How to Know the Ferns (7th ed)

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How to Know the Ferns - By Frances Theodora Parsons - Author of How to Know the Wild Flowers


How to Know the Ferns




Frances Theodora Parsons

Author of "How to Know the Wild Flowers,"
"According to Season," etc.

Illustrated by

Marion Satterlee and Alice Josephine Smith






How to Know the Ferns 7th ed. front plate.jpg

"The cheerful community of the polypody."



Copyright, 1899, by
Charles Scribner's Sons

publisher's mark


J. R. P.



Preface vii
Ferns as a Hobby 1
When and Where to Find Ferns 15
Explanation of Terms 28
Fertilization, Development, and Fructification of Ferns 32
Notable Fern Families 36
How to Use the Book 38
Guide 40
Fern Descriptions:
Group I. 54
Group II. 67
Group III. 87
Group IV. 105
Group V. 120
Group VI. 159
Index to Latin Names 211
Index to English Names 213
Index to Technical Terms 215



The actual sizes of ferns are not given in the illustrations.
For this information see the corresponding description.

I. Sensitive Fern, Onoclea sensibilis, 57
II. Ostrich Fern, Onoclea Struthiopteris, 59
III. Cinnamon Fern, Osmunda cinnamomea, 61
IV. Curly Grass, Schizæa pusilla, 65
V. Royal Fern, Osmunda regalis, 69
VI. Interrupted Fern, Osmunda Claytoniana, 73
VII. Adder's Tongue, Ophioglossum vulgatum, 79
VIII. Ternate Grape Fern, Botrychium ternatum, 83
IX. Moonwort, Botrychium Lunaria, 85
Lance-leaved Grape Fern, Botrychium lanceolatum, 85
X. Purple Cliff Brake, Pellæa atropurpurea, 91
XI. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort, Asplenium angustifolium, 99
XII. Net-veined Chain Fern, Woodwardia angustifolia, 103
XIII. Hairy Lip Fern, Cheilanthes vestita, 113
XIV. Hay-scented Fern, Dicksonia pilosiuscula, 115
XV. Lady Fern, Asplenium Filix-fœmina, 121
XVI. Silvery Spleenwort, Asplenium thelypteroides, 125
XVII. Rue Spleenwort, Asplenium Ruta-muraria, 127
XVIII. Mountain Spleenwort, Asplenium montanum, 131
XIX. Ebony Spleenwort, Asplenium ebeneum, 135
XXI. Scott's Spleenwort, Asplenium ebenoides, 141
XX. Green Spleenwort, Asplenium viride, 139
XXII. Pinnatifid Spleenwort, Asplenium pinnatifidum, 143
XXIII. Bradley's Spleenwort, Asplenium Bradleyi, 145
XXIV. Virginia Chain Fern, Woodwardia Virginica, 157
XXV. New York Fern, Aspidium Noveboracense, 161
XXVI. Marsh Fern, Aspidium Thelypteris, 163
XXVII. Spinulose Wood Fern, Aspidium spinulosum, var. intermedium, 165
XXVIII. Boott's Shield Fern, Aspidium Boottii, 167
XXIX. Crested Shield Fern, Aspidium cristatum, 169
XXX. Clinton's Wood Fern, Aspidium cristatum, var. Clintonianum, 171
XXXI. Goldie's Fern, Aspidium Goldianum, 173
XXXII. Evergreen Wood Fern, Aspidium marginale, 175
XXXIII. Fragrant Shield Fern, Aspidium fragrans, 179
XXXIV. Braun's Holly Fern, Aspidium aculeatum, var. Braunii, 183
XXXV. Broad Beech Fern, Phegopteris hexagonoptera, 189
XXXVI. Oak Fern, Phegopteris Dryopteris, 191
XXXVII. Bulblet Bladder Fern, Cystopteris bulbifera, 195
XXXVIII. Fragile Bladder Fern, Cystopteris fragilis, 197
XXXIX. Rusty Woodsia, Woodsia Ilvensis, 199
XL. Blunt-lobed Woodsia, Woodsia obtusa, 201
XLI. Northern Woodsia, Woodsia hyperborea, 205
XLII. Smooth Woodsia, Woodsia glabella, 207


"The cheerful community of the polypody" Frontispiece
From a photograph by Miss Madeline Smith.
New York Fern xvi
"The greatest charm the ferns possess is that of their surroundings" 12
From a photograph by Mr. Augustus Pruyn.
Fiddleheads 18
Fragile Bladder Fern 19
Crested Shield Fern 20
Purple Cliff Brake 22
Ternate Grape Fern 24
Evergreen Wood Fern 27
Sensitive Fern 55
Cinnamon Fern 60
Royal Fern 68
Interrupted Fern 74
Climbing Fern 75
Rattlesnake Fern 80
Slender Cliff Brake 89
"The unpromising wall of rock which rose beside us" 94
From a photograph by Miss Ledyard.
More compound frond of Purple Cliff Brake 95
Christmas Fern 97
Narrow-leaved Spleenwort 98
Brake 106
Maidenhair 110
Mountain Spleenwort 130
Mountain Spleenwort 132
"In the shaded crevices of a cliff" 132
From a photograph by Miss Madeline Smith.
Maidenhair Spleenwort 137
Walking Leaf 146
"We fairly gloated over the quaint little plants" 148
From a photograph by Miss Ledyard.
Hart's Tongue 151
Marsh Fern 162
"Like the plumes of departing Summer" 178
From a photograph by Miss Madeline Smith.
Common Polypody 184
Long Beech Fern 187
Oak Fern 191
Bulblet Bladder Fern 194

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1923.

The author died in 1952, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.