History of Utah, 1540-1886

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HISTORY

OF

UTAH

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT

NEW YORK
THE BANCROFT COMPANY

THE WORKS

OF

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.

==Preface==

In the history of Utah we come upon a new series of social phenomena, whose multiformity and unconventionality awaken the liveliest interest. We find ourselves at once outside the beaten track of conquest for gold and glory; of wholesale robberies and human slaughters for the love of Christ; of encomiendas, repartimientos, serfdoms, or other species of civilized imposition; of missionary invasion resulting in certain death to the aborigines, but in broad acres and well filled storehouses for the men of practical piety; of emigration for rich and cheap lands, or for colonization and empire alone; nor have we here a hurried scramble for wealth, or a corporation for the management of a game preserve. There is the charm of novelty about the present subject, if no other; for in our analyses of human progress we never tire of watching the behavior of various elements under various conditions.

There is only one example in the annals of America of the organization of a commonwealth upon principles of pure theocracy. There is here one example only where the founding of a state grew out of the founding of a new religion. Other instances there have been of the occupation of wild tracts on this continent by people flying before persecution, or desirous of greater religious liberty; there were the quakers, the huguenots, and the pilgrim fathers, though their spiritual interests were so soon subordinated to political necessities; religion has often played a conspicuous part in the settlement of the New World, and there has at times been present in some degree the theocratic, if not indeed the hierarchal, idea; but it has been long since the world, the old continent or the new, has witnessed anything like a new religion successfully established and set in prosperous running order upon the fullest and combined principles of theocracy, hierarchy, and patriarchy.


With this new series of phenomena, a new series of difficulties arises in attempting their elucidation: not alone the perplexities always attending unexplored fields, but formidable embarrassments which render the task at once delicate and dangerous.

If the writer is fortunate enough to escape the many pitfalls of fallacy and illusion which beset his way; if he is wise and successful enough to find and follow the exact line of equity which should be drawn between the hotly contending factions; in a word, if he is honest and capable, and speaks honestly and openly in the treatment of such a subject, he is pretty sure to offend, and bring upon himself condemnation from all parties. But where there are palpable faults on both sides of a case, the judge who unites equity with due discrimination may be sure he is not in the main far from right if he succeeds in offending both sides. Therefore, amidst the multiformity of conflicting ideas and evidence, having abandoned all hope of satisfying others, I fall back upon the next most reasonable proposition left—that of satisfying myself.

In regard to the quality of evidence I here encounter, I will say that never before has it been my lot to meet with such a mass of mendacity. The attempts of almost all who have written upon the subject seem to have been to make out a case rather than to state the facts. Of course, by any religious sect dealing largely in the supernatural, fancying itself under the direct guidance of God, its daily doings a standing miracle, commingling in all the ordinary affairs of life prophecies, special interpositions, and revelations with agriculture, commerce, and manufactures, we must expect to find much written which none but that sect can accept as true.

And in relation to opposing evidence, almost every book that has been put forth respecting the people of Utah by one not a Mormon is full of calumny, each author apparently endeavoring to surpass his predecessor in the libertinism of abuse. Most of these are written in a sensational style, and for the purpose of deriving profit by pandering to a vitiated public taste, and are wholly unreliable as to facts. Some few, more especially among those first appearing, whose data were gathered by men upon the spot, and for the purpose of destroying what they regarded as a sacrilegious and pernicious fanaticism, though as vehement in their opposition as any, make some pretensions to honesty and sincerity, and are more worthy of credit. There is much in government reports, and in the writings of the later residents in Utah, dictated by honest patriotism, and to which the historian should give careful attention. In using my authorities, I distinguish between these classes, as it is not profitable either to pass by anything illustrating principles or affecting progress, or to print pages of pure invention, palpable lies, even for the purpose of proving them such. Every work upon the subject, however, receives proper bibliographical notice.

