks to certify, and the city to have a month to elect and send up such scholars, and the profits in the vacancies to go to the naperye of the college common table, and no scholar is to absent himself in visiting his friends more than a month in a year, and that with the license of the master or president.
The other 40s. to be retained by the mayor, and employed by him to pay to such preacher or preachers as shall be yearly sent by the college "to preache and declare one sermon at the towne of Thetforde, and therefore yearly to have 6s. 8d. and one other sermon at Wymondham in the countie of Norff. and therefore yearlie to have vjs. viijd.; and one other sermon within the Grene Yarde in the citie of Norwiche, and therefore yerly to have vjs. viijd.; and one other sermon in the parishe churche of St. Clement by Fybridge in Norwiche aforesaide, and therefore yerlie to have xs; all to be paid by the mayor into the handes of the preachers immediately after they have preached, and the other 10 shillings to be distributed by the mayor as follows," to the mayor for the time, being at the sermon at St. Clement's, 1s.; to the two sheriffs being there, 16d.; to the parson or curate for the time, being at the sermon 8d.; to the town clerk being at the sermon 6d.; to the sword-bearer, if there, 6d.; to the four serjeants at mace, if there, 16d.; to the clerk of the parish church of St. Clement, if he be at the sermon, 4d.; "and to the same clarke yerlie for overseeing the tomb of Will. Parker and Alice his wife (his father and mother) set within the churche-yarde of the parishe of St. Clement aforesaide, that it be not misused to the decay thereof, xiid.;" to the poor of St. Clement's 20d. to the prisoners of the city gaol 20d.; and the portions of all such persons abovementioned (the prisoners and poor people only excepted) as shall be absent from the sermon, half to the poor, and half to the prisoners.
The same book informs us, that the first sermon of this foundation was preached in the Green Yard on Sunday morning, July 20, 1567, by Tho. Godwin, D.D. Dean of Canterbury, at which the commissioners of the Archbishop then exercising his metropolitical visitation in the diocese of Norwich were present, with Thomas Duke of Norfolk, John Bishop of Norwich, the mayor, aldermen, sheriffs, and commonalty. And in the afternoon the said Dr Godwin preached in the churchyard of St. Clement by Fybridge, under a large oak there, that church not being large enough to contain the audience The 25th of July, John Pory, D. D. master of Corpus Christi college, preached at Wimondham, and the 27th at Thetford.
In 1568, Dr. Porye preached at Thetford May 23, at Windham May 24, at St. Clement's May 27, and in the Green Yard May 30.
In 1569, Henry Clifford, A. M. fellow of Bennet, preached at Thetford May 15, at Windham May 16; and Edward Dering, S.T. B. another fellow, preached at St. Clement's May 19, and in the Green Yard May 22.
- 1570, April 3, Mr. Sherbrook, S.T. B. preached at Thetford on Rogation Sunday, and on Rogation Monday. May 1; Mr. Robert Willan fellow there, at Windham; and on Ascension day, at St. Clement's; and the Sunday following Mr. Sherbroke preached before the mayor and court, in the Green Yard.
In 1571, May 20, being Rogation Sunday, Thomas Aldrich, master of the college, preached at Thetford, on Monday at Windham, and on Tuesday at Matishall, and there saw the first distribution made among the poor of the said town, according to the ordinance of Mathew Archbishop of Canterbury, who caused to be settled by indenture dated Nov. 15, 1570, made between Rob. Harlestone, and the townsmen of Matteshall, and Corpus Christi college, in pursuanceof the will of Margaret Parker, (his wife,) daughter of Robert Harlestone late of Mateshall, deceased, in which town she and her father were born, divers lands in Estfield in Mateshall, containing about 10 acres, on the townsmen as feoffees, chargeable with an annuity of 50s. payable every May-day to the vicar, church-wardens, and overseers, who immediately after the sermon preached, shall pay 6s. 8d. to the preacher, to 30 of the poorest people in the parish, 30s. to one Thomas Sparrow, "and to the porest of his name and kindred after him for ever 5s. to the vicar, curate, or parish clerke, which ever will take paynes to teach children, 6s. 8d.;" and if none do, then 6s. of the said sum to be distributed among the aforesaid poor, and 8d. to the parish clerk: the feoffees have power to seize the lands for non-payment, and the college covenants to send every year, "one of the preachers, scholars or fellows, of theire said college, and in the defalte of their sufficiency, one of Gunwell and Caius college in Cambridge aforesaide, whiche shall take in hand to entreate either of one or two petytions of the Lord's Prayer, or one or two of the Articles of the Faithe, or one or two of the Tenne Commandements, and thereupon make a sermon in the said church of Matishall, in which sermon he shall make some honest remembrance of the said Robert Harlestone the father, and Margaret his daughter, and of the said distribution." And if the college fails sending, the owner of the lands shall at Midsummer following, procure a preacher and have a sermon, and make the distribution as aforesaid.
On Ascension day he preached at St. Clement's, and before the mayor and court in the Green Yard the Sunday following.
In 1572, Richard Fletcher, A. M. fellow of the college, preached at Thetford on Rogation Sunday; at Windham on the Monday; at Matsall on the Tuesday; at St. Clement's on Ascension day; and the Sunday following in the Green Yard. And now the same course is continued; the Green Yard sermon being in the cathedral, as all other annual sermons are, that used to be preached there.
In 1573, Nic. Norgate, A. M. senior fellow, preached there, and
In 1574, Robert Sayer, A. M. president of the college, &c.
In 1578, at a court held April 21, Thomas Parker, then mayor, openyd to the hole sembly my Lorde of Caunterbury's grace's goodwill in the gyfte of CCl. for one annuitie of 18l. for the fyndyng of two skoltars and two fellows in Corpus Christi colledge, which they like well of and agre a lettre of thanks, and that two cittizens awayte upon his grace for that purpose."
In pursuance of which, an indenture was signed the 6th of August, 1568, between the city and college, by which the city, for 320l. paid them by the Archbishop, did grant to the college an annuity of 18l. issuing out of all the revenues of the corporation, (except such as were settled for the relief of the poor,) to be paid at Lady and Michaelmas, in each year, to the college; to be employed to the use of two fellows, yearly to be found and continued in their college for ever, which are to be called Norwich fellows, and to be elected as the other fellows, and no fellowship to be void above one month, under penalty of 6s. 8d. each week above the month after any vacancy, to be paid to the vice-chancellor, to be distributed to the prisoners in the Tolboth in Cambridge.
The said fellows to be in all things as the other fellows, except in this that they shall not claim any other stipend than six pounds a year, paid quarterly to each of them, whether they be within orders or not; neither shall they partake of such dividends as anciently belonged to the master and eight ordinary fellows, commonly called the dividends of beache, of liveries, of cooks, of the steward, of the pensioners for outward chambers, and for commemorations of the founders, amounting to the master and eight fellows, about 46s. and 8d. a year; but shall be partakers of any increase or augmentations hereafter made to the society, and shall keep their seniority as other fellows; and at their admissions shall swear to all the statutes as other fellows, with this exception, that they may have and hold any pensions or canonships, prebend, or prebends, in any cathedral or collegiate churches without cure, being under 10l. value in the King's books, and the ix h a d xth fellows may do the like, for which the four fellows shall be bound to teach freely the Norwich scholars, in such order as the master and fellows shall think convenient; and the two Norwich fellows shall always have the the two upper chambers on the east side of the court, and the garrets.
The other six pounds of the annuity, is to found two other Norwich scholarships, which scholars are to be named by the mayor and majority of the aldermen, out of any of the schools in the city of Norwich, to be qualified in like manner as the other three Norwich scholars, and to be subject in all things as they are, except that if there be no such scholars within the said city meet to be sent to college from time to time, as the rooms are void, that then they shall nominate the said scholar or scholars, first, out of the grammar school at Windham; and if there are none fit there, out of the grammar school at Aylesham, provided all such so named be born either in the city or towns aforesaid, and the five Norwich scholars shall have the three undermost, or ground rooms, on the east side of the court, which the Archbishop furnished with beds and all necessaries for them, two in one chamber, and two in another, and the fifth scholar shall have the little room under the old library there, for his sole use, who shall be assigned to it by the master, whomever he finds the most worthy of all the scholars, and they are to pay nothing for their rooms, but are to have their teaching, barber, and landerer free; and the two Norwich fellows must be chosen out of the Norwich scholars, by the master and majority of the fellows.
And by the same indenture, the college bound themselves to the city in the penal sum of 200l. "ever more to electe, admitt, and have of the fellowshippe of theire saide college always, over and above the two forenamed Norwich fellowes, (if it maie be,) foure of theire nomber of fellows out of the countie of Norfolk, borne in anie citie or towne of the saide shire, to be chosen of the most hable of the whole nomber of scholars of foundation within the said college, which scholars at this presente daie doe amounte to the nomber of xxty and in defaulte of such hable scholers to be founde within the said college, to electe them from tyme to tyme oute of anie other college in the saide universitye, as their statutes may beare it, being borne in the countie aforesaide, und the other fellows of their company being six in number, to be elected, chosen, and admitted at their pleasure." And fo. 119, b, of Parker's manuscript, there is a catalogue of the books chained in a ground room on the east side of the court, for the common use of the six Norwich scholars, together with an inventory of the furniture of their chambers.
He founded exhibitions also for three scholars, to be called Canterbury scholars, who are to have 12d. a week for their commons, their chambers, barber, landerer, and other necessaries free, like the other scholars; the first of which is to be sent from Canterbury school, and must be born in that city; the second from Aylesham school in Norfolk, and must be born in Aylesham; the 3d from Wimondham school, and must be born in that town. They were to be nominated by John Parker, Esq. son of the Archbishop, during his life, and after his decease, to be chosen out of the said schools by the master and fellows of the college, "all which sayd schollers shall and must at the time of their election be so entered into the skyll of songe, as that they shall at the fyrste sight sol-fe and syng playne songe and that they shall be the best and aptest schollers, well instructed in the grammar, and if it may be, such as can make a vearse." But if there be none properly qualified in that school where the vacancy is, then the college may choose out of any other school in the county, for that turn only, and within thirty days after every vacancy, they shall certify such vacancy to each schoolmaster, and the scholarship must be filled in two months time, and the scholars must not be absent from college above a month in a year, unless they be sent out on the college business, or be sick, and in such cases they shall have their allowance of 12d. a week for their commons as if resident; and chambers were assigned at their foundation, for ever to belong to their scholarships.
The Archbishop's motto was taken from the 1st epistle of St. John, chap ii. verse 17, Mundus Transit, Et Comcupiscentia Ejus, the world passeth away and the lust thereof.
His Archiepiscopal seal was made in 1560, which date, with a cipher of his name, under the arms of Canterbury deanery and his own conjoined, is on the small private seal on the back side of the large publick one; on which latter is this, Sigillvm: Matthei: Parkeri: Cantvariensis: Archiepiscopi: the seal of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury: in which is represented Christ standing on the world, judging the quick and the dead, and on each side of him one of these words, mundus transit, the world passeth away. The angels sounding the last trump. On his right hand the blessed rising from their graves, and this word Venite, come ye, &c. and on his left-hand the cursed, and this word A bite, depart ye, &c. At the bottom is a shield of his own arms, of which Dr. Walter Haddon, Judge of the Prerogative court, makes honourable mention, comprising in six verses the ensigns of his ancestors, with those added by the Queen when she made him bishop, comprehending in the same his good qualities, answerable to the ensigns he bare, viz.
Sunt antiquorum claves monumenta parentum, Venit ab Augusta principe, stella triplex, Sic bene conspirant, Virtus, Doctrina, Potestas, Et placidæ Pacis semina leta serunt.
Sed tamen ad finem decurrunt gaudia vitæ, Ac homo pulviseret, pulvis ut ante fuit.
The keys, the ancient arms his fathers bare, The triple stars, came from Augusta fair,
Thus Learning, Virtue, Power, in him conjoined, Declared the beauty of his peaceful mind.
The joys of life all to one period tend, Man's dust at first, at last in dust must end.
And now to take our farewell of this charitable and worthy prelate, I shall end the account of him, as he doth his own manuscript, with the following lines:
Da tua, dum tua sunt, post mortem tunc tua non sunt.
Dunn potes, esto dator, alius veniet dominator, Qui res quasque tuas: arguet esse suas.
Resque gazasque tuas, qui volet esse suas.
Give thine, whilst thine they are, for when once dead, They then arn't thine, for you from them art fled; Another owner now supplies thy place, Who says' tis his, no thine, as once it was, Use time and do much good, whilst time is thine, In future ages then, thy name will shine.
In 1576, John Harding, alderman of London, gave 20l. to the poor of Norwich, and from this time to 1582, Mrs. Anne Rede, widow, paid 4l. yearly, for provision of one "meles meat wekely for xii pore men," according to the will of Peter Rede, Esq. her husband.
In 1577, Henry Sackford, Esq. one of the Queen's privy chamber, paid 30l. of her Majesty's gift for the poor strangers residing in this city, which the court paid to Harmanus Modert, minister of the Dutch congregation, and Lodowyc Maupin, minister of the Walloons, and to the four deacons; the Dutch to have 19l. and the Walloons 11. and those poor artizans, on a petition to the court, were excused from their weekly attendance every Wednesday and Saturday in the sheriffs court, and at the Gild-hall.
