History of Oregon (Bancroft)/Volume 1
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.
HISTORY OF OREGON.
Vol. I. 1834–1848.
THE HISTORY COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.
Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1886, by
HUBERT H. BANCROFT,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
All Rights Reserved.
The more remote in Oregon affairs has been given in my History of the Northwest Coast, which is indeed a part of the History of Oregon, as elsewhere explained. The later volumes deal with events which occurred within the memory of men now living; they are wrought out from yet more original sources, a large proportion of the facts herein presented never having before appeared in print. Obviously it is more difficult to treat fully and fairly a comparatively modern epoch, from absolutely crude material, than an earlier one which has been worked over by scholars for centuries. Of the hundreds of personal narratives which have been placed before me by those who assisted in making the history, no two wholly agree; and yet to the careful student, with all the evidence before him, the truth is generally clear.
The leading features of this history are not found in bloody conquests inspired by the thirst for gain and glory united to the hope of winning heaven, but in the more gentle purpose of adding to the enjoyments of earth by commerce and agriculture, the fur company, the missionaries of different sects soon converted into rival traders, and the middle class from the United States, all contributing of their several characteristics to form a society at once individual and independent It is in the missionary rather than in the commercial or agricultural elements that I find that romance which underlies all human endeavor before it becomes of interest sufficient for permanent preservation in the memory of mankind. A mountain-walled plain, between the coast elevations and the northern stretch of the great Andean range, with a fertile soil, a genial climate, and picturesque scenery, through a peculiar sequence of events becomes the western Utopia of the American states, and kindles in the breasts of those who here lay the foundations of a commonwealth the fire of patriotism, forever sacred even when fed by fallacies. The silent conquest of this area by men and women from the border, intent on empire, is a turning-point in the destinies of the country; and it is to me no less a pleasure than a duty to recognize the heroic in this conquest, and to present one more example of the behavior of the Anglo-Saxon race under the influence of American institutions.
Nor did the people of the earlier west enter upon these achievements without a well-defined purpose. Proselyting alone was not the object; nor yet traffic, nor even broad lands. There was present, besides the desire to secure for themselves and their descendants some small portion of this earth, the determination to plant here those pure moralities and fair civilities which belong to the higher Christian civilization; and one glance at the present condition of the people is sufficient to assure us that they succeeded. Aside from the somewhat antiquated sentiments of eternal justice and the rights of man as apart from man's power to enforce his rights, the quick extermination of the aborigines may be regarded as a blessing both to the red race and to the white. The two seldom profitably intermix. And this happy consummation, the swift and sharpest means of sweeping from the earth every human encumbrance, the people of the United States have never been backward about. However merciless the conquerors, Spain's government, aided by the church, was ever tender of her native American subjects, and we see the result in Mexico and Central America. The British fur-traders would not permit the killing of their hunters, and we see the result in British Columbia. Avarice, war, injustice, and inhumanity are often the most important aids to civilization. In this respect, with noble intentions and devout aspirations far higher than ordinary, the settlers of Oregon but followed their destiny. They labored for the best, and quarrelled not with the inevitable.
It is proper to remember here that the United States first reached the Pacific in the latitudes of Oregon, thus completing the great zone of states from ocean to ocean; that the first proposals to build a line of military posts, a wagon-road, and a railway across the continent were made in connection with the occupation of the Columbia Valley; likewise in the first project to connect the eastern and western coasts by steamships Oregon was the objective point.
Through the generosity and frankness of the people of Oregon I am enabled to present this history in the fulness of its details, and I sincerely hope they have not found their confidence misplaced. It has been my earnest endeavor, here as everywhere, rightly to understand facts and properly to construe motives.
Of every one, however humble, who came early to Oregon, and of all those who early or late contributed their intelligence and energy toward establishing the commonwealth, so far as possible I have made mention; and I believe the time will come, if it be not here already, when to the descendants of these hardy empire-builders this enrolment will be recognized as equivalent to a patent of nobility.The history of Oregon has been to me a most interesting study, and of her present proud position and her brilliant future her sons cannot entertain too high an opinion.
CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.
OREGON IN 1834.
The Northwest Coast and the Oregon Territory—Physical Features—Mountain Ranges and Rivers—The Imperious Columbia—Distribution of Vegetation—Climate—Sunshine and Rain—Post-plantings of Civilization—Fort Vancouver—Its Lord Paramount—The Garden—Hospitality—Money, Morality, and Religion—Fort George—Fort Nisqually—Forts Langley, Umpqua, and Walla Walla—Okanagan and Colville—Forts Hall and Boisé—Fort William and Wapato Island—The French-Canadian Settlement—Missionaries, Traders, Farmers, Horse-dealers, Scientists, and Fur-hunters as Empire-builders—Origin of the Term Oregon
LIFE AT FORT VANCOUVER.
Marriage Relations—Fidelity—Social Conditions—McLoughlin—Douglas—Peter Skeen Ogden—Ermatinger—Thomas McKay—Duncan Finlayson—Gairdner and Tolmie—Pambrun—McKinlay—Black—Rae—McLoughlin Junior—Lewes—Dunn—Roberts—Barclay—Manson—McLeod—Birnie, Grant, McBean, McDonald, Maxwell, Ballenden, and McTavish—Patriots and Liberals—Attitude toward the Settlers—The Blessed Beavers
SETTLEMENT OF OREGON.
The Flatheads at St Louis—They Ask for Missionaries—Interest Raised among Religious People—The Churches Roused—Action of the Methodist Board—Jason and Daniel Lee Chosen Missionaries—Wyeth Consulted—Journey Overland from Independence—Preaching at Fort Hall—Arrival at Fort Vancouver—Visit to the Willamette Valley—Mission Site Chosen—Reasons for Abandoning the Flathead Plan—The French Canadians—Campement du Sable—Hall J Kelley—Something about the Men Who Came with Lewis and Clarke, the Astor Expeditions, Wyeth, Kelley, and Ewing Young
Removal of Effects—Fencing, Building, and Planting—The Sorrowful Work of Conversion—Daniel Lee Visits the Islands—Arrival of Kelley and Young—Figueroa's Letter—Estrangement of Ewing Young—Attack on an Incoming Party by the Natives of Rogue River—The Affair of the Distillery—Arrival of a Government Agent
COMING OF THE PRESBYTERIANS.
