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|a||e i||o u|
|h, w, y, ʼ|
|:||very long sounds.|
|′||principal stress accent.|
|‵||secondary stress accent.|
|.||separate sounds, particularly in t.s and t.ł, indicating that these sounds are not affricatives.|
|Description of Sounds|
|e, i||represent a sound which is by origin probably a somewhat open i. In contact with velars and palatals, it inclines toward the sound of e. When long, the sound is always slightly diphthongized.|
|o, u||represent a u with very slight rounding of lips. In contact with velars, it inclines toward the sound of o. When long, the sound is always slightly diphthongized.|
|(a˘), ι, υ||open vowels, often followed by long consonants.|
|ϋ||open short, about as German ü in Hütte. The pronunciation of this vowel differs very much among individuals. Some pronounce a clear ι; others a u. All admit that both these extreme forms are correct.
|ᵃ, ⁱ, ᵘ||vocalic resonance of consonants.|
|ₐ, ₑ, ᵢ, ᵤ||short weak vowels, very slightly voiced.|
|ᴇ||very weak vowel of indeterminate timber, lips, palate, and tongue almost in rest position, larynx not raised.|
|aₐ, eᵢ, iᵢ, oᵤ||diphthongized vowels, ending with a decided glottal stricture, so as to be set off from the following consonants, without, however, forming a complete glottal stop.|
|p, t, ts, k, kᵘ, q||strongly aspirated surd stops (kᵘ labialized, q velar). ts is pronounced by many individuals as tc; but careful speakers, particularly old men, pronounced a clear ts. When followed by w or y, the stops lose some of the strength of their aspiration. Terminal k is somewhat palatalized, except when it follows a u.|
|p!, t!, ts!, k!, q!||very strong glottalized consonants (fortis). ts! has in its continuant part a pure s character.|
|s||as in English.|
|dl||voiced affricative, only in the word kudlidlus ("butterfly").|
|m, n||often strongly sonant, with sonancy beginning suddenly before complete labial or lingual closure.|
|ʻ||aspiration. All surd stops are strongly aspirated, but the aspiration has been indicated only in words beginning with aₐʻ.|
The primary accent is always on the penultima, the weak vowels, ₐ, ᵢ, ᵤ, not being counted.
- Only in Coyote's pronunciation.