LIONS PULLING DOWN GIRAFFE.
EXPLORATIONS AND DISCOVERIES
FOUR YEARS' WANDERINGS IN THE WILDS
CHARLES JOHN ANDERSSON.
WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS,
REPRESENTING SPORTING ADVENTURES, SUBJECTS OF NATURAL HISTORY, DEVICES FOR DESTROYING WILD ANIMALS, &C.
HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
The following Narrative of Explorations and Discoveries during four years in the wilds of the south-western parts of Africa contains the account of two expeditions in that continent between the years 1850 and 1854. In the first of these journeys, the countries of the Damaras (previously all but unknown in Europe) and of the Ovambo (till now a terra incognita) were explored; in the second, the newly-discovered Lake Ngami was reached by a route that had always been deemed impracticable. It is more than probable that his route (the shortest and best) will be adopted as the one by which commerce and civilization may eventually find their way to the Lake regions.
The first journey was performed in company with Mr. Francis Galton, to whom we are indebted for a work on "Tropical South Africa;" on the second the Author was alone, and altogether dependent on his own very scanty resources.
It was suggested to the Author, as regards the first journey, that, from the ground having been preoccupied, it would be best for him to commence where his friend left off. There was some reason for this; but, on mature consideration, he deemed it desirable to start from the beginning, otherwise he could not have given a connected and detailed account of the regions he visited. Moreover, from the Author having remained two years longer in Africa than Mr. Galton, he has not only been enabled to ascertain the truth respecting much that at first appeared obscure and doubtful, but has had many opportunities of enlarging the stock of information acquired by himself and friend when together. Besides, they were often separated for long periods, during which many incidents and adventures occurred to the Author that are scarcely alluded to in "Tropical South Africa." And, lastly, the impressions received by different individuals, even under similar circumstances, are generally found to vary greatly, which, in itself, would be a sufficient reason for the course the Author has decided on pursuing.
As will be seen, the present writer has not only described the general appearance of the regions he visited, but has given the best information he was able to collect of the geological features of the country, and of its probable mineral wealth; and, slight though it may be, he had the gratification of finding that the hints he threw out at the Cape and elsewhere were acted upon, that mining companies were formed, and that mining operations are now carried on to some extent in regions heretofore considered as utterly worthless.
The Author has also spoken at some length of the religion, and manners, and customs of such of the native tribes (previously all but unknown to Europeans) visited by him during his several journeys. He also noted many of their superstitions, for too much attention, as has been truly observed, can not be paid to the mythological traditions of savages. Considerable discretion is, of course, needful in this matter, as, if every portion were to be literally received, we might be led into grievous errors; still, by attending to what many might call absurd superstitions, we not only attain to a knowledge of the mental tendencies of the natives, but are made acquainted with interesting facts touching the geographical distribution of men and inferior animals.
Since the different members constituting the brute creation are so intimately connected with the economy of man, and since many of the beasts and birds indigenous to those parts of Africa visited by the Author are still but imperfectly known, he has thought it advisable to enter largely into their habits, &c., the rather as natural history has from childhood been his favorite pursuit, and is a subject on which he therefore feels conversant; and though part of what he has stated regarding the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, the koodoo, the ostrich, and others of the almost incalculable varieties of animals found in the African wilderness may be known to some inquirers, it is still hoped that the general reader will find matter he has not previously met with.
The larger portion of the beautiful plates to be found in this work (faithfully depicting the scenes described) are by Mr. Wolf—"the Landseer of animals and vegetation," to quote the words of the Earl of Ellesmere in a note which his lordship did me the honor to write to me.
The Author has endeavored in the following pages faithfully, and in plain and unassuming language, to record his experiences, impressions, feelings, and impulses, under circumstances often peculiarly trying. He lays claim to no more credit than may attach to an earnest desire to make himself useful and to further the cause of science.
It is more than probable that his career as an explorer and pioneer to civilization and commerce is terminated; still he would fain hope that his humble exertions may not be without their fruits.
When he first arrived in Africa, he generally traveled on foot throughout the whole of the day, regardless of heat, and almost scorning the idea of riding on horseback, or using any other mode of conveyance; indeed, he was wont to vie with the natives in endurance; but now, owing to the severe hardships he has undergone, his constitution is undermined, and the foundation of a malady has been laid that it is feared he will carry with him to the day of his death; yet such is the perverseness of human nature that, did circumstances permit, he would return to this life of trial and privation.
|LIONS PULLING DOWN GIRAFFE.||To face Title.|
|VIEW OF WALFISCH BAY.||30|
|THE LUCKY ESCAPE.||117|
|OVAMBO DAGGER AND SHEATH.||174|
|OVAMBO BASKET FOR MERCHANDISE.||174|
|INTERVIEW WITH KING NANGORO.||191|
|OVAMBO BEER-CUP AND BEER-SPOON.||193|
|OVAMBO DWELLING-HOUSE AND CORN-STORES.||200|
|VIEW IN ONDONGA.||201|
|OVAMBO BLACKSMITHS AT WORK.||203|
|UNWELCOME HUNTING COMPANIONS.||211|
|WILD BOAR'S HEAD.||233|
|COURSING YOUNG OSTRICHES.||249|
|ORYX OR GEMSBOK.||273|
|SKULL OF A BECHUANA OX.||308|
|HEADS OF RHINOCEROSES.||371|
|HORNS OF RHINOCEROS OWSELLII.||372|
|FŒTUS OF RHINOCEROS KEITLOA.||376|
|THE APPROACH OF ELEPHANTS.||398|
|MORE CLOSE THAN AGREEABLE.||406|
|NAKONG AND LECHÉ.||432|
|THE BECHUANA PICHO.||438|
|ASCENDING THE TEOGE.||461|
|THE REED-RAFT AND HARPOONERS.||497|
|EGYPTIANS AND HIPPOPOTAMUS.||500|
|AUTHOR AND STEED BROKEN DOWN.||510|
|SIGNAL STATION AT CAPE-TOWN.||511|
Aamhcup, the, a periodical river, 303; splendid mirage, at, ib.