In 1578, the City was acquainted that her Majesty designed a progress through Norfolk and Suffolk, and to visit this city; upon which, at a court held on the 20th of June, the houses, streets, and lanes, were ordered to be repaired and beautified: and the mayor sent letters to the mayors of Lyn, Yarmouth, &c. to desire them to send workmen to assist, who should be well paid for their journeys and work: the cross in the market was painted, the posts in timber colour, and the rest white; the pillory and cage taken away, and the wall of St. John's churchyard at Maddermarket was taken down to widen the street, and rebuilt before her Majesty's coming; the muckhill at Brazen-Doors was carried away; and the road to St. Stephen's gates new gravelled; the narrow way at St. Giles's gate enlarged by casting down the hills; every inn-keeper was ordered to have a horse always ready for a post-horse; no cows were to be brought into the city; no scourers to use any wash; no grocer to try any tallow, &c. during her Majesty's abode here. Three boats were made into barges, and four or 500l. borrowed by the city for rewards to be given to certain of the council, officers, and servants: thus did they prepare for the magnificent entertainment of the Queen, which being so very grand, and so particularly related, it will not be amiss to insert it at large, which is as follows:
"The truth is (saith one that wrote the whole entertainment,) that albeit they had but small warning certainly to build upon, of the Queen's Majesty into both shires, the gentlemen had made such ready provision, that all the velvets and silks that might be laid hands on, and bought for money, were soon converted to such garments and suits of robes, that the show thereof might have beautified the greatest triumph that was in England these many years. For (as it was said) there were 200 young gentlemen clad all in white velvet, and 300 of the graver sort apparelled all in black velvet cotes, and fair chains, all ready at one instant and place; with 1500 servingmen on horseback, well and bravely mounted in good order, ready to receive the Queen's Highness into Suffolk: which surely was a comely troop, and a noble sight to behold: and all these waited on the sheriff Sir William Spring, during ber Majesty's abode in those parts, and to the very confines of Suffolk.
But before her Highness passed to Norfolk, there was in Suffolk such sumptuous feastings and banquets, as seldom in any part of the world have been seen before. The Master of the Rolls, Sir Will. Cordall, was one of the first that began this great feasting, and did light such a candle to the rest of the shire, that many were glad bountifully and frankly to follow the same example, with such charges and costs, as the whole train were in some sort pleased with it. And near Bury, Sir William Drury for his part at his house at Rougham, made the Queen's Highness a costly and delicate dinner. And Sir Rob. Germine or Jermyn of Rushbrook, feasted the French ambassadors two several times, with which charges and courtesy, they stood marvelously contented. The sheriff, Sir William Spring, Sir Thomas Kidson of Hengrave, Sir Arthur Heigham, and divers others of worship, kept great houses, and sundry other at the Queen's coming, or return, solemnly feasted her Highness, yea and defrayed the whole charges for a day or two; presented gifts, made such triumphs and devises, as indeed was most noble to behold, and very thankfully accepted.
The Norfolk gentlemen hearing how dutifully their neighbours had received the Prince, prepared in like sort to shew themselves dutiful: and so in a most gallant manner they assembled and set forward with 2500 horsemen, whereof (as some affirm) were 600 gentlemen, so bravely attired and mounted, as indeed was worthy the noting, which goodly company waited on their sheriff a long season. But in good truth (as it was credibly spoken) the banquets and feasts began here afresh, and all kinds of triumphs that might be devised, were put in practise and proof. The Earl of Surrey did show most sumptuous chear, in whose park at Kenninghall were speeches well set out, and a special devise much commended: and the rest as a number of jolly gentlemen, were no whit behind to the uttermost of their abilities, in all that might be done and devised.
But when the Queen's Highness came to Norwich, the substance of the whole triumph and feasting was in a manner there new to begin. For order was taken there, that every day for six days together, a show of some strange devise should be seen. And the mayor and aldermen appointed among themselves and their brethren, that no one person retaining to the Queen should be unfeasted or unbidden to dinner and supper, during the space of those six days: which order was well and wisely observed, and gained their city more fame and credit than they were aware of: for that courtesy of theirs shall remain in perpetual memory whilst the walls of their city standeth. Besides, the money they bestowed upon divers of the train, and those that took pains for them, will be a witness of their well doing and good will, whilst the report of these things may be called to remembrance. Now, who can (considering their great charges and discreet government in these causes) but give them due laud and reputation, as far as either pen or report may do them good and stretch out their credit. For most certainly they have taught and learned all the towns and cities in England a lesson, how to behave their selves in such like services and actions.
On Saturday being the 16th of August, 1578, and in the 20th year of the reign of our most gracious sovereign Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God Queen of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. The same our most dread and sovereign Lady, (continuing her progress in Norfolk,) immediately after dinner set forward from Braken-Ash, where she had dined with the Lady Stile, being five miles distant from Norwich, towards the same her most dutiful city. Sir Rob. Wood, then Esq. now Knt. mayor of the same city, at one o'clock the same happy day, set forward to meet with her Majesty in this order: 1st. there rode before him well and seemly mounted, three score of the most comely young-men of the city, as batchelors, apparelled all in black satin doublets, black hose, black taffata hatts, and yellow bands; and their universall livery was a mandilion of purple taffata, laid about with silver lace: and so apparelled they marched forwards two and two in a rank. Then one which represented King Gurgunt, sometime King of England, which built the castle of Norwich called Blanche Flower, and laid the foundation of the city: he was mounted upon a brave courser, and was thus furnished; his body armed, his bases of green and white silk, on his head a black velvet hat, with a plume of white feathers: there attended upon him three henchmen in white and green, one of them did bear his helmet, the second his target, and the third his staff: after him a noble company of gentlemen and wealthy citizens, in velvet coats and other costly furniture, bravely mounted. Then folfollowed the officers of the city every one in his place; then the swordbearer with the sword and hat of maintenance; then the mayor and 24 aldermen, and recorder, all in scarlet gownes, whereof so many as had been mayors of the city, and were justices, did wear their scarlet cloaks; then followed so many as had been sheriffs and not aldermen, in violet gowns and sattin tippets; then followed divers others to keep the people from disturbing the array aforesaid.
Thus every thing being in due and comely order, they all (except Gurgunt, who staid her Majesties coming within a flight shoot or two of the city, where the castle of Blanch Flower was in most beautiful prospect) marched forwards to a bridge called Hartford Bridge, the uttermost limit that way, distant from the city two miles or thereabouts, to meet with her Majesty; who within one hour or little more, after their attendance, came in such gracious and princely wise, as ravished the hearts of all her loving subjects, and might have terrified the stoutest heart of any enemy to behold. Whither the majesty of the Prince which is incomparable, or joy of her subjects which exceeded measure, were the greater, I think would have appalled the judgement of Apollo to define. The acclamations and cries of the people to the almighty God for the preservation of her Majesty, ratled so loud, as hardly for a great time could any thing be heard. But at last as every thing hath an end, the noise appeased, and the mayor saluted her Highness with the oracion following, and yielded to her Majesty therewith, the sword of the city, and a fair standing cup of silver and gilt, with a cover, and in the cup 100l. in gold. The oration was in these words:
Prætoris Nordovicensis ad serenissimam Reginam, &c.
SI nobis ab Opt. Max. concederetur optio quid rerum humanarum nunc potissimùm vellemus: nihil duceremus antiquius (augustissima Princeps) quàm ut tuus ille, qui ita nos recreat, castissimi ocelli radius posset in abditissimos cordium nostrorum angulos se conferre. Cerneres perfectò quanta sint hilaritate perfusa, quàm in ipsis arterijs et venulis spiritus et sanguis gestiant: dum intuemur te hujus regni lumen (ut David olim fuit Israelitici) in hijs tandem finibus post longam spem, et ardentissima vota exoriri. Equidem ut pro me, qui tua ex authoritate et clementia (quod humillimis gratijs profiteor) celeberrimæ huic civitati præsum, et pro hijs meis fratribus, atque omni hoc populo quem tuis auspicijs regimus, ex illorum sensu loquar, quod et ipse sentio: sic nos demum suplicibus votis exposcimus, ut Majestatem tuam benevolam nobis, et propitiam experiamur: ut nunquam cuiquam populo advenisti gratior quàm nobis. In illius rei luculentissimum indicium, insignia hœc honoris, et officij nostri, quœ nobis clementissimus Princeps Henricus Quartus quinto sui regni anno, cum prœtore, senatoribus, et vicecomitibus concessit: (cùm antea ballivis (ut vocant) ultra annalium nostrorum memoriam regeremur) perpetuis deinde Regum privilegijs, et corroborata nobis, et aucta magnificè, Majestati tuœ omnia exhibemus, quœ per tuam unius clementiam (quam cum immortalibus gratijs prœdicare nunquam cessabimus) vicesimo jam anno tenuimus: atque unâ cum illis, hunc thesaurum, quasi pignus nostrarum et voluntatum et facultatum. Quas omnes, quintœ, quantulœve sint, ad tuum arbitrium devovimus: ut si quid omni hoc fœlicissimi tui temporis decursu admisimus, quod amantissimos, obsequentissimos, amplitudinis tuœ saluti, coronœ, emolumento devotissimos non deceat: statuas de nobis, et nostris omnibus, pro tua clementissima volunlate. Sin ita clauum hujus civitatis (Deo duce) reximus: ut eam in portu saluam Majestati tuœ conservaverimus, et populum primum gloriœ Dei, et verœ religionis, deinde salutis, honoris, et voluntatis tuœ studiosissimum, quantum in nobis est, effecerimus: tum non libet nobis id à te petere, quod insita tibi singularis clementia facillimè à te ipsa impetrabit. Tantum obsecramus, ut amplitudinem tuam Deus omnibus et animi et corporis bonis cumulatissimè beare velit, Amen.
The Mayor's Oration to the Queen, Englished.
If our wish should be granted unto us by the Almighty, what humane thing we would chiefly detire: we would account nothing more precious (most royal Prince) than that the bright beam of your most chaste eye which doth so chear us, might peirce the secret and strait corners of our hearts. Then surely should you see how great joys are dispersed there, and how the spirits and lively blood trickle in our arteries and small veins, in beholding you the light of this realm (as David was of Israel) now at length, after long hope and earnest petitions, to appear in these coasts. Truly on mine own part, which by your Highness's authority and clemency (with humble thanks be it spoken) do govern this famous city, and on the part of these my brethren, and all these people which by your authorty we rule (speaking as they mean, and as I my self do think) this only with all our hearts and prayers we desire, that we may so find your Majesty gracious and favourable unto us, as you for your part never came to any subjects better welcome than to us your poor subjects here. For most manifest token whereof, we present unto your Majesty here, these signs of honour and office, which we received of the most mighty Prince Henry the IV. in the fifth year of his reign, then to us granted in the name of mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs; whereas before, time out of mind, we were governed by bailiffs (as they term them) which ever since have been both established and encreased with continual privileges of kings; and which by your only clemency (which with immortall thanks we shall never cease to declare) we have now these twenty years enjoyed: and together with those signs, this treasure is a pledge of our good wills and ability: which all how great or little so ever they be, we pour down at your pleasure, that if we have neglected any thing in all this course of your most happy reign, which becometh most loving, obedient, and well willing subjects to perform, for the preservation of your crown, and advancement of your Highness, you may then determine of us and all ours at your most gracious pleasure. But if we have (God being our guide) so ordered the governance of this city, that we have kept the same in safety to your Majesty's use, and made the people therein (as much as in us lyeth) first, most studious of God's glory and true religion, and next, of your Majesties health, honour, and pleasure; then ask we nothing of you for that the singular clemency ingrafted in your Highness, will easily of it selfe grant that which is requisite for us to obtain. We only therefore desire, that God would abundantly bless your Highness with all good gifts of mind and body. Amen.
Which oration ended, her Majesty accepting in good part every thing delivered by the mayor, did thankfully answer him in these words, or very like in effect: We heartily thank you Master Mayor, and all the rest, for these tokens of good will; nevertheless Princes have no need of money: God hath indued us abundantly, we come not therefore but for that which in right is our own, the hearts and true allegiance of our subjects, which are the greatest riches of our kingdom; whereof, as we assure ourselves in you, so do you assure yourselves in us of a loving and gracious Sovereign. Wherewith was delivered to the mayor, a mace or scepter, which he carried before her to her lodging, which was in the Bishop of Norwich his palace, about two miles distant from that place. The cup and money was delivered to a gentleman one of her Majesty's footmen, to carry. The mayor said to her, Sunt hic centum librœ puri auri. The cover of the cup lifted up, her Majesty said to the footman, look to it, there is an 100 pounds. With that her Highness with the whole company, marched towards Norwich, till they came to a place called the TownClose, distant from the city a good flightshot, where the party which represented Gurgunt came forth, as in due manner is expressed, and was ready to have declared to her Majesty this speech following: but by reason of a shower of rain which came, her Majesty hasted away, the speech not uttered: but it was as here followeth:
Leave off to muse, most gracious Prince of English soil, What sudden wight in martial wise approacheth near; King Gurgunt I am hight, King Belin's eldest son, Whose sire, Dunwallo, first the British crown did wear.
Whom truthless Gutlacke forc'd to pass the surging seas, His falsehood to revenge, and Denmark laid to spoil, And finding in return, this place a gallant vent, This castle fair I built, a fort from forreign soil: To win a conquest, get renown and glorious name, To keep and use it well, deserves eternal fame.
When brute through cities, towns, the woods and dales did sound; Elizabeth, this country's peerless Queen drew near, I was found out, my self in person, noble Queen, Did haste, before thy face in presence to appear, Two thousand years well nigh in silence lurking still: Hear, why to thee alone this service I do yield.
Besides that at my cities suit, their founder first,
Should gratulate most, this joyfull sight in open field; Four special points and rare, concurring in us both, This special service have reserved to thee alone: The glory tho' of each, in thee doth far surmount, Yet great with small compar'd, will like appear anon.
When doubtfull wars the British princes long had wroong, My grandsire first uniting all, did wear the crown, Of York and Lancaster, who did conclude those broiles? Thy grandsire, Henry Seventh, a King of great renown.
Mine uncle Brennus eke, my father joining hands, Old Rome did rase and sack, and half consume with fire; Thy puissant father so, new Rome, that purple whore, Did sack and spoil her near, of all her glittering tire.