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions—Parker and Whitman Sent to Choose Mission Sites—Whitman Returns East for Teachers—Parker's Adventures—His Favorable Opinion of the Indians—Their Desire for Teachers and Religious Observances—Parker Selects a Site at Waiilatpu—Religious Services Established at Fort Vancouver—Parker Returns—Whitman and Spalding and their Wives—Their Overland Journey—Whitman's Wagon Route—Stuart and Pilcher—The Welcome at Fort Vancouver—Return of Gray for More Teachers—Later Missionaries, Walker, Eells, and Smith
THE WILLAMETTE CATTLE COMPANY.
Need of Cattle in the Willamette Valley—The Hudson's Bay Company Refuse to Sell—McLoughlin's Views on the Question—Meeting at Champoeg—Formation of the Cattle Company—Ewing Young and Party Sent to California for Stock—Solemn and Momentous Negotiations—The Crossing of the San Joaquin—Herds Drawn Across by Ropes and Rafts—An Indian Ambush—Plot to Shoot Edwards and Young—Division of the Stock and its Increase in Oregon—What Became of Ewing Young's Property
Three Missionary Brides—Jason Lee's Marriage—Sea-coast Excursions—Branch Mission among the Calapooyas—Petition to Congress for a Civil Government—Lee Goes East—Death of Mrs Lee—Missionary Enthusiasm in the East—Bill for the Occupation of Oregon—Sailing of the 'Lausanne' with the Mission Colony—Treaty of Commerce With the Hawaiian Islands—Affairs in Oregon—Drowning of the First White Boy Born in the Territory—Death of Shepard—Religious Interest at the Dalles—Arrival of the Mission Colony
CLOSE OF THE METHODIST REGIME.
Settlement of Clatsop Plains—The Nisqually Mission Site—Daniel Lee Returns East—The Willamette Station—Trials of Inexperienced Pioneers—Exploration of the Umpqua Valley—White Determines to leave Oregon—Accident at the Falls—The Oregon Institute—Plan to Drive McLoughlin from the Falls—Conduct of Waller—Parts Played by Hastings and Abernethy—Ingratitude and Trickery—Legality of Claimants to Oregon City—Lee Superseded by George Gray—Progress of Colonization
PROGRESS OF EVENTS.
The Peoria Party—Incidents of the Journey—Farnham Arrives in Oregon—Return of McLoughlin from London—Dissatisfaction of Missionaries and Colonists—Petition to Congress—Belcher's Expedition—Extent of Canadian Jurisdiction—More Immigrants from Illinois—Missionaries Continue to Arrive—The Newell Party—Missionary Hospitality—Spaulding's Report—Wilkes on the Coast—The 'Star of Oregon'—Overland Exploration to California—Sir George Simpson at Fort Vancouver—Mofras' Mission—The Red River Settlers
THE SUB-INDIAN AGENT'S COMPANY.
The Effect of Lee's Letter to Cushing—White Visits Washington—Plans of the 'Friends of Oregon'—White is Appointed Sub-Indian Agent for Oregon—He Raises a Large Company of Emigrants—Incidents of the Journey—A Canine Massacre—Dissensions in Camp—The Halt at Fort Laramie—The Sioux Take a Hand—Fort Hall is Reached—Reception by the Missionaries—White and the Colonists—Disgusted Immigrants—McLoughlin to the Rescue—Hastings Leads a Party to California
WHITE'S ADMINISTRATION OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
The Indian Agent's Troubles—His Negotiations with the Cayuses and Nez Percés—A Code of Laws for the Indians—The Peace Broken again, and again Patched up—White's Troubles with Illicit Distilleries—The Killing of Cockstock—The Oregon Rangers—Yellow Serpent's Disastrous Expedition to California—Death of his Son Elijah—White's Interview with Chief Ellis—His Conciliatory Promises, and How They were Kept—His Departure from Oregon
ORGANIZATION OF THE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.
Methodist Officials—A Probate Court Needed—Meeting of the Settlers—Officials Chosen—Withdrawal of the French Catholic Element—Further Political Elements—The Oregon Lyceum—Fresh Overtures to the Canadians—The Land Law—Another Methodist Movement—The 'Wolf' Organization—The Canadians Brought in—New Selection of Officials—Report of the Legislative Committee—Government Expenses—The Four Great Districts—Measures against McLoughlin—Influence of Shortess on Political Affairs
THE CATHOLIC MISSIONS—MORE OF THE PRESBYTERIANS.
Call of the French Canadians—Coming of Blanchet and Demers—The Vicar-general among the Cayuses—St Francis Xavier on the Cowlitz—Protestant and Catholic Rivalry—Langlois and Bolduc—The Jesuits in the North-west—Labors of Father De Smet—Point and Mangarini—St Marys on the Bitter Root—Mission of the Sacred Heart—De Vos and Hoeken—Jesuit Reënforcements—Blanchet Made Archbishop—St Pauls—Affairs at Waiilatpu and Lapwai—Insolence of the Savages—Whitman's Winter Journey to the East—His Treatment by the Board—Return and Disappointment.
OREGON BEFORE CONGRESS.
Oregon's Early Champion—Irrepressible Destiny—Crude Ideas of the Country—Expediency of Occupying the Columbia—Tortuous Course of Floyd's Bill—The Russian Ukase—Baylies, Tucker, Colden, Mallary, Wood, Walker, Breckenridge, Buchanan, Dickerson, Benton, and Others Express their Views—End of the First Epoch of Legislation—Linn, Clay, Calhoun, Pierce, Gushing, and Pendleton, of the Second Epoch—Linn's Bill—Popular Feeling—Petitions for the Occupation of Oregon—The Question of Slavery
THE IMMIGRATION OF 1843.