The materials for Mormon church history are exceptionally full. Early in his career the first president appointed a historiographer, whose office has been continuous ever since. To his people he himself gave their early history, both the inner and intangible and the outer and material portions of it. Then missionaries to different posts were instructed to make a record of all pertinent doings, and lodge the same in the church archives. A sacred obligation seems to have been implied in this respect from the beginning, the Book of Mormon itself being largely descriptive of such migrations and actions as usually constitute the history of a people. And save in the matters of spiritual manifestations, which the merely secular historian cannot follow, and in speaking of their enemies, whose treatment we must admit in too many instances has been severe, the church records are truthful and reliable. In addition to this, concerning the settlement of the country, I have here, as in other sections of my historical field, visited the people in person, and gathered from them no inconsiderable stores of original and interesting information.


Upon due consideration, and with the problem fairly before me, three methods of treatment presented themselves from which to choose: first, to follow the beaten track of calumny and vituperation, heaping upon the Mormons every species of abuse, from the lofty sarcasm employed by some to the vulgar scurrility applied by others; second, to espouse the cause of the Mormons as the weaker party, and defend them from the seeming injustice to which from the first they have been subjected; third, in a spirit of equity to present both sides, leaving the reader to draw his own conclusions. The first course, however popular, would be beyond my power to follow; the second method, likewise, is not to be considered; I therefore adopt the third course, and while giving the new sect a full and respectful hearing, withhold nothing that their most violent opposers have to say against them.

Anything written at the present day which may properly be called a history of Utah must be largely a history of the Mormons, these being the first white people to settle in the country, and at present largely occupying it. As others with opposing interests and influences appear, they and the great principles thereby brought to an issue receive the most careful consideration. And I have deemed it but fair, in presenting the early history of the church, to give respectful consideration to and a sober recital of Mormon faith and experiences, common and miraculous. The story of Mormonism, therefore, beginning with chapter iii., as told in the text, is from the Mormon standpoint, and based entirely on Mormon authorities; while in the notes, and running side by side with the subject-matter in the text, I give in full all anti-Mormon arguments and counter-statements, thus enabling the reader to carry along both sides at once, instead of having to consider first all that is to be said on one side, and then all that is to be said on the other.

In following this plan, I only apply to the history of Utah the same principles employed in all my historical efforts, namely, to give all the facts on every side pertinent to the subject. In giving the history of the invasion and occupation of the several sections of the Pacific States from Panamá to Alaska, I have been obliged to treat of the idiosyncrasies, motives, and actions of Roman catholics, methodists, presbyterians, episcopalians, and members of the Greek church: not of the nature or validity of their respective creeds, but of their doings, praising or blaming as praise or blame were due, judged purely from a standpoint of morals and humanity according to the highest standards of the foremost civilization of the world. It was not necessary—it was wholly outside the province of the historian, and contrary to my method as practised elsewhere—to discuss the truth or falsity of their convictions, any more than when writing the history of Mexico, California, or Oregon to advance my opinions regarding the inspiration of the scriptures, the divinity of Christ, prophecies, miracles, or the immaculate conception. On all these questions, as on the doctrines of the Mormons and of other sects, I have of course my opinions, which it were not only out of place but odious to be constantly thrusting upon the attention of the reader, who is seeking for facts only.

In one respect only I deem it necessary to go a little further here: inasmuch as doctrines and beliefs enter more influentially than elsewhere into the origin and evolution of this society, I give the history of the rise and progress of those doctrines. Theirs was not an old faith, the tenets of which have been fought for and discussed for centuries, but professedly a new revelation, whose principles are for the most part unknown to the outside world, where their purity is severely questioned. The settlement of this section sprung primarily from the evolution of a new religion, with all its attendant trials and persecutions. To give their actions without their motives would leave the work obviously imperfect; to give their motives without the origin and nature of their belief would be impossible.

In conclusion, I will say that those who desire a knowledge of people and events impartially viewed, a statement of facts fairly and dispassionately presented, I am confident will find them here as elsewhere in my writings.

CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.