Abeghan, a watering-place, 388; the Author shoots a large bull-elephant there, 391.
Afrika, Jonathan, 349; his adventure with a lion, 350.
Allen, John, 71; enters Mr. Galton's service, ib.; his adventure on the banks of the Swakop, 264; falls sick of a fever, 301; emigrates with Hans to Australia, 334.
Amral, a Namaqua chieftain, 319.
Amulets, great faith of the South African natives in, 179, 319.
Ana, the, a species of acacia, 42, 58; its fruit nutritious food for cattle, ib.
Animals, domestic, of the Ovambo, 201; of the Damaras, 228; of the Namaquas, 324; of the Bechuanas, 454; of the Bayeye, 480.
Antelopes, Author stalking, in company with lions, 210.
Archery, the Ovambo inferior to the Damaras in, 184.
Articles of barter of the Ovambo, 175.
Baboon Fountain, 172.
Bahurutsi, the natives at Kuruman send embassadors to a rain-maker residing among the, 442.
Bain, Mr., the distinguished South African geologist, 333.
Bam, Mr., slight results of his missionary efforts among the Namaquas, 42; his wonderful escape from a rhinoceros, 49, 50.
Baobob-tree, the, 415, 426.
Barmen, its aspect and situation, 106; ill suited for an encampment, 125; return to, 214; second departure from, 241.
Basutos, the famous king of the, 438.
Batoana, the, a Bechuana tribe, 413; their appearance and manners, ib.; their government, 437; their Pichos, ib.
Bayeye, the, expert fishermen, 455.
Beads, in request with the South African tribes, 202; kinds most esteemed, ib., 323, 455.
Bean, a species of white, used as an antidote for snake-bites, 296; the Author falls sick from eating a bean-looking fruit, 354.
Bears, affecting story of two, 20.
Bechuanas, the, their language, 439; first acquaintance of Europeans with, ib.; their want of religious ideas, 440; wizards numerous among, 441; hold a council at Kuruman as to the best means of removing a severe drought, 442; practice circumcision, 448; festivals attending the age of puberty, ib.; funeral ceremonies, ib.; vindictiveness, 450; theft a prevailing vice among, ib.; attire, 452; great snuff-takers, 453.
Beer, 193, 480.
Bees, wild, frequently make their nests in the giant dwellings of the termites, 137; their disposition unusually quiet and forbearing, ib.
Berry, delicious, 145.
Bethany, a Rhenish missionary station, 304.
Bill, a Damara lad in the Author's service, loses himself in the bush, 211.
Boers, the, on the Trans-vaal River, 27; Sir Harry Smith's opinion of, 28; an uncivil one, 328.
Bonfield, George, 336; spoils the Author's watch, 390.
Boom-slang, the (or tree-snake), 294.
Borele, a species of rhinoceros, 371, 372.
Buffaloes, following the tracks of, 462; proof against bullets, 464.
Buphaga Africana, the sentinel bird, 212.
Bushmen, a few met with near Omuvereoom, 158; Lake Omanbondè, called Saresab in their language, ib.; a few met with near Baboon Fountain, 172; and at Otjikoto, 182; legend of a Bushwoman changing herself into a lion, 320; some met with returning from Lake Ngami, 392; their manner of hunting the koodoo, 467.
Bush-ticks, deadly effects of the bite of, 36.
Bustard, the large, very abundant at Schmelen's Hope, 135; the flesh good eating, 136.
Buxton Fountain, origin of its name, 105.
Caffre-corn, the, 188, 482.
Camelopards, a troop of them seen near Omanbondè, 166; one shot, ib.
Canoe, description of a Bayeye, 456.
Cape Cross, a vessel supposed to be wrecked at, 129, 139.
Cape-Town, 24; varieties of the human race encountered in its streets, ib.; sensation caused by the Author's appearance in, 329.
Caracal, the, 135; its fur warm and handsome, ib.; supposed medicinal virtues of the skin, ib.
Caravan, 178; caravan route, 182.
Chikor'onkombè, chief of an Ovambo trading caravan, 175; his residence, 188; desertion of, 206.
Christmas in the desert, 119.
Cobra di capella, the, common in the Cape Colony, 293; a remarkable escape from one, ib.
Cockatrice, the, Damara's account of, 292.
Cold weather, 154, 185, 300.
Comet, the Author observes a remarkable, 354.
Cornelius, chief of a powerful tribe of Namaquas, 280.
Cow, the Damara, 309.