Effect of Congressional Discussion and Missionary Agitation—Flocking to the Rendezvous—Organization—Disaffection and Division—Names of the Emigrants—The Light Column and the Cow Column—Along the Platte—At Fort Hall—Whitman's Doings—On to the Columbia and down the River—Policy of the Hudson's Bay Company—It is Better to Sell or Give than Tempt the New-comers to Take by Force—The Applegates—Other Biographical Notices
Character of the Immigration of 1843—The Land Law—Old and New Settlers—Organic Laws—Personnel of the Committees—Message of the Executive Committee—Revision and Correction of Legislative Errors—Judicial Affairs—The Blessings of Land and the Ballot—Willamette Falls the Seat of Government—The Question of Boundary—Law Relating to Marriage—Liquor Law—Slavery—Negroes and Mulattoes—Attitude toward the British Fur Company—Independence of Oregon
THE IMMIGRATION OF 1844.
Belligerent Attitude of the British and Americans—Vancouver Fortified—Gathering of the Emigrants—The Several Divisions and Companies—The Independent Colony—Cornelius Gilliam—Nathaniel Ford—The Journey—Sufferings on the Journey—Their Destitute Condition—Reception by Missionaries and Fur-traders—Names of the Immigrants—Biographical Notices
AMENDMENT OF THE ORGANIC LAWS
The First Three Legislative Bodies—Opposing Parties—The Several Legislatures—Memorial to Congress—What Benton Thought of It—Elijah White's Exploits—Proceedings of the Legislature—Fusion of the Americans and British—English Spies in Oregon—British Vessels—Conduct of McLoughlin Discussed—Unjust Censure—Consequence to McLoughlin
THE IMMIGRATION OF 1845.
A Notable Migration—Various Starting-points—Divisions and Companies—Joel Palmer—Samuel K. Barlow—Presley Welch—Samuel Hancock—Bacon and Buck—W. G. T'Vault—John Waymire—Solomon Tetherow—California Extolled at Fort Hall—Meeting with White—His Fatal Friendship—A Long Cut-off—Hardships on the Malheur—Disease and Death at the Dalles—Heartlessness of Waller and Brewer—Emmet's Wanderings—The Incoming by Sea—Names of the Immigrants—Third Session of the Legislature—Explorations for Immigrant Pass—Wagon-road—Public Buildings, Capital, and Liquor Questions—New Counties—Revenue
OPENING OF THE SOUTHERN OREGON ROUTE—IMMIGRATION OF 1846.
Road-making as a War Measure—A Pass Required—A Company Organized—They Proceed to Rogue River—Whence they Continue Eastward and Cross the Cascade Range into the Humboldt Valley - They Proceed to Fort Hall—Hastings and his Cut-off—Immigration of 1846—Applegate's Cut-off—J. Q. Thornton, his Book and his Vindictiveness—Sufferings of the Emigrants by the New Route—Comments of the Settlers on the Southern Route—Biographical Notices
THE WAR FEELING IN OREGON.
Social Efforts of the Crew of the 'Modeste'—First Theatrical Entertainments—First American Newspaper on the Pacific Coast—A Military Company - Arrival in the Sound of H. B. M. Ship 'Fisgard'—President Polk's Message—Arrival of the U. S. Schooner 'Shark'—Horse-racing—Howison on the Situation—Wreck of the 'Shark'— A Flag and Guns for Oregon—Passage of the Notice Bill—Overland Railway—The Boundary Determined—How Tidings of the Treaty were Received
POLITICS AND PROGRESS.
Waiting for a Territorial Government—The Question of a Delegate to Washington—Attempts to Provide for the Ejectment of British Subjects from their Land— Legislative Proceedings— Memorial to Congress—Public Reproof to Trespassers—Reelection of Abernethy—Douglas' Bill for Establishing a Territory, and its Failure—Action of the People—Private Delegate to Congress—Biographical Notices—The Immigration of 1847
THE WHITMAN MASSACRE.
Savages as a Handiwork of the Creator—They might have been Better Made—But They are not so much Worse than White Men, who are Bad Enough—Rival Claimants for the Rewards to Follow their Conversion Portentous Clouds Hanging over Marcus Whitman—Strange He cannot See the Darkening Sky—The Natives Maddened by the White Man's Diseases, and by the Coming-in of so Many to Take from Them their Lands—Attitude of Catholics and Protestants—Rival Roads to Heaven The Savages Prefer their own Way—And Thereupon They Perpetrate a most Horrible Deed
RESCUE OF THE CAPTIVES.
His Honor the Indian—Preparations for War—Legislative Proceedings—Joseph L. Meek, Messenger to Washington—Formation of Military Companies—Applegate's Attempt to Reach California—Public Appropriation and Private Subscriptions—Joel Palmer, Superintendent of Indian Affairs—Chief Factor Ogden's Adventures among the Cayuses—The Ransom Effected—Price Paid for the Captives—Correspondence between Ogden and Abernethy—The Gentle Savage is Willing to Forgive the White Men not yet Massacred—Further Display of Hot Distemper between Catholics and Protestants
THE CAYUSE WAR.
Organization of the Army—Colonel Gilliam en Route for the Dalles—Thomas McKay's Canadian Company—Captain English's Company—Captain Martin's Company—Captain Shaw's Company—Captain Garrison's Company—The Army at Fort Gilliam—The Army at Fort Lee—Meek's Party—Peace Measures—A Brush with the Enemy—Official Correspondence—Headquarters at Waiilatpu—Action of the Peace Commissioners—Council with the Cayuses—The Murderers must be Delivered Up—Death of Colonel Gilliam—Major Lee Assumes Command—The Governor's Proclamation—Scarcity of Ammunition—The War Ended and Troops Mustered Out—Biographical Sketches
OREGON'S ENVOYS—ERECTION OF A TERRITORIAL GOVERNMENT.