  1. Discoveries of the Spaniards, 1540–1777
    Francisco Vazquez de Coronado at Cíbola—Expedition of Pedro de Tobar and Father Juan de Padilla—They Hear of a Large River—García Lopez de Cárdenas Sent in Search of It—The First Europeans to Approach Utah—Route of Cárdenas—Mythical Maps—Part of the Northern Mystery—Journey of Dominguez and Escalante—The Course They Followed—The Rivers They Crossed—The Comanches—Region of the Great Lakes—Rivers Timpanogos, San Buenaventura, and Others—The Country of the Yutas—Route from Santa Fé to Monterey—The Friars Talk of the Lake Country—Return of the Spaniards to Zuñi and March to Santa Fé.
  2. Advent of Trappers and Travellers, 1778–1846
    Invasion by Fur Hunters—Baron la Hontan and his Fables—The Popular Geographic Idea—Discovery of the Great Salt Lake—James Bridger Deciding a Bet—He Determines the Course of Bear River, and Comes upon the Great Lake—Henry, Ashley, Green, and Beckwourth on the Ground—Fort Built at Utah Lake—Peter Skeen Ogden—Journey of Jedediah S. Smith—A Strange Country—Pegleg Smith—Wolfskill, Yount, and Burton Traverse the Country—Walker's Visit to California—Some Old Maps—The Bartleson Company—Statements of Bidwell and Belden Compared—Whitman and Lovejoy—Frémont—Pacific Coast Immigrations of 1845 and 1846—Origin of the Name Utah.
  3. The Story of Mormonism, 1820–1830
    A Glance Eastward—The Middle States Sixty Years Ago—Birth and Parentage of Joseph Smith—Spiritual Manifestations—Joseph Tells his Vision—And is Reviled—Moroni Appears—Persecutions—Copying the Plates—Martin Harris—Oliver Cowdery—Translation—The Book of Mormon—Aaronic Priesthood Conferred—Conversions—The Whitmer Family—The Witnesses—Spaulding Theory—Printing of the Book—Melchisedec Priesthood Conferred—Duties of Elders and Others—Church of Latter-day Saints Organized—First Miracle—First Conference—Oliver Cowdery Ordered to the West.
  4. The Story of Mormonism, 1830–1835
    Parley Pratt's Conversion—Mission to the Lamanites—The Missionaries at Kirtland—Conversion of Sidney Rigdon—Mormon Success at Kirtland—The Missionaries in Missouri—Rigdon Visits Smith—Edward Partridge—The Melchisedec Priesthood Given—Smith and Rigdon Journey to Missouri—Bible Translation—Smith's Second Visit to Missouri—Unexampled Prosperity—Causes of Persecutions—Mobocracy—The Saints are Driven from Jackson County—Treachery of Boggs—Military Organization at Kirtland—The Name Latter-day Saints—March to Missouri.
  5. The Story of Mormonism, 1835–1840
    President Smith at Kirtland—First Quorum of Twelve Apostles—The Kirtland Temple Completed—Kirtland Safety Society Bank—In Zion Again—The Saints in Missouri—Apostasy—Zeal and Indiscretion—Military Organization—The War Opens—Depredations on Both Sides—Movements of Atchison, Parks, and Doniphan—Attitude of Boggs—Wight and Gilliam—Death of Patten—Danite Organization—Order Lodge—Haun Mill Tragedy—Mobs and Militia—The Tables Turned—Boggs' Extermination Order—Lucas and Clark at Far West—Surrender of the Mormons—Prisoners—Petitions and Memorials—Expulsion—Gathering at Quincy—Opinions.
  6. The Story of Mormonism, 1840–1844
    The City of Nauvoo—Its Temple and University—The Nauvoo Legion—The Mormons in Illinois—Evil Reports—Revelation on Polygamy—Its Reception and Practice—The Prophet a Candidate for the Presidency—The ‘Nauvoo Expositor’—Joseph Arrested—Governor Ford and his Measures—Joseph and Hyrum Proceed to Carthage—Their Imprisonment—The Governor's Pledge—Assassination of the Prophet and his Brother—Character of Joseph Smith—A Panic at Carthage—Addresses of Richards and Taylor—Peaceful Attitude of the Mormons.
  7. Brigham Young succeeds Joseph, 1844–1845