Cunenè, a river of Africa, its discovery and subsequent mysterious disappearance, 204; the Ovambo often extend their trading excursions to, 205; attempt of Mr. Galton's party to visit it frustrated, 206; the Ovambo's account of, 430.
Dacre's pulpit, 333.
Damara-land only partially inhabited, 217; the seasons there the reverse of those in Europe, ib.; reptiles numerous in, 293.
Damaras, the, beautifully formed, 62; not strong, ib.; complexion, ib.; symmetrical shape of the women, 64; clothing, ib.; ornaments, weapons, 65; divided into two large tribes, 66; carry firebrands at night, 94; one struck dead by lightning, 108; believe that all men of a light complexion are their enemies, 111; entirely a pastoral people, 121; their notions respecting property in land, ib.; cruelly treated by the Namaquas, 127; the flesh of the leopard, hyæna, and other beasts of prey eaten by the poor, 135; a Damara's opinion of his countrymen, 143; addicted to telling falsehoods, 144; their method of cooking and eating, 151; villages, 159; their immorality, 177; eight Damara women surprised and put to death by Bushmen, 208; general reflections on, 214, 215; whence they came, 215; their conquests, ib.; attacked by the Namaquas, 216; their own ideas respecting their origin, 218; their chief deity, ib.; their tribes, ib.; have great faith in witchcraft, 219; a fire always kept burning before the hut of their chief, 220; curious customs respecting food among the, 221; the women marry at much the same age as those in Europe, ib.; customs on the occasion of a girl's betrothal, ib.; polygamy practiced among, 222; domestic habits, ib.; customs respecting the naming of children, ib.; bury their dead, 223; ceremonies on the death of one of the tribe, ib.; the law of succession among, 222, 225; ceremonies on the accession of a new chief, 225; fever and ophthalmia their prevailing maladies, 226; milk their staple food, 227; fond of music and dancing, ib.; power of the chief, ib.; rudiments of science among, 228; value their cattle next to their women, 309.
Dance, a, at Nangoro's residence, 193.
Daviep, arrival at, 52; much frequented by lions, ib.
Dogs, miserable plight of the Namaqua, 278.
Duikers, the (cormorants and shags), mode in which they obtain their food, 32.
Eggs, the, of the ostrich, 60; of the Guinea-fowl, 92, 136.
Eikhams, the residence of Jonker Afrikaner, 130; twilight at, 230; abundantly supplied with water, ib.; hot spring in the neighborhood of, ib.; history of the mission at, 231; terrific thunderstorm at, 277.
Elands, spirited chase after, 366.
Elephants, tracks of, 143; breed near to Omuvereoom, 158; combat between rhinoceros and, 164; unsuccessful hunt of, 170; Hans and Phillippus kill one, 175; the Author shoots a large bull-elephant, 391; a midnight meeting with a troop of, 394; adventure with a herd of female elephants at Kobis, 400; a midnight spectacle of a magnificent troop of, 405.
Elephant Fountain, arrival at, 233; formerly a Wesleyan missionary station, ib.; chiefly inhabited by Hill-Damaras, ib.; nature of the country eastward of, ib.; return to, 236; abundance of game in its neighborhood, 237.
Elephant Kloof, the Author shoots a magnificent giraffe at, 357.
Erongo, a mountain famous for its peculiar formation, and as a stronghold of the Hill-Damaras, 114; about three thousand feet in height above the level of the plain, 120.
Etosha, a sterile plain, 156; at times inundated, ib.
Euphorbia Candelabrum, use made of its poison by the Ovaherero and the Hill-Damaras, 91; fatal to the white rhinoceros, but harmless to the black species, ib.; abundant at Okamabuti, 176.
Eyebrecht, Mr., Jonker's right-hand man, 231.
Fever, the Author attacked by, 300.
Fig-tree, a gigantic one near Otjironjuba fountain, 156.
Fire, the Author nearly destroyed by, 185.
"Fiscaal," the, curious belief of the Cape people respecting, 78.
Fly, wasp-like, 57; the Author severely stung by one, ib.
Flying-Fish, the, a schooner, 338.
Foam, the, a small schooner chartered by Mr. Galton for the voyage to Walfisch Bay, 28, 29.
Fowl, domestic, 201, 482.
Gabriel, his violent disposition, 79; dismissed at Barmen, 125; marks his subsequent career with violence and insolence, 140.
Galton, Mr., starts for the Erongo Mountain, 114; obtains information from Jonker, 139; departs for England, 247.
Gemsbok, the, first sight of, 57; death of one, 123; the Damaras feast on it, 124; description of, 273.
Geological characteristics of Great Namaqua-land, 313.
Ghanzé, arrival at, 367; description of, 368; departure from, 386.
Giraffe, the, one killed, 59; their marrow good eating, ib.; troop of, 92; peculiar motion of, 93; troop of, 154; a splendid one pulled down by lions, 396.
Giraffe-thorn, the, 42.
Gnoo, a, chase after and death of, 113; stalking them in company with lions, 210.
Grain, kind of, grown among the Ovambo, 188; the storing of, 201.
Griquas, the Author meets with a party of, 347; one of them engaged as interpreter, ib.; information derived from, 429, 430; severe losses sustained by a party of, 469.
Grosbeak, the social, 104.
