History of Oregon (Bancroft)/Volume 2

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Though the book was originally published under the name of Hubert Howe Bancroft, the genuine author is generally considered to be Frances Fuller Victor. For further information see "The Origin and Authorship of the Bancroft Pacific States Publications" from the Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 4.

THE WORKS

OF

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT


THE WORKS

OF

HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT

VOLUME XXX

HISTORY OF OREGON

Vol. II. 1848–1888

SAN FRANCISCO

THE HISTORY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS

1888

Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1888, by

HUBERT H. BANCROFT,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.


All Rights Reserved.


CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.


CHAPTER I.

CONDITION OF AFFAIRS.

1848.

PAGE
Population—Products—Places of Settlement—The First Families of Oregon—Stock-raising and Agriculture—Founding of Towns—Land Titles—Ocean Traffic—Ship-building and Commerce—Domestic Matters: Food, Clothing, and Shelter—Society: Religion, Education, and Morals—Benevolent Societies—Aids and Checks to Progress—Notable Institutions—Character of the People
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1

CHAPTER II.

EFFECT OF THE CALIFORNIA GOLD DISCOVERY.

1848–1849.

The Magic Power of Gold—A New Oregon—Arrival of Newell—Sharp Traffic—The Discovery Announced—The Stampede Southward—Overland Companies—Lassen's Immigrants—Hancock's Manuscript—Character of the Oregonians in California—Their General Success—Revolutions in Trade and Society—Arrival of Vessels—Increase in the Prices of Products—Change of Currency—The Question of a Mint—Private Coinage—Influx of Foreign Silver—Effect on Society—Legislation—Immigration
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
42

CHAPTER III.

LANE'S ADMINISTRATION.

1849–1850.

Indian Affairs—Troubles In Cowlitz Valley—Fort Nisqually Attacked—Arrival of the United States Ship Massachusetts—A Military Post Established near Nisqually—Thornton as Sub-Indian Agent—Meeting of the Legislative Assembly—Measures Adopted—Judicial Districts—A Travelling Court of Justice—The Mounted Rifle Regiment—Establishment of Military Posts at Fort Hall, Vancouver, Steilacoom, and The Dalles—The Vancouver Claim—General Persifer F. Smith—His Drunken Soldiers—The Dalles Claim—Trial and Execution of the Whitman Murderers
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66

CHAPTER IV.

A DELEGATE TO CONGRESS.

1849–1850.

The Absence of Judges—Island Mills—Arrival of William Strong—Opposition to the Hudson s Bay Company—Arrest of British Ship Captains—George Gibbs—The Albion Affair—Samuel R. Thurston Chosen Delegate to Congress—His Life and Character—Proceeds to Washington—Misrepresentations and Unprincipled Measures—Rank Injustice toward McLoughlin—Efficient Work for Oregon—The Donation Land Bill—The Cayuse War Claim and Other Appropriations Secured—The People Lose Confidence in their Delegate—Death of Thurston
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
101

CHAPTER V.

ADMINISTRATION OF GAINES.

1850–1852.

An Official Vacancy—Gaines Appointed Governor—His Reception in Oregon—The Legislative Assembly in Session—Its Personnel—The Territorial Library—Location of the Capital—Oregon City or Salem—Warm and Prolonged Contest—Two Legislatures—War between the Law-makers and the Federal Judges—Appeal to Congress—Salem Declared the Capital—A New Session Called—Feuds of the Public Press—Unpopularity of Gaines—Close of his Term—Lane Appointed his Successor
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
139

CHAPTER VI.

DISCOVERY OF GOLD IN OREGON.

1850–1852.

Politics and Prospecting—Immigration—An Era of Discovery—Explorations on the Southern Oregon Seaboard—The California Company—The Schooner Samuel Roberts at the Mouths of Rogue River and the Umpqua—Meeting with the Oregon Party—Laying-out of Lands and Town Sites—Failure of the Umpqua Company—The Finding of Gold in Various Localities—The Mail Service—Efforts of Thurston in Congress—Settlement of Port Orford and Discovery of Coos Bay—The Colony at Port Orford—Indian Attack—The T'Vault Expedition—Massacre—Government Assistance
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174

CHAPTER VII.

INDIAN AFFAIRS.

1851.

Politics—Election of a Delegate—Extinguishment of Indian Titles—Indian Superintendents and Agents Appointed—Kindness of the Great Father at Washington—Appropriations of Congress—Frauds Arising from the System—Easy Expenditure of Government Money—Unpopularity of Human Sympathy—Efficiency of Superintendent Dart—Thirteen Treaties Effected—Lane among the Rogue River Indians and in the Mines—Divers Outrages and Retaliations—Military Affairs—Rogue River War—The Stronghold—Battle of Table Rock—Death of Stuart—Kearney's Prisoners
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
205

CHAPTER VIII.