    The Question of Succession—Biography of Brigham Young—His Early Life—Conversion—Missionary Work—Made President of the Twelve—His Devotion to the Prophet—Sidney Rigdon and Brigham Young Rival Aspirants for the Presidency—Rigdon's Claims—Public Meetings—Brigham Elected President of the Church—His Character—Temple-building—Fresh Disasters—The Affair at Morley—The Men of Quincy and the Men of Carthage—The Mormons Consent to Abandon their City.
  8. Expulsion from Nauvoo, 1845–1846
    A Busy City—Meeting in the Temple—Sacrifice of Property—Detachments Move Forward—A Singular Exodus—The First Encampment—Cool Proposal from Brother Brannan—The Journey—Courage and Good Cheer—Swelling of their Numbers—The Remnant of the Saints in Nauvoo—Attitude of the Gentiles—The Mormons Attacked—Continued Hostilities—The Final Departures—The Poor Camp—A Deserted City.
  9. At the Missouri, 1846–1847
    Native Races of the Missouri—The Pottawattamies and the Omahas—The Mormons Welcomed as Brethren—War with Mexico—California Territory—Mexican Boundaries—Application to the United States Government for Aid—An Offer to Serve as Soldiers Accepted—Organization of the Mormon Battalion—Departure of the Battalion—Bounty Money—March across the Continent—The Battalion in California—Matters on the Missouri.
  10. Migration to Utah, 1847
    Camp Near the Missouri—Preparations at Winter Quarters—Departure of the Pioneer Band—Elkhorn Rendezvous—Route and Routine—Incidents of Journey—Approach to Zion—In the Cañon—Hosanna! Hallelujah!—Entry into the Valley of the Great Salt Lake—Ploughing and Planting—Praying and Praising—Site for a City Chosen—Temple Block Selected—Return of Companies to Winter Quarters—Their Meeting with the Westward-bound—General Epistle of the Twelve.
  11. In the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, 1848
    Food and Raiment--Houses--Home Manufactures--The Fort--Wild Beasts--Cannon from Sutter's Fort--Indian Children for Sale--Measles--Population--Mills and Farming Machinery--The Plague of Crickets--They are Destroyed by Gulls--Scarcity of Provisions--The Harvest Feast--Immigration--Five Thousand Saints Gathered in the Valley--Fencing and Farming--Distribution of Lots--Organization of County Government--Association for the Extermination of Wild Beasts.
  12. In the Valley of the Great Salt Lake, 1849
    Food Supply and Shelter--Building Lots--Currency Issue--Bank Notes and Coinage--Private and Public Buildings--Wide Area of the City--Second Anniversary of the Pioneers--Festivals and Amusements--Labor a Duty among the Saints--Effect of the California Gold Discovery--Immigration--Carrying Company--California-bound Emigrants--Their Traffic with the Mormons--Products and Prices--Gold-hunting Frowned upon by the Church.
  13. Settlement and Occupation of the Country, 1847–1852
    Founding of Centreville--Bountiful--Ogden--Lynne--Easton--Marriotsville--San Pete--Provo--Indian War--Walled Cities--Evansville--Lehi--Battle Creek--Pleasant Grove--American Fork--Payson--Nephi--Manti--Chief Walker--Fillmore--Site Chosen for the Capital--Tooele--Grantsville--Kaysville--Little Salt Lake--Parowan--Cedar City--Paragoonah--Forts Walker and Harmony--Box Elder Creek--Brigham City--Willard City--San Bernardino in California.
  14. Education, Manufactures, Commerce, Agriculture, Society, 1850–1852
    Boundaries and Extent of Utah--Configuration and Physical Features of the Country--Its Lands and Waters--Flora and Fauna--State University--Curriculum--Educational Ideas--Library--Periodicals--Tabernacle and Temple--New Fort--Progress of the Useful Arts--Mills, Factories, and Manufactures--Farm Products--Traffic--Population--Revenue--Mortality--Healthful Airs and Medicinal Springs.