Guinea-fowls, an immense number at Onanis, 92; the flesh of the young tender and well flavored, ib.; the best mode of shooting them, ib.; their eggs excellent, 136.
Hahn, Mr., a missionary of the Rhenish Society, settled among the Damaras, 56; a Russian by birth, 108; his missionary labors, 109; his coadjutors, ib.; his fruitless efforts to bring about a reconciliation between the Damaras and the Namaquas, 127.
Hans (Larsen), 68; a fine specimen of the true Northman, 69; his great strength, ib.; an indefatigable sportsman, 70; enters Mr. Galton's service, ib.; his character for being a good woodsman damaged, 154; meets with a little adventure, 241; enters into partnership with the Author, 265; goes into Damara-land to trade with the natives, 269; has an adventure with the Damaras, ib.; emigrates to Australia, 334.
Hare, the Namaqua superstition respecting, 317.
Hareld, the (Arctic duck), mode in which it obtains its food, 32.
Heat, effects of excessive, 51, 101.
Heitjeebib, a deity worshiped by the Namaquas, 316.
Hill-Damaras, the, 60; a kraal of, at Onanis, 89; cultivate dacka or hemp as a substitute for tobacco, ib.; unusual manner in which they smoke, ib.; description of the pipe they use, 89, 90; a kraal of, at the foot of Omuvereoom, 157; probably the aborigines of Damara-land, 215.
Hippopotamus, the, the actions and figure of, mimicked by a Damara, 159; visits Omanbondè, 163; one takes up his abode at Schmelen's Hope, ib.; abound on the northern side of Lake Ngami, 434; its supposed identity with the Behemoth of Scripture, 487; where found, ib.; two species in Africa, 488; description of, ib.; its food, 490; ravages caused by, ib.; possessed of a good memory, 492; nocturnal excursions, 493; easily domesticated, ib.; kept in captivity by the ancient Romans, ib.; details respecting those in the Zoological Society's Gardens in the Regent's Park, London, 494; its most valuable parts, ib.; manner in which the Bayeye harpoon, 495; drawings on the monuments and sculptures of Thebes relating to the chase of, 499; the Author's safety jeopardized by one, 502; instances of the ferocity of, 503; various devices for destroying, 504.
History of Damara-land, 215.
Hogs, found among the Ovambo, 189.
Honey, wild, poisonous, 91.
Horse, the Cape Colony, 326; instance of the extraordinary endurance of, 327.
Horse-sickness, the, 67; three mules and one horse perish of, ib.; its cause unknown, ib.; usually makes its appearance in the months of November and December, 68; common throughout various parts of Southern Africa, 68.
Hottentots, a small kraal of, 39; Frederick, their chieftain, and the alarum, ib.; of Great Namaqua-land, 314.
Hountop River, the, Author's party encamps near, 301; game abundant in the neighborhood of, ib.; an interesting atmospheric phenomenon at, 302.
Houses, the Ovambo, 201; the Damara, 222; the Namaqua, 315; the Bayeye, 479.
Hyæna, the, 123; called wolf by the colonists, 131; mode of setting spring-guns for, 132; startling appearance of a spotted, 369.
Ia Kabaka. the, a mountain, 144, 155.
Ice, 209, 300.
Implements of husbandry, 58, 104, 202.
Jackal, a mischievous, 364.
Jonker Afrikaner, 108, 112; a letter from, 125; his quarrel with Kahichenè, 127; an instance of his cruelty, 129; Mr. Galton sets out to visit, 130; relations between him and William Zwartbooi, 138; sends an express to Zwartbooi for his horses, ib.; promises to live in peace and amity with the Damaras, ib.; his first victories over the Damaras, 216; whence he came, ib.; gifts presented by Mr. Galton to, 231; the Author takes his portrait, ib.; loses the greater part of his cattle, 240; his werft in the neighborhood of Eikhams, 278; engaged in a cattle-lifting foray, 287; the Author upbraids him for his depredations, 289; his defense, ib.
Justice, summary, 149.
Kachamaha, a powerful Damara chief, 287; the Author's visit to, ib.
Kahichenè, a Damara chieftain, 122; immense number of oxen and sheep possessed by, ib.; his quarrel with Jonker Afrikaner, 127; meets the Author's party at Kotjiamkombè, 147; his appearance and manners, ib.; at variance with a tribe of Damaras under the rule of Omugunde, 149; his summary treatment of thieves, ib.; his kraal, ib.; his death, 152.
Kaiaob, the Namaqua witch-doctor, 318.
Kamapyu, a half-caste native lad, 344.
Kameel-doorn, the, 104; hardness of its wood, ib.; the social grosbeak constructs its nest in the branches of, ib.; groups of, 163.
Klaas Zaal, engaged as a wagon-driver, 354.
Kleinschmidt, Mr., 139, 286.
Kobis, good shooting at, 398; adventure with a black rhinoceros there, 399; with a white one, 400; and with a herd of female elephants, ib.; departure from, 412.
Kolbé, Mr., 109, 127, 138.
Komaggas, a Rhenish missionary station, 325.
Konyati, the, a mountain, 143.
Koodoo, the, a young one caught and reared, 130; its tragic end, 131; description of, 465; the Bushmen's manner of hunting, 467.
Kotjiamkombè, a splendid vley, 146.
Kuisip, the, a periodical stream, 41; swollen by heavy rains, 264.