Lo Cambridge schools by mine assignment founded first, By thee my Cambridge schools are famous through the world, I thirty wandring ships of banish'd men relieved.
The throngs of banish'd souls that in this city dwell Do weep for joy, and pray for thee with tears untold; In all these things thou noble Queen dost far excel.
But lo to thee I yield, as duty doth me bind, In open field my self, my city, castle, keie, Most happy fathers kings, in such a daughter Queen, Most happy England were, if thou shouldst never die.
Go on, most noble Prince, for I must hast away, My city gates do long their sovereign to receive, More true thou never couldst, nor loyall subjects find, Whose hearts full fast, with perfect love to thee do cleave.
Then her Majesty drew near to the gates of the city called St. Stephen's-gates, which with the walls there, were both gallantly and strongly repaired. The gate itself was thus inriched and beautified; first the portcullis was new made both timber and iron: the outward side of the gate was thus beautified; the Queen's arms were most richly and beautifully set forth in the chief front of the gate; on the one side thereof, but somewhat lower, was placed the escutcheon of St. George's cross; on the other side the arms of the city; and directly under the Queen's majesty's arms, was placed the falcon, her Highnesses badge, in due form; and under the same were written these words, God and the Queen we serve. The inner side of the gate was thus beautified; on the right side was gorgeously set forth the red rose, representing the house of Lancaster; in the midst was the white and red rose united, expressing the union; under the which was placed by descent the arms of the Queen, and under that were written these verses following,
Division kindled strife, Blest union quench'd the flame, Thence sprang our noble Phenix deare, The peerless Prince of fame.
And besides that, at this gate, the waits of the city were placed with loud musick, who chearfully and melodiously welcomed her Majesty into the city; this song being sung by the best voices in the same:
The dew of heaven drops this day on dry and barren ground, Wherefore let fruitfull hearts, I say, at drum and trumpet sound, Yield that is due, shew that is meet, to make our joy the more, In our good hope, and her good praise, we never saw before.
The sun doth shine where shade hath been, long darkness brought us day, The star of comfort now comes in, and here a while will stay.
Ring out the bells, pluck up your spreets, and dress your houses gay, Run in for flowers to strew the streets, and make what joy you may.
The dew of heaven, &c.
Full many a winter have we seen, and many storms withall, Since here we saw a King or Queen, in pomp and princely pall.
Wherefore make feast and banquit still, and now to triumph fall, With duty let us shew good will, to glad both great and small.
The dew of heaven, &c.
The realme throughout will ring of this, and sundry nations mo, Will say, full great our fortune is, when our good hap they kno.
O Norwich, here the well-spring runs, whose vertue still doth flow, And lo this day doth shine two suns, within thy walls also.
The dew of heaven, &c.
This song ended, her Highness passed towards her lodging, and by the way in a churchyard over against Master Peck's door (a worthy alderman) was a scaffold set up and bravely trimmed; on this scaffold was placed an excellent boy, well and gallantly decked, in a long white robe of taffata, a crimson scarff wrought with gold, folded in the Turkisn fashion about his brows, and a gay garland of white flowers on his head; which boy was not seen till the Queen had a good season marked the musick, which was marvellous sweet and good, albeit the rudeness of some ringers of bells did somewhat hinder the noise of the harmony; and as soon as the musick ended, the boy stept reverently before the Queen, and spake these words that follow in comely order.
Great things were meant to welcome thee (O Queen) If want of time had not cut off the same: Great was our wish, but small is that was seen, For us to shew before so great a dame.
Great hope we have, it pleased our Prince's eye, Great were the harms that else our pains should reap: Our grace or foile doth in your judgement lye, If you mislike, our griefs do grow on heap: If for small things we do great favour find, Great is the joy that Norwich feels this day: If well we weigh'd the greatness of your mind, Few words would serve, we had but small to say.
But knowing that your goodness takes things well, That well are meant, we boldly did proceed: And so, good Queen, both welcome and farewell, Thy own we are, in heart, in word, in deed.
The boy thereupon flung up his garland, and the Queen's Highness said, This devise is fine. Then the noise of musick began again, to hear which the Queen staid a good while, and after departed for the cathedral church, which was not far from thence. Then passed she forward through St. Stephen's-street, where the first pageant was placed in form following; it was built somewhat in manner like a stage, 40 foot long, and 8 foot broad: from the standing place upward, was a bank framed in manner of a freestone wall, and in the height thereof were written sentences, viz. The causes of this common wealth are, God truly preached, Justice truly executed, the people obedient, idleness expelled, labour cherished, and universal concord preserved.
From the standing place downwards, it was beautified with painters work, artificially expressing to sight, the pourtraiture of these several looms, and the weavers in them (as it were working) and over every loom the name thereof, viz. over the first loom was written, the weaving of worsted; over the second, the weaving of russels; over the third, the weaving of darnix; over the fourth, the weaving of mockado; over the fifth, the weaving of lace; over the 6th, the weaving of caffa; over the seventh, the weaving of fringe. And then was there pourtraiture of a matron, and two or three children, and over her head was written these words, Good nurture changeth qualities. Upon the stage at the one end, there stood eight small women children spinning worsted yarne; and at the other end as many knitting of worsted yarn hose: and in the midst of the said stage, stood a pritty boy richly apparelled, which represented the commonwealth of the city; and all the rest of the stage was furnished with men, which made the said several works, and before every man the work in deed. Every thing thus ready, and her Majesty come, the child representing the commonwealth, spake to her Highness these words following:
Most gracious Prince, undoubted sovereign Queen, Our only joy next God, and chief defence, In this small shew, our whole estate is seen, The wealth we have, we find proceed from thence, The idle hand hath here no place to feed, The painfull wight hath still to serve his need.
Again, our seat denies our traffick here, The sea too near decides us from the rest, So weak we were within this dozen year, As care did quench the courage of the best, But good advice hath taught these little hands To rend in swain the force of pining bands.
From combed wool we draw this slender thread, From thence the looms have dealing with the same, And thence again, in order to proceed, These several works which skilful art doth frame: And all to drive dame Need into her cave, Our heads and hands together labour'd have.
We bought before, the things that now we sell, These slender imps, their works do pass the waves, God's peace and thine, we hold and prosper well, Of every mouth the hands the charges saves. Thus thro' thy help, and aid of power divine, Doth Norwich live, whose hearts and goods are thine,
This shew pleased her Majesty so greatly, as she particularly viewed the knitting and spinning of the children, perused the looms, and noted the several works and commodities which were made by these means: and then after great thanks given by her to the people, marched towards the market place, where was the second pageant thwarting the street at the entrance of the market, between Master Skinner and Master Quash, being in breadth 52 feet of assize, and was divided into three gates, in the midst a main gate, and on either side a postern: the main gate in breadth 14 foot, each postern 8 foot, their heights equal to their proportion, over each postern was as it were, a chamber, which chambers were replenished with causick. Over all the gates passed a stage of 8 foot broad, in manner of a pageant, curious, rich, and delightful: the whole work from the pageant downwards seemed to be jasper and marble; in the fore-front towards her Majesty, was the arms of England, on the one side of the gate, and on the other side, the falcon with the crown and scepter; the other side was beautified with the arms of England on the one side of the gate, and the crest of England on the other. The pageant was furnished with five personages apparelled like women. The first was the city of Norwich; the second Debora; the third Judith; the fourth Hester; the fifth Martia, sometime Queen of England. At the first sight of the Prince, and till her Majesty's coming to the pageant, the musicians used their loud musick, and then ceased; wherewith her Highness staid, to whom the personages representing the city of Norwich, did speak in these words,
Whom fame resounds with thund'ring trump, That rends the ratling skies, And peirceth to the haughty heavens, And thence descending flies, Through flickering air; and so conjoins, The sea and shore together, In admiration of thy grace, Good Queen, thou art welcome hither, More welcome than Terpsicore Was to the town of Troy, Sea-faring men, by Gemini, Conceive not half my joy.
Strong Hercules to Theseus Was never such delight, Nor Nisus to Eurialus As I have in this sight, Penelope did never thirst, Ulysses more to see, Than I poor Norwich hunger'd have, To gain the sight of thee.
And now that these my happy eyes Behold thy heavenly face, The Lord of lords I humbly pray, To bless thy noble grace With Nestor's life, with Sibil's health, With Cresus stock and store, With all good gift of Salomon, And twice as many more.
What should I say? thou art my joy Next God, I have no other, My Princess and peerless Queen, My loving nurse and mother. My goods and lands, my hands and heart, My limbs and life are thine, What is mine own in right or thought, To thee I do resign.
Grant then (O gracious Sovereign Queen) This only my request, That that which shall be done in me, Be construed to the best.
And take in part my slender shews, Wherein my whole pretence Is for to please your Majesty, And end without offence.
So shall I clap my hands for joy, And hold my self as rich, As if I had the gold of Inde, And double twice as mich.
Then spake Debora, the second person.
Where Princes sitting in their thrones, Set God before their sight, And live according to his law, And guide their people right, There doth his blessed gifts abound, There kingdoms firmly stand, There force of foes cannot prevail, Nor fury fret the land.
My self (O peerless Prince) do speak By proof of matter past, Which proof by practice I perform'd, And foil'd his foes at last, Far Jabin King of Canäan, Poor Israël did spite, And meant by force of furious rage To over-run us quite.
Nine hundred iron chariots He brought into the field, With cruel Captain Sisera, By force to make us yield.
His force was great, his fraud was more, He fought, we did defend, And twenty winters long did last, This war without an end.
But he that neither sleeps nor slacks, Such furies to correct, Appointed me, Debora, for The judge of his elect; And did deliver Sisera Into a woman's hand, I slew them all, and so in rest His people held the land.
So mighty Prince, that puissant Lord Hath plac'd thee here to be, The rule of this triumphant realm Alone belongs to thee.
Continue as thou hast begun, Weed out the wicked rout, Uphold the simple, meek, and good, Pull down the proud and stout.
Thus shalt thou live and reign in rest, And mighty God shalt please, Thy state be sure, thy subjects safe, Thy commonwealth at ease.
Thy God shall grant thee length of life, To glorifye his name, Thy deeds shall be recorded in The book of lasting fame.
Then spake Judith, the third person.
O flower of grace! O prime of God's elect, Oh mighty Queen and finger of the Lord! Did God sometime by me poor wight correct The champion stout, that him and his abhor'd? Then be thou sure thou art his mighty hand, To conquer those which him and thee withstand.
The rage of foes Bothulia did oppress, The people faint, were ready for to yield: God aided me, poor widow, ne'ertheless, To enter into Holoferne's field, And with this sword by his directing hand, To slay his foe, and quiet so the land.
If this his grace were given to me, poor wight, If a widow's hand could vanquish such a foe, Then to a Prince of thy surpassing might, What tyrant lives but thou maist overthrow? Persevere then his servant as thou art, And hold for aye, a noble victor's part.
Then spake Hester, the fourth person.
The fretting heads of furious foes have skill, As well by fraud, as force to find their prey, In smiling looks doth lurk a lot as ill, As where both sterne and sturdy streams do sway, Thy self, O Queen, a proof hast seen of this, So well as I poor Hester have I wis.
As Jabin's force did Israel perplex, And Holofernes fierce, Bethulia besiege, So Haman's slights thought me and mine to vex, Yet shew'd a face of subject to his liege.
But force no fraud, nor tyrant strong can trap, Those whom the Lord in his defence doth wrap.
The proofs I speak by us have oft been seen, The proofs I speak to thee are not unknown, Thy God thou know'st most dread and sovereign Queen, A world of foes of thine hath overthrown, And hither now triumphantly doth call Thy noble grace, the comfort of us all.
Dost thou not see the joy of all this flock? Vouchsafe to view their passing gladsome chear, Be still (good Queen) their refuge and their rock, As they are thine to serve in love and fear: So fraud nor force, nor foreign foe may stand Against the strength of thy most puissant hand.
Then spake Martia, the fifth person.
With long discourse (O puissant Prince) Some tract of time we spend, Vouchsafe yet now a little more, And then we make an end.
The thundring blast of fame whereof Dame Norwich first did speak, Not only shook the air and skies, Aut all the earth did break; It rent up graves, and bodies raised, Each spirit took his place, And this alonelie word was heard, Here comes the pearl of grace, Here comes the jewel of the world, Her people's whole delight, The paragon of present time, And prince of earthly might.
The voice was strange, the wonder more, For when we viewed the earth, Each prince that earst had reigned here, Received again his breath; And with his breath, a liberty, To hold again his place, If any one amongst us all, Exceed your noble grace.
Some comfort every one conceiv'd, To catch again his own, His utmost skill was trimly used, To make his vertues known.
The plays surpass my skill to tell, But when each one had said, Apollo did himself appear, And made us all dismay'd.
Will you contend with her (quoth he) Within whose sacred breast Dame Pallas and myself have fram'd, Our sovereign seat of rest? Whose skill directs the Muses nine, Whose grace doth Venus stain, Her eloquence like Mercury, Like June in her train? Whose God is that eternal Jove Which holds us all in awe, Believe me, you exceed the bounds Of equity and law.
Therewith they shrunk themselves aside, Not one I could espy, They coucht them in their caves again And that full quietly.
Yet I that Martia hight am she: Which some time ruled this land, As Queen for thirty-three years space, Gat licence at his hand, And so Gurguntius did, My husband's father dear, Which built this town and castle both, To make our homage here; Which homage, mighty Queen, accept, The realm and right is thine, The crown, the scepter, and the sword, To thee we do resign, And wish to God, that thou mayest reign, Twice Nestor's years in peace, Triumphing over all thy foes, To all our joys increase.
Herewith she passed under the gate, with such thanks as plainly expressed her noble nature, and the musicians within the gate upon their soft instruments used broken musick, and one sang this ditty:
From slumber soft as I fell fast asleep, From sleep to dream, from dream to deep delight, Each gem the gods had given the world to keep, In princely wise came present to my sight: Such sollace then did sink into my mind, As mortal man on mould could never find.
