Insects, Their Ways and Means of Living

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Insects: Their Ways and Means of Living  (1930) 
by Robert Evans Snodgrass

Published as part of the Smithsonian Scientific Series


Preface, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, Index


Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution

Published by

Snodgrass Dissosteira carolina.jpg

The Carolina Locust (Dissosteira carolina), a common American grasshopper. (Enlarged about 2½ times)


Robert Evans Snodgrass
United States Bureau of Entomology


Copyright, 1930, by
[Printed in the United States of America]
All rights reserved

Copyright Under the Articles of the Copyright Convention
of the Pan-American Republics and the
United States, August 11, 1910



    The Carolina Locust (Frontispiece)
  1. Miscellaneous insects
  2. The Green Apple Aphis
  3. The Rosy Apple Aphis
  4. The Apple-grain Aphis
  5. Nymph of the Periodical Cicada
  6. Newly emerged Cicada
  7. Cicada laying eggs
  8. Egg nests and eggs of the Periodical Cicada
  9. Two species of large moths
  10. The Cecropia Moth and the Polyphemus Moth
  11. The Ribbed-cocoon Maker
  12. The Peach-borer Moth
  13. The Red-humped Caterpillar
  14. The Tent Caterpillar


  1. Young grasshoppers
  2. End structures of a grasshopper's body
  3. Grasshopper laying eggs
  4. Egg-pods of a grasshopper
  5. Eggs of a grasshopper
  6. Young grasshopper emerging from the egg
  7. Eggs of a katydid
  8. A young grasshopper
  9. The growth stages of a grasshopper
  10. A parasitic fly
  11. Blister beetles
  12. A triungulin larva of a blister beetle
  13. Second-stage larva of a blister beetle
  14. Examples of Arthropoda
  15. A "singing" grasshopper
  16. Another"singing" grasshopper
  17. The feet of Orthoptera
  18. Sound-making organs of a meadow grasshopper
    1. Sound-making organs and ears of a conehead katydid
    2. Auditory organ of a katydid
    3. A bush katydid
    4. The oblong-winged katydid
    5. The angular-winged katydid
    6. The true katydid
    7. The katydid in various attitudes
    8. Sound-making organs of the katydid
    9. A conehead katydid
    10. The robust katydid
    11. The common meadow katy?did
    12. The handsome meadow katydid
    13. The slender meadow katydid
    14. The Coulee cricket
    15. Wings of a tree cricket
    16. A mole cricket
    17. The striped ground cricket
    18. The common black cricket
    19. The snowy tree cricket
    20. Antennal marks of the tree crickets
    21. The narrow-winged tree cricket
    22. A broad-winged tree cricket
    23. Back glands of a tree cricket
    24. The jumping bush cricket
    25. The common walking-stick insect
    26. A gigantic walking-stick insect
    27. A leaf insect
    28. The praying mantis
    29. A shield-bearing mantis
    30. Egg case ofa mantis
    31. Common household roaches
    32. Egg cases of roaches
    33. Young of the Croton bug
    34. The house centipede
    35. Wings of a cockroach
    36. A Paleozoic forest
    37. Fossil roaches
    38. Early fossil insects
    39. Machilis
    40. Dragonflies
    41. A young dragonfly
    42. A mayfly
    43. A young mayfly
    44. The relation of the germ cells and body cells
    45. External structure of an insect
    46. Leg of a young grasshopper
    47. Legs of a honeybee
    1. Head and mouth parts of a grasshopper
    2. Internal organs of a grasshopper
    3. Alimentary canal of a grasshopper
    4. Heart of an insect
    5. Respiratory system of a caterpillar
    6. The brain of a grasshopper
    7. Nervous system of a grasshopper
    8. Reproductive organs of an insect
    9. Ovipositor of a katydid
    10. Termites
    11. Termite work in a piece of wood
    12. Worker and soldier castes and young of a termite
    13. Heads of termite soldiers
    14. Winged caste of a termite
    15. Short-winged reproductive caste of a termite
    16. A wingless termite queen
    17. Termite king and queen
    18. Wing of an ordinary termite
    19. Wings of a Mastotermes