Lambert, eldest son of Amral, a Namaqua chief, 355.
Larsen (vide Hans).
Larvæ, locust, sudden appearance of at Schmelen's Hope, 140; conjecture respecting, ib.; devoured by storks, ib.
Leché, the, a species of antelope, 431; the Author shoots one, 458.
Lecholètébè, chief of the Batoanas, the Author sends presents to, 393; Timbo's interview with, 402; the Author visits, 418; his manner of receiving presents, 420; his greediness, 421; his prompt mode of punishing his subjects, 422.
Leopard, the, erroneously called tiger by the Dutch, 133; one seizes and wounds a favorite dog, 134; pursued and slain, 134.
Libébè, the capital of the Bavicko, situated considerably to the north of Lake Ngami, 422; the Author determines to visit, 423; the centre of a great inland trade, 484; visited by the Mambari, ib.
Lightning, a man killed by, 108.
Lion, the, a daring and destructive one slain by Messrs. Galton and Bam, 41; a horse and mule killed by lions, 53; panic caused by a troop of lions, 66, 67; two met with on the banks of the Swakop, 93; narrow escape from, ib.; midnight interview with a, 97; one deprived of his prey, 98; one mistaken for a zebra, 112; one kills a goat, 114; pursued and slain, 118; the travelers serenaded by a whole troop of, 123; Mr. Galton confronted by one, 164; stalking antelopes in company with, 210; very numerous and daring in the neighborhood of Zwart Nosop, 238; adventure with one at night, ib.; story of the seizure of lion cubs, 243; troops of them in the neighborhood of Tincas and Onanis, 267; a lion devours a lioness, 302; a fair shot at one, 342; Old Piet's adventures with, 343; one finds his way into the church at Richterfeldt, 344; instances of their boldness, 350; unexpected meeting with five, 396; serious night adventure with one, 508.
Locust, the, larvæ of, 281; immense masses of, ib.; their arrival a cause of rejoicing to the Bushmen, 283; how prepared as food, 284.
Locust-bird, the (Spring-haan vogel), 284.
Louis, a Mozambique liberated slave, 337.
Mackintosh punt, 160.
Malays, the, religion and mode of life of, 24, 25.
Mambari, the, an African tribe, 484.
Matsanyana, the, an African tribe residing north of the Bayeye, 484.
Mimosa, the black-stemmed, found in the periodical water-courses, 90.
Mirage, a remarkable, 33, 303.
Missionaries, their exertions unavailing in Namaqua-land, 42; the natives very reserved on their first appearance in Damara-land, 109; prospect of their success at Schmelen's Hope disappointed, 127; arrival of the missionary ship, 246; decline of the mission at Rehoboth, 286; the Rhenish missionary station at Bethany, 304; blamed by the Bahurusti rain-maker as the cause of a severe drought, 447.
Monoohoo, a species of rhinoceros, 372.
Mortar, John, irritability his only fault, 80; a famous teller of stories, 81; his disappointment in the matter of soap manufacture, 237.
Mosheshe, the famous Basuto king, 438.
Mukuru-Mukovanja, a large river, 204; the Ovambos' account of, 430.
Mules, the, one becomes exhausted and is left behind, 51; shortly afterward killed by lions, 53; the travelers lay in a stock of mules' flesh, 54; the flesh of, not unpalatable, 56; worn out, 61; three killed by sickness, 67; escape, and are intercepted at Barmen, 130; again make off, and are not retaken, ib.
Mushrooms, grow on the sides of the nests of the termites, 137.
Naarip, the, a sterile plain, 48, 51; travelers often lose their way on, 74; the Author's party suffers much from cold on, 76; affords a good road, 84; its pleasant appearance after rains, 266.
Naitjo, an Ovambo man, 188.
Nakong, the, a species of antelope, 431; description of, 431–433.
Namaqua-land, Great, description of, 312; in a geological point of view, 313.
Namaquas, the, their character, 42, 43; their astonishment at the first wagons they saw, 43; treat the Damaras very cruelly, 127; usually very barbarous, 129; their respect for truth-tellers, 290; best mode of behaving toward, ib.; names of the chiefs of the Northern, 315; their habitations, ib.; their religious ideas, 316; their superstitions with regard to the hare, 317; have great faith in sorcery, 318; their neglect of widows, and cruel treatment of old and disabled persons, 322; their custom of adopting fathers and mothers, ib.; personal adornment, 323; excessively idle, ib.; understand the art of distilling spirits, 324; attack Richterfeldt, 339; ill-treat the missionaries, ib.
Nangoro, king of the Ovambo, 165; assists a Damara chief, 169; a messenger sent to, 186; interview with, 191; his personal appearance, ib.; his wives, 198.
Naras, the, a delicious fruit, 27; its beneficial qualities, 38; where found, ib.
Ngami, the Lake, preparations for navigating, 22; failure of Mr. Galton and the Author to reach it, 234; the Author resolves to make another attempt, 236; first appearance of, 416; arrival at, 417; first information received by Europeans respecting, 423; different names by which it is known among the natives, 424; description of, ib.; Mr. Green's description of, 425; its shores, ib.; must have undergone very considerable changes at different periods, 426; the Author navigates, ib.; fed by the River Teoge, 427; finds an outlet at its eastern extremity in the Zouga, 428; a great variety of animals found in its neighborhood, 431; hippopotami abound on the northern side of, 434; swarms with crocodiles, 435; snakes numerous on the shores, 435, 436; fish, 436; departure from, 507.