Journey of Thornton—Adventures of Meek—The Pious Lawyer and the Profane Trapper—Interviews with the President—Memorials to Congress—The Ordinance of 1787—Bills before Congress—The Slavery Question—Warm Discussions—Final Passage of the Bill Creating the Territory of Oregon—Appointment of Officials—Anxiety of President Polk—Return of Joe Meek with a Live Governor—Lane and Meek at San Francisco Bay—Arrival in Oregon—Lane's Proclamation—Decline of Mission Influence
HISTORY OF OREGON.
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Newell (Robert), Letter to E. Evans, Feb. 27, 1867. MS.
Newell (W. H.), Strictures on Gray's History of Oregon. In Portland Democratic Herald. Oct. 1886.
New Haven (Conn.), Courier and Journal.
New Mexico Revisita Catolica, 1883.
New Orleans (La.), Picayune.
New Tacoma, Herald; Ledger; North Pacific Coast; Times.
New Westminster, British Columbia Examiner; Mainland Guardian.
New York, Christian Advocate and Journal; Engineering and Mining Journal; Ethnological Journal; Express; Herald; Journal of Commerce; Methodist; Sun; Times; Tribune.
New York Eng. and Min. Journal, in Portland Herald, March 25, 1871.
New York Evening Post, in S. F. Bulletin, Nov. 8, 1866.
New York Maritime Register, Jan. 30, 1877, in Portland Wkly Oregonian, Feb. 16, 1878.
Nicholson (John), Deposition before Joint Commission, 1865.
Nichols (Rowena), Indian Affairs. MS.
Nichols (Rowena), Rogue River War. MS.
Nicolay (C. G.), The Oregon Territory. London, 1846.
Niles' Register. Baltimore, etc., 1811-49. 76 vols.
Nordhoff (Charles), in Harper's Magazine, Feb. 1874.
Nordhoff (Charles), Northern California, Oregon, etc. New York, 1874.
North American Review. Boston, 1819 et seq.
Northern Pacific Railroad, Charter, etc. Boston, 1865; Guide to Lands. New York, 1872; Land Department. n.pl., n.d.; Land Grant, n.pl., n.d.; Memorial of Board of Directors. Hartford, 1867; Report of E.F. Johnson, Nov. 1867. Hartford, 1867; Route, Resources, etc. n.pl., n.d.; Stewart's Report in U.S. Sen., Feb. 19, 1860. [40th Cong., 3d Sess., Rept. Com. 219.] Washington, 1860.
North Pacific Review. San Francisco, 1862–3. 2 vols.
Northwestern Storage and Commission Company, Articles of Incorporation. Portland, 1875.
Nouvelles Annales des Voyages. Paris, 1819–60. 168 vols.
Oakland (Cal.), Evening Termini; Times; Torchlight; Tribune.
Oakland (Cal.), Transcript.
Oakland (Or.), Centennial; Umpqua Call.
Odd-Fellows. A large number of different lodges of the order, cited under the above title.
Odell, Biography of Thurston. MS.
Odeneal (T. B.), The Modoc War. Portland, 1873.
Olympia (Wash.), Unitarian Advocate.
Olympia (W. T.) Commercial Age; Columbian; Pioneer and Democrat; Puget Sound Courier; Territorial Republican; Transcript; Washington Democrat; Washington Standard.
Oregon, An Election Tract. n.pl., n.d.
Oregon Affairs, Letter of Secretary of War, April 11, 1860 [36th Cong., 1st Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 65.] Washington, 1860.
Oregon American and Evangelical Unionist, Tualatin, 1848.
Oregon and Cal. R. R. Tariff, 1876.
Oregon, Anecdotes. MS.
Oregon and California, A Collection.
Oregon and California R. R. Company, Collection of Laws and Documents. n. pl., n. d., fol.; Local Freight Tariff. Portland, 1876.
Oregon and Washington, Claims growing out of Indian Hostilities [35th Cong., 2d Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 51; 36th Cong., 1st Sess., H. Ex. 11] Wash., 1858-9; Indian Hostilities. [34th Cong. 1st Sess., H Ex. 118] Wash. 1856; Indian Service, Rept. Sec. Int., March 2, 1860. [36th Cong., 1st Sess., Sen. Ex. 17.] Wash., 1860; Resources. Portland, 1880 et seq.; Scrap Book; Settler's Guide. New York, 1872.
Oregon and Washington Delegation, Statement in regard to War Claims. n. pl., n. d.
Oregon, Approval of the Oregon Bill, Message from President, Dec. 6, 1848. [30th Cong., 2d Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 3.] Washington, 1848.
Oregon Archives, 1844–50, Unpublished Documents. MS.
Oregon Commercial Review. Portland, 1877.
Oregon Controversy Revived, etc. New York, 1846.
Oregon: Cost and Consequences. Philadelphia, 1846.
Oregon, Cultivator; Herald; Marine Gazette.
Oregon, Facts regarding Climate, Soil, etc. Boston, 1876; Boston, 1877: Boston, 1878.
Oregon, Fur-hunting in. In Harper's Mag., xii. 1856, 340.
Oregon, Instructions to the Surveyor-General. Washington, 1851.
Oregon, Its Advantages, etc. Portland, 1870.
Oregon, Journals of Assembly, Council, House and Senate, 1st to 9th session, 1849–76, 19 vols., containing all public documents printed by the States which are cited in my notes by their titles and dates, the title consisting of 'Oregon,' followed by one of the following headings: Acts; Adjutant-General's Report; Archives; Code of Civil Procedure; Constitution; Deaf and Dumb Institute; Election Laws; Inaugural Addresses of Governors; Insane Asylum Reports; Institute for the Blind; Investigating Commission; Laws—Organic, General, and others; Message and Documents; Public Instruction Reports; Public Schools Reports; Revenue; Secretary of State Reports; School Lands; School Laws; State Agricultural College; State Agricultural Society; State Geologist; State Librarian; State Penitentiary; State Treasurer; Statutes.