PLAUSIBLE PACIFICATION.

1851–1852.

Officers and Indian Agents at Port Orford—Attitude of the Coquilles—U. S. Troops Ordered out—Soldiers as Indian-fighters—The Savages too Much for Them—Something of Scarface and the Shastas—Steele Secures a Conference—Action of Superintendent Skinner—Much Ado about Nothing—Some Fighting—An Insecure Peace—More Troops Ordered to Vancouver
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233

CHAPTER IX.

SURVEYS AND TOWN-MAKING.

1851–1853.

Proposed Territorial Division—Coast Survey—Light-houses Established—James S. Lawson—His Biography, Public Services, and Contribution to History—Progress North of the Columbia—South of the Columbia—Birth of Towns—Creation of Counties—Proposed New Territory—River Navigation—Improvements at the Clackamas Rapids—On the Tualatin River—La Creole River—Bridge-building—Work at the Falls of the Willamette—Fruit Culture—The First Apples Sent to California—Agricultural Progress—Imports and Exports—Society
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247

CHAPTER X.

LAND LAWS AND LAND TITLES.

1851–1855.

The Donation Law—Its Provisions and Workings—Attitude of Congress—Powers of the Provisional Government—Qualification of Voters—Surveys—Rights of Women and Children—Amendments—Preëmption Privileges—Duties of the Surveyor-general—Claimants to Lands of the Hudson's Bay and Puget Sound Companies—Mission Claims—Methodists, Presbyterians, and Catholics—Prominent Land Cases—Litigation in Regard to the Site of Portland—The Rights of Settlers—The Caruthers Claim—The Dalles Town-site Claim—Pretensions of the Methodists—Claims of the Catholics—Advantages and Disadvantages of the Donation System
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260

CHAPTER XI.

POLITICS AND PROGRESS.

1853.

Legislative Proceedings—Judicial Districts—Public Buildings—Tenor of Legislation—Instructions to the Congressional Delegate—Harbors and Shipping—Lane's Congressional Labors—Charges against Governor Gaines—Ocean Mail Service—Protection of Overland Immigrants—Military Roads—Division of the Territory—Federal Appointments—New Judges and their Districts—Whigs and Democrats—Lane as Governor and Delegate—Alonzo A. Skinner—An Able and Humane Man—Sketch of his Life and Public Services
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
296

CHAPTER XII.

ROGUE RIVER WAR.

1853–1854.

Impositions and Retaliations—Outrages by White Men and Indians—The Military Called upon—War Declared—Suspension of Business—Roads Blockaded—Firing from Ambush—Alden at Table Rock—Lane in Command—Battle—The Savages Sue for Peace—Armistice—Preliminary Agreement—Hostages Given—Another Treaty with the Rogue River People—Stipulations—Other Treaties—Cost of the War
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
311

CHAPTER XIII.

LEGISLATION, MINING, AND SETTLEMENT.

1853–1854.

John W. Davis as Governor—Legislative Proceedings—Appropriations by Congress—Oregon Acts and Resolutions—Affairs on the Umpqua—Light-house Building—Beach Mining—Indian Disturbances—Palmer's Superintendence—Settlement of Coos Bay—Explorations and Mountain-climbing—Politics of the Period—The Question of State Organization—The People not Ready—Hard Times—Decadence of the Gold Epoch—Rise of Farming Interest—Some First Things—Agricultural Societies—Woollen Mills—Telegraphs—River and Ocean Shipping Interest and Disasters—Ward Massacre—Military Situation
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
322

CHAPTER XIV.

GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL DEVELOPMENT.

1854–1855.

Resignation of Governor Davis—His Successor, George Law Curry—Legislative Proceedings—Waste of Congressional Appropriations—State House—Penitentiary—Relocation of the Capital and University—Legislative and Congressional Acts Relative thereto—More Counties Made—Finances—Territorial Convention—Newspapers—The Slavery Sentiment—Politics of the Period—Whigs, Democrats, and Know-nothings—A New Party—Indian Affairs—Treaties East of the Cascade Mountains
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
348

CHAPTER XV.

FURTHER INDIAN WARS.

1855–1856.

Indian Affairs in Southern Oregon—The Rogue River People—Extermination Advocated—Militia Companies—Surprises and Skirmishes—Reservation and Friendly Indians Protected by the U. S. Government against Miners and Settlers—More Fighting—Volunteers and Regulars—Battle of Grave Creek—Formation of the Northern and Southern Battalions—Affair at the Meadows—Ranging by the Volunteers—The Ben Wright Massacre
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
369

CHAPTER XVI.