Nosop, the river, 353.
Obesity equivalent to high treason among certain African tribes, 191.
Oerlams, a branch of the Hottentot race, 314.
Okamabuti, the residence of the Damara chief Tjopopa, 168; the northern limit of Damara-land, 169; rank vegetation at, 176.
Omanbondè, Lake, Mr. Galton hears of, 111; surmises respecting its extent, 158; Mr. Galton's party makes preparation for spending some time on its shores, 160; arrival at, 161; its insignificance ib.; visited by hippopotami, ib.; departure from, 166.
Omatako, 141; its beautiful appearance, ib.; the river of, 143.
Ombotodthu, a mountain, 149; remarkable for its peculiar red stone, 150.
Ommutenna, a tributary to the Swakop, 61, 114.
Omoroanga Vavarra, the, a branch of the Teoge, 473.
Omugundè, the chief of a tribe of Damaras, 147; slays several of Kahichenè's children, and keeps the others prisoners, 148.
Omukuru, the chief deity of the Damaras, 218.
Omumborombonga, a tree, the supposed progenitor of the Damaras, 215.
Omuramba-k'Omatako, a periodical river, 208; supposed to flow toward the Bechuana country, 209.
Omurangere, the holy fire of the Damaras, 220.
Omutjamatunda, a cattle-post belonging to the Ovambo, 183; a copious fountain, 184; ducks and grouse numerous there, ib.
Omuvereoom, the, a mountain, 144; distance between it and Omatako, 153; arrival at the southern extremity of, 155; extensive view from its summit, 157.
Onanis, the residence of a kraal of very poor Hill-Damaras, 89; fine pasturages, 91; troops of lions seen at, 267.
Ondangere, the vestal virgin of the Damaras, 220.
Ondara, the, a species of serpent, 291; story of one, ib.
Ondonga, the country of the Ovambo, 186; arrival in, ib.; water and pasturage scarce, 189; departure from, 206.
Onesimus, Zwartbooi's henchman, joins the Author's party, 140; is flogged, 363.
Ongeama, native name for lion, 114; cries of, 178.
Onguirira, a species of animal resembling, but totally distinct from, the lion, 153.
Ophthalmia, the Author attacked by, 281.
Orange River, the, description of, 310.
Oranges, a feast of, 331.
Orukumb'ombura, "rain-beggars," the name given by the Damaras to columns of sand driven along by the wind, 217.
Oryx, the death of one, 123; the Damaras feast on it, 124; description of, 273.
Ostrich, the, omelet of the eggs, 60; the egg equal to twenty-four of the common fowl, ib.; numerous on the Naarip plain, 247; chase and capture of part of a brood of young ones, 248; interesting manœuvre of a parent ostrich, ib.; districts in which found, 250; types in other parts of the world, ib.; general appearance, ib.; its cry greatly resembles that of the lion, 251; its marvelous speed, ib.; food, ib.; power of enduring thirst, 252; season for breeding, ib.; period of incubation, 253; a peculiarity in regard to the eggs of the ostrich, 254; nature of the covering of the young birds, ib.; the flesh of the young ostrich palatable, ib.; in estimation with the ancient Romans as an article of food, 255; uses to which the egg-shells are applied, 256; ostrich feathers, ib.; the ostrich in a wild state, 258; its powers of digestion, 259; resemblance to quadrupeds, ib.; modes in which it is captured, 262.
Oswell, Mr., his chase of a rhinoceros, 382.
Otjihako-tja-Muteya, 186; sufferings from cold on, 207.
Otjikango, the, name of a series of wells, 172, 179.
Otjikoto fountain, 180; a wonderful freak of nature, 181; its remarkable cavern, ib.; visited by a great number of doves, 182; Bushmen reside near to it, ib.
Otjironjuba Fountain, 156; departure from, 158.
Otjruru, an apparition, 219.
Otters, not uncommon in Lake Ngami, 434.
Ovaherero, the, their mode of using tobacco, 90; tip their arrows with the poison of euphorbia candelabrum, 91.
Ovambo, the, a people of Africa, 165; first interview with, 172; their food, 173; arms, 174; effect of fireworks on, 192; musical instruments in use among, 193; their personal appearance, 194; their strict honesty, 196; no pauperism in their country, ib.; their national pride, ib.; hospitality, 197; staple food, ib.; morality among, 198; state of religion among, ib.; their dwellings, 201; domestic animals, ib.; farm implements, 202; their chief articles of export, ib.; have some slight knowledge of metallurgy, 203.
Ovapangari, the, an African tribe, 205, 485.
Oxen, invaluable in South Africa, 44; method of breaking in, 45; one charges Mr. Galton, 47; manner of guiding a saddle-ox, 71; can be made to travel at a pretty quick pace, ib.; training for the yoke, 77; vicious one ridden by Mr. Schöneberg, 102; become wild and unmanageable from their over-long rest, 123; several stolen from Mr. Galton's party, 148; extraordinary confusion among, and the cause of it, 212; curious custom when an ox dies at a chief's werft in Damara-land, 220; their instinctive power of catching the scent of humid winds and green herbage at a great distance, 240; instance of affection between two, 268; Author's adventure with a runaway, 270; the Author has an ugly fall from one, 288; superstition that they refrain from eating on Christmas-eve, 307; the Damara breed of, ib.; the Bechuana breed of, 308; the Namaqua breed of, 324.