The gods did strive, and yet their strifes were sweet, Each one would have a vertue of her own.
Dame Juno thought the highest place most meet For her, because of riches was her throne.
Dame Venus thought by reason of her love, That she might claim the highest place above.
The virgin state Diana still did praise, And Ceres praised the fruit of fertile soil: And prudence did dame Pallas chiefly raise, Minerva all for eloquence did strive, They smil'd to see their quarrelling estate, And Jove himself decided their debate.
My sweets (quoth he) leave off your suger'd strife, In equall place I have assigned you all, A sovereign wight there is that beareth life, In whose sweet heart I have inclosed you all.
Of England's soil she is the sovereign Queen, Your vigours there do flourish fresh and green.
They skipt for joy, and gave their frank consent, The noise resounded to the haughty skie; With one loud voice they cried all, Content, They clap'd their hands, and therewith waked I.
The world and they concluded with a breath, And wish'd long reign to Queen Elizabeth.
Herewith she passed through the market place, which was goodly garnished, and thence through St. John's-lane by the Duke's Palace, and thence through the other streets, which were trimly decked, directly to the cathedral church, where Te Deum was sung, and after service she went to the Bishop's palace, where her Majesty kept, the time she continued in Norwich. All this was on Saturday the 16th of August 1578. On the next day after, which was Sunday, when princes commonly come not abroad (and time is occupied with sermons and laudable exercises) T. C. was to watch a convenient season, where and how might be uttered the things that were prepared for pastime. And so upon Monday before supper, he made a devise, as though Mercury had been sent from the gods to request the Queen to come abroad, and behold what was devised for her welcome, the whole matter whereof doth follow.
The coach that Mercury came in unto the Queen, was closely kept in secret a long season, and when the time came it must pass towards the court, it had a trumpeter with it, and the coachman was made to drive so fast, as the horses should seem to fly; which was so well observed, as the people wondered at the swiftness thereof, and followed it in such flocks and multitudes, that scarce in a great green (where the preaching place is) might be found room for any more people. And when the coach approached in the hearing of a trumpet, the trumpeter sounded, and so came into the green sounding, untill the coach was full placed before a window at which the Queen stood, and might be plainly seen and openly viewed. When Mercury had espyed her Highness, he skipped out of the coach, and being on the ground, gave a jump or two, and advanced himself in such sort, that the Queen smiled at the boldness of the boy. Thus Mercury beholding the Queen with great courage and audacity, at length bowed down his head, and immediately stood bolt upright, and shaked his rod, and so began his speech with a most assured countenance, and bravely pronounced it in deed, to his great liking and commendation:
Muse not, good Queen, at me that message brings From Jove or just Jehova, lord of might, No earthly god, yet governs mortal things, And sprites divine, and shining angels bright.
This lord of late to shew his mighty power, Hath wonders wrought, when world look'd least therefore, For at his becke this day and present hour, The heavens shak'd, the thunderbolts did rore, The earth did move, the dead therein did rise, And out of grave the ghosts of men are gone, The wanaring sprites that hover'd in the skies Drop'd down from air, for world to wonder on, The saints themselves that sat in glory great, Were sent in haste to work Jehova's will, And I that oft my restless wings do beat, Was call'd to use my wings and office still.
A common post is Mercury you know, When he commands that made the world of nought, And flies as fast as arrow out of bow, When message may express Jehova's thought.
Whose power divine full long e're this hath seen That in this place should lodge a sacred Queen.
And weighing well the prince whereof I speak, Might weary wax of common pastimes here, (For that he knows her judgement is not weak) Devis'd above, below there should appear (To welcome her) some sights that rare should seem, And careless stood, what world thereof did deem, So that good Queen you take them well in worth.
No sooner had Jehova meant these things, But clouds clap'd hands, and souls of men came forth, Of heaven gates, yea goodly crowned Kings, Were flown abroad from blessed Abraham's breast, Some in the air and tops of trees did rest, Some fell on towers and stately houses high, Some sunk in seas, whose names were drowned now. And some did light on land where every eye, May them behold, and note their manners throw.
And therewithall the black infernal spreets, Ran out of hell, the earth so trembling then, And like young lads they hop'd about the streets, The satirs wild, in forme and shape of man, Crept thro' the woods, and thickets full of briars, The water nymphs and fraries straight appears, In uncouth forms and fashions strange to view:
The hags of hell that hatefull are of kind, To please the time had learned a nature new, And all those things that men can call to mind, Were glad to come and do their duty thro'. I seeing this, called for my coach in haste, Abide sir boy, then said Jehova now, Thou goest not yet untill a prince be plac'd, Where I appoint, thou nothing hast to say:
Then still I stood, to know what should be done, With that a swarm of people every way, Like little ants about the fields did run, Some to provide for pomp and triumph great, Some for good fare, yea household cakes and meat, And some they ran to see where poets dwell, To pen forth shews and paint out trifles well.
Some haul'd and pull'd to bring the carriage in, Some ran to gaze on triumph near at hand, And some stood mute, as they amazed had been, To see a court and princely noble band, Come marching on, and make here their abode.
But when I saw the carriage here unlode, And well had weigh'd the wonders I have told, O mighty God (quoth 1) now give me leave, To go from thee, some message to unfold, That by my speech the hearers may conceive, Thy godhead great hath brought this Princess here, It shall be so (quoth he) dispatch and part, And tell her that she is to me so dear, That I appoint by man's devise and art, That every day she shall see sundry shews, If that she please to walk and take the air, And that so soon as out of doors she goes, (If time do serve and weather waxeth fair) Some odd devise shall meet her Highness streight, To make her smile, and ease her burthened breast, And take away the cares and things of weight, That princes feel that findeth greatest rest.
When I had thus received my charge at full, My golden rod in lively hand I took, And bad in haste my flying horses pull, But ere I past, I gan about me look, To see that coach, and each thing gallant were.
So done, I came all winged as you see, And sith I have espyed that Princess there, That greatest kings do sue to by degree, And many more that sues no whit, do fear, I kiss her steps, and shew my master's will, And leave with her such graces from above, As always shall command her people's love.
(Uphold her reign, maintain her regal state, Find out false hearts, and make her subjects true, Plant perfect peace, and root up all debate) So with this grace, good Queen, now here adien, For I may now on earth no longer stay, Thus servants must to masters will obey.
Mercury having thus spoken to the Queen, whose gracious inclination is such, as will not have any thing dutifully offered pass unregarded, was well heard, her Highness standing at a window, and the speech very well taken and understood. Mercury, as he came, passed away, at whose coach the people that had seldom seen such a devise marvelled, and gazed very much; for it had horses to draw it finely painted and winged, to a great shew and order of that it represented, as wit might imagine; the coachman suitable to the same, and a trumpeter in right good garments, as decent for that purpose as could be devised. But the coach was made and framed in such a fashion as few men have seen; the whole whereof was covered with birds and naked spirits, hanging by the heeles in the air and clouds, cunningly painted out, as though by some thunder crack they had been shaken and tormented; yet staid by power divine in their places, to make the more wonder and miraculous shew. And on the middle of that coach, stood a high compassed tower, bedecked with golden and gay jewels, in the top whereof was placed a fair plume of white feathers, all spangled and trimmed to the most bravery; Mercury himself in blew sattin lined with cloth of gold, his garments cut and slashed in the finest manner, a peaked hat of the same colour, as though it should cut and sever the wind asunder; and on the same a pair of wings, and wings on his heels likewise. And on his golden rod were little wings also, about the which rod were two wriggling or scrawling serpents, which seemed to have life when the rod was moved or shaken. So in this sort and form was Mercury and his coach set forth, and indeed at such a season as a great sort looked not for any shew, things not being ready, as some thought, to perform that was necessary and expected; yet hap was so good, and the gracious favour of the Prince, that all was well taken and construed to the best meaning of the devisor. So ended that day's devise, which offered occasion to further matter.
On Tuesday following (for before that day, by means of the weather, the Queen went not abroad) a very pritty and pleasant shew was performed before her Highness without St. Bennet's-gates, as she went towards Cossey park to hunt. At which season, although the devisor was not well provided with things necessary for a shew, (by means of some crossing causes in the city,) yet hearing the Queen rode abroad, determined as he might (and yet by help of friends and hap) very well to venture the hazard of a shew, and to be full in the way where her Highness should pass towards her dinner. In which determination many doubts were to be cast, and many persuaded him to tarry a better time; but considering how time rolled on and days and hours did waste, (without doing any thing promised and not performed,) he hastily prepared his boys and men with all their furnitures, and so set forward with 2 coaches handsomely trimmed. The common people beholding the manner thereof, and greedy to gaze on that should be done, followed as their fansies did lead them: so that when the devisor and his retinue came into the open field, there was as great a train and prease about the shew, as came with the court at that instant, which graced much the matter, and gave it some expected hope of good success.
First, there was a feigned devise, that Venus and Cupid were thrust out of heaven, and walking on the earth met a philosopher, who demanded, from whence they came? they told the philosopher what they were, and he replied, and began with truth and taunts to tickle them so near, that Venus fell into a great anger, and Cupid ran away, and left his mother and the philosopher disputing together. But Cupid, because he would be nourished somewhere, ran to the court, and there sought for succour, and encountring the Queen, began to complain of his state and his mother's, and told how the philosopher had handled them both. But finding neither answer nor aid, he returned again, but not to his mother, for she was falling mad upon a conceit that she was not made of. And Cupid wandring in the world, met with dame Chastity and her maids, called Modesty, Temperance, Good Exercise, and Shamefacedness; and she with her four maids encountring Cupid in a goodly coach, and without any honest guard waiting on him, set upon him, threw him out of his golden seat, trod on his pomp, spoiled him of his counterfeit godhead and cloak, and took away his bow and quiver of arrows, the one headed with lead and the other with gold, and so sent him like a fugitive away, and mounted up into the coach herself and her maids, and so came to the Queen, and rehearsed what had happened. Although this was done in her view, and because (said Chastity) that the Queen had chosen the best life, she gave the Queen Cupid's bow to learn to shoot at whom she pleased, sith none could wound her Highness's heart, it was meet (said Chastity) that she should do with Cupid's bow and arrows what she pleased; and so did Chastity depart, as she said, to the powers divine. Cupid in the mean while wandering in the world had found out Wantonness and Riot, who soon fell into beggary and ruin, (a spectacle to be looked into,) and felt such daily misery with Wantonness and Riot, that Cupid was forced to fling away once again, and hazzard himself to fall into the hands of naughty people, or where fortune assigned: and coming abroad, happened upon the philosopher, who talked with him again, told him his errors, and other points of pride and presumption; declaring it. was a great blasphemy and abuse, to report and believe that in heaven were any others gods but one, who had the only rule of all, and made all of nought. In which reasoning and discourse Cupid waxed warm, and yet in his greatest heat knew not how nor where to cool himself, at which time came Wantonness and Riot, and persuaded Cupid to play no longer the fool in striving with philosophers, but go away with them. So Cupid departed and went away with Wantonness and Riot. and the philosopher remained, and declared that all abuses and follies should come to no better end than presently was expressed by the misery of Wantonness, Riot, and Cupid. Then Modesty and her fellows, leaving their mistress dame Chastity with the powers divine, came soft and fair in their mistress's coach, singing a song of chaste life, as here under followeth, Chaste life lives long and looks, on world and wicked ways, Chaste life for loss of pleasure short, doth win immortal praise.
Chaste life hath merry moods, and soundly taketh rest, Chaste life is pure as babe new born, that hugs in mother's breast.
Lewd life cuts off his days, and soon runs out his date, Confounds good wit, breeds naughty blood, and weakens man's estate.
Lewd life the Lord doth loath, the law and land mislikes, The wise will shun, fond fools do seek, and God sore plagues and strikes.
Chaste life may dwell alone, and find few fellows now, And sit in regall throne, and search lewd manners thro'.
Chaste life fears no mishap, the whole account is made, When sould from worldly cares is crept, and sits in sacred shade.
Lewd life is laugh to scorn, and put to great disgrace, In hollow caves it hides the head, and walks with muffled face,
Found out and pointed at, a monster of the mind, A canker'd worm that conscience eats, and strikes clear senses blind.
Chast life a precious pearl, doth shine as bright as sun, The fair hour-glass of days and years, that never out will run.
The beauty of the soul, the bodies bliss and ease, A thing that least is look'd unto, yet most the mind shall please.
And when the song was ended, Modesty, sent (as she said she was) from her mistress, spake to the Queen a good season, and so the matter ended. For this shew the deviser had gracious words of the Queen, openly and often pronounced by her Highness. On the same day the minister of the Dutch church, pronouncing to her Majesty at her being abroad, the oration following, presented the cup therein mentioned, which was esteemed to be worth 50 pounds, very curiously and artificially wrought.
Oratio ad Serenissmam Angliœ Reginam habita 19 Augusti 1578, a Ministro Ecclesiæ Belgo-germanicœ Nordovici in loco publico.