Oregon, Minutes of the Congregational Association. Portland, 1860 et seq.
Oregon Missions, letter of the Secretary of the Interior, Feb. 8, 1871. [41st Cong., 3d Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 37.] Washington, 1871.
Oregon, Memorial of the Legislative Assembly relative to their present situation and wants, August 10, 1848. [30th Cong., 1st Sess., H. Misc. Rept., 98.] Washington, 1848.
Oregon, Petition of Citizens that laws of the U.S. may be extended, May 8, 1848. [30th Cong., 1st Sess., Sen. Misc. Doc, 136.] Washington, 1848.
Oregon Relics. MS.
Oregon, Report of the Committee directing an inquiry into the situation of the settlements on the Pacific Ocean, etc. Jan. 25, 1821. Washington, 1821.
Oregon, Report of Select Committee, Jan. 6, 1838. [25th Cong., 2d Sess., Sen. Rept. 470.] Washington, 1838.
Oregon Report of Committee on Foreign Affairs, Jan. 4, 1839. [25th Cong., 3d Sess., H. Rept. 101.] Washington, 1839.
Oregon State Immigration Society, Articles of Incorporation. Portland, 1877.
Oregon, Sketches. MS.
Oregon, Sketches of Mission Life among the Indians of. New York. n. d.
Oregon Speeches. A Collection.
Oregon Spectator, 1848. MS. extracts.
Oregon Stock Protective Association Report.
Oregon Supreme Court, Reports, by Jos. G. Wilson. New York, 1862-9. 2 vols.; Records of Cases argued and determined by Bellinger. San Francisco, 1880. 7 vols.
Oregon, The Early Labors of the Missionaries of the American Board. [41st Cong., 3d Sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 37.] Washington, 1872.
Oregon, Wealth and Resources. Salem, 1864.
Oregon Board of Trade, Annual Reports. Portland, 1875 et seq.
Oregon Central Military Road, Report of Recent Surveys. Eugene City, 1865.
Oregon Central Railroad Company, Address to the People. Salem, 1868; Statement of Facts relative to Incorporation, etc. Portland, 1868.
Oregon Medical Society, Proceedings. Portland, 1875 et seq.
Oregon Medical and Surgeon Reporter. Salem, 1869 et seq.
Oregon Monthly Magazine. Portland, 1854 et seq.
Oregon Physio-Medical Journal. Salem, 1866 et seq.
Oregon Pioneer Association, Constitution, etc. Salem, 1875; Transactions. Salem, 1876 et seq.
Oregon Protestant Episcopal Church, History of. Vancouver, 1876.
Oregon City, Enterprise; Oregon Argus; Spectator.
Overland Monthly. San Francisco, 1868-75. 15 vols.
Pacific Northwest, Facts relating to the History, Topography, etc. New York, 1882; Travellers' Guide. Portland, 1882.
Pacific Railroad Reports. Washington, 1855-60. 4to. 13 vols.
Pacific Thrashing-machine Circular. Portland, 1878.
Pacific University and Tualatin Academy, Catalogue. Portland, 1864 et seq.
Palmer (Joel), Early Intercourse. MS.
Palmer (Joel), Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, 1845-6. Cincinnati, 1852.
Palmer (Joel), Wagon Trains. MS.
Pajaro (Cal.), Times.
Parker (Samuel), Journal of an Exploring Tour beyond the Rocky Mountains. Ithaca, 1838; Id., 1840; Auburn, 1842; Id., 1846.
Parker (J. G.), Puget Sound. MS.
Parkman (Francis), The California and Oregon Trail. New York, 1849.
Parsons (J. L.), Anecdotes of Oregon. MS.
Parsons (George F.), Life and Adventures of James W. Marshall. Sacramento, 1870.
Peirce (H. M.), Journals, MS.; Memoranda, MS.; Rough Sketch, MS.
Pendleton, East Oregonian, Independent.
Pendleton (J. S.), Speech in House of Rep., 1846.
Pendleton (Or.), Tribune.
Pengra (B. J.), Report of Recent Surveys of the Oregon Central Military Road. Eugene City, 1865.
Peoria (Illinois), Register.
Perkins (James H.), Annals of the West. St Louis, 1850.
Pettygrove (F. W.), Oregon in 1842. MS.
Phelps, Reminiscences of Seattle. MS.
Philadelphia, Council Fire; Sun.
Philomath College, Catalogue. Philomath, 1877.
Pickett (Charles E.), The Paris Exposition, etc. San Francisco, 1877.
Pioche (Nev.), Record.
Pioche (Nev.), Journal.
Pioneer (The). San Francisco, 1854-5. 4 vols.
Pioneer and Historical Society of Oregon, Proceedings. Astoria, 1872.
Placerville (Cal.), Courier.
Pollock (J.), Speech in House of Rep., Jan. 16, 1846.
Poore (B. P.), Congressional Directory, 1882-3. Washington, 1883.
Portland Academy Catalogue, 1868.
Portland, Information for the Guidance of Foreign Vessels. Portland, 1875.
Portland Newspapers, Advertiser, Bee, Bulletin, Catholic Sentinel, Commercial, Commercial Reporter, Democratic Era, Zeitung, Dramatic Chronicle, Evening News, Herald, National Gazette, New Northwest, News, Oregon Churchman, Oregon Herald, Oregonian, Oregon Times, Pacific Christian Advocate, Pioneer, Real Estate Gazette, Real Estate Journal, Standard, Telegram, Temperance Star, West Shore, Willamette Farmer.