Palm-trees, a large number seen, 166; description of a peculiar kind of fan-palm, ib.; fruit of the, ib., 188.
Parrots, crested, 57, 59.
Pelicans, 77; curious mode of flight, ib.
Phillippus, a Damara, joins the Author's party as a wagon-driver, 140.
Pichos, the (or Parliaments), of the Batoanas, 437.
Pitfalls for the capture of game, 362.
Polygamy, 198, 222, 321, 448, 479.
Population of the Ovambo country estimated, 189.
Puff-adder, the, 294; its manner of seizing its prey, ib.
Rain-maker, the Bahurutsi, 442; murdered among the Bauangketsi nation, 447.
Rains, the, begin as early as September and October, 125.
Rath, Mr., 61, 109, 121; his description of the track of a nondescript animal, 133.
Rehoboth, a Rhenish missionary station, 139, 281; description of, 286; the rocks in its neighborhood strongly impregnated with copper, 349.
Reptiles, numerous in Damara-land and Namaqua-land, 293; superstitions respecting, 294; antidotes used in Southern Africa for the bites of, 295.
Rhinoceros, the, curious anecdote preserved in the archives of Cape-Town relating to a death of one, 26; Mr. Bam's story of his wonderful escape from one, 49, 50; tracks of, 49; one shot, 72; fall frequently on their knees when killed, 73; curious anecdote, ib.; flesh not unpalatable, ib.; hide useful, ib.; discovery of a, 84; adventure in pursuit of one, 85; its escape, 86, 87; combat between elephant and, 164; several shot at Ghanzé, 369; where found, 370; four distinct species known to exist in South Africa, 371; distinctions between the black and the white rhinoceros, 373; appearance of, 374; food, 375; breeding, 376; Colonel Williams's story respecting one, 377, 378; conflicts with elephants, 378; the flesh and horns, 380; adventure with a black rhinoceros at Kobis, 399; with a white one, 400; the Author shoots a white one, 407; desperate adventure with a black one, 407, 408; method of chasing, 381; Mr. Oswell's stories respecting the chase of, 382.
Richterfeldt, a Rhenish missionary station, reached, 61; water abundant, ib.; soil fertile, ib.; when founded, 62; return to, 95; bid a final farewell to, 123.
Rifle, obtained in barter, 150; excellent weapon, ib.
Rights of succession, 198, 222, 225.
Ringel-hals, the, or ring-throat, a species of snake, 294.
Roode Natie, the (or Red Nation), a powerful tribe of Namaquas, 279; their character, 280; Cornelius, their chief, ib.; their country, 281; few Damara slaves among them, ib.
Salt-lick, a, 366.
Sand Fountain, excursion to, 34; badness of its water, 35; its disagreeable guests, 36; its advantages, 37; general aspect of the country in the neighborhood of, 38.
Scarlet flower, the, emotions on first seeing, 48; observe it again, 49.
Scenery, striking, 170.
Schaap-steker, the, a species of snake, 294.
Scheppmansdorf, Mr. Galton arrives at, 40; all the baggage safely deposited at, 41; description of, ib.; first impressions of, 76; kind friends at, 77; departure from, 83.
Scheppman's Mountain, origin of its name, 103.
Schmelen, Mr., a highly-gifted and enterprising missionary, 127.
Schmelen's Hope, its situation, 126; origin of its name, 127; agreeable residence; abundance of game to be obtained there, 135; departure from, 146; return to, 214.
Schöneberg, Mr., 101; his mishap, 102; his wailing, 103.
Scorpions, a swarm of, 105; their fondness of warmth, ib.; their bite poisonous, but rarely fatal, ib.
Season, the rainy, in Ovambo-land, 201; in Damara-land, 217.
Sebetoane, an African chief, false report respecting, 414.
Serpent, tracks of an immense (the Ondara), 290; story of a, 291.
Servants, described, 78–83; African travelers can not be too particular in the selection of, 79; become refractory, 125; adventure of one of them with an ox, 270; Damara servants abscond, 355.
Shambok, the, 73, 74.
Shrike, a species of, 78; superstitious belief respecting, ib.
Smith, Dr. Andrew, 213, 491.
Snake, a curious species of, 292; several species occasionally met with in Damara-land and Namaqua-land, 294; antidotes for the bites of, 295; numerous in and about Lake Ngami, 435, 436.
Snake-stone, the, 298.
Snuff, manner in which the Bechuanas manufacture, 458.
Spring, hot, at Barmen, 108; at Eikhams, 230; at Rehoboth, 286.
"Spring," Author's ride-ox, 71.
Spuig-slang, the, or spitting-snake, 294.
St. Helena, John, officiates as head wagoner, 80; his extraordinary disposition, ib.; discourses on ghosts, 331.
Steinbok, the, a young one taken and reared, 130; its tragic end, 131.
Stewardson, Mr., 45.
Stink-hout, a species of oak, 170.
Sugar-cane, supposed to exist in many parts of Southern Africa, 188.