Magna oratoribus, qui percelebratorum œtate vixerunt fuit laus, serenissima Regina, qùod judicum animos partim suaviloquentia, partim posita rei personœque ante ipsorum oculos calamitate, in quemcunque vellent animi habitum transformarent. Prius membrum non vulgarem nobis ob oculos ponit hominum facilitatem, quòd adeò sequaces dictòque audientes fuerint, ut se linguis duci paterentur. Posterius magnam ubique apud gentes, quarum respublica optabili ordine fuit constituta, obtinuit gratiam: longè autem majorem apud eos, qui Christo nomen dederunt: omnium verò maximam apud te (ô serenissima Regina) ecclesiœ Christi nutrix, cujus animum verbo Dei obsequentem instruxit, non fucatus hic sermo, sed Christi spiritus, pietatísque zelus. Ipsissima piorum calamitas afflictorúmque lachrymœ, lachrymœ inquam Christi fidelium te commoverunt, misera despersáque Christi membra quibusvis injurijs objecta, mille jam mortibus territa, in tutelam salutemque animi juxta ac corporis recipere ac protegere. Ob hœc singularia tua in nos pietatis beneficia, et quòd sub tutore optimo majistratu in hac tua Nordovicensi urbe (quam majestas tua nobis ob Christi religionem exulantibus domicilij loco clementer concessit) vivimus, adde quòd populi in nos animum favorabilem experimur, imprimis Deo patri et Domino unico servatori nostro Jesu Christo, deinde et tibi serenissima Regina immortales non quas debemus, sed quas possimus, agimus gratias Poriò humile quidem et unicum tamen nostrum est votum, animi nostri gratitudinem majestati tuœ ostendere. Ecce igitur nullum munus, sed animum nostrum: nullum regium splendorum, sed pietatis posteritatisque monumentum serenissimœ tuœ Majestati consecratum. Hoc autem eo gratius majestati tuœ fore confidimus, quòd ex inculpati pijssimiqus Josephi historia, Dei erga Majestatem tuam bonitas, ad vivum sit delineata, quem nulla astutia, nullum robur, nulla denique regnandi libido; sed fides constans, Christiani pectoris pietas, cœlestísque virtus, singulari Dei favore ex sanguinaria fratrum conspiratione, mortisque metu, ad summam dignitatem, regnique decus evexerunt. In hujus fratres non aliena videtur proverbialis illa apud Hebræos sententia: Ividia malarum rerum appetitus, et studium vanœ gloriœ hominibus sœpissimè occasio sunt sui interitus. Tamen quod Josephi animum attinet, ea fuit preditus et temperantia et fortudine, at nimis iniquis et simul et pravus censeri posset, qui eum vel minimo vindicandi effecta accusare velit; adeò Dei providentiœ et se et omne vitœ suœ studium, vitæ inquam in alieno regno periclitantis, commisit, ut non aliunde quàm à solo Dei nutu pendére visus sit. Sed quorsum ista? In te ne hæc ipsa aliáque consimilia (ó serenissima Regina) et regni tui ratione omnium oculis conspicua sunt? Hæc inquam esse ecclesiæ Christi fœlicissimum gaudium, spirituale diadema, et summum decus, hujus verò regni verè regium splendorem, atque perennem gloriam, quis nisi mente captus inficias ire potest? Pijssimè tu quidem singulari Dei bonitate animum Josephi tum in regni tui conservatione, tum in regno Christi amplificando imitata es (ó nutrix ecclesiæ Dei fidelissima) solius enim Dei est hunc per res (prout hominum oculis sunt subjectœ) secundas disperdere, illum autem per quœuis tentationum genera rerúmque discrimina extollere. Quos ut vasa suœ misericordiæ agnoscit, ita etiam et bonitate et spiritus sui tum consolatione, tum fortitudine ad œternœ vitæ fœlicitatem prosequitur. Quod nostrum votum ratum esse, majestatem tuam regníque ordinem spirituali prudentia ac sapientia stabilire, eámque in longam œtatem servare, tuœ item Majestatis subditos vera sui cognitione magis ac magis imbuere, dignetur bonus ille et clemens Deus, per merita filij sui Domini nostri Jesu Christi, Amen.
Regiœ Majestati post orationem oblatum est monumentum aliquod, in cujus superficie artificiosè sculpta erat historia Josephi: ex lib. Genesios.
In circumferentia verò hoc carmen, Innocuum pietas ad regia sceptra Josephum, Ex manibus fratrum, carnificísque, rapit: Carcere et insidijs sic te Regina tuorum Ereptam duxit culmina ad ista Deus.
Inscriptio erat in ipsius capacitate scripta in orbem, hoc mode:
Serenissimæ Angliæ Reginœ Elizabethæ, Ecclesiœ Belgicæ Nordovici ob religionem exalantes, hoc Monumentum et Pietatis et posteritatis ergó consecrabant, Anno salutis Humanæ, 1578.
In interiore ipsius parte erat insigne serpentis in gyrum convoluti, cui media insidebat columba, cum hoc Christi elogio: Prudens ut serpens, simplex ut columba.
The Minister of the Dutch Church his Oration in English.
The orators (most gracious Queen) which lived in the age of them that won greatest renown, were highly commended for that they could transform the judges minds, partly by eloquence, and partly by setting down before their eyes the calamity of the thing and person they spake of, into what disposition they listed. The first part declareth unto us no common felicity of men, in that they were so willing in following, and attentive in hearing, as they would suffer themselves to be lead by eloquence. The last obtained great favour amongst all nations, whose common weal was governed in good order, and far greater amongst the Christians: but greatest of all with thee (O most excellent Queen) the nurse of Christ's church, whose mind obedient to God's word, the spirit of Christ, and zeal of godliness, and not this prophane kind of speech, hath instructed. The very calamity of godly men, and tears of the afflicted, the tears I say of faithfull Christians, have thoroughly moved thee to defend and protect the miserable and dispersed members of Christ exposed to every kind of injury, frightened by a thousand deaths, with the safety and preservation as well of mind as body. For these thy singular benefits of godliness towards us, and that we live under so good a tutor, as the magistrate in this thy city of Norwich, which thy Majesty hath of clemency granted unto us for a mansion place, which were banished for Christ's religion: and moreover for that we find the minds of the people favourable towards us, first we give immortall thanks, not such as we ought, but such as we are able unto God the father, and the Lord our only Saviour Jesus Christ: and then unto thee most mercifull Queen. Moreover, it is our humble and yet our only petition, to shew unto your Majesty the thankfullness of our mind. Behold therefore dedicated to your most excellent Majesty, not any gift but our mind, no princely jewell, but a monument of godliness and posterity. The which we hope will be so much the more acceptable to your Majesty, because the goodness of God towards your Majesty is most lively drawn out of the history of the innocent and most godly Joseph, whom neither policy nor desire of bearing rule, but constant faith, godliness of a Christian heart, and heavenly vertue by God's singular mercy delivered from the bloody conspiracy of his bretheren and fear of death, brought unto high dignity and royall kingdom. To whose bretheren that proverbiall sentence of the Hebrews is very fittly alluded: envy being the desire of evil things, and covetousness of transitory renown, is oftentimes a man's destruction. But touching the mind of Joseph, the same was indued with such temperance and fortitude, that he might be thought no less unjust than wicked, that would accuse him so much as with the least affection of revenge: so wholly did he commit himself and all the government of his life, his life, I say, put in hazzard in a strange kingdom unto the providence of God, that he seemed to hang on no other thing than the only will of God. But to what end speak I this? Are not these self same things, and others their like (O most excellent Queen) by the eyes of all men clearly beheld in thee and the order of thy kingdom? What man (I say) having his wits, can deny these things to be the most happy joy, spiritual crown, and chiefest ornament of Christ's church, and truly of this kingdom the princely beauty and perpetual renown? Thou dost follow most holily the mind of Joseph, by the singular goodness of God, as well in preserving thy kingdom, as in amplifying the kingdom of Christ, (O thou most faithfull nurse of the church of God.) For it is in God only to destroy this man by prosperity (as the world seeth) and advance another by all kinds of adversities, tentations, and dangers. Whom as he acknowledgeth the vessels of his mercy, so by his goodness together with the consolation and strength of his spirit, he doth bring them to the happiness of eternal life. Which our petition that good and merciful God grant may be ratified, in establishing your Majesty and governance of your kingdom with spiritual wisdom and understanding, in preserving the same full many years, and induing your Majesty's subjects more and more with true knowledge of him, for his Son's sake, our Lord Jesus Christ, Amen.
The oration ended, there was a certain monument presented to her Majesty, in the upper part whereof was artificially graven the history of Joseph out of Genesis. In the inner part of the same there was the figure of a serpent, interfolding it's self: in the midst whereof did set a dove, with this sentence of Christ's, Math. 10, 16. Wise as the serpent, and meek as the dove. In the circumference or compass thereof, were these verses to be read,
To royal scepter, godliness, Joseph the innocent, Doth take from brothers bloody hands, and murtherers intent.
So thee, O Queen, the Lord hath led, from prison and deceit, Of thine, unto these highest tops of your princely estate.
On Wednesday her Highness dined at my Lord of Surrey's, where were the French ambassadors also, at a most rare and delicate dinner and banquet. At which season the deviser did watch with his shew (called Manhood and Desert) at my Lord of Surrey's back door, going to the Queen's barge; but the room was so little, that neither the shot, the armed men, nor the players could have place convenient. Whereupon he and his assistants took boats, and conveyed their people down the water, towards a landing place, that they hoped the Queen would come unto. And there having all things in readiness, they hovered on the water three long hours, by which means the night came on, and so they were fain to withdraw themselves and go homeward, trusting for a better time and occasion, which indeed was offered the next day after, by the Queen's Majesties own good motion, who told the deviser she would see what pastimes were prepared, as hereafter you shall perceive by the discourse of these matters, and by this shew of Manhood, and the shew of the nymphs. Nevertheless, as her Majesty returned homeward, within Bishop's-gate, at the Hospital door, Master Stephen Limbert, Master of the grammar school in Norwich, stood ready to render her an oration. Her Majesty drew near unto him, and thinking him fearfull, said gratiously unto him, Be not afraid: he answered her again in English, I thank your Majesty for your good incouragement: and then with good courage entered into this oration following.
Ad Illustrissimam Principem Elizabetham, Angliæ, Franciæ, et Hiberniæ Reginam, &c. ante fores [PTOCHODOCHEIOU] Nordovicensis, Oratio Stephani Limberti Ludimagistri publici.
Ægiptum fama est inundante Nilo (serenissima Regina) et aureo Pactoli flumine quotannis Lidiam irrigari, quæ res in ijs agris maxima fecunditatis causa putatur. In nos autem atque adeo universam Angliam, quæ latè patet, non è Tmolo, aut alijs nescio quibus montibus, sed ex illo perenni et uberrimo fonte bonitatis tuæ, multi maximique pietatis, justiciæ, mansuetudinis, aliorùmque innumerabilium bonorum, præ quibus jam viluit aurum et obsolevit, copiosissimi rivi profluxerunt. Atque ut ex infinitis vel unum leviter attingam, propterea quòd de pluribus dicere nec est hujus loci et temporis nec facultatis meæ. Insignem illam misericordiam celsitudinis tuæ, nobilissima Regina, et ad levandum pauperrimorum hominum inopiam incredibilem propensionem, qua de plurimis virtutibus nulla Deo gratior ([PROS GAP DIOS EISIN APANTES PTOCHOI] ut canit Homerus) in summa principe nulla mortalibus admirabilior esse protest, quibus tandem laudibus efferemus? Quàm honorificis verbis prosequemur? [PTOCHODOCHEION] hoc est, hospitium pauperum celeberrimum est apud omnes posteros regiæ virtutis atque beneficentiæ monumentum futurum, institutum quidem ab illustrissimo Henrico patre celsitudinis tuæ, à nobilissimo Edovardo fratre maximis tabulis consignatum, a tua verò majestate, quod non minorem laudem meretur, Cringlefordiensibus fundis et possessionibus egregiè nuper auctum atque amplificatum, ut non tam alienis jam ornamentis, quàm proprijs virtutibus meritò lætari possis. Recordata quippe es pro tua singulari prudentia atque eruditione, divinam illam sapientissimi Platonis legem quam undecimo le legibus libro scriptam reliquit, [PTOCHOS MIDEIS IMIN EN TI POLEI PINESOO]. Tantam igitur benignitatem, tam eximiam et incredibilem misericordiam tuam (illustrissima princeps) quibus complectemur studijs? Quibus officijs, aut qua voce grati animi voluntatem testificabimur? Cum enim omnes referendæ gratiæ studio et labore, vel accuratissimas rationes exquisiverimus, ne unius quidem hujus beneficij, quo nos augustissimæ majestati tuæ obstrictos esse et devinctos agnoscimus, magnitudinem assequi poterimus. Superabimur vel ab hoc uno et singulari merito, nedum sperandum est, ut immenso reliquorum meritorum pelago, quod tum in omnes tibi subditos publice et generatim, tum in hanc civitatem propriè ac particulatim exundavit, pares esse queamus. Vere [olbion] incolimus et in bealis illis insulis de quibus meminit Hesiodus [PAR OKEANON BATHYDININ] ætatem agimus, qui non modo frugibus, lana, pecore alijsque subsidijs humanæ vitæ sed multo magis veræ religionis verbique divini, in quibus animi solùm acquiescunt, pretiosissimis opibus abundamus. Sunt qui Britanniam alterum orbem appellârunt, quod hac ætate nostra dici rectissimè posse arbitror. Cùm enim omnes undique terræ gravissimis bellis affligantur, et discordiarum jactentur fluctibus, soli nos, celsitudine tua clavum moderante, in pacatissimo portu navigamus, et ab orbe malorum disjuncti, in œlum quodammodo fœlitatis sublati videmur. Quod est ergo officij nostri, primùm Deo Opt. Max. gratias agimus, cujus unius bonitati omnem hanc, quantacunque est, beatitudinem acceptam referimus, precamúrque uteam nobis propriam et perpetuam esse velet: deinde celsitsdini tuæ, serenissima Regina, cujus opera, cura, solicitudine, et partam hanc nobis fœlicitatem, et tot annos conservatam agnoscimus. Lætamur hoc aspectu tuo, et gratulamur incredibili studio, quòd tum ex meo ipsius sensu loquor, tum omnes qui jam undique confluxerast Nordovicenses tui a me dici postulant. Atque utinam in hæe pectora posses oculos inserere, et ocultos animoram nostrorum sinus perlustrare, videres profectò inclusam intus, quæ tanis angustijs erumpere non potest, infinitam molem voluntatis. Fidem omnem, studium, observantiam, quæ tantæ principi debentur, ut hactenus prompussimè detulimus, ita studiosissime semper deferemus: et si quando casus aliquis inciderit (quod Deus omen avertat) sacrosanctæ Majestatis tuæ, aut istius florentissimi regni, vel salus in discrimen veniat, vel dignitas periclitetur, non solùm bonorum omnium ac facultatum effusionem, sed laterum nostrorum oppositus et corporum pollicemur. Rogamus deinde et obsecramus excellentiam tuam, illustrissims Regina, ut et hoc nostrum qualecunque officium à summa benevelentia animóque quàm gratissimo profectum boni consulas, et de nobis Nordovicensibus sic existimes, ad lautiores te fortasse subditos veniest sæpe, ad lætiores nunquam.