Portland Academy and Female Seminary, Catalogue. Portland, 1868 et seq.
Portland Board of Trade, Reports. Portland, 1876 et seq.
Portland Library Association, Annual Reports. Portland, 1865 et seq.; Constitution, etc. Portland, 1878.
Portland Oregon Case, Brief on Behalf of Stark, Coffin, etc. Washington, n. d.
Portland Public Schools, Rules and Regulations. Portland, 1875.
Portland (East), Charter and Ordinances. East Portland, 1875.
Port Townsend (W. T.), Argus; Message.
Prescott (Ariz.), Arizona Miner.
Prim (P. P.), Judicial Affairs. MS.
Proceedings First Natl Convention of Cattlemen. St Louis, 1884.
Protestant Episcopal Church, 23d Convocation. Portland (Or.), 1875.
Pueblan el Nuevo Oregon, in Olivera Docs.
Quarterly Review. London, 1809 et seq.
Quigley (Hugh), The Irish Race in California, etc. San Francisco, 1878.
Quincy (Ill.), Union.
Rabbison (Antonio B.), Growth of Towns. MS.
Raymond, Notes. MS.
Raymond (R. W.), Mining Industry, etc. New York, 1874. Silver and Gold, etc. New York, 1878. Statistics of Mines and Mining. Washington, 1870.
Red Bluff (Cal.), People's Cause.
Red Bluff (Cal.), Sentinel.
Rees (Willard H.), Address before Oregon Pioneer Assoc. In Or. Pion. Assoc., Trans., 1879.
Rees (W.H.), Letter to H. H. Bancroft, Sept. 8, 1879; in Proceedings of Or. Hist. Society, 1875; in Portland Wkly Oregonian, Feb. 5, 1876.
Reid (of North Carolina), Speech in House of Rep., Feb. 7, 1846.
Reid (William), Progress of Oregon and Portland from 1868-78. Portland, 1879.
Remy (Jules), and Julius Brenchley, A Journey to Great Salt Lake City. London, 1861. 2 vols.
Reno (Nev.) Gazette.
Reno (Nev.) State Journal.
Revere (Joseph Warren), A Tour of Duty in Calfornia. New York, 1849. etc.
Rhineheart (W. V.), Malheur Indians. MS.
Rhineheart (W. V.), Oregon Cavalry. MS.
Richardson (Albert D.), Beyond the Mississippi. Hartford, 1867
Ridpath (John C.), Popular History of the U. S. New York, 1877.
Ritz (Phillip) Great Northern Interior. MS.
Robert (H. M.), Annual Report upon the Improvement of Rivers in Oregon. Washington, 1873.
Roberts (George B.), Recollections of Hudson's Bay Co. MS.
Roberts (William), The Oregon Bible Society. Portland, 1876.
Robertson (Wyndham), Oregon. Washington, 1846.
Roder (Henry), Bellingham Bay. MS.
Roseburg, Ensign; Independent; Pantagraph; Plaindealer; Western Star.
Ross (Alexander), Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon. London, 1849.
Ross (John E.), Narrative of an Indian-Fighter. MS.
Rossi (L'Abbe), Souvenirs d'un Voyage en Orégon et en Californie. Paris, 1864.
Russell (Florence), Child Life in Oregon. Boston, n.d.
Russell (John), Recollections and Suggestions. 1813-73. Boston, 1875.
Russell (William), Narrative. In Oregon Sketches. MS.
Ryan (R. F.), Enos, or the last of the Modocs. San Francisco, 1873, Judges and Criminals. In Golden Era .
Sacramento (Cal.), Bee; Record; Record-Union; Transcript.
Saint Amant (M. de), Voyages en Califorme et dans l'Oregon. Paris, 1854.
St Helena (Cal.), Wkly Star.
St Helen's (Or.) Hall, Catalogue, 1873.
St Louis (Mo.), Gazette; Republican; Union.
St Louis (Mo.), Republican, in Salt Lake City Tribune, Oct. 2, 1879.
St Matthew (John H.), in Overland Monthly, vi. 299-303.
Salem, American Unionist, Argus, Baptist Beacon, Capital Chronicle, Chronicle, College Dial, Democratic Press, Democratic Review, Literary Gazette, Mercury, Oregon Arena, Oregon Educational Monthly, Oregon Statesman, Real Estate Circular, Record, Town Talk, Willamette Farmer.
Salisbury (Conn.), News.
Salt Lake City, Herald; Tribune.
San Bernardino (Cal.), Argus; Guardian-Times.
San Diego (Cal.), Union.
Sandwich Islands Gazette; News.
San Francisco Newspapers, Alta California, Cal. Courier, Cal. Farmer, Cal. Star, Call, Christian Advocate, Chronicle, Coast Review, Commercial Herald, Elevator, Evangel, Evening Bulletin, Evening Picayune, Examiner, Golden Era, Globe, Herald, Journal of Commerce, Mercantile Review and Ship. Register, Mining and Scientific Press, Mining Review and Stock Ledger, Monitor, New Age, News Letter, Pacific News, Pacific Rural Press, Post, Scientific Press, Times.
San Joaquin County, History of. Oakland, 1879. Atlas, folio.
San José (Cal.), Patriot; Pioneer.
San José, Times.
Santa Bárbara (Cal.), Index.
Santa Cruz, Sentinel; Courier
Santa Rosa (Cal.), Democrat.
Sawyer (L. S. B.), Reports of Cases Decided in the Circuit and District Courts, etc. San Francisco, 1873-80. 5 vols.
Saxon (Isabella), Five Years within the Golden Gate. Philadelphia, 1868.
Saxton (Charles), in Niles' Register, lxix. 242.
Saxton (Charles), Oregon Territory. Oregon City, 1846.
Sayward (W.T.), Pioneer Reminiscences. MS.
Scammon (C.M.), In and around Astoria. In Overland, iii. 495.