  15. Mormonism and Polygamy
    What is Mormonism?--Tenets of the Church--Sacred Books and Personages--Organization--Priesthood--First Presidency--The Twelve Apostles--Patriarchs--Elders, Bishops, Priests, Teachers, and Deacons--The Seventies--Stakes and Wards--Marriage--Temple-building--Tabernacle--Political Aspect--Polygamy as a Church Tenet--Celestial Marriage--Attitude and Arguments of Civilization--Polygamy's Reply--Ethics and Law--The Charge of Disloyalty--Proposed Remedies.
  16. Missions and Immigration, 1830–1883
    Mormon Missionaries--Parley Pratt and his Colleagues--Missionary Labor in Canada--In Great Britain--Missionaries in Europe--And in Other Parts of the World--The Perpetual Emigration Fund--A General Epistle of the Twelve--From Liverpool to Salt Lake City for Fifty Dollars--Emigrant Ships--Report of a Liverpool Manager--The Passage to New Orleans--Overland Travel--Classes of Emigrants--George A. Smith's Companies at South Pass--The Handcart Emigration--Biographical.
  17. Utah as a Territory, 1849–1853
    Need of Civil Government--The State of Deseret Organized--Memorials for Admission into the Union--Proposed Consolidation with California--Administration of Justice--Proceedings of the Legislature--Babbit's Reception at Washington--The State of Deseret before Congress--Act to Establish a Territorial Government--Appointment of Officials--Ill Feeling between Them and the Mormons--The Officials Depart for Washington--Measures of the Legislative Assembly--Stansbury's Survey--The Gunnison Massacre--Indian Outbreaks--The Walker War--Mexican Slave-traders.
  18. The Government in Arms, 1853–1857
    Brigham as Dictator--Utah Seeks Admission as a State--Dissatisfaction among the Saints--Conflicting Judiciaries--The New Federal Officials--Disputes with Judge Drummond--Colonel Steptoe--An Expedition Ordered to Utah--Official Blunders--The Troops Assemble at Fort Leavenworth--Hockaday and Magraw's Mail Contract--The Brigham Young Express--Celebration of the Pioneer Anniversary--News of the Coming Invasion--Its Effect on the Mormons--Arrival of Major Van Vliet--The Nauvoo Legion--Mormon Tactics.
  19. The Utah War, 1857–1858
    Opening of the Campaign--Burning of Supply Trains--Strategic Movement of Colonel Alexander--His Retreat--Arrival of Albert Sidney Johnston--The March to Fort Bridger--Winter at Camp Scott--Mission of Colonel Kane--Governor Cumming at Salt Lake City--Pardon Proclaimed--The Peace Commissioners--The Army of Utah Advances on Zion--The City Deserted--The Mormons Return to Their Homes--The Troops Cantoned at Camp Floyd--Conduct of the Soldiery and Camp Followers--Judges Sinclair and Cradlebaugh--The Reformation in Utah.
  20. The Mountain Meadows Massacre, 1857
    An Arkansas Emigrant Party Arrives at Salt Lake City--Assassination of Parley P. Pratt--Ill Feeling against the Emigrants--Alleged Outrages--Their Arrival at Mountain Meadows--They are Attacked by Indians--A Flag of Truce--Plan of the Massacre--Surrender of the Judge Cradlebaugh's Investigation--The Aiken Massacre--John D. Lee on Trial--The Jury Disagree--The Second Trial--Lee Convicted and Sentenced--His Confession and Execution.
  21. Political, Social, and Institutional, 1859–1862
    Brigham Threatened with Arrest--The Federal Judges Reproved--Departure of Governor Cumming--And of the Army of Utah--Population of the Territory--Mortality--Wealth--Industries--Prices--Wages--Trade--Salt Lake City in 1860--The Temple Block--Social Gatherings--Theatricals--Scientific and Other Institutions--Character of the Population--Carson Valley--San Bernardino--Summit County and Its Settlements--Purchase of Fort Bridger--Wasatch County--Morgan County--Cache Valley--Settlements in Southern Utah.