The Oration of Stephen Limbert Publick Schoolmaster, to the most magnificent Prince Elizabeth, of England, France, and Ireland, Queen, &c. before the gates of the Hospital of Norwich.
It is reported (most gracious Queen) that Egypt is watered with the yearly overflowing of Nile, and Lidia with the golden stream of Pactolus, which thing is thought to be the cause of the great fruitfulness of these countries: but upon us, and further, over all England, even into the uttermost borders, many and main rivers of godliness, justice, humility, and other innumerable good things, in comparison of the which, gold is vile and naught worth, do most plentifully gush out, and those not from Tmolus, or other hills, I know not which, but from that continual and most abundant welspring of your goodness. And that of those infinite goodnesses I may lightly touch one, for that neither place, time, nor my ability doth permit to speak of many: with what praises shall we extoll; with what magnificent words shall we express that notable mercy of your Highness (most renowned Queen) and incredible readiness to relieve the need of poor men, than the which of many vertues none can be more acceptable unto God, as Homer writeth, neither any vertue in a mighty prince more wondered at amongst men. This Hospital of poor men is most famous, which will be a monument of princely vertue and beneficence amongst all posterity, instituted by the most mighty King Henry your Highness's father, confirmed with the great seal by the most noble King Edward your brother, but by your Majesty, which deserveth no less praise, of late notably increased and amplified by the lands and possessions of Cringleford, that you may not now worthily rejoice so much in other's ornaments, as in your own vertues. For you are said for your singular wisdom and learning, to have studied that divine law of the most wise Plato, which he left written in the eleventh book of laws. Such your great bounty therefore, so exceeding and incredible mercy (O most vertuous Prince) in what books shall we comprehend? with what duties, or with what voice shall we testify the good will of a thankfull mind? For when we diligently seek all the most exquisite and curious means of thanksgiving: we cannot so much as attain unto the greatness of this one benefit, by the which we acknowledge ourselves bound and strictly holden to your most roiall Majesty. We shall be overcome even with this one and singular benefit, so much the less hope have we then in any point to countervail the huge sea of the rest of your benefits, which overfloweth on every side, as well publickly and generally over all your subjects, as properly and particularly upon this city. We certainly now inhabit, and lead our lives in those most happy islands, which Hesiod maketh mention of, which not only abound with all manner of grain, wool, cattle, and other aids of man's life; but much more with the precious treasure of true religion and the word of God, in which only, the minds of men have rest and peace. There be, that call England another world, which I think may be most true in this our age. For whereas all lands on every side of us are afflicted with most grievous wars, and tossed with the floods of dissention, we only (your Highness governing our stern) do sail in a most peaceable haven, and severed from a world of mischiefs, do seem after a sort to be taken up into a heaven of happiness. We therefore (according to our bounden duty) first give thanks unto God Almighty, unto whose goodness only with thanks we refer all this our happiness, how great soever it be, and pray that he would vouchsafe to make the same proper and perpetual unto us. And afterwards unto your Highness (O most gracious Queen) by whose study, care and diligence we confess this blessedness to be gotten, and so many years preserved unto us. We are glad in this beholding you, and we rejoice with desire more than may be believed, so also all your subjects of Norwich desire me to say the same in their behalf. And I would to God you could pierce these our breasts with your eyes, and thoroughly view the hidden and covered creeks of our minds! Then undoubtedly should you behold an infinite heap of good will closely shut up within, which cannot break out of so narrow straits. All the faith, study, and obedience, which are due to so great a Prince, as hitherto we have most willingly imployed, so will we always most diligently perform the same; and if at any time any chance should happen (which fortune, God turn from us) that the state of thy blessed Majesty, or of this flourishing realm should come in danger, or the worthiness thereof be in hazard, we do not only profess the effusion of all our goods and substance, but also the putting forth and brunt of our strengths and bodies therein. Finally, we desire and beseech your excellency (most renowned Queen) well to accept of this our duty, howsoever it be, proceeding from a singular good will, and a most thankfull mind, and so to think of us citizens of Norwich, that perhaps you have many times come to people more wealthy, but to more joyfull, never.
Immediately after the beginning of the oration, her Majesty called to her the French ambassadors, whereof there were three, and diverse English lords, and willed them to hearken, and she herself was very attentive, even untill the end thereof. And the oration ended, after she had given great thanks therefore to Master Limbert, she said to him, It is the best that ever I heard; you shall have my hand: and pulled off her glove and gave him her hand to kiss; which, before kneeling on his knees, he arose and kissed: and then she departed to the court without any other shew that night, but that she sent back to know his name. The next night being Thursday, there was an excellent princely mask brought before her after supper, by Master Goldingham in the privy chamber; it was of gods and goddesses both strangely and richly apparrelled. The first that entered was Mercury, then entered two torch-bearers in purple taffata mandillions, laid with silver lace, as all other the torch-bearers were; then entered a consort of musick, to wit, six musicians, all in long vestures of white sarsenet girded about them, and garlands on their heads playing very cunningly, then two torch bearers more; then Jupiter and Juno, then two torch-bearers more; then Mars and Venus, then two torch-bearers more; then Apollo and Pallas, then two torch-bearers more; then Neptune and Diana; and lastly, Cupid concluding the matter.
Thus when they had once marched about the chamber, Mercury dischargeth his message in these words to the Queen; the good meaning Mayor and all his bretheren, with the rest, have not rested from praying unto the gods to prosper thy coming hither; and the gods themselves moved by their unfeigned prayers, are ready in person to bid thee worthily welcome; and I Mercury the god of merchants and merchandise, and therefore a favourer of the Citizens, being thought meetest am chosen fittest to signify the same. Gods there be also which cannot come, being tied by the time of the year, as Ceres in harvest, Bacchus in wines, Pomona in orchards. Only Hymeneus denieth his good will either in presence or in person: notwithstanding Diana hath so counterchecked him therefore, as he shall hereafter be at your commandment. For my part as I am a rejoicer at your coming, so am I a furtherer of your welcome hither; and for this time I bid you farewell.
Then marched they about again, and that done, Jupiter spake to the Queen in this sort, and then gave her a riding wand of whales fin, curiously wrought.
Fear not, O Queen, thou art beloved so, As subjects true will truly thee defend: Fear not my power to overthrow thy wo, I am the god that can each miss amend.
Thou dost know great Jupiter am I, That gave thee first thy happy sovereignty.
I give thee still, as ever thou hast had, A peerless power unto thy dying day, I give thee rule to overcome the bad, And love to love thy loving subjects ay. I give thee here this small and slender wand, To shew thou shalt in quiet rule this land.
Then Juno spake, whose gift was a purse curiously wrought.
Is Juno rich? no sure she is not so, She wants that wealth that is not wanting here, Thy goods get friends, my wealth wins many a foe, My riches rust, but thine shine passing clear.
Thou art beloved of subjects far and nigh, Which is such wealth as money cannot buy.
Farewell, fair Queen, I cannot give thee ought, Nor take away thy good that is so bound: Thou canst not give that I so long have sought, Ne can I hold the riches thou hast found.
Yet take this gift, though poor I seem to be, That thou thy self shall never poorer be.
Then after they had marched again about Mars gave his gift, which was a fair pair of knives; and said:
Where force doth fiercely seek to foster wrong, There Mars doth make him make a quick recoil, Nor can indure that he should harbor long, Where naughty wights manure in goodly soil.
This is the use that aids the force of war, That Mars doth mend, that force doth seek to marre.
And tho', O Queen, thou be'st a Prince of peace, Yet shalt thou have me fastly sure at need, The storms of strife, and blustering broils to cease, Which forreign foes or faithless friends may breed, To conquer, kill, to vanquish and subdue, Such feigned folk as love, to live untrue.
These words were ingraven upon the knives:
To hurt your foe, and help your friend, These knives are made unto that end, Both blunt and sharp you shall us find, As pleaseth best your princely mind.
Then spake Venus, whose gift was a white dove.
In vain, fair Queen, from heaven my coming was, To seek to mend that is no way amiss: For now I see thy favour so doth pass, That none but thou, thou only she it is, Whose beauty bids each wight to look on thee, By view they may another Venus see.
Where beauty boasts, and favour doth not fail, What may I give to thee, O worthy wight? This is my gift, there shall no woe prevail, That seeks thy will against thy will's delight, Not where they will, but where it likes thy mind, Accept that friend if loyal thou him find.
The dove being cast off, ran directly to the Queen, and being taken up and set upon the table before her Majesty, sat so quietly as if it had been tied. Then after they had marched again about, Apollo presented his gift, which was an instrument called a bandonet, and did sing to the said instrument this short and pritty ditty, as he was playing thereupon.
It seemeth strange to see such strangers here, Yet not so strange but strangers know you well, Your vertuous thoughts to gods do plain appear, Your acts on earth bewray how you excel: You cannot die, love here hath made your lease, Which gods have sent, and God saith shall not cease.
Vertuous desire desired me to sing, No subjects suit, tho' suitors they were all, Apollo's gilts are subject to no king, Rare are thy gifts that did Apollo call, Then still rejoice sith god and man say so, This is my gift, thou never shalt have woe.
Pallas then speaketh, and presenteth her gift, which was a book of Wisdom.
Most worthy wight what would'st thou have of me? Thou hast so much, thou canst enjoy no more: I cannot give that once I gave to thee, Nor take away the good I gave before.
I robbed was, by Nature's good consent, Against my will, and yet I was content.
A Pallas thou, a Princess I will be, I Queen of loss, thou goddess which hast got: I sometime was, thou only now art she: I take, thou gav'st that luck that was my lot.
I give not thee this book to learn thee aught, For that I know already thou art taught.
Then Neptune spake: his gift was a great artificial fish, and in the belly of it a pike, which he threw out before her Majesty.
What art thou, Queen, that gods do love thee so? Who won their wills to be so at thy will? How can the world become thy cruel foe? How can disdain or malice seek to kill? Can sea or earth devise to hurt thy hap? Sith thou by gods doth sit in Fortune's lap.
As heaven and earth hath vowed to be thine, So Neptune's seas have sworn to drench thy foes, As I am god, and all the waters mine, Still shalt thou get, but never shalt thou loose: And sith on earth my wealth is nought at all, Accept good will, the gift is very small.
Diana presented a bow and arrows nocked and headed with silver: her speech was this.
Who ever found on earth a constant friend, That may compare with this my virgin Queen? Who ever found a body and a mind, So free from stain, so perfect to be seen? O heavenly hew that aptest is to soil, And yet dost live from blot of any foil.
Rare is thy gift, and given to few or none, Malist therefore of some that dare not say, More shines thy light, for that I know but one, That any such shew, to follow on their way.
Thou, thou art she, take thou the only praise, For chastest dame, in these our happy days.
Accept my bow, sith best thou dost deserve, Tho' well I know thy mind can thee preserve.
Cupid's speech, his gift and arrow of gold.
Ah! ah! I see my mother out of sight, Then let the boy now play the wag awhile, I seem but weak, yet weak is not my might, My boyish wit can oldest folk beguile.
Who so doth think, I speak this but in jest, Let me but shoot, and I shall quench his rest, Mark here my shafts: this all is made of wood, Which is but soft, and breeds but soft good will, Now this is gilt, yet seems it gold full good, And doth deceive blind loving people still.
But here is one is seldom felt or seen: This is of gold, meet for the noblest Queen.
Therefore dame fair, take thou this gift of me, Tho' some deserve, yet none deserve like you, Shoot but this shaft at King or Cesar: he And his is thine, and if thou wilt allow, It is a gift that many here do crave, Yet none but thou this golden shaft may have.
There was written upon the shaft:
My colour, joy, my substance pure, My vertue such as shall endure.
Her Majesty received these gifts very thankfully, the gods and the goddesses with the rest of the masque marched about the chamber again, and then departed in like manner as they came in. Then the Queen called unto her, Master Robert Wood, the mayor of Norwich, whom first she heartily thanked, and took him by the hand, and used secret conference, but what I know not. And thus this delightfull night passed, to the joy of all that saw her grace in so pleasant plight.
On Thursday in the morning, my Lord Chamberlain gave the devisor warning the Queen would ride abroad in the afternoon, and he commanded him to be ready, dutifully to present her with some shew. Then knowing which way the Queen would ride, (by conjecture and instructions given,) the devisor caused a place to be made and digged for the nymphs of the water, the manner and proportion whereof was in this form and fashion. First, there was measure taken for 60 foot of ground every way, the hole to be made deep and 4 square, which ground was all covered with canvas painted green like the grass, and at every side on the canvas, ran a string through curtain rings, which string might easily be drawn any kind of way, by reason of two great poles that lay along in the ground, and answered the curtain on each side, so that drawing a small cord in the midle of the canvas, the earth would seem to open, and so shut again as the other end of the cord was drawn backward. And in the same cave was a noble noise of musick of all kinds of instruments, severally to be sounded and played upon, and at one time they should be sounded all together, that might serve for a consort of broken musick. And in the same cave also, were placed twelve water nymphs, disguised or dressed most strangely, each of them had either upon white silk or fine linnen, green sedges, stitched cunningly on a long garment, so well wrought and set on, as scarce any white might be perceived. And every nymph had in her hand a great bundle of bulrushes, and had on her head a garland of ivie, under the which ivie, was a coif of moss, and under the moss was their long goodly hair, like golden tresses that covered her shoulders, and in a manner wrought down unto her middle.