Scenes in the Rocky Mountains. Philadelphia, 1846.
Schoolcraft (Henry R.), Archives of Aboriginal Knowledge. Philadelphia, 1860. 6 vols.
Schultz, Early Anecdotes. MS.
Schumacher (Paul), Researches in the Kjokkenmoddings and Graves. In U. S. Geol. Survey, Hayden, Bulletin III. No. I. 27.
Scraff (John P.), Letter of. In Walla Walla Union, April 11, 1874.
Scribner's Monthly Magazine [later The Century]. New York, 1871 et seq.
Seattle (Wash.), Intelligencer; Pacific Tribune; Puget Sound Dispatch.
Seattle Wkly Post.
Sevier (A.H.), Speech in U. S. Senate, March 25, 1846.
Seward (William H.), Speeches in Alaska, Vancouver's and Oregon, Aug. 1869. Washington, 1869.
Sharples (A.), Introductory Address, etc. Salem (Or.), 1867.
Shaw (William), Pioneer Life. MS.
Shea (John Gilmary), History of the Catholic Missions. New York, 1855.
Shuck (Oscar T.), Representative and Leading Men of the Pacific, San Francisco, 1870, 1875. 2 vols.
Silliman (Benjamin), American Journal of Science and Art. New Haven, 1819 et seq. 107 vols.
Silver City (Idaho), Avalanche; Owyhee Avalanche.
Sims (of North Carolina), Speech in House of Rep., Feb. 7, 1846.
Simmons (M.T.), Deposition before Joint Commission, 1865.
Simpson (Alexander), The Oregon Territory. London, 1846.
Simpson, in Indian Affairs Report, 1864.
Simpson (Sir G.), in Hud. Bay Co. Report, July and Aug. 1857.
Simpson (Sir George), Narrative of a Journey round the World. London, 1847. 2 vols.
Siskiyou County Affairs. MS.
Sketches of Oregon. MS.
Small (Hugh), Oregon Resources. MS.
Small (Hugh), Oregon and her Resources. San Francisco, 1872.
Smith (C.B.), Speech in House of Rep., Jan. 7, 1846.
Smith (Persifer F.), Report, Oct. 7, 1849, on Affairs in Oregon. [31st Cong., 1st. Sess., Sen. Doc. 47.] Washington, 1849.
Snohomish City (Wash.), Northern Star.
Snowden (C.), Recollections. In Oregon Sketches. MS.
Soldiering in Oregon. In Harper's Mag., xiii. 522.
Solano County, History of [Wood, Alley & Co.]. San Francisco, 1879.
Sonoma (Cal.), Democrat.
Sonoma County, History [Alley, Bowen & Co.]. San Francisco, 1880.
Southern Oregon, Resources of Coos and Douglas Counties. San Francisco, 1882.
Southern Oregon History, Scraps of. In Ashland Tidings, Dec. 13, 20, 27, Jan. 3, 1878-9.
Southern Quarterly Review. New Orleans, etc., 1842 et seq.
Spaulding, Journal. [27th Cong., 2d Sess., H. Rept., 830.] Washington, 1842.
Spaulding (H.H.), Lecture. In Albany State Rights Democrat, Jan. 11, 1868.
Spence, Settler's Guide. New York, 1862.
Springfield (Mass.), Republican.
Staats (Stephen), Occasional Address. In Or. Pion. Assoc., 1877.
Starr (M.B.), in Home Missionary. New York, 1854.
Steele (Alden H.), With the Rifle Regiment. MS.
Steilacoom (Wash.), Puget Sound Express.
Steilacoom (Wash.), Puget Sound Herald
Stephens (Alexander), Speech in U.S. H. of Rep., Feb. 12, 1859, on Admission of Oregon. n.pl., n.d.
Stevens (Hazard), Letter to H. H. Bancroft, April 17, 1884.
Stevens (I. I.), in Pacific R. R. Reports, i., in U.S. Sen. Ex. Doc. 46, 34th cong. 1st Sess.
Stevens (Isaac I.), Address on the North West, Dec. 2, 1858. Wash., 1858; Letter of, to Railroad Convention. Wash., 1860; Narrative and Final Report of Explorations. In Pacific R.R. Repts., xii.; Remarks on the War Expenses of Wash. and Oregon. Wash., 1860; other speeches.
Stockton (Cal.), Independent; San Joaquin Republican.
Stickland (W. P.), History of the Missions of the M. E. Church. Cincinnati, 1854.
Strong (William), History of Oregon. MS.
Stule, The Modoc Question. MS.
Sturgis (William), The Oregon Question. Boston 1845.
Stram (A.), Letter to H. H. Bancroft Aug 7, 1884.
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Supreme Court Decisions, in Or. Laws, 1870.
Surveyor-Genl (Or.) Report, in Zabriskie (J. C.), Land Laws.
Sutherland (Thomas A.), Howard's Campaign against the Nez Percé Indians. Portland, 1878.
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Sutter County, History of [Chamberlain and Wells]. Oakland, 1879. Folio.
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Sutton (James M.), Reminiscences. In Oregon Sketches MS.
Swan (James G.), The Northwest Coast. New York, 1857; Scrap-book.
Swan (James G.), Washington Sketches. MS.
Sylvester (Edward), Founding of Olympia. MS.
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Thayer, Recollections. In Historical Correspondence. MS.
The Dalles (Or.), Mountaineer; Tribune.
The Northwest Boundary, etc. Wash., 1868.
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Thurston (Samuel R.), Biography. MS.
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Tolmie (William F.), Puget Sound and North West Coast. MS.
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Tribune (N. Y.) Almanac, 1846 et seq.
Tucker (Ephraim W.), A History of Oregon. Buffalo, 1844.
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Twiss (Travers), The Oregon Question. London, 1846; The Oregon Territory. New York, 1846, etc.
Tyson (P. T.), in Sen. Ex. Doc. 47, 31st cong. 1st sess.