  22. Progress of Events, 1861–1869
    Governor Dawson's Gallantry--Utah Refused Admission as a State--Passage of a Bill against Polygamy--Measures of the Legislature--Arrival of Governor Harding--Disputes between Brigham and the Federal Officials--Arrival of the California Volunteers--A False Alarm--The Morrisite Troubles--Governors Doty and Durkee--The Limits of Utah Curtailed--Celebration of Lincoln's Second Inauguration--The Brassfield and Robinson Murders--Indian Outbreaks--The Battle of Bear River--Disturbances in Southern Utah--Treaties with Indian Tribes--The Uintah Valley Reservation--Bibliographical.
  23. Schisms and Apostasies, 1844–1869
    The Strangites--The Gatherers--Brannan's Followers--The Gladdenites--The Reorganized Church of Latter-day Saints--Alexander and David Hyrum Smith--The Utah Magazine--Trial of Godbe and Harrison--Success of the Godbeite Movement--The Struggle for Commercial Control--Persecution of Gentile Merchants--Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution--Extent of its Operations--Disastrous Effect on Gentile Trade--Reaction in Favor of the Reformers.
  24. The Last Days of Brigham Young, 1869–1877
    Visit of Schuyler Colfax--Godbe's Interview with President Grant--Governor Shaffer--Military Riot at Provo--Governor Woods--Judge McKean--Burlesque of Justice--Arrest of Brigham Young and Others--George Q. Cannon Chosen Delegate--Axtell's Administration--Governor Emery--Death of Brigham--His Obsequies--His Character--His Will.
  25. Church and State, 1877–1885
    Conference of the Church--Reorganization of the First Presidency--John Taylor Appointed President--His Appearance and Mien--The Edmunds Bill--Its Penalties--An Ex Post Facto Law--Polygamists Disenfranchised--Utah again Refused Admission as a State--Operations of the Utah Commission--Governor Murray's Message--His Administration.
  26. Settlement, Society, and Education, 1862–1886
    Population and Statistics--Salt Lake City--The Temple--The New Tabernacle--The Museum--Condition of the Inhabitants--Distinctive Features--Salt Lake County--Davis County--Ogden--Cache County--Rich County--Summit County--Brigham City--Nephi--Provo--Uintah, Emery, San Juan, Garfield, and Piute Counties--Sanpete and Sevier Counties--Iron, Kane, and Washington Counties--Schools--The University of Deseret--The Deseret Alphabet--Libraries--Journals and Journalism.
  27. Agriculture, Stock-raising, Manufactures, and Mining, 1852–1886
    Agricultural Products and Yield per Acre--Irrigation--Character of the Soil--Fruit Culture--Viticulture--Sericulture--Timber and Timberlands--Bunch-grass--Cattle-raising--Dairy Products--Horses--Sheep--Woollen Manufactures--Leather--Other Manufactures--Iron-mining--Coal-mining--Copper--Sulphur--Gypsum and Mica--Other Minerals--Building Stone--Gold and Silver--The West Mountain District--The Rush Valley District--The Cottonwood District--The American Fork District--The Tintic District--The Ontario Mine--Other Mining Districts--Mining Products--Milling, Smelting, and Reduction-works.
  28. Commerce and Communication, 1852–1885
    Common Roadways--Railroads--The Union and Central Pacific--The Utah Central--The Utah Southern--The Utah and Northern--The Utah Eastern--The Salt Lake and Western--The Utah and Nevada--The Denver and Rio Grande Western--Imports and Exports--Commerce and Trade--Banking--Insurance--Taxation and Revenue--Mails and Mail Services--The First Telegraphic Message--The Deseret Telegraph Company.

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