Now touching the beauty of the nymphs, they seemed to be the chosen children of the world, and became their attire so well, that their beauty might have abused a right good judgement. For diverse of those that knew them before (albeit they were bare faced) could scarce know them in their garments, and sundry people took them to be young girls and wenches, prepared for the purpose to procure a laughter. These nymphs thus apparelled, and all things in good plight and readiness, there was devised, that at the Queen's coming near the water-side, (as this cave stood near the brim of the river) one nymph should pop up out of the cave first, and salute the Queen with a speech, and then another: and so till four of them had finished their speeches, there they should remain; and when they retired into their cave, the musick should begin; which sure had been a noble hearing, and the more melodious for the variety thereof, and because it should come secretly and strangely out of the earth. And when the musick was done, then should all the 12 nymphs have issued together, and danced a dance with timbrels trimed with bells, and other jangling things; which timbrels were as broad as a sieve, having bottoms of fine parchment, and being sounded, made such a confused noise and pastime, that it was to be wondered at: besides the strangeness of the timbrels (yet known to our fore fathers) was a matter of admiration, unto such as were ignorant of that new found toy, gathered and borrowed from our elders. So in order and readiness stood that shew for the time.
And to keep that shew company (but yet far off) stood the shew of Manhood and Desert, as first to be presented, and that shew was as well furnished as the other; men all, save one boy called Beauty; for the which, Manhood, Favour, and Desert, did strive, (or should have contended,) but Good Fortune (as victor of all conquests) was to come in, and overthrow Manhood, Favour, Desert, and all their powers, and only by fine force (upon a watchword, spoken) should lay hands on Beauty, and carry or lead her away. The other suiters troubled with this kind of dealing, should talk together, and swear to be in one mind for an open revenge: and upon that Fortune should cry Arme, Arme. The other side called for their friends, at the which stir should appear both their strengths; but good Fortune should far in power exceed his enemies. And yet to shew that destiny (and who best can conquer) shall governe all, Fortune should make an offer, that six to six with sword and target, should end the brawll and business. Then six gentlemen on either side with rebated swords and targets (only in doublet and hose, and murrion on head) approached and would claim the combat, and deal together 12 blows apiece, and in the end Fortune should be victor: and then the shot and armed men should fall at variance so sharply (upon mistaking of the matter) that Fortune's side should triumph and march over the bellies of their enemies: in which time were legs and arms of men (well and lively wrought) to be let fall in numbers on the ground, as bloody as might be. Fortune regarding nothing but victory, marcheth so away in great triumph: and then should have come into the place, a song for the death of Manhood, Favour, and Desert, and so the shew should have ended.
But now note what befell after this great business and preparation. For as the Queen's Highness was appointed to come unto her coach, and the lords and courtiers were ready to mount on horseback, there fell such a shower of rain (and in the neck thereof came such a terrible thunder) that every one of us were driven to seek for covert and most comfort, insomuch that some of us in boat stood under a bridge, and were all so dashed and washed, that it was a greater pastime to see us look like drowned rats, than to have beheld the uttermost of the shews rehearsed. Thus you see, a shew in the open field, is always subject to the sudden change of weather, and a number of more inconveniences. But what should be said of that which the city lost by this cause, velvets, silks, tinsels, and some cloth of gold, being cut out for these purposes, that could not serve to any great effect after? Well there was no more to say but an old adage, that man doth purpose, but God doth dispose, to whose disposition and pleasure the guide of great matters is committed. So this Thursday took his leave from the actors, and left them looking one upon another, and he that thought he had received most injury, kept greatest silence, and lapping up (among a bundle of other misfortunes) this evil chance, every person quietly passed to his lodging.
The next day being Fryday, on which day the court removed, the streets towards St. Bennet's-gates were hanged from the one side to the other, with cords made of herbs and flowers, with garlands, coronets, pictures, rich cloths, and a thousand devices. At the gates themselves there was a stage made, very richly apparelled with cloth of gold and crimson velvet, whereupon in a close place made thereon for the purpose, was placed very sweet musick; and one ready to render her this speech following. The doleful hour of her departure came, she passed from the court to those gates, with such countenances, both on her Majesty's part, and her subjects, now dolorous, now cheerful, as plainly shewed the loving hearts of both sides. When she came there, the speech was thus uttered unto her in very plausible sort.
Terrestial joys are tied with slender file, Each happy hap full hastily doth slide, As summer season lasteth but a while, So winter storms do longer time abide: Alas! what bless can any time endure? Our sunshine day is dash'd with sudden shower.
Could tongue express our secret joys of heart, (Oh! mighty Prince) when thou didst come in place? No no God wot, nor can express the smart Thy subjects feel in this departing case.
But gracions Queen let here thy grace remain, In gracious wise, till thy return again.
In lieu whereof, receive thy subjects hearts, In fixed faith continually thine own: Who ready rest to loose their vital parts, In thy defence, when any blast is blown, Thou art our Queen, our rock and only stay, We are thine own to serve by night and day.
Farewell O Queen, farewell O mother dear, Let Jacob's God thy sacred body guard: All is thine own that is possessed here, And all in all is but a small reward.
For thy great grace, God length thy life like Noy, To govern us, and eke thy realm in joy. Amen.
These words were devised by B. Goldingham, and spoken by himself, to whom her Majesty said, We thank you heartily. Then with the musick in the same place, was sung this short ditty following, in a very sweet voice, to the great delight of the hearers.
What vaileth life, where sorrow soaks the heart? Who feareth death that is in deep distress: Release of life doth best abate the smart, Of him, whose woes are quite without redress, Lend me your tears, resign your sighs to me, Help all to wail the dolour which you see.
What have we done, she will no longer stay? What may we do to hold her with us still? She is our Queen, we subjects must obey, Grant, tho' with grief to her departing will, Conclude we then, and sing with sobbing breath, God length thy life, O Queen Elizabeth.
On Fryday, the court upon remove, the city troubled with many causes, and some seeking to do service like the deviser, moved him to do somewhat of himself, because his aids, (as many times they were before) were drawn from him, each one about his own business, and he left to his own inventions and policy; at which exigent or casuall things of fortune, he drew his boys unto him, that were the nymphs on the water, and so departed the city, with such garments and stuff necessary as fitted his purpose, and the matter he went about. Then he chose a ground, by the which the Queen must pass, inclosing his company in the corner of a a field, being defenced with high and thick bushes, and there some parts he made which the boys might miss, because the time was short for the learning of those parts. But he being resolved to do somewhat might make the Queen laugh, appointed that seven boys of twelve, should pass through a hedge from the place of abode (which was gallantly trimmed) and deliver seven speeches. And these boys (you must understand) were dressed like nymphs of the water, and were to play by a devise and degrees, the fraries, and to dance as near as could be imagined, like the fraries. Their attire and coming so strangely out, made the Queen's Highness smile and laugh withall. And the deviser hearing this good hope, being apparelled like a a water sprite, began to sound a timbrel, and the rest with him, all the twelve nymphs together (when the seven had repaired in) sounded timbrels likewise. And although the deviser had no great heartening, yet as he durst, he led the young foolish fraries a dance, which boldness of his bred no disgrace, but as he heard, was well taken. The Queen upon their retire in, hasted to her Highness's lodging, which was seven miles off, and at that present, when the shew ended, it was past five o'clock.
All these shews finished, her Majesty in princely manner, marched towards the confines of the liberty of the city of Norwich, which was supposed almost two miles. Before she came there, Master Mayor brake to my Lord Chamberlain, that he was to utter to her Majesty an other oration, whereof my Lord seemed to have good liking: but before they came to the said confines, master Mayor was willed to forbear the utterance of the same his oration, because it was about seven o'clock, and her Majesty had then five miles to ride. Nevertheless he gave to her Majesty both his orations in writing, which she thanked him for. She also thanked the mayor, every alderman, and the commoners, not only for the great chear they had made her, but also for the open households they kept to her Highness's servants and all others. Then she called Master Mayor and made him Knight: and so departing, said; I have laid up in my breast such good will, as I shall never forget Norwich: and proceeding forward did shake her riding rod and said, Farewell Norwich, with the water standing in her eyes. In which great good will towards us all, I beseech God to continue her Majesty with long and triumphant reign over us, Amen.
Now to come to the return of the Queen's Majesty from Norfolk and Suffolk, in which two counties her Highness knighted certain gentlemen, as namely, in Suffolk, George Colt, Philip Parker, Rob. Jermine, William Spring, Tho. Barnardiston, Tho. Kitson, and Arthur Heveningham. In Norfolk, Tho. Knevet, Nic. Bacon, Will. Paston, Edw. Clere, Ralf Shelton, Henry Woodhouse, Thomas Gaudy, Robert Wood, mayor, and Roger Woodhouse. These gentlemen her Majesty knighted, for that they should all their life time after, have the greater regard to God and their Prince. Now the Queen's Majesty passing from Norwich, she came to Sir Roger Woodhouse's at Kimberley that night, where she was well received, and nobly entertained. From thence to Wood-Rising at Sir Edward Clere's. From thence to Sir Tho. Kitson's at Hingrave, where in very deed, the fare and banquets did so exceed a number of other places, that it is worthy the mention. A shew representing the fraries (as well as might be) was there seen, in the which shew, a rich jewel was presented to the Queen's Highness. From thence to Master Revet's, where all things were well and in very good order, and meat was liberally spent.
But now to speak a little by the way of God's mighty hand and power, that framed men's hearts so well in many parts, before the Queen's Highness came to Cambridgeshire, and to tell how blessedly our great and good God did deal with our dear and sovereign Lady, in causing every person to shew their duty, is a matter of great discourse, and of no little weight and comfort to all good minds that shall consider of the same. Such a Lord is our great God, that can frame all things to the best, and such a sovereign Lady we have, that can make the crooked paths streight where she cometh, and draw the hearts of the people after her wheresoever she travelleth. So from Master Revet's her Highness came to my Lord North's, who was no whit behind any of the best for a frank house, a noble heart, and weil ordered entertainment. And there was an oration made by a gentleman of Cambridge, with a stately and a fair cup presented from the University, all the ambassadors of France beholding the same. And the gentlemen of the shire (as in many other places) did bear the Queen's meat to the table, which was a great liking and gladness to the gentlemen, and a solemn sight for strangers and subjects to look upon. From my Lord North's to Sir Giles Allington's, where things were well, and well liked. From thence to Sir John Cut's. From thence to M. Kapel's, where was excellent good cheer and entertainment. From thence to Hide-hall, where I heard of no great cheer nor banqueting. From thence to Rockwood-hall, but how the train was there entertained, I am ignorant of. From thence to Master Stonar's, and from thence to my Lord of Leicester's house where the progress ended, and (to knit up all) the good chear was revived, not only with making a great feast to the Queen and the French ambassadors, but also in feasting solemnly (at several times) the whole guard, on Sunday and Monday before the Queen came, at his own table, using such courtesy unto them for the space of two days, as was and is worthy of perpetual memory. Thus much of the Queen's Highness's return, whom God hath so well preserved, that she like a worthy Prince, to our great comfort, prospereth in peace, to the great disgrace of the enemies of God, and adversaries of our common weal and country, wherein God continue her Majesty, Amen.
The Queen's Majesty now gone from Norwich, carried away with her all the gladness of the city, which sprang from her presence: in place whereof succeeded melancholy sadness: insomuch that the very air altered with the change of the country chear, proceeding from the departure of her Highness's royal person: which he meant that made these verses, wherewith the description of this progress shall end:
Ad Solem nubibus obductum die Lunœ 18 Augusti, 1578.
Splendide Phœbe redi, cur te sub nube recondis? Innuba Pallas adest, splendide Phœbe redi. Hasta minax procul est, non Gorgonis ora videbis, Pallas inermis adest, splendide Phœbe redi.
Scilicet à tanto metuis tibi lumine forsan: Ne superet radios fœmina Phœbe tuos.
Pulcher Apollo tibi ne sit Regina rubori: Ipse decore tuo vincis, et illa suo.
Euge reduc reducem quia pulsa nocte reducis Phœbe diem: toto est gratius orbe nihil.
Hœc pepulit tetri tenebras noctémque Papismi, Et liquidum retulit relligione diem.
Euge nigras nebulas radijs quia sape repellis Phœbe tuis: pene est gratius orbe nihil.
Texúerant remoras discrimina mille Papistæ: Ne ceptum Princeps continuaret iter:
Nec tamen hunc nebulœ potuerunt condere solem: Quamvis tu nebulis cedis Apollo tuis.
Ergô jubar nostrum repulisse obstaculo cernis: Sic age, Sol non nebulas lumine pelle tuo.
Splendide Phœbe redi, cur te sub nube recondis? Innuba Pallas adest, splendide Phœbe redi.
Ejusdem in eandem.
Sustinet, ornat, habet, regnum, literaria, formam, Provida, docta, decens, Juno, Minerva, Venus, Singula dona trium simul Elizabetha dearum Provida, docta, decens, sustinet, ornat, habet.
Esse deas lusi: divinam dicimus istam: Quamvis nec liceat nec libet esse deam.
To the Sun covered with clouds upon Monday the 18th of August, 1578.
In shadowing clouds why art thou closed: O Phebus bright, retire: Unspoused Pallas present is, O Phebus bright retire.
The threatening spear is flung far off, doubt not grim Gorgon's ire, Unarmed Pallas present is, O Phebus bright retire.
Perhaps thou art afraid, and why? at this so large a light, Least that a woman should excell, thy beams (O Phebus) bright.