Umatilla, Advertiser; Columbia Press.
Umpqua Academy, Catalogue. Salem, 1868 et seq.
Umpqua (Or.), Wkly Gazette.
Union, Mountain Sentinel.
Unionville (Nev.), Register; Silver State.
United States Catholic Magazine. Baltimore, 1844 et seq.
United States Exploring Expedition [Wilkes]. Philadelphia, 1844-58. 4to, 17 vols., folio, 8 vols.
United States Geological and Geographical Surveys. J. W. Powell, Contributions on North American Ethnology, etc. Washington, 1876.
United States Geological Surveys of the Territories. F. V. Hayden. Annual Reports, Bulletins, Miscellaneous Publication, etc. Wash., 1872 et seq.
United States Geological Surveys West of the 100th Meridian. George W. Wheeler. Bulletins, Reports, and Various Publications. Washington, 1874 et seq. 4to. atlas sheets, maps.
United States Government Documents; Accounts, Agriculture; Army Register; Bureau of Statistics; Census; Coast Survey; Commerce, Foreign and Domestic; Commerce and Navigation; Commercial Relations; Education; Indian Affairs; Land Office; Life-saving Service; Light-houses; Pacific Railroad; Meteorological Reports; Patent Office; Postmaster-General; Post-offices; Revenue. Cited by their dates.
United States Government Documents, House Exec. Doc; House Journal; House Miscel. Doc; House Reports of Com.; Message and Documents; Senate Exec. Doc; Journal; Miscel. Doc; Repts. Com. cited by congress and session. Many of these documents have, however, separate titles, for which see author or topic.
U.S. Pub. Doc, as follows: Acts and Resolutions, 29th cong. 2d sess., 38th cong. 1st sess., 43d cong. 1st sess.; Burchard (Director of Mint), Report, 1880, 1881; Commissioner of Agric. Report, 1869, 1878; Comptr of Currency Report, 1878; Food Fishes, Report of Commission, 44th cong., 1st sess.; Message of President, Feb. 20, 1845; Secretary of Treasury Report, 1866, 1867; Smithsonian Institution Report, 1873; Statutes, 43d cong., 2d sess.
Vallejo (Cal.), Chronicle; Solano Times.
Vancouver (Wash.), Independent; Register.
Van Tramp (J. C.), Prairie and Rocky Mtn Adventures, etc. St Louis, 1860.
Veatch (John A.), Oregon, Washington, 1869.
Victor (Frances Fuller), About the Mouth of the Columbia. In Overland, iii. 71; All over Oregon and Washington. San Francisco, 1872; From Astoria to the Cascades. In Overland, viii. 146; Manifest Destiny in the West. In Overland, iii. 148; The New Penelope. San Francisco, 1877; Oregon Indians. In Overland, vii. 344; Pioneers of Oregon. In Overland, xiii. 38, 122; River of the West. Hartford, 1870; Trail Making in the Oregon Mountains. In Overland, iv. 201; Woman's War with Whiskey. Portland, 1874.
Victor (Frances Fuller), Captain Jack and His Defence. MS.
Victor (Frances Fuller), in Overland Monthly, xiii. 129-31.
Victoria (B. Col.), British Colonist, Cariboo Sentinel, Chronicle, Gazette, Standard.
Virginia City (Nev.), Evening Chronicle.
Virginia and Helena (Mont.), Post.
Waldo (Daniel), Critiques. MS.
Walker (Joel P.), Narrative. MS.
Wallamet, or Willamette, n. pl., n. d.
Wallamet University, Catalogue. Salem, 1863 et seq.
Wallamette River Improvements, Memorials of Oregon Legislature, Oct. 1874, Sept. 1876. [43d Cong., 2d. Sess., Sen. Misc. Doc. 49.] Wash., 1874. [44th Cong., 2d Sess., H. Misc. Doc. 20.] Wash., 1876.
Walla Walla, Statesman
Walla Walla (Wash.), Union, Nov. 20, 1869.
Warren (G. K.), in Pac. R. R. Reports, xi.
Washington Territory, Journal of the Council. Olympia, 1855-77. 7vols.
Washington Territory, Sketches. MS.
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Wells (William V.), Wild Life in Oregon. In Harper's Mag., xiii. 588.
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Whatcom (Wash.), Bellingham Bay Mail.
White (Col.), Recollections. In Camp-fire Orations. MS.
White (Elijah), A Concise View of Oregon History. Washington, 1846; Ten Years in Oregon. Ithaca, 1850; Testimonials and Records. Wash., 1861; Thrilling Adventures. New York, 1859.
White (Elijah), Government and the Emigration to Oregon MS.
Whitman (Marcus), Results of the Oregon Mission. In Missionary Herald, Dec. 1866.
Whitman (Perrin B.), Letter. MS.
Whitman County in the Great Palouse Country, Descriptive. Colfax, 1878.
Whitman and the Massacre of his Protestant Mission. San Francisco, 1874.
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Williamson (R. T.), in U. S. Senate, 31 cong., 1st sess.
Williams, South-western Oregon. MS.
Wilkes (Charles), Narrative of the U.S. Exploring Expedition. Philadelphia, 1844. 4to. 3 vols.; Philadelphia, 1845. 5 vols.; London, 1845.
Wilkes (Charles), Western America. Philadelphia, 1849.
Wilkes (George), History of Oregon. New York, 1845.
Willamette Baptist Assoc., Minutes of Anniversaries. Portland 1860 et seq.
Willamette Falls, Canal, and Lock Company Circular. Oregon City, 1869.
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Williamson (R. S.), Routes in California and Oregon, Report. In Pacific R. R. Repts., vi.
Wilson (Elizabeth), Recollections. In Oregon Sketches. MS.
Wilson (Joseph G.), Addresses on the Death of. Columbus, 1873; Railroad Lands in Western Oregon. San Francisco, 1872.
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