Sun-stroke, Author receives one, 58; usual results of a, ib.; the Author in danger of a sccond, 88.
Sunrise, the, in the tropics, 51; often followed by intense heat, and sufferings thereon, ib.; a mule left behind, ib.
Superstition, a, with regard to oxen, 152.
Swakop, the, first appearance of, 49; its cheerful aspect, ib.; the Author's party attacked by two lions on the bank of, 93; the Damaras flock with their cattle to, 241.
Table Mountain, 25; ascent by the Author of, ib.
Tans Mountain, 348.
Tent, the Author's, takes fire, 299.
Teoge, the River, feeds Lake Ngami, 427; scenery along the banks of, 460; crocodiles observed on. 471.
Termites, the, Schmelen's Hope swarms with, 136; their method of constructing their nests, ib.; encampment in the middle of a nest of, 145; instances of the fearful ravages they are capable of committing in an incredibly-short space of time, 155.
Textor erythorhynchus a parasitical insect-feeding bird, 213.
Thirst, suffering from, 52; water not quenching thirst, ib.
Thorn coppices, 182.
Thunder-storm, a, in the tropics, 107, 141, 352.
Tiger-wolf (or spotted hyæna), 369.
Timbo, a native of Mazapa, 81; carried into captivity by Caffres, ib.; sold as a slave to the Portuguese, 82; liberated by an English cruiser, ib.; his faithless spouse, ib.; his good qualities, ib.; his love of (native) country, 83; friendship between him and George Bonfield, 336; turns sulky, 352; the Author sends him to Lake Ngami, 393; his return, 402.
Tincas, the mountain, 52; great stronghold and breeding-place of lions, ib.
Tincas, the River, 84.
Tjobis, a river and tributary to the Swakop, 59.
Tjobis Fountain, arrive at, 60, 93; depart from, 61, 93.
Tjopopa, a great chief of the Damaras, 168; reach his werft, 169; his character, ib.; death of his mother, 176; his idleness and fondness for tobacco, ib.; sensuality, 177; leaves Okamabuti, 207.
Tobacco, great size of leaves of, 110; the Ovambo cultivate it, 189; buy sheep for, 208.
Topnaars, a branch of the Hottentot tribe, 314.
Trans-vaal River, the, rumors respecting the churlish conduct of the Boers on, 27.
Traveling by day injurious, 58, 61; by night preferable, but dangerous, 84; difficulties of African, 160.
Trees, bearing an apple-looking fruit, 176, 189; enormous sized, ib.
Tsetse fly, the, where chiefly found, 468; description of, 409; poisonous nature of its bite, ib.; result of Captain Vardon's experiment on, 470; Mr. Oswell's examination of oxen bitten by, 471; wild animals unaffected by the poison of, ib.
Tunobis, 233; days profitably and pleasantly passed there, 235; immense quantity of game in the neighborhood of, ib.; the Author's misadventure at, 360.
Twass, the head-quarters of the Namaqua chief Lambert, 355.
Usab, the, a striking gorge, we arrive at, 83.
"Venus," a small half-breed dog, her combat with a rhinoceros, 391; great sagacity of, ib.
Voet-gangers (vide larvæ).
Vollmer, Mr., 139, 286.
Waggoner, John, his sulkiness and reluctance to work, 79; dismissed at Barmen, 125; his subsequent dishonest career, 139.
Wagons, the, fifteen hundred weight a good load for, 78; accident to, 170.
Wait-a-bit thorn, the, 156; great strength of its prickles, ib.; excessively troublesome, 367, 413, 415.
Walfisch Bay, the Author's party advised to select this place as a starting-point for their journey into the interior, 28; arrival at the entrance of, 29; appearance of the coast as seen from, ib.; description of, 30; trading establishments there, ib.; frequented by immense numbers of water-fowl, 31; outrageous conduct of the crews of whaling and guano ships visiting, 243; number of dead fish in, 245; the Author's second visit to, 339.
Water, difficulty of obtaining, 306, 387.
Water-courses, the periodical, afford the only really practicable roads, 124.
Wenzel, Abraham, 79; his thievish habits, ib.; dismissed at Schmelen's Hope, 140.
Williams, John, results of his carelessness, 80.
Willow-tree, the, in the neighborhood of Omuvereoom, 155.
Witch-doctor, the Namaqua, 318.
Witchcraft, Damaras have great faith in, 219; the Bechuanas have great faith in, 442.
Wolves, or hyænas, 131.
Women, Ovambo, 194; Damara, 221; Bayeye, 480.
Zebra, melancholy wail of the, 98; the Author shoots one, 102; its flesh not very palatable, ib.; a lion mistaken for one, 112; the Author shoots one, 142.
Zouga, a river which flows out of Lake Ngami, 403; runs in an easterly direction from Lake Ngami for a distance of about three hundred miles, 428; vegetation along its course varied and luxuriant, ib.
Zwartbooi, William, a Namaqua chieftain, 137; relations between Jonker Afrikaner, and, ib.; his territory, 138; assists us with servants, 140.
Zwart Nosop, many pitfalls for game constructed in the neighborhood of, 238.
Zwart-slang, the, or black snake, 294, 295.
|Acacia giraffæ, 42, 104.
Aigocerus ellipsiprymnus, 431.
|Loxia socia, 104.|
Naia haje, 294.