Let not a Queen, a virgin pure, which is, and ever was, O fair Apollo make the blush; you both in beauty pass.
O Phebus safe and sound return, which, banishing the night, Bring'st back the day: in all the world, nothing of like delight:
She, only she, the darkness drove, of Popery quite away, And by religion hath restored, the bright and lightsome day. O Phebus with thy beams which foil'st, the clouds both blind and black, The world in manner all a thing, o like delight doth lack.
A thousand dangers and delays, the Papists had devised, To th'end our Princess should abridge, her progress enterpris'd.
Yet this our bright and shining sun, cast light thro' every cloud, Although in clouds thou art content, Apollo, oft to shrowd.
Thou see'st our sun in comely course, cut off each stop and stay, Do thou the like, and by thy light, drive every cloud away.
In shadowing clouds why art thou clos'd: O Phebus bright retire: Unspoused Pallas present is, O Phebus bright retire.
By the same concerning the Queen.
Her kingdom all by Providence, Queen Juno doth uphold, And of Minerva lady learned, is learned lore extold:
And Venus fair of countenance, hath beauty uncontroul'd.
These sundry gifts of goddesses three, Elizabeth possesseth, By Providence her people's peace, and comfort she increaseth; Her learning, learning amplifies: her beauty never ceaseth.
I did but jest of goddesses, to give them three the name; This Lady maist thou Goddess call, for she deserves the same; Altho' she will not undertake, a title of such fame.
After so much mirth succeeded as much sorrow, "the traines of her Majesty's carriage being many of them infected, lefte the plague behind them, which afterwards so increased and contynued, as it raged above a yer and 3 quarters after:" in which time 2335 English, and 2482 alyan strangers died, from Aug. 20, 1578, to Feb. 19, 1579. Among which, were 10 aldermen.
On the 15th of Feb. this year, John de Loy, a Frenchman, and five English gentlemen, were conveyed from the Tower of London towards Norwich, there to be arraigned and executed, for coining of money counterfeit.
There was an annuity of 20s. a year granted by the city to John Benne of Laystoft, who was lamed by shooting off the cannon at the Queen's coming; and whereas John Elwyn, who was elected sheriff, dweit at Heigham in the liberties, but out of the city walls, he was requested to Lake a house and dwell in the city, during the continuance of that office: which he refused to do: upon which it was unanimously resolved, that if any person chosen sheriff, will not do so, he shall forfeit an hundred marks; after which resolution, the said sheriff came into court, and declared he would pay the said fine if he did not comply with the order in a week's time.
During the time of the infection here, the mayor caused it be published in all churches, to hinder its spreading as much as could be, that all that appeared abroad from infected houses should carry a small white wand two feet long in their hand, and not come to any courts, sermons, or publick places, that the clerk or sexton of every parish should forthwith set a paper on the door of every infected house, with these words on it, Lord have mercy upon us, there to remain till the house had been free from the infection one month; and none that had a plague sore to appear abroad till they were clear for 20 days last past.
In 1579, the city purchased of William Tipper, for 70l. 13s. 4d. his letters patent for the hostage of strangers in Norwich; and in this year, according to Norwich Roll, in September, was a great flood, and a greater about a month after, which did much damage.
In 1580, upon Wednesday in Easter week towards the evening, the writer of the Roll says, he was in the council chamber with the mayor and others, and between four and five o'clock, came a violent noise like the running of many carriages, and made all the joints of the timber work in the chamber, crack and shake, as if they would fall down, for fear of which, he ran into a leaded loft, near there, the mayor and others following him, and no more was heard of it. But being all over the city, and every body surprised with the shaking of their houses, beds, and furniture, it was soon perceived to be a shock of an earthquake. Stow says it was very violent in Kent and other places.
In 1582, the water was conveyed from the New Mills to the cross in the market: and the dial was set up on the north side of St. Peter's steeple, towards the market, for which the court gave the parish a sum of money.
Cambden, in his Life of Queen Elizabeth, (fo. 242,) says there was a hideous tempest in Norfolk, with much lightning, thunder, and violent winds, and a shower of hailstones three inches big, made like spur rowels.
In 1583, an order of court was made, that there should be no more reeded or thatched houses increased, but all roofs hereafter built, should be tiled, slated, or leaded; neither if any old roof fall into decay, shall there be above three couple of new spars thatched together, but the whole must be tiled.
This year Edm. Pye gave 40l. stock for ever, to be lent to eight of the poorest worsted-weavers, by 5l. each for three years, interest free, giving security for the repayment of it.
Mr. John Aldrich, alderman deceased, gave 5l. to the poor. And now the plague broke out again, and about 20 or 25 died of it for several weeks together, but it was chiefly among the strangers, and there died in all 8 or 900.
George Shipdham was executed this year for the murder of his wife and children, in the Town-Close, and there hung on a gibbet, but in
- 1584, Henry Shipdham, his brother, obtained a license to take him down.
In 1588, upon news of the Spanish invasion, the city raised a benevolence of an 100l. and sent it to Yarmouth towards fortifying that town; and on the 15th of August, being requested by Sir Edw. Clere, Sir Will. Heydon, and Sir John Peyton, Knts. Deputy Lieutenants of Norfolk, they granted 300 men towards the defence of Yarmouth, and every man to have a coat and 6s. 8d. for 10 days pay, the whole to be born by a tax on the city; there were also 70 horsemen, 50 lances, 230 light horse, and 3000 foot men from Suffolk, sent to the camp at Tilbury; 80 horsemen lances, and 321 light-horse from Norfolk, sent to the army for the guard of her Majesty's person: and after the victory obtained over the invincible armado (as they styled it) the mayor, at a court held Sept. 21, appointed the 26th day of that month to be kept yearly for a thanksgiving day for so great a deliverance.
This year the plague was here again, but not in a violent manner.
In 1590, died Mr. Tho. Cory, town-clerk, and bequeathed divers messuages, &c. to his wife for six years, and then the mayor, &c. to have them till Tho. Cory his son came of age, and the chamberlain to have the profits the first four years, and the profits of the years following, to be lent out to young men dwelling in West-Wymer Ward, by 5 and 10l. apiece, giving security to repay the same when his son came of age, and 6l. 13s. 4d. for a piece of plate to be used at the mayor's table; with this and other money added by the city in 1597, a standing cup double gilt of 53 ounces and three quarters weight was purchased at 6s. an ounce, and appointed for the use of the mayor for the time being for ever. And then was a quilt given by the said Mr. Cory of 6l. 10s. 6d. price delivered to the court.
This year the city had on their muster roll 50 muskets, 130 calivers, 110 pikes, and 10 halberts, being all footmen.
In 1591, White Friars bridge was built of freestone, it being a timber bridge before: in the first of Queen Mary, the former bridge having been demolished in Ket's rebellion, there was a new one made. In Henry the Eighth's time, there was also a new timber one, which was bought of the Prioress of Carrowe, and in Henry the Fourth's time, a new timber bridge was framed in Hemenhall park, for the Carmelites bridge at Norwich, which sometimes is called New-Brigge. Some accounts also say that Coslany bridge was built of freestone at this time.
The north end of the fish-stalls was burned and re-edifyed this year.
The plague was here at this time, and carried off 672 persons in less than four months time.
At a court held on the 9th of June it was enacted, that henceforth the new elected mayor, should be always chosen on May-day, and take his oath and charge, on the Tuesday before Midsummer, and then keep the feast, which hath continued so to this time .
In this year also, at a court held the 15th of January, it was debated, that as the city had made divers purchases, as that of Shropham farm, appropriation, and advowson, and their license of mortmain being out, it was resolved to purchase another, to amortize 200l. per annum, and accordingly such a license passed the broad seal in 1594.
The well in the market was built this year; and on the 14th of April,
- 1592, were executed out of the prison at the Gild-hall, John Abbes for clipping of gold, James Haber for killing Edw. Grey, Gent. and Nic. Witton for felony.
In 1593. was so great a draught, that many cattle perished for want of water: but in
In 1594, from the 21st of June to the end of July, it scarce ceased raining day and night, so that the hay and corn had great damage; but when it ceased, they were both much better preserved than was expected.
The charges of the majoralty being of late years much increased, and the present mayor having served twice before, the city allowed 33l. 6s. 8d. above the old sum of 66l. 13s. 4d. to make up the allowance of 100l. per annum, and this year, Sir John Popham, Knt. Lord Chief Justice of England, and Will. Fenner, one of the judges of the Common Pleas, being justices of the assize, removed the assizes from Thetford to Norwich, where the city obtained a verdict against Mr. Richard Southwell, for the wood due to the hospital out of St. Faith's wood, and from this time to 1603, there was 12l. paid yearly of Mr. Alderman Yarham's gift to be distributed among the poor.
In 1595, was a great scarcity, so that the magistrates sent for a large quantity of rye to Denmark, but the winds hindering its coming, that project was of no service, till late in the year, and then they sold it at 4s. a bushel to the poor, and sunk above 200l. in so doing, wheat was this year 20s. a comb; rye 15s; barley 10s.; oatmeal 20s.; beef 3s. a stone; the best muttons 14s. apiece; lambs 5s.; calves 20s.; fowls and capons fat, 3s. 4d.; pigeons 3d. and rabbits 8d.; cheese 4d. a pound, prices at that time very extravagant, but in the beginning of
- 1596, they fell; but by reason of a wet May they rose again, so that wheat was sold in the market at 28s. a comb, in the beginning of August, but fell to 18s. the same month, and in the month following all things rose again to such large prices, that it was a very hard year with the poor, and so continued to the next harvest, when by God's mercy things fell on account of their plenty to their usual prices. And this year the act for erecting of hospitals and working-houses for the poor was first established, and another for the benefit of the cordmakers, and wier-drawers of Norwich, Bristol, &c.
In 1597, it was agreed, that no man should serve as mayor twice under nine years distance.
In 1599, the city sent six men well armed, for her Majesty's service in Ireland, with 5l. a man for their pay; viz. 2 pikemen, 2 muskets, 2 calivers, hand-guns or carbines; and one Kemp came dancing the whole way from London to Norwich, and there is a MSS. in the Bodlean library, containing an account of it.
In 1601, the author of the Norwich Roll tells us, that on Wednesday the 29th of April, a sudden storm of hail and rain fell about five o'clock in the afternoon, which caused a great darkness, and a shock of thunder and lightning followed, with a noisome stink of brimstone, and in a moment the upper part of the spire of the cathedral was struck down, which not long before was finished with the fane thereon: the stone and wood-work therein, for 20 foot in height, was cast down on the north roof of the church, which it brake down, shaked the walls and roof of the quire, and split the spire from the south-east part from top to bottom, causing above 20 holes that men might creep through on the north-west side; divers stones which fell out of them sunk above half a yard into the ground in the Bishop's garden; the damage of all parts of the roof about the steeple, being estimated at 500l.; it was after evening service, else many had perished: William de Borne, who with John Colne was walking in the nave during the storm, said that at the flash the whole church trembled, and the glass in the windows cracked, and at a little hole in the west window towards the north, fire entered, with a stink of brimstone, which though small when it entered, grew large in the church, and smote down Colne to the ground, so that he had much ado to recover himself again, and that though he was much terrified, he saw the fire go to the steeple the whole length of the church, and ascending there, saw it no more, but feared to be killed by the fall of the church, the spire falling soon after upon the roof as aforesaid; and the rector of Thorp, who had been at evening prayer, and sheltered in the gate-house, saw the lightning fall in a round ball of fire upon the church, and the spire and fane fall thereupon, and smelt a sulphureous stink; the fire in the steeple was extinguished, but was watched all night, and when the watchers were just gone, it brake out, about four o'clock in the morning, in a buttress of the cloister wall, and one of Doctor Suckling's servants narrowly escaped with his life; but it was soon extinguished, and no other part of the city received any damage by this violent shock.
This year on Christmas day at noon, another shock of an earthquake was felt here.
Mrs. Joan Smith of London, widow, gave 200l. to purchase 20 marks a year for the relief of the poor of the city of Norwich, to be distributed in bread where most need shall be; by 5s. every Sunday weekly, unto the world's end, &c. and there are houses in East-Smithfield, London, of 13l. 6s. 8d. rent assured for this gift. The city nominated a baker to deliver the 5s. bread weekly at such churches as the court appointed.
In 1602, Mr. Hugh Attwyll, parson of Cawverly in Devonshire, gave 3l. 6s. 8d. for a stock for Norwich poor.
There were now 300 men raised for the Queen's service to be sent to Ostend, of which the city found 16, the cathedral 2, and Lyn 9. And the city raised 80l. 6s. 11d. clear to every tenth that was granted the Queen, who died this year on Thursday the 24th day of March, and on the Sunday following, being the 27th of that month Ao. 1603, King James the First was solemnly proclaimed here.
Mayors And Sheriffs
Burgesses in Parliament
1 Eliz. Parl at Westm. Edw. Flowerdew, John Aldrich, they had 36l. for 64 days knights meat, paid them by the city.
5 Ditto. Rob, Mitchels, Thomas Parker, both aldermen. 8 Eliz. Sir Thomas Parker had 90 days knights meat paid him.
13 Eliz. Parl. at West. John Bleverhasset, Esq. steward. Rob. Suckling, aldermen.
14 Ditto. John Aldrich, alderman, Tho. Beamond, citizen.
27 Ditto. Chris. Layer and Simon Bowde, aldermen.
28 Ditto. Rob. Suckling, and Tho. Layer, aldermen.
31 Ditto Francis Rugg and Tho. Gleane, ditto.
35 Ditto. Rob Houghton, Esq. recorder, Rob. Yarham, alderman.
39 Ditto. Tho. Sotherton, served. Chris layer, alderman.
Ancker Johnson, returned.
43 Ditto. Alex Thurston, John Pettus, merchants and aldermen.