EXTERMINATION OF THE INDIANS.

1856–1857.

Grande Ronde Military Post and Reservation—Driving in and Caging the Wild Men—More Soldiers Required—Other Battalions—Down upon the Red Men—The Spring Campaign—Affairs along the River—Humanity of the United States Officers and Agents—Stubborn Bravery of Chief John—Councils and Surrenders—Battle of the Meadows—Smith's Tactics—Continued Skirmishing—Giving-up and Coming-in of the Indians
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
397

CHAPTER XVII.

OREGON BECOMES A STATE.

1856–1859.

Legislature of 1855–6—Measures and Memorials—Legislature of 1856–7—No Slavery in Free Territory—Republican Convention—Election Results—Discussions concerning Admission—Delegate to Congress—Campaign Journalism—Constitutional Convention—The Great Question of Slavery—No Black Men, Bond or Free—Adoption of a State Constitution—Legislature of 1857–8—State and Territorial Bodies—Passenger Service—Legislatures of 1858–9—Admission into the Union
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
413

CHAPTER XVIII.

POLITICS AND PATRIOTISM.

1859–1861.

Appointment of Officers of the United States Court—Extra Session of the Legislature—Acts and Reports—State Seal—Delazon Smith—Republican Convention—Nominations and Elections—Rupture in the Democratic Party—Sheil Elected to Congress—Scheme of a Pacific Republic—Legislative Session of 1860—Nesmith and Baker Elected U. S. Senators—Influence of Southern Secession—Thayer Elected to Congress—Lane's Disloyalty—Governor Whiteaker—Stark, U. S. Senator—Oregon in the War—New Officials
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
442

CHAPTER XIX.

WAR AND DEVELOPMENT.

1858–1862.

War Departments and Commanders—Military Administration of General Harney—Wallen's Road Expeditions—Troubles with the Shoshones—Emigration on the Northern and Southern Routes—Expedition of Steen and Smith—Campaign against the Shoshones—Snake River Massacre—Action of the Legislature—Protection of the Southern Route—Discovery of the John Day and Powder River Mines—Floods and Cold of 1861–2—Progress of Eastern Oregon
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
460

CHAPTER XX.

MILITARY ORGANIZATION AND OPERATIONS.

1861–1865.

Appropriation Asked for—General Wright—Six Companies Raised—Attitude toward Secessionists—First Oregon Cavalry—Expeditions of Maury, Drake, and Curry—Fort Boisé Established—Reconnoissance of Drew—Treaty with the Klamaths and Modocs—Action of the Legislature—First Infantry Oregon Volunteers
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
488

CHAPTER XXI.

THE SHOSHONE WAR.

1866–1868.

Companies and Camps—Steele's Measures—Halleck Headstrong—Battle of the Owyhee—Indian Raids—Sufferings of the Settlers and Transportation Men—Movements of Troops—Attitude of Governor Woods—Free Fighting—Enlistment of Indians to Fight Indians—Military Reorganization—Among the Lava-beds—Crook in Command—Extermination or Confinement and Death in Reservations
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
512

CHAPTER XXII.

THE MODOC WAR.

1864–1873.

Land of the Modocs—Keintpoos, or Captain Jack—Agents, Superintendents, and Treaties—Keintpoos Declines to Go on a Reservation—Raids—Troops in Pursuit—Jack Takes to the Lava-beds—Appointment of a Peace Commissioner—Assassination of Canby, Thomas, and Sherwood—Jack Invested in his Stronghold—He Escapes—Crushing Defeat of Troops under Thomas—Captain Jack Pursued, Caught, and Executed
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
555

CHAPTER XXIII.

POLITICAL, INDUSTRIAL, AND INSTITUTIONAL.

1862–1887.

Republican Loyalty—Legislature of 1862—Legal-tender and Specific Contract—Public Buildings—Surveys and Boundaries—Military Road—Swamp and Agricultural Lands—Civil Code—The Negro Question—Later Legislation—Governors Gibbs, Woods, Grover, Chadwick, Thayer, and Moody—Members of Congress
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
637

CHAPTER XXIV.

LATER EVENTS.

1887–1888.

Recent Developments in Railways—Progress of Portland—Architecture and Organizations—East Portland—Iron Works—Value of Property—Mining—Congressional Appropriations—New Counties—Salmon Fisheries—Lumber—Political Affairs—Public Lands—Legislature—Election
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
746