    20. Section of an underground termite nest
    21. Four types of termite nests
    22. Large termite nest
    23. Group of aphids feeding
    24. How an aphis feeds
    25. Section of the beak of an aphis
    26. Aphis eggs
    27. Aphis eggs just before hatching
    28. Young aphis emerging from the egg
    29. Young aphids on apple buds
    30. Young of three species of apple aphids
    31. Apple leaves infested by green apple aphis
    32. The green apple aphis
    33. The rosy apple aphis on apple
    34. The rosy apple aphis on plantain
    35. Maie and female of the rosy apple aphis
    36. Some common aphids of the garden
    37. A ladybird beetle
    38. The aphis-lion
    39. The golden-eye, Chrysopa
    40. Larva of a syrphus fly feeding on aphids
    41. Adult syrphus flies
    42. A parasitized aphis
    43. An aphis parasite, Aphidius
    44. A female Aphidius inserting an egg in a living aphis
    45. Parasitized aphids on parasite cocoons
    46. A parasitized lady-beetle larva
    47. A common cicada
    1. Young nymph of the periodical cicada
    2. Older nymph of the periodical cicada
    3. Underground cells of the periodical cicada
    4. Fore leg of a cicada nymph
    5. Cicada turrets
    6. Transformation of the cicada
    7. Two forms of the periodical cicada
    8. Male of the periodical cicada
    9. The head and beak of a cicada
    10. The sucking organ of a cicada
    11. Section of a cicada's body
    12. Sound-making organs of a cicada
    13. Egg and newly-batched nymph of the cicada
    14. Young cicada nymph
    15. Moths of the fall webworm
    16. The celery caterpillar and butterfly
    17. The Luna moth
    18. Life of a cutworm
    19. A maybeetle and its grub
    20. Life stages of a lady-beetle
    21. Life stages of a wasp
    22. A dragonfly nymph
    23. Various habitats of plant-feeding caterpillars
    24. External structure of a caterpillar
    25. Adult and larval forms of beetles
    26. Diagram of insect metamorphosis
    27. Springtails
    28. A bristletail, Thermobia
    29. The relation of a pupa to other insect forms
    30. Muscle attachment on the body wall
    31. Young tent caterpillars
    32. Eggs and newly-hatched tent caterpillars
    33. First tent of young tent caterpillars
    34. Young tent caterpillars on a sheet of silk
    35. Mature tent caterpillars feeding
    36. Mature tent caterpillars
    37. Twigs denuded by tent caterpillars
    38. A tent caterpillar jumping from a tree
    39. Cocoon of a tent caterpillar
    40. Head of a tent caterpillar
    41. Jaws of a tent caterpillar
    42. Internal organs of a caterpillar
    43. The spinning organs of a caterpillar
    44. The alimentary canal of a tent caterpillar
    45. Crystals formed in the Malpighian tubules
    46. The fat-body of a caterpillar
    47. Transformation of the tent caterpillar
    1. Contents of the pupal blood
    2. Moths of the tent caterpillar
    3. Head of a tent caterpillar moth
    4. Head of a peach borer moth
    5. Transformation of the alimentary canal
    6. Reproductive organs of a female moth
    7. Young tent caterpillars in the egg
    8. A robber fly
    9. Wings of insects
    10. The black horsefly
    11. Mouth parts of a horsefly
    12. Structure of a fly maggot
    13. Rat-tailed maggots
    14. Larva and pupa of a horsefly
    15. Life stages of a mosquito
    16. Structure of a mosquito larva
    17. Mouth parts of a mosquito
    18. A male mosquito
    19. Mosquito larvae
    20. Mosquito pupae
    21. The female malaria mosquito
    22. Feeding positions of mosquito larvae
    23. Life stages of the house fly
    24. Head and mouth parts of the house fly
    25. Head of the stable fly
    26. A tsetse fly
    27. Head and mouth parts of the tsetse fly

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    Works published in 1930 would have had to renew their copyright in either 1957 or 1958, i.e. at least 27 years after it was first published / registered but not later than in the 28th year. As it was not renewed, it entered the public domain on .