Insects, Their Ways and Means of Living

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Secretary of the
Smithsonian Institution

Published by

Snodgrass Dissosteira carolina.jpg

The Carolina Locust (Dissosteira carolina), a common American grasshopper. (Enlarged about 2½ times)


Robert Evans Snodgrass
United States Bureau of Entomology


Copyright, 1930, by
[Printed in the United States of America]
All rights reserved

Copyright Under the Articles of the Copyright Convention
of the Pan-American Republics and the
United States, August 11, 1910


Preface i
I. The Grasshopper 1
II. The Grasshopper's Cousins 26
III. Roaches and Other Ancient Insects 77
IV. Ways and Means of Living 99
V. Termites 125
VI. Plant Lice 152
VII. The Periodical Cicada 182
VIII. Insect Metamorphosis 225
IX. The Caterpillar and the Moth 262
X. Mosquitoes and Flies 314
Index 355



    The Carolina Locust (Frontispiece)
  1. Miscellaneous insects
  2. The Green Apple Aphis
  3. The Rosy Apple Aphis
  4. The Apple-grain Aphis
  5. Nymph of the Periodical Cicada
  6. Newly emerged Cicada
  7. Cicada laying eggs
  8. Egg nests and eggs of the Periodical Cicada
  9. Two species of large moths
  10. The Cecropia Moth and the Polyphemus Moth
  11. The Ribbed-cocoon Maker
  12. The Peach-borer Moth
  13. The Red-humped Caterpillar
  14. The Tent Caterpillar


  1. Young grasshoppers
  2. End structures of a grasshopper's body
  3. Grasshopper laying eggs
  4. Egg-pods of a grasshopper
  5. Eggs of a grasshopper
  6. Young grasshopper emerging from the egg
  7. Eggs of a katydid
  8. A young grasshopper
  9. The growth stages of a grasshopper
  10. A parasitic fly
  11. Blister beetles
  12. A triungulin larva of a blister beetle
  13. Second-stage larva of a blister beetle
  14. Examples of Arthropoda
  15. A "singing" grasshopper
  16. Another"singing" grasshopper
  17. The feet of Orthoptera
  18. Sound-making organs of a meadow grasshopper
    • Sound-making organs and ears of a conehead katydid
    • Auditory organ of a katydid
    • A bush katydid
    • The oblong-winged katydid
    • The angular-winged katydid
    • The true katydid
    • The katydid in various attitudes
    • Sound-making organs of the katydid
    • A conehead katydid
    • The robust katydid
    • The common meadow katy?did
    • The handsome meadow katydid
    • The slender meadow katydid
    • The Coulee cricket
    • Wings of a tree cricket
    • A mole cricket
    • The striped ground cricket
    • The common black cricket
    • The snowy tree cricket
    • Antennal marks of the tree crickets
    • The narrow-winged tree cricket
    • A broad-winged tree cricket
    • Back glands of a tree cricket
    • The jumping bush cricket
    • The common walking-stick insect
    • A gigantic walking-stick insect
    • A leaf insect
    • The praying mantis
    • A shield-bearing mantis
    • Egg case ofa mantis
    • Common household roaches
    • Egg cases of roaches
    • Young of the Croton bug
    • The house centipede
    • Wings of a cockroach
    • A Paleozoic forest
    • Fossil roaches
    • Early fossil insects
    • Machilis
    • Dragonflies
    • A young dragonfly
    • A mayfly
    • A young mayfly
    • The relation of the germ cells and body cells
    • External structure of an insect
    • Leg of a young grasshopper
    • Legs of a honeybee
      1. Head and mouth parts of a grasshopper
      2. Internal organs of a grasshopper
      3. Alimentary canal of a grasshopper
      4. Heart of an insect
      5. Respiratory system of a caterpillar
      6. The brain of a grasshopper
      7. Nervous system of a grasshopper
      8. Reproductive organs of an insect
      9. Ovipositor of a katydid
      10. Termites
      11. Termite work in a piece of wood
      12. Worker and soldier castes and young of a termite
      13. Heads of termite soldiers
      14. Winged caste of a termite
      15. Short-winged reproductive caste of a termite
      16. A wingless termite queen
      17. Termite king and queen
      18. Wing of an ordinary termite
      19. Wings of a Mastotermes
      20. Section of an underground termite nest
      21. Four types of termite nests
      22. Large termite nest
      23. Group of aphids feeding
      24. How an aphis feeds
      25. Section of the beak of an aphis
      26. Aphis eggs
      27. Aphis eggs just before hatching
      28. Young aphis emerging from the egg
      29. Young aphids on apple buds
      30. Young of three species of apple aphids
      31. Apple leaves infested by green apple aphis
      32. The green apple aphis
      33. The rosy apple aphis on apple
      34. The rosy apple aphis on plantain
      35. Maie and female of the rosy apple aphis
      36. Some common aphids of the garden
      37. A ladybird beetle
      38. The aphis-lion
      39. The golden-eye, Chrysopa
      40. Larva of a syrphus fly feeding on aphids
      41. Adult syrphus flies
      42. A parasitized aphis
      43. An aphis parasite, Aphidius
      44. A female Aphidius inserting an egg in a living aphis
      45. Parasitized aphids on parasite cocoons
      46. A parasitized lady-beetle larva
      47. A common cicada
      1. Young nymph of the periodical cicada
      2. Older nymph of the periodical cicada
      3. Underground cells of the periodical cicada
      4. Fore leg of a cicada nymph
      5. Cicada turrets
      6. Transformation of the cicada
      7. Two forms of the periodical cicada
      8. Male of the periodical cicada
      9. The head and beak of a cicada
      10. The sucking organ of a cicada
      11. Section of a cicada's body
      12. Sound-making organs of a cicada
      13. Egg and newly-batched nymph of the cicada
      14. Young cicada nymph
      15. Moths of the fall webworm
      16. The celery caterpillar and butterfly
      17. The Luna moth
      18. Life of a cutworm
      19. A maybeetle and its grub
      20. Life stages of a lady-beetle
      21. Life stages of a wasp
      22. A dragonfly nymph
      23. Various habitats of plant-feeding caterpillars
      24. External structure of a caterpillar
      25. Adult and larval forms of beetles
      26. Diagram of insect metamorphosis
      27. Springtails
      28. A bristletail, Thermobia
      29. The relation of a pupa to other insect forms
      30. Muscle attachment on the body wall
      31. Young tent caterpillars
      32. Eggs and newly-hatched tent caterpillars
      33. First tent of young tent caterpillars
      34. Young tent caterpillars on a sheet of silk
      35. Mature tent caterpillars feeding
      36. Mature tent caterpillars
      37. Twigs denuded by tent caterpillars
      38. A tent caterpillar jumping from a tree
      39. Cocoon of a tent caterpillar
      40. Head of a tent caterpillar
      41. Jaws of a tent caterpillar
      42. Internal organs of a caterpillar
      43. The spinning organs of a caterpillar
      44. The alimentary canal of a tent caterpillar
      45. Crystals formed in the Malpighian tubules
      46. The fat-body of a caterpillar
      47. Transformation of the tent caterpillar
      1. Contents of the pupal blood
      2. Moths of the tent caterpillar
      3. Head of a tent caterpillar moth
      4. Head of a peach borer moth
      5. Transformation of the alimentary canal
      6. Reproductive organs of a female moth
      7. Young tent caterpillars in the egg
      8. A robber fly
      9. Wings of insects
      10. The black horsefly
      11. Mouth parts of a horsefly
      12. Structure of a fly maggot
      13. Rat-tailed maggots
      14. Larva and pupa of a horsefly
      15. Life stages of a mosquito
      16. Structure of a mosquito larva
      17. Mouth parts of a mosquito
      18. A male mosquito
      19. Mosquito larvae
      20. Mosquito pupae
      21. The female malaria mosquito
      22. Feeding positions of mosquito larvae
      23. Life stages of the house fly
      24. Head and mouth parts of the house fly
      25. Head of the stable fly
      26. A tsetse fly
      27. Head and mouth parts of the tsetse fly

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    Works published in 1930 would have had to renew their copyright in either 1957 or 1958, i.e. at least 27 years after it was first published / registered but not later than in the 28th year. As it was not renewed, it entered the